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From lukaszlen...@apache.org
Subject [struts] 01/01: WW-3877 Drops altSyntax option
Date Sun, 06 Dec 2020 08:59:11 GMT
This is an automated email from the ASF dual-hosted git repository.

lukaszlenart pushed a commit to branch WW-3877-removes-alt-syntax
in repository https://gitbox.apache.org/repos/asf/struts.git

commit eec9eb3c0c2f4e8e85ae7f7a85e8dc13d218b109
Author: Lukasz Lenart <lukaszlenart@apache.org>
AuthorDate: Sun Dec 6 09:59:01 2020 +0100

    WW-3877 Drops altSyntax option
---
 .../java/org/apache/struts2/StrutsConstants.java   |   3 -
 .../org/apache/struts2/components/Component.java   | 210 +++++++++++----------
 .../java/org/apache/struts2/components/Date.java   |   2 +-
 .../struts2/components/DoubleListUIBean.java       |  98 +++++-----
 .../org/apache/struts2/components/FormButton.java  |  39 ++--
 .../java/org/apache/struts2/components/Label.java  |   2 +-
 .../org/apache/struts2/components/ListUIBean.java  |   8 +-
 .../org/apache/struts2/components/Property.java    |   2 +-
 .../java/org/apache/struts2/components/UIBean.java |  34 ++--
 .../struts2/config/entities/ConstantConfig.java    |   9 -
 .../org/apache/struts2/util/ComponentUtils.java    |  29 +--
 .../struts2/views/jsp/StrutsBodyTagSupport.java    |  25 +--
 .../org/apache/struts2/views/util/ContextUtil.java |  19 --
 .../org/apache/struts2/default.properties          |   4 -
 .../apache/struts2/util/ComponentUtilsTest.java    |  85 +--------
 .../apache/struts2/views/jsp/PropertyTagTest.java  | 121 ++++++------
 .../apache/struts2/views/jsp/ui/FormTagTest.java   |  44 ++---
 .../apache/struts2/views/util/ContextUtilTest.java | 113 -----------
 .../views/java/simple/AbstractTagHandler.java      |  20 +-
 .../java/simple/DynamicAttributesHandler.java      |   2 +-
 .../struts2/views/java/simple/AbstractTest.java    |   2 -
 21 files changed, 303 insertions(+), 568 deletions(-)

diff --git a/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/StrutsConstants.java b/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/StrutsConstants.java
index b48b8be..45b44a6 100644
--- a/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/StrutsConstants.java
+++ b/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/StrutsConstants.java
@@ -44,9 +44,6 @@ public final class StrutsConstants {
     /** Comma separated list of patterns (java.util.regex.Pattern) to be excluded from Struts2-processing */
     public static final String STRUTS_ACTION_EXCLUDE_PATTERN = "struts.action.excludePattern";
 
-    /** Whether to use the alternative syntax for the tags or not */
-    public static final String STRUTS_TAG_ALTSYNTAX = "struts.tag.altSyntax";
-
     /** Whether to use the response encoding (JSP page encoding) for s:include tag processing (false - use STRUTS_I18N_ENCODING - by default) */
     public static final String STRUTS_TAG_INCLUDETAG_USERESPONSEENCODING = "struts.tag.includetag.useResponseEncoding";
 
diff --git a/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/components/Component.java b/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/components/Component.java
index 9d6742f..1794029 100644
--- a/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/components/Component.java
+++ b/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/components/Component.java
@@ -22,8 +22,8 @@ import com.opensymphony.xwork2.inject.Inject;
 import com.opensymphony.xwork2.util.TextParseUtil;
 import com.opensymphony.xwork2.util.ValueStack;
 import org.apache.commons.lang3.BooleanUtils;
-import org.apache.commons.lang3.reflect.MethodUtils;
 import org.apache.commons.lang3.StringUtils;
+import org.apache.commons.lang3.reflect.MethodUtils;
 import org.apache.logging.log4j.LogManager;
 import org.apache.logging.log4j.Logger;
 import org.apache.struts2.StrutsConstants;
@@ -42,7 +42,11 @@ import java.io.IOException;
 import java.io.PrintWriter;
 import java.io.Writer;
 import java.lang.reflect.Method;
-import java.util.*;
+import java.util.Collection;
+import java.util.HashSet;
+import java.util.LinkedHashMap;
+import java.util.Map;
+import java.util.Stack;
 import java.util.concurrent.ConcurrentHashMap;
 import java.util.concurrent.ConcurrentMap;
 
@@ -50,7 +54,6 @@ import java.util.concurrent.ConcurrentMap;
  * Base class to extend for UI components.
  * <br>
  * This class is a good extension point when building reusable UI components.
- *
  */
 public class Component {
 
@@ -65,7 +68,7 @@ public class Component {
 
     protected boolean devMode = false;
     protected ValueStack stack;
-    protected Map parameters;
+    protected Map<String, Object> parameters;
     protected ActionMapper actionMapper;
     protected boolean throwExceptionOnELFailure;
     private UrlHelper urlHelper;
@@ -73,7 +76,7 @@ public class Component {
     /**
      * Constructor.
      *
-     * @param stack  OGNL value stack.
+     * @param stack OGNL value stack.
      */
     public Component(ValueStack stack) {
         this.stack = stack;
@@ -83,10 +86,11 @@ public class Component {
 
     /**
      * Gets the name of this component.
+     *
      * @return the name of this component.
      */
     private String getComponentName() {
-        Class c = getClass();
+        Class<?> c = getClass();
         String name = c.getName();
         int dot = name.lastIndexOf('.');
 
@@ -112,8 +116,10 @@ public class Component {
     public void setUrlHelper(UrlHelper urlHelper) {
         this.urlHelper = urlHelper;
     }
+
     /**
      * Gets the OGNL value stack associated with this component.
+     *
      * @return the OGNL value stack associated with this component.
      */
     public ValueStack getStack() {
@@ -122,6 +128,7 @@ public class Component {
 
     /**
      * Gets the component stack of this component.
+     *
      * @return the component stack of this component, never <tt>null</tt>.
      */
     public Stack<Component> getComponentStack() {
@@ -137,7 +144,7 @@ public class Component {
      * Callback for the start tag of this component.
      * Should the body be evaluated?
      *
-     * @param writer  the output writer.
+     * @param writer the output writer.
      * @return true if the body should be evaluated
      */
     public boolean start(Writer writer) {
@@ -149,8 +156,9 @@ public class Component {
      * Should the body be evaluated again?
      * <br>
      * <b>NOTE:</b> will pop component stack.
-     * @param writer  the output writer.
-     * @param body    the rendered body.
+     *
+     * @param writer the output writer.
+     * @param body   the rendered body.
      * @return true if the body should be evaluated again
      */
     public boolean end(Writer writer, String body) {
@@ -162,13 +170,14 @@ public class Component {
      * Should the body be evaluated again?
      * <br>
      * <b>NOTE:</b> has a parameter to determine to pop the component stack.
-     * @param writer  the output writer.
-     * @param body    the rendered body.
-     * @param popComponentStack  should the component stack be popped?
+     *
+     * @param writer            the output writer.
+     * @param body              the rendered body.
+     * @param popComponentStack should the component stack be popped?
      * @return true if the body should be evaluated again
      */
     protected boolean end(Writer writer, String body, boolean popComponentStack) {
-        assert(body != null);
+        assert (body != null);
 
         try {
             writer.write(body);
@@ -190,17 +199,18 @@ public class Component {
 
     /**
      * Finds the nearest ancestor of this component stack.
+     *
      * @param clazz the class to look for, or if assignable from.
-     * @return  the component if found, <tt>null</tt> if not.
+     * @return the component if found, <tt>null</tt> if not.
      */
-    protected Component findAncestor(Class clazz) {
+    protected Component findAncestor(Class<?> clazz) {
         Stack componentStack = getComponentStack();
         int currPosition = componentStack.search(this);
         if (currPosition >= 0) {
             int start = componentStack.size() - currPosition - 1;
 
             //for (int i = componentStack.size() - 2; i >= 0; i--) {
-            for (int i = start; i >=0; i--) {
+            for (int i = start; i >= 0; i--) {
                 Component component = (Component) componentStack.get(i);
                 if (clazz.isAssignableFrom(component.getClass()) && component != this) {
                     return component;
@@ -213,8 +223,9 @@ public class Component {
 
     /**
      * Evaluates the OGNL stack to find a String value.
-     * @param expr  OGNL expression.
-     * @return  the String value found.
+     *
+     * @param expr OGNL expression.
+     * @return the String value found.
      */
     protected String findString(String expr) {
         return (String) findValue(expr, String.class);
@@ -226,10 +237,10 @@ public class Component {
      * If the given expression is <tt>null</tt> a error is logged and a <code>RuntimeException</code> is thrown
      * constructed with a messaged based on the given field and errorMsg parameter.
      *
-     * @param expr  OGNL expression.
-     * @param field   field name used when throwing <code>RuntimeException</code>.
-     * @param errorMsg  error message used when throwing <code>RuntimeException</code>.
-     * @return  the String value found.
+     * @param expr     OGNL expression.
+     * @param field    field name used when throwing <code>RuntimeException</code>.
+     * @param errorMsg error message used when throwing <code>RuntimeException</code>.
+     * @return the String value found.
      * @throws StrutsException is thrown in case of expression is null.
      */
     protected String findString(String expr, String field, String errorMsg) {
@@ -245,15 +256,16 @@ public class Component {
      * <br>
      * A message is constructed and logged at ERROR level before being returned
      * as a <code>RuntimeException</code>.
-     * @param field   field name used when throwing <code>RuntimeException</code>.
-     * @param errorMsg  error message used when throwing <code>RuntimeException</code>.
-     * @param e  the caused exception, can be <tt>null</tt>.
-     * @return  the constructed <code>StrutsException</code>.
+     *
+     * @param field    field name used when throwing <code>RuntimeException</code>.
+     * @param errorMsg error message used when throwing <code>RuntimeException</code>.
+     * @param e        the caused exception, can be <tt>null</tt>.
+     * @return the constructed <code>StrutsException</code>.
      */
     protected StrutsException fieldError(String field, String errorMsg, Exception e) {
         String msg = "tag '" + getComponentName() + "', field '" + field +
-                ( parameters != null && parameters.containsKey("name")?"', name '" + parameters.get("name"):"") +
-                "': " + errorMsg;
+            (parameters != null && parameters.containsKey("name") ? "', name '" + parameters.get("name") : "") +
+            "': " + errorMsg;
         throw new StrutsException(msg, e);
     }
 
@@ -262,7 +274,7 @@ public class Component {
      * Will always evaluate <code>expr</code> against stack except when <code>expr</code>
      * is null. If altsyntax (%{...}) is applied, simply strip it off.
      *
-     * @param expr  the expression. Returns <tt>null</tt> if expr is null.
+     * @param expr the expression. Returns <tt>null</tt> if expr is null.
      * @return the value, <tt>null</tt> if not found.
      */
     protected Object findValue(String expr) {
@@ -270,54 +282,39 @@ public class Component {
             return null;
         }
 
-        expr = stripExpressionIfAltSyntax(expr);
+        expr = stripExpression(expr);
 
         return getStack().findValue(expr, throwExceptionOnELFailure);
     }
 
     /**
-     * If altsyntax (%{...}) is applied, simply strip the "%{" and "}" off. 
+     * If altsyntax (%{...}) is applied, simply strip the "%{" and "}" off.
+     *
      * @param expr the expression (must be not null)
      * @return the stripped expression if altSyntax is enabled. Otherwise
      * the parameter expression is returned as is.
      */
-	protected String stripExpressionIfAltSyntax(String expr) {
-		return ComponentUtils.stripExpressionIfAltSyntax(stack, expr);
-	}
-
-    /**
-     * See <code>struts.properties</code> where the altSyntax flag is defined.
-     * @return if the altSyntax enabled? [TRUE]
-     */
-    public boolean altSyntax() {
-        return ComponentUtils.altSyntax(stack);
+    protected String stripExpression(String expr) {
+        return ComponentUtils.stripExpression(expr);
     }
 
     /**
      * Adds the surrounding %{ } to the expression for proper processing.
+     *
      * @param expr the expression.
-     * @return the modified expression if altSyntax is enabled, or the parameter 
-     * expression otherwise.
-     */
-	protected String completeExpressionIfAltSyntax(String expr) {
-		if (altSyntax() && !ComponentUtils.containsExpression(expr)) {
-			return "%{" + expr + "}";
-		}
-		return expr;
-	}
-
-    /**
-     * This check is needed for backwards compatibility with 2.1.x
-     * @param expr the expression.
-     * @return the found string if altSyntax is enabled. The parameter
+     * @return the modified expression if altSyntax is enabled, or the parameter
      * expression otherwise.
      */
-	protected String findStringIfAltSyntax(String expr) {
-		if (altSyntax()) {
-		    return findString(expr);
-		}
-		return expr;
-	}
+    protected String completeExpression(String expr) {
+        if (expr == null) {
+            return null;
+        }
+        if (ComponentUtils.isExpression(expr)) {
+            LOG.warn("Expression {} is already an expression!", expr);
+            return expr;
+        }
+        return "%{" + expr + "}";
+    }
 
     /**
      * <p>
@@ -331,10 +328,10 @@ public class Component {
      * messaged based on the given field and errorMsg parameter.
      * </p>
      *
-     * @param expr  OGNL expression.
-     * @param field   field name used when throwing <code>RuntimeException</code>.
-     * @param errorMsg  error message used when throwing <code>RuntimeException</code>.
-     * @return  the Object found, is never <tt>null</tt>.
+     * @param expr     OGNL expression.
+     * @param field    field name used when throwing <code>RuntimeException</code>.
+     * @param errorMsg error message used when throwing <code>RuntimeException</code>.
+     * @return the Object found, is never <tt>null</tt>.
      * @throws StrutsException is thrown in case of not found in the OGNL stack, or expression is <tt>null</tt>.
      */
     protected Object findValue(String expr, String field, String errorMsg) {
@@ -364,19 +361,20 @@ public class Component {
      * is evaluated against the stack.
      * <br>
      * This method only supports the altSyntax. So this should be set to true.
-     * @param expr  OGNL expression.
-     * @param toType  the type expected to find.
-     * @return  the Object found, or <tt>null</tt> if not found.
+     *
+     * @param expr   OGNL expression.
+     * @param toType the type expected to find.
+     * @return the Object found, or <tt>null</tt> if not found.
      */
-    protected Object findValue(String expr, Class toType) {
-        if (altSyntax() && toType == String.class) {
+    protected Object findValue(String expr, Class<?> toType) {
+        if (toType == String.class) {
             if (ComponentUtils.containsExpression(expr)) {
                 return TextParseUtil.translateVariables('%', expr, stack);
             } else {
                 return expr;
             }
         } else {
-            expr = stripExpressionIfAltSyntax(expr);
+            expr = stripExpression(expr);
 
             return getStack().findValue(expr, toType, throwExceptionOnELFailure);
         }
@@ -384,26 +382,28 @@ public class Component {
 
     /**
      * Detects if altSyntax is enabled and then checks if expression contains %{...}
+     *
      * @param expr a string to examined
      * @return true if altSyntax is enabled and expr contains %{...}
      */
     protected boolean recursion(String expr) {
-        return ComponentUtils.altSyntax(stack) && ComponentUtils.containsExpression(expr);
+        return ComponentUtils.containsExpression(expr);
     }
 
     /**
      * Renders an action URL by consulting the {@link org.apache.struts2.dispatcher.mapper.ActionMapper}.
-     * @param action      the action
-     * @param namespace   the namespace
-     * @param method      the method
-     * @param req         HTTP request
-     * @param res         HTTP response
-     * @param parameters  parameters
-     * @param scheme      http or https
-     * @param includeContext  should the context path be included or not
-     * @param encodeResult    should the url be encoded
-     * @param forceAddSchemeHostAndPort    should the scheme host and port be forced
-     * @param escapeAmp    should ampersand (&amp;) be escaped to &amp;amp;
+     *
+     * @param action                    the action
+     * @param namespace                 the namespace
+     * @param method                    the method
+     * @param req                       HTTP request
+     * @param res                       HTTP response
+     * @param parameters                parameters
+     * @param scheme                    http or https
+     * @param includeContext            should the context path be included or not
+     * @param encodeResult              should the url be encoded
+     * @param forceAddSchemeHostAndPort should the scheme host and port be forced
+     * @param escapeAmp                 should ampersand (&amp;) be escaped to &amp;amp;
      * @return the action url.
      */
     protected String determineActionURL(String action, String namespace, String method,
@@ -420,10 +420,11 @@ public class Component {
 
     /**
      * Determines the namespace of the current page being renderdd. Useful for Form, URL, and href generations.
-     * @param namespace  the namespace
-     * @param stack      OGNL value stack
-     * @param req        HTTP request
-     * @return  the namepsace of the current page being rendered, is never <tt>null</tt>.
+     *
+     * @param namespace the namespace
+     * @param stack     OGNL value stack
+     * @param req       HTTP request
+     * @return the namepsace of the current page being rendered, is never <tt>null</tt>.
      */
     protected String determineNamespace(String namespace, ValueStack stack, HttpServletRequest req) {
         String result;
@@ -447,15 +448,14 @@ public class Component {
      * pushed before the component itself, any key-value pair that can't be assigned to component
      * will be set in the parameters Map.
      *
-     * @param params  the parameters to copy.
+     * @param params the parameters to copy.
      */
-    public void copyParams(Map params) {
+    public void copyParams(Map<String, Object> params) {
         stack.push(parameters);
         stack.push(this);
         try {
-            for (Object o : params.entrySet()) {
-                Map.Entry entry = (Map.Entry) o;
-                String key = (String) entry.getKey();
+            for (Map.Entry<String, Object> entry : params.entrySet()) {
+                String key = entry.getKey();
 
                 if (key.indexOf('-') >= 0) {
                     // UI component attributes may contain hypens (e.g. data-ajax), but ognl
@@ -474,12 +474,13 @@ public class Component {
 
     /**
      * Constructs a string representation of the given exception.
-     * @param t  the exception
+     *
+     * @param t the exception
      * @return the exception as a string.
      */
     protected String toString(Throwable t) {
         try (FastByteArrayOutputStream bout = new FastByteArrayOutputStream();
-                PrintWriter wrt = new PrintWriter(bout)) {
+             PrintWriter wrt = new PrintWriter(bout)) {
             t.printStackTrace(wrt);
             return bout.toString();
         }
@@ -487,17 +488,19 @@ public class Component {
 
     /**
      * Gets the parameters.
+     *
      * @return the parameters. Is never <tt>null</tt>.
      */
-    public Map getParameters() {
+    public Map<String, Object> getParameters() {
         return parameters;
     }
 
     /**
      * Adds all the given parameters to this component's own parameters.
+     *
      * @param params the parameters to add.
      */
-    public void addAllParameters(Map params) {
+    public void addAllParameters(Map<String, Object> params) {
         parameters.putAll(params);
     }
 
@@ -507,12 +510,13 @@ public class Component {
      * If the provided key is <tt>null</tt> nothing happens.
      * If the provided value is <tt>null</tt> any existing parameter with
      * the given key name is removed.
-     * @param key  the key of the new parameter to add.
+     *
+     * @param key   the key of the new parameter to add.
      * @param value the value associated with the key.
      */
     public void addParameter(String key, Object value) {
         if (key != null) {
-            Map params = getParameters();
+            Map<String, Object> params = getParameters();
 
             if (value == null) {
                 params.remove(key);
@@ -524,6 +528,7 @@ public class Component {
 
     /**
      * Overwrite to set if body should be used.
+     *
      * @return always false for this component.
      */
     public boolean usesBody() {
@@ -532,9 +537,8 @@ public class Component {
 
     /**
      * Override to set if body content should be HTML-escaped.
-     * 
+     *
      * @return always true (default) for this component.
-     * 
      * @since 2.6
      */
     public boolean escapeHtmlBody() {
@@ -557,13 +561,13 @@ public class Component {
      * @return list of attributes
      */
     protected Collection<String> getStandardAttributes() {
-        Class clz = getClass();
+        Class<?> clz = getClass();
         Collection<String> standardAttributes = standardAttributesMap.get(clz);
         if (standardAttributes == null) {
             Collection<Method> methods = MethodUtils.getMethodsListWithAnnotation(clz, StrutsTagAttribute.class,
-                    true, true);
+                true, true);
             standardAttributes = new HashSet<>(methods.size());
-            for(Method m : methods) {
+            for (Method m : methods) {
                 standardAttributes.add(StringUtils.uncapitalize(m.getName().substring(3)));
             }
             standardAttributesMap.putIfAbsent(clz, standardAttributes);
diff --git a/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/components/Date.java b/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/components/Date.java
index a68e339..5f65d9c 100644
--- a/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/components/Date.java
+++ b/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/components/Date.java
@@ -368,7 +368,7 @@ public class Date extends ContextBean {
     private ZoneId getTimeZone() {
         ZoneId tz = ZoneId.systemDefault();
         if (timezone != null) {
-            timezone = stripExpressionIfAltSyntax(timezone);
+            timezone = stripExpression(timezone);
             String actualTimezone = (String) getStack().findValue(timezone, String.class);
             if (actualTimezone != null) {
                 timezone = actualTimezone;
diff --git a/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/components/DoubleListUIBean.java b/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/components/DoubleListUIBean.java
index 1ce54ad..9c4e30a 100644
--- a/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/components/DoubleListUIBean.java
+++ b/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/components/DoubleListUIBean.java
@@ -29,16 +29,15 @@ import java.util.Map;
  * <p>
  * DoubleListUIBean is the standard superclass of all Struts double list handling components.
  * </p>
- *
+ * <p>
  * <!-- START SNIPPET: javadoc -->
  * <p>
  * Note that the doublelistkey and doublelistvalue attribute will default to "key" and "value"
  * respectively only when the doublelist attribute is evaluated to a Map or its descendant.
  * Other thing else, will result in doublelistkey and doublelistvalue to be null and not used.
  * </p>
- *
+ * <p>
  * <!-- END SNIPPET: javadoc -->
- *
  */
 public abstract class DoubleListUIBean extends ListUIBean {
 
@@ -137,21 +136,21 @@ public abstract class DoubleListUIBean extends ListUIBean {
         Object tmpDoubleList = findValue(doubleList);
         if (doubleListKey != null) {
             addParameter("doubleListKey", doubleListKey);
-        }else if (tmpDoubleList instanceof Map) {
+        } else if (tmpDoubleList instanceof Map) {
             addParameter("doubleListKey", "key");
         }
 
         if (doubleListValue != null) {
-        	doubleListValue = stripExpressionIfAltSyntax(doubleListValue);
+            doubleListValue = stripExpression(doubleListValue);
 
             addParameter("doubleListValue", doubleListValue);
-        }else if (tmpDoubleList instanceof Map) {
+        } else if (tmpDoubleList instanceof Map) {
             addParameter("doubleListValue", "value");
         }
         if (doubleListCssClass != null) {
             addParameter("doubleListCssClass", findString(doubleListCssClass));
         }
-        if (doubleListCssStyle!= null) {
+        if (doubleListCssStyle != null) {
             addParameter("doubleListCssStyle", findString(doubleListCssStyle));
         }
         if (doubleListTitle != null) {
@@ -169,7 +168,7 @@ public abstract class DoubleListUIBean extends ListUIBean {
             }
         }
 
-        Class valueClazz = getValueClassType();
+        Class<?> valueClazz = getValueClassType();
 
         if (valueClazz != null) {
             if (doubleValue != null) {
@@ -187,10 +186,9 @@ public abstract class DoubleListUIBean extends ListUIBean {
 
         Form form = (Form) findAncestor(Form.class);
         if (doubleId != null) {
-            // this check is needed for backwards compatibility with 2.1.x
-        	addParameter("doubleId", findStringIfAltSyntax(doubleId));
+            addParameter("doubleId", findString(doubleId));
         } else if (form != null) {
-            addParameter("doubleId", form.getParameters().get("id") + "_" +escape(doubleName !=null ? findString(doubleName) : null));
+            addParameter("doubleId", form.getParameters().get("id") + "_" + escape(doubleName != null ? findString(doubleName) : null));
         } else {
             addParameter("doubleId", escape(doubleName != null ? findString(doubleName) : null));
         }
@@ -269,23 +267,23 @@ public abstract class DoubleListUIBean extends ListUIBean {
         }
     }
 
-    @StrutsTagAttribute(description="The second iterable source to populate from.", required=true)
+    @StrutsTagAttribute(description = "The second iterable source to populate from.", required = true)
     public void setDoubleList(String doubleList) {
         this.doubleList = doubleList;
     }
 
-    @StrutsTagAttribute(description="The key expression to use for second list")
+    @StrutsTagAttribute(description = "The key expression to use for second list")
     public void setDoubleListKey(String doubleListKey) {
         this.doubleListKey = doubleListKey;
     }
 
-    @StrutsTagAttribute(description="The value expression to use for second list")
+    @StrutsTagAttribute(description = "The value expression to use for second list")
     public void setDoubleListValue(String doubleListValue) {
         this.doubleListValue = doubleListValue;
     }
 
     @StrutsTagAttribute(description = "Property of second list objects to get css class from")
-     public void setDoubleListCssClass(String doubleListCssClass) {
+    public void setDoubleListCssClass(String doubleListCssClass) {
         this.doubleListCssClass = doubleListCssClass;
     }
 
@@ -299,17 +297,17 @@ public abstract class DoubleListUIBean extends ListUIBean {
         this.doubleListTitle = doubleListTitle;
     }
 
-    @StrutsTagAttribute(description="The name for complete component", required=true)
+    @StrutsTagAttribute(description = "The name for complete component", required = true)
     public void setDoubleName(String doubleName) {
         this.doubleName = doubleName;
     }
 
-    @StrutsTagAttribute(description="The value expression for complete component")
+    @StrutsTagAttribute(description = "The value expression for complete component")
     public void setDoubleValue(String doubleValue) {
         this.doubleValue = doubleValue;
     }
 
-    @StrutsTagAttribute(description="The form name this component resides in and populates to")
+    @StrutsTagAttribute(description = "The form name this component resides in and populates to")
     public void setFormName(String formName) {
         this.formName = formName;
     }
@@ -318,7 +316,7 @@ public abstract class DoubleListUIBean extends ListUIBean {
         return formName;
     }
 
-    @StrutsTagAttribute(description="The css class for the second list")
+    @StrutsTagAttribute(description = "The css class for the second list")
     public void setDoubleCssClass(String doubleCssClass) {
         this.doubleCssClass = doubleCssClass;
     }
@@ -327,7 +325,7 @@ public abstract class DoubleListUIBean extends ListUIBean {
         return doubleCssClass;
     }
 
-    @StrutsTagAttribute(description="The css style for the second list")
+    @StrutsTagAttribute(description = "The css style for the second list")
     public void setDoubleCssStyle(String doubleCssStyle) {
         this.doubleCssStyle = doubleCssStyle;
     }
@@ -336,7 +334,7 @@ public abstract class DoubleListUIBean extends ListUIBean {
         return doubleCssStyle;
     }
 
-    @StrutsTagAttribute(description="The header key for the second list")
+    @StrutsTagAttribute(description = "The header key for the second list")
     public void setDoubleHeaderKey(String doubleHeaderKey) {
         this.doubleHeaderKey = doubleHeaderKey;
     }
@@ -345,7 +343,7 @@ public abstract class DoubleListUIBean extends ListUIBean {
         return doubleHeaderKey;
     }
 
-    @StrutsTagAttribute(description="The header value for the second list")
+    @StrutsTagAttribute(description = "The header value for the second list")
     public void setDoubleHeaderValue(String doubleHeaderValue) {
         this.doubleHeaderValue = doubleHeaderValue;
     }
@@ -354,7 +352,7 @@ public abstract class DoubleListUIBean extends ListUIBean {
         return doubleHeaderValue;
     }
 
-    @StrutsTagAttribute(description="Decides if the second list will add an empty option")
+    @StrutsTagAttribute(description = "Decides if the second list will add an empty option")
     public void setDoubleEmptyOption(String doubleEmptyOption) {
         this.doubleEmptyOption = doubleEmptyOption;
     }
@@ -368,7 +366,7 @@ public abstract class DoubleListUIBean extends ListUIBean {
         return doubleDisabled;
     }
 
-    @StrutsTagAttribute(description="Decides if a disable attribute should be added to the second list")
+    @StrutsTagAttribute(description = "Decides if a disable attribute should be added to the second list")
     public void setDoubleDisabled(String doubleDisabled) {
         this.doubleDisabled = doubleDisabled;
     }
@@ -377,7 +375,7 @@ public abstract class DoubleListUIBean extends ListUIBean {
         return doubleId;
     }
 
-    @StrutsTagAttribute(description="The id of the second list")
+    @StrutsTagAttribute(description = "The id of the second list")
     public void setDoubleId(String doubleId) {
         this.doubleId = doubleId;
     }
@@ -386,7 +384,7 @@ public abstract class DoubleListUIBean extends ListUIBean {
         return doubleMultiple;
     }
 
-    @StrutsTagAttribute(description=" Decides if multiple attribute should be set on the second list")
+    @StrutsTagAttribute(description = " Decides if multiple attribute should be set on the second list")
     public void setDoubleMultiple(String doubleMultiple) {
         this.doubleMultiple = doubleMultiple;
     }
@@ -395,7 +393,7 @@ public abstract class DoubleListUIBean extends ListUIBean {
         return doubleOnblur;
     }
 
-    @StrutsTagAttribute(description="Set the onblur attribute of the second list")
+    @StrutsTagAttribute(description = "Set the onblur attribute of the second list")
     public void setDoubleOnblur(String doubleOnblur) {
         this.doubleOnblur = doubleOnblur;
     }
@@ -404,7 +402,7 @@ public abstract class DoubleListUIBean extends ListUIBean {
         return doubleOnchange;
     }
 
-    @StrutsTagAttribute(description="Set the onchange attribute of the second list")
+    @StrutsTagAttribute(description = "Set the onchange attribute of the second list")
     public void setDoubleOnchange(String doubleOnchange) {
         this.doubleOnchange = doubleOnchange;
     }
@@ -413,7 +411,7 @@ public abstract class DoubleListUIBean extends ListUIBean {
         return doubleOnclick;
     }
 
-    @StrutsTagAttribute(description="Set the onclick attribute of the second list")
+    @StrutsTagAttribute(description = "Set the onclick attribute of the second list")
     public void setDoubleOnclick(String doubleOnclick) {
         this.doubleOnclick = doubleOnclick;
     }
@@ -422,7 +420,7 @@ public abstract class DoubleListUIBean extends ListUIBean {
         return doubleOndblclick;
     }
 
-    @StrutsTagAttribute(description="Set the ondbclick attribute of the second list")
+    @StrutsTagAttribute(description = "Set the ondbclick attribute of the second list")
     public void setDoubleOndblclick(String doubleOndblclick) {
         this.doubleOndblclick = doubleOndblclick;
     }
@@ -431,7 +429,7 @@ public abstract class DoubleListUIBean extends ListUIBean {
         return doubleOnfocus;
     }
 
-    @StrutsTagAttribute(description="Set the onfocus attribute of the second list")
+    @StrutsTagAttribute(description = "Set the onfocus attribute of the second list")
     public void setDoubleOnfocus(String doubleOnfocus) {
         this.doubleOnfocus = doubleOnfocus;
     }
@@ -440,7 +438,7 @@ public abstract class DoubleListUIBean extends ListUIBean {
         return doubleOnkeydown;
     }
 
-    @StrutsTagAttribute(description="Set the onkeydown attribute of the second list")
+    @StrutsTagAttribute(description = "Set the onkeydown attribute of the second list")
     public void setDoubleOnkeydown(String doubleOnkeydown) {
         this.doubleOnkeydown = doubleOnkeydown;
     }
@@ -449,7 +447,7 @@ public abstract class DoubleListUIBean extends ListUIBean {
         return doubleOnkeypress;
     }
 
-    @StrutsTagAttribute(description="Set the onkeypress attribute of the second list")
+    @StrutsTagAttribute(description = "Set the onkeypress attribute of the second list")
     public void setDoubleOnkeypress(String doubleOnkeypress) {
         this.doubleOnkeypress = doubleOnkeypress;
     }
@@ -458,7 +456,7 @@ public abstract class DoubleListUIBean extends ListUIBean {
         return doubleOnkeyup;
     }
 
-    @StrutsTagAttribute(description="Set the onkeyup attribute of the second list")
+    @StrutsTagAttribute(description = "Set the onkeyup attribute of the second list")
     public void setDoubleOnkeyup(String doubleOnkeyup) {
         this.doubleOnkeyup = doubleOnkeyup;
     }
@@ -467,7 +465,7 @@ public abstract class DoubleListUIBean extends ListUIBean {
         return doubleOnmousedown;
     }
 
-    @StrutsTagAttribute(description="Set the onmousedown attribute of the second list")
+    @StrutsTagAttribute(description = "Set the onmousedown attribute of the second list")
     public void setDoubleOnmousedown(String doubleOnmousedown) {
         this.doubleOnmousedown = doubleOnmousedown;
     }
@@ -476,7 +474,7 @@ public abstract class DoubleListUIBean extends ListUIBean {
         return doubleOnmousemove;
     }
 
-    @StrutsTagAttribute(description="Set the onmousemove attribute of the second list")
+    @StrutsTagAttribute(description = "Set the onmousemove attribute of the second list")
     public void setDoubleOnmousemove(String doubleOnmousemove) {
         this.doubleOnmousemove = doubleOnmousemove;
     }
@@ -485,7 +483,7 @@ public abstract class DoubleListUIBean extends ListUIBean {
         return doubleOnmouseout;
     }
 
-    @StrutsTagAttribute(description="Set the onmouseout attribute of the second list")
+    @StrutsTagAttribute(description = "Set the onmouseout attribute of the second list")
     public void setDoubleOnmouseout(String doubleOnmouseout) {
         this.doubleOnmouseout = doubleOnmouseout;
     }
@@ -494,7 +492,7 @@ public abstract class DoubleListUIBean extends ListUIBean {
         return doubleOnmouseover;
     }
 
-    @StrutsTagAttribute(description="Set the onmouseover attribute of the second list")
+    @StrutsTagAttribute(description = "Set the onmouseover attribute of the second list")
     public void setDoubleOnmouseover(String doubleOnmouseover) {
         this.doubleOnmouseover = doubleOnmouseover;
     }
@@ -503,7 +501,7 @@ public abstract class DoubleListUIBean extends ListUIBean {
         return doubleOnmouseup;
     }
 
-    @StrutsTagAttribute(description="Set the onmouseup attribute of the second list")
+    @StrutsTagAttribute(description = "Set the onmouseup attribute of the second list")
     public void setDoubleOnmouseup(String doubleOnmouseup) {
         this.doubleOnmouseup = doubleOnmouseup;
     }
@@ -512,7 +510,7 @@ public abstract class DoubleListUIBean extends ListUIBean {
         return doubleOnselect;
     }
 
-    @StrutsTagAttribute(description="Set the onselect attribute of the second list")
+    @StrutsTagAttribute(description = "Set the onselect attribute of the second list")
     public void setDoubleOnselect(String doubleOnselect) {
         this.doubleOnselect = doubleOnselect;
     }
@@ -521,7 +519,7 @@ public abstract class DoubleListUIBean extends ListUIBean {
         return doubleSize;
     }
 
-    @StrutsTagAttribute(description="Set the size attribute of the second list")
+    @StrutsTagAttribute(description = "Set the size attribute of the second list")
     public void setDoubleSize(String doubleSize) {
         this.doubleSize = doubleSize;
     }
@@ -546,36 +544,36 @@ public abstract class DoubleListUIBean extends ListUIBean {
         return doubleValue;
     }
 
-    @StrutsTagAttribute(description="Decides of an empty option is to be inserted in the second list", type="Boolean", defaultValue="false")
+    @StrutsTagAttribute(description = "Decides of an empty option is to be inserted in the second list", type = "Boolean", defaultValue = "false")
     public void setEmptyOption(String emptyOption) {
         this.emptyOption = emptyOption;
     }
 
-    @StrutsTagAttribute(description="Set the header key of the second list. Must not be empty! " +
-                "'-1' and '' is correct, '' is bad.")
+    @StrutsTagAttribute(description = "Set the header key of the second list. Must not be empty! " +
+        "'-1' and '' is correct, '' is bad.")
     public void setHeaderKey(String headerKey) {
         this.headerKey = headerKey;
     }
 
-    @StrutsTagAttribute(description=" Set the header value of the second list")
+    @StrutsTagAttribute(description = " Set the header value of the second list")
     public void setHeaderValue(String headerValue) {
         this.headerValue = headerValue;
     }
 
-    @StrutsTagAttribute(description="Creates a multiple select. " +
-                "The tag will pre-select multiple values if the values are passed as an Array " +
-                "(of appropriate types) via the value attribute.")
+    @StrutsTagAttribute(description = "Creates a multiple select. " +
+        "The tag will pre-select multiple values if the values are passed as an Array " +
+        "(of appropriate types) via the value attribute.")
     public void setMultiple(String multiple) {
         // TODO: Passing a Collection may work too?
         this.multiple = multiple;
     }
 
-    @StrutsTagAttribute(description="Size of the element box (# of elements to show)", type="Integer")
+    @StrutsTagAttribute(description = "Size of the element box (# of elements to show)", type = "Integer")
     public void setSize(String size) {
         this.size = size;
     }
 
-    @StrutsTagAttribute(description="Set the html accesskey attribute.")
+    @StrutsTagAttribute(description = "Set the html accesskey attribute.")
     public void setDoubleAccesskey(String doubleAccesskey) {
         this.doubleAccesskey = doubleAccesskey;
     }
diff --git a/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/components/FormButton.java b/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/components/FormButton.java
index 7dcc7ae..5cf88bc 100644
--- a/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/components/FormButton.java
+++ b/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/components/FormButton.java
@@ -18,24 +18,23 @@
  */
 package org.apache.struts2.components;
 
-import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;
-import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse;
-
-import org.apache.struts2.views.annotations.StrutsTagAttribute;
+import com.opensymphony.xwork2.inject.Inject;
+import com.opensymphony.xwork2.util.ValueStack;
 import org.apache.struts2.dispatcher.mapper.ActionMapper;
 import org.apache.struts2.dispatcher.mapper.ActionMapping;
+import org.apache.struts2.views.annotations.StrutsTagAttribute;
 
-import com.opensymphony.xwork2.util.ValueStack;
-import com.opensymphony.xwork2.inject.Inject;
+import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;
+import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse;
 
 /**
  * FormButton.
  */
 public abstract class FormButton extends ClosingUIBean {
 
-    static final String BUTTONTYPE_INPUT = "input";
-    static final String BUTTONTYPE_BUTTON = "button";
-    static final String BUTTONTYPE_IMAGE = "image";
+    private static final String BUTTON_TYPE_INPUT = "input";
+    private static final String BUTTON_TYPE_BUTTON = "button";
+    private static final String BUTTON_TYPE_IMAGE = "image";
 
     protected String action;
     protected String method;
@@ -49,9 +48,8 @@ public abstract class FormButton extends ClosingUIBean {
     public void evaluateExtraParams() {
         super.evaluateExtraParams();
 
-        String submitType = BUTTONTYPE_INPUT;
-        if (type != null && (BUTTONTYPE_BUTTON.equalsIgnoreCase(type) || (supportsImageType() && BUTTONTYPE_IMAGE.equalsIgnoreCase(type))))
-        {
+        String submitType = BUTTON_TYPE_INPUT;
+        if (type != null && (BUTTON_TYPE_BUTTON.equalsIgnoreCase(type) || (supportsImageType() && BUTTON_TYPE_IMAGE.equalsIgnoreCase(type)))) {
             submitType = type;
         }
 
@@ -59,7 +57,7 @@ public abstract class FormButton extends ClosingUIBean {
 
         addParameter("type", submitType);
 
-        if (!BUTTONTYPE_INPUT.equals(submitType) && (label == null)) {
+        if (!BUTTON_TYPE_INPUT.equals(submitType) && (label == null)) {
             addParameter("label", getParameters().get("nameValue"));
         }
 
@@ -101,15 +99,14 @@ public abstract class FormButton extends ClosingUIBean {
         String _tmp_id = "";
         if (id != null) {
             // this check is needed for backwards compatibility with 2.1.x
-        	_tmp_id = findStringIfAltSyntax(id);
-        }
-        else {
+            _tmp_id = findString(id);
+        } else {
             if (form != null && form.getParameters().get("id") != null) {
                 _tmp_id = _tmp_id + form.getParameters().get("id").toString() + "_";
             }
             if (name != null) {
                 _tmp_id = _tmp_id + escape(name);
-            } else if (action != null || method != null){
+            } else if (action != null || method != null) {
                 if (action != null) {
                     _tmp_id = _tmp_id + escape(action);
                 }
@@ -139,19 +136,19 @@ public abstract class FormButton extends ClosingUIBean {
         this.actionMapper = mapper;
     }
 
-    @StrutsTagAttribute(description="Set action attribute.")
+    @StrutsTagAttribute(description = "Set action attribute.")
     public void setAction(String action) {
         this.action = action;
     }
 
-    @StrutsTagAttribute(description="Set method attribute.")
+    @StrutsTagAttribute(description = "Set method attribute.")
     public void setMethod(String method) {
         this.method = method;
     }
 
 
-    @StrutsTagAttribute(description="The type of submit to use. Valid values are <i>input</i>, " +
-                "<i>button</i> and <i>image</i>.", defaultValue="input")
+    @StrutsTagAttribute(description = "The type of submit to use. Valid values are <i>input</i>, " +
+        "<i>button</i> and <i>image</i>.", defaultValue = "input")
     public void setType(String type) {
         this.type = type;
     }
diff --git a/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/components/Label.java b/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/components/Label.java
index f81d36a..c09b88c 100644
--- a/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/components/Label.java
+++ b/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/components/Label.java
@@ -88,7 +88,7 @@ public class Label extends UIBean {
                 addParameter("nameValue", providedLabel);
             }
         } else if (name != null) {
-            String expr = completeExpressionIfAltSyntax(name);
+            String expr = completeExpression(name);
             addParameter("nameValue", findString(expr));
         }
     }
diff --git a/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/components/ListUIBean.java b/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/components/ListUIBean.java
index ed50941..14cf74a 100644
--- a/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/components/ListUIBean.java
+++ b/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/components/ListUIBean.java
@@ -104,7 +104,7 @@ public abstract class ListUIBean extends UIBean {
         }
 
         if (listKey != null) {
-            listKey = stripExpressionIfAltSyntax(listKey);
+            listKey = stripExpression(listKey);
             addParameter("listKey", listKey);
         } else if (value instanceof Map) {
             addParameter("listKey", "key");
@@ -113,12 +113,12 @@ public abstract class ListUIBean extends UIBean {
         }
 
         if (listValueKey != null) {
-            listValueKey = stripExpressionIfAltSyntax(listValueKey);
+            listValueKey = stripExpression(listValueKey);
             addParameter("listValueKey", listValueKey);
         }
 
         if (listValue != null) {
-            listValue = stripExpressionIfAltSyntax(listValue);
+            listValue = stripExpression(listValue);
             addParameter("listValue", listValue);
         } else if (value instanceof Map) {
             addParameter("listValue", "value");
@@ -127,7 +127,7 @@ public abstract class ListUIBean extends UIBean {
         }
 
         if (listLabelKey != null) {
-            listLabelKey = stripExpressionIfAltSyntax(listLabelKey);
+            listLabelKey = stripExpression(listLabelKey);
             addParameter("listLabelKey", listLabelKey);
         }
 
diff --git a/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/components/Property.java b/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/components/Property.java
index 4be2025..29aebe9 100644
--- a/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/components/Property.java
+++ b/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/components/Property.java
@@ -140,7 +140,7 @@ public class Property extends Component {
             value = "top";
         }
         else {
-        	value = stripExpressionIfAltSyntax(value);
+        	value = stripExpression(value);
         }
 
         // exception: don't call findString(), since we don't want the
diff --git a/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/components/UIBean.java b/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/components/UIBean.java
index 8c29beb..68fff20 100644
--- a/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/components/UIBean.java
+++ b/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/components/UIBean.java
@@ -788,13 +788,13 @@ public abstract class UIBean extends Component {
             parameters.put("nameValue", parameters.get("value"));
         } else {
             if (evaluateNameValue()) {
-                final Class valueClazz = getValueClassType();
+                final Class<?> valueClazz = getValueClassType();
 
                 if (valueClazz != null) {
                     if (value != null) {
                         addParameter("nameValue", findValue(value, valueClazz));
                     } else if (name != null) {
-                        String expr = completeExpressionIfAltSyntax(name);
+                        String expr = completeExpression(name);
                         if (recursion(name)) {
                             addParameter("nameValue", expr);
                         } else {
@@ -834,19 +834,18 @@ public abstract class UIBean extends Component {
         if (tooltip != null) {
             addParameter("tooltip", findString(tooltip));
 
-            Map tooltipConfigMap = getTooltipConfig(this);
+            Map<String, String> tooltipConfigMap = getTooltipConfig(this);
 
             if (form != null) { // inform the containing form that we need tooltip javascript included
                 form.addParameter("hasTooltip", Boolean.TRUE);
 
                 // tooltipConfig defined in component itself will take precedence
                 // over those defined in the containing form
-                Map overallTooltipConfigMap = getTooltipConfig(form);
+                Map<String, String> overallTooltipConfigMap = getTooltipConfig(form);
                 overallTooltipConfigMap.putAll(tooltipConfigMap); // override parent form's tooltip config
 
-                for (Object o : overallTooltipConfigMap.entrySet()) {
-                    Map.Entry entry = (Map.Entry) o;
-                    addParameter((String) entry.getKey(), entry.getValue());
+                for (Map.Entry<String, String> entry : overallTooltipConfigMap.entrySet()) {
+                    addParameter(entry.getKey(), entry.getValue());
                 }
             }
             else {
@@ -899,7 +898,7 @@ public abstract class UIBean extends Component {
     protected String escape(String name) {
         // escape any possible values that can make the ID painful to work with in JavaScript
         if (name != null) {
-            return name.replaceAll("[\\/\\.\\[\\]\'\"]", "_");
+            return name.replaceAll("[/.\\[\\]'\"]", "_");
         } else {
             return null;
         }
@@ -926,7 +925,7 @@ public abstract class UIBean extends Component {
         return true;
     }
 
-    protected Class getValueClassType() {
+    protected Class<?> getValueClassType() {
         return String.class;
     }
 
@@ -948,7 +947,7 @@ public abstract class UIBean extends Component {
         }
     }
 
-    protected Map getTooltipConfig(UIBean component) {
+    protected Map<String, String> getTooltipConfig(UIBean component) {
         Object tooltipConfigObj = component.getParameters().get("tooltipConfig");
         Map<String, String> tooltipConfig = new LinkedHashMap<>();
 
@@ -1005,7 +1004,7 @@ public abstract class UIBean extends Component {
         String generatedId;
         if (id != null) {
             // this check is needed for backwards compatibility with 2.1.x
-            tryId = findStringIfAltSyntax(id);
+            tryId = findString(id);
         } else if (null == (generatedId = escape(name != null ? findString(name) : null))) {
             LOG.debug("Cannot determine id attribute for [{}], consider defining id, name or key attribute!", this);
             tryId = null;
@@ -1261,17 +1260,16 @@ public abstract class UIBean extends Component {
         }
     }
 
-    @Override
     /**
      * supports dynamic attributes for freemarker ui tags
-     * @see https://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/WW-3174
-     * @see https://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/WW-4166
+     * @see <a href="https://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/WW-3174">WW-3174</a>
+     * @see <a href="https://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/WW-4166">WW-4166</a>
      */
-    public void copyParams(Map params) {
+    @Override
+    public void copyParams(Map<String, Object> params) {
         super.copyParams(params);
-        for (Object o : params.entrySet()) {
-            Map.Entry entry = (Map.Entry) o;
-            String key = (String) entry.getKey();
+        for (Map.Entry<String, Object>entry : params.entrySet()) {
+            String key = entry.getKey();
             if (!isValidTagAttribute(key) && !key.equals("dynamicAttributes")) {
                 dynamicAttributes.put(key, entry.getValue());
             }
diff --git a/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/config/entities/ConstantConfig.java b/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/config/entities/ConstantConfig.java
index bb648ec..1245558 100644
--- a/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/config/entities/ConstantConfig.java
+++ b/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/config/entities/ConstantConfig.java
@@ -169,7 +169,6 @@ public class ConstantConfig {
         map.put(StrutsConstants.STRUTS_CONFIGURATION_XML_RELOAD, Objects.toString(configurationXmlReload, null));
         map.put(StrutsConstants.STRUTS_ACTION_EXTENSION, StringUtils.join(actionExtension, ','));
         map.put(StrutsConstants.STRUTS_ACTION_EXCLUDE_PATTERN, StringUtils.join(actionExcludePattern, ','));
-        map.put(StrutsConstants.STRUTS_TAG_ALTSYNTAX, Objects.toString(tagAltSyntax, null));
         map.put(StrutsConstants.STRUTS_URL_HTTP_PORT, Objects.toString(urlHttpPort, null));
         map.put(StrutsConstants.STRUTS_URL_HTTPS_PORT, Objects.toString(urlHttpsPort, null));
         map.put(StrutsConstants.STRUTS_URL_INCLUDEPARAMS, urlIncludeParams);
@@ -327,14 +326,6 @@ public class ConstantConfig {
         this.actionExcludePattern = actionExcludePattern;
     }
 
-    public Boolean getTagAltSyntax() {
-        return tagAltSyntax;
-    }
-
-    public void setTagAltSyntax(Boolean tagAltSyntax) {
-        this.tagAltSyntax = tagAltSyntax;
-    }
-
     public Integer getUrlHttpPort() {
         return urlHttpPort;
     }
diff --git a/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/util/ComponentUtils.java b/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/util/ComponentUtils.java
index 56abbe9..edbcb7f 100644
--- a/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/util/ComponentUtils.java
+++ b/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/util/ComponentUtils.java
@@ -18,9 +18,6 @@
  */
 package org.apache.struts2.util;
 
-import com.opensymphony.xwork2.util.ValueStack;
-import org.apache.struts2.views.util.ContextUtil;
-
 /**
  * Various static methods used with components
  */
@@ -29,33 +26,19 @@ public class ComponentUtils {
     /**
      * If altSyntax (%{...}) is applied, simply strip the "%{" and "}" off.
      *
-     * @param stack the ValueStack where the context value is searched for.
-     * @param expr  the expression (must be not null)
+     * @param expr the expression (must be not null)
      * @return the stripped expression if altSyntax is enabled. Otherwise
-     *         the parameter expression is returned as is.
+     * the parameter expression is returned as is.
      */
-    public static String stripExpressionIfAltSyntax(ValueStack stack, String expr) {
-        if (altSyntax(stack)) {
-            // does the expression start with %{ and end with }? if so, just cut it off!
-            if (isExpression(expr)) {
-                return expr.substring(2, expr.length() - 1);
-            }
+    public static String stripExpression(String expr) {
+        // does the expression start with %{ and end with }? if so, just cut it off!
+        if (isExpression(expr)) {
+            return expr.substring(2, expr.length() - 1);
         }
         return expr;
     }
 
     /**
-     * Is the altSyntax enabled? [TRUE]
-     *
-     * @param stack the ValueStack where the context value is searched for.
-     * @return true if altSyntax is activated. False otherwise.
-     *         See <code>struts.properties</code> where the altSyntax flag is defined.
-     */
-    public static boolean altSyntax(ValueStack stack) {
-        return ContextUtil.isUseAltSyntax(stack.getContext());
-    }
-
-    /**
      * Check if object is expression base on altSyntax
      *
      * @param expr to treat as an expression
diff --git a/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/views/jsp/StrutsBodyTagSupport.java b/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/views/jsp/StrutsBodyTagSupport.java
index 01921aa..2a89b0e 100644
--- a/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/views/jsp/StrutsBodyTagSupport.java
+++ b/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/views/jsp/StrutsBodyTagSupport.java
@@ -18,19 +18,16 @@
  */
 package org.apache.struts2.views.jsp;
 
-import java.io.PrintWriter;
-
-import javax.servlet.jsp.tagext.BodyTagSupport;
-
+import com.opensymphony.xwork2.util.TextParseUtil;
+import com.opensymphony.xwork2.util.ValueStack;
 import org.apache.struts2.util.ComponentUtils;
 import org.apache.struts2.util.FastByteArrayOutputStream;
 
-import com.opensymphony.xwork2.util.TextParseUtil;
-import com.opensymphony.xwork2.util.ValueStack;
+import javax.servlet.jsp.tagext.BodyTagSupport;
+import java.io.PrintWriter;
 
 /**
  * Contains common functonalities for Struts JSP Tags.
- *
  */
 public class StrutsBodyTagSupport extends BodyTagSupport {
 
@@ -45,25 +42,23 @@ public class StrutsBodyTagSupport extends BodyTagSupport {
     }
 
     protected Object findValue(String expr) {
-    	expr = ComponentUtils.stripExpressionIfAltSyntax(getStack(), expr);
+        expr = ComponentUtils.stripExpression(expr);
 
         return getStack().findValue(expr);
     }
 
-    protected Object findValue(String expr, Class toType) {
-        if (ComponentUtils.altSyntax(getStack()) && toType == String.class) {
-        	return TextParseUtil.translateVariables('%', expr, getStack());
-            //return translateVariables(expr, getStack());
+    protected Object findValue(String expr, Class<?> toType) {
+        if (toType == String.class) {
+            return TextParseUtil.translateVariables('%', expr, getStack());
         } else {
-        	expr = ComponentUtils.stripExpressionIfAltSyntax(getStack(), expr);
-
+            expr = ComponentUtils.stripExpression(expr);
             return getStack().findValue(expr, toType);
         }
     }
 
     protected String toString(Throwable t) {
         try (FastByteArrayOutputStream bout = new FastByteArrayOutputStream();
-                PrintWriter wrt = new PrintWriter(bout)) {
+             PrintWriter wrt = new PrintWriter(bout)) {
             t.printStackTrace(wrt);
 
             return bout.toString();
diff --git a/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/views/util/ContextUtil.java b/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/views/util/ContextUtil.java
index 7cc1aab..f021845 100644
--- a/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/views/util/ContextUtil.java
+++ b/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/views/util/ContextUtil.java
@@ -61,25 +61,6 @@ public class ContextUtil {
     }
 
     /**
-     * Return true if either Configuration's altSyntax is on or the stack context's useAltSyntax is on
-     *
-     * @param context stack's context
-     * @return boolean
-     */
-    public static boolean isUseAltSyntax(Map<String, Object> context) {
-        // We didn't make altSyntax static cause, if so, struts.configuration.xml.reload will not work
-        // plus the Configuration implementation should cache the properties, which the framework's
-        // configuration implementation does
-        String tagAltSytnax = ActionContext.of(context).getContainer().getInstance(String.class, StrutsConstants.STRUTS_TAG_ALTSYNTAX);
-
-        return "true".equals(tagAltSytnax) || (
-            (context.containsKey("useAltSyntax") &&
-                context.get("useAltSyntax") != null &&
-                "true".equals(context.get("useAltSyntax").toString()))
-        );
-    }
-
-    /**
      * Returns a String for overriding the default templateSuffix if templateSuffix is on the stack
      *
      * @param context stack's context
diff --git a/core/src/main/resources/org/apache/struts2/default.properties b/core/src/main/resources/org/apache/struts2/default.properties
index 3fe298a..1bbe20c 100644
--- a/core/src/main/resources/org/apache/struts2/default.properties
+++ b/core/src/main/resources/org/apache/struts2/default.properties
@@ -122,10 +122,6 @@ struts.mapper.action.prefix.enabled = false
 ### Blocks access to actions in other namespace than current with action: prefix
 struts.mapper.action.prefix.crossNamespaces = false
 
-### use alternative syntax that requires %{} in most places
-### to evaluate expressions for String attributes for tags
-struts.tag.altSyntax=true
-
 ### when set to true, Struts will act much more friendly for developers. This
 ### includes:
 ### - struts.i18n.reload = true
diff --git a/core/src/test/java/org/apache/struts2/util/ComponentUtilsTest.java b/core/src/test/java/org/apache/struts2/util/ComponentUtilsTest.java
index 41a25a3..568acea 100644
--- a/core/src/test/java/org/apache/struts2/util/ComponentUtilsTest.java
+++ b/core/src/test/java/org/apache/struts2/util/ComponentUtilsTest.java
@@ -18,67 +18,22 @@
  */
 package org.apache.struts2.util;
 
-import com.opensymphony.xwork2.config.Configuration;
-import com.opensymphony.xwork2.config.ConfigurationException;
-import com.opensymphony.xwork2.config.ConfigurationProvider;
-import com.opensymphony.xwork2.inject.ContainerBuilder;
-import com.opensymphony.xwork2.util.ValueStack;
-import com.opensymphony.xwork2.util.ValueStackFactory;
-import com.opensymphony.xwork2.util.location.LocatableProperties;
-import org.apache.struts2.StrutsConstants;
 import org.apache.struts2.StrutsInternalTestCase;
 
 public class ComponentUtilsTest extends StrutsInternalTestCase {
 
-    public void testStripExpression() throws Exception {
+    public void testStripExpression() {
         // given
-        ValueStack stack = container.getInstance(ValueStackFactory.class).createValueStack();
         String anExpression = "%{foo}";
 
         // when
-        String actual = ComponentUtils.stripExpressionIfAltSyntax(stack, anExpression);
+        String actual = ComponentUtils.stripExpression(anExpression);
 
         // then
         assertEquals(actual, "foo");
     }
 
-    public void testNoStripExpressionIfNoAltSyntax() throws Exception {
-        // given
-        loadConfigurationProviders(new MockConfigurationProvider());
-        ValueStack stack = container.getInstance(ValueStackFactory.class).createValueStack();
-        String anExpression = "%{foo}";
-
-        // when
-        String actual = ComponentUtils.stripExpressionIfAltSyntax(stack, anExpression);
-
-        // then
-        assertEquals(actual, "%{foo}");
-    }
-
-    public void testAltSyntaxIsTrue() throws Exception {
-        // given
-        ValueStack stack = container.getInstance(ValueStackFactory.class).createValueStack();
-
-        // when
-        boolean actual = ComponentUtils.altSyntax(stack);
-
-        // then
-        assertTrue(actual);
-    }
-
-    public void testAltSyntaxIsFalse() throws Exception {
-        // given
-        loadConfigurationProviders(new MockConfigurationProvider());
-        ValueStack stack = container.getInstance(ValueStackFactory.class).createValueStack();
-
-        // when
-        boolean actual = ComponentUtils.altSyntax(stack);
-
-        // then
-        assertFalse(actual);
-    }
-
-    public void testIsExpressionIsTrue() throws Exception {
+    public void testIsExpressionIsTrue() {
         // given
         String anExpression = "%{foo}";
 
@@ -89,7 +44,7 @@ public class ComponentUtilsTest extends StrutsInternalTestCase {
         assertTrue(actual);
     }
 
-    public void testIsExpressionIsFalseWhenCombined() throws Exception {
+    public void testIsExpressionIsFalseWhenCombined() {
         // given
         String anExpression = "bar%{foo}";
 
@@ -100,7 +55,7 @@ public class ComponentUtilsTest extends StrutsInternalTestCase {
         assertFalse(actual);
     }
 
-    public void testIsExpressionIsFalse() throws Exception {
+    public void testIsExpressionIsFalse() {
         // given
         String anExpression = "foo";
 
@@ -111,11 +66,11 @@ public class ComponentUtilsTest extends StrutsInternalTestCase {
         assertFalse(actual);
     }
 
-    public void testIsExpressionIsFalseWhenNull() throws Exception {
+    public void testIsExpressionIsFalseWhenNull() {
         assertFalse(ComponentUtils.isExpression(null));
     }
 
-    public void testContainsExpressionIsTrue() throws Exception {
+    public void testContainsExpressionIsTrue() {
         // given
         String anExpression = "%{foo}";
 
@@ -126,7 +81,7 @@ public class ComponentUtilsTest extends StrutsInternalTestCase {
         assertTrue(actual);
     }
 
-    public void testIsContainsIsTrueWhenCombined() throws Exception {
+    public void testIsContainsIsTrueWhenCombined() {
         // given
         String anExpression = "bar%{foo}";
 
@@ -137,7 +92,7 @@ public class ComponentUtilsTest extends StrutsInternalTestCase {
         assertTrue(actual);
     }
 
-    public void testContainsExpressionIsFalse() throws Exception {
+    public void testContainsExpressionIsFalse() {
         // given
         String anExpression = "foo";
 
@@ -148,27 +103,7 @@ public class ComponentUtilsTest extends StrutsInternalTestCase {
         assertFalse(actual);
     }
 
-    public void testContainsExpressionIsFalseWhenNull() throws Exception {
+    public void testContainsExpressionIsFalseWhenNull() {
         assertFalse(ComponentUtils.containsExpression(null));
     }
 }
-
-class MockConfigurationProvider implements ConfigurationProvider {
-
-    public void destroy() {
-    }
-
-    public void init(Configuration configuration) throws ConfigurationException {
-    }
-
-    public boolean needsReload() {
-        return false;
-    }
-
-    public void loadPackages() throws ConfigurationException {
-    }
-
-    public void register(ContainerBuilder builder, LocatableProperties props) throws ConfigurationException {
-        builder.constant(StrutsConstants.STRUTS_TAG_ALTSYNTAX, "false");
-    }
-}
diff --git a/core/src/test/java/org/apache/struts2/views/jsp/PropertyTagTest.java b/core/src/test/java/org/apache/struts2/views/jsp/PropertyTagTest.java
index 450b709..f37431a 100644
--- a/core/src/test/java/org/apache/struts2/views/jsp/PropertyTagTest.java
+++ b/core/src/test/java/org/apache/struts2/views/jsp/PropertyTagTest.java
@@ -18,23 +18,18 @@
  */
 package org.apache.struts2.views.jsp;
 
-import java.util.HashMap;
-
-import javax.servlet.jsp.JspException;
-
-import org.apache.struts2.ServletActionContext;
-import org.apache.struts2.StrutsConstants;
-import org.apache.struts2.StrutsInternalTestCase;
-
 import com.mockobjects.servlet.MockJspWriter;
 import com.mockobjects.servlet.MockPageContext;
 import com.opensymphony.xwork2.ActionContext;
 import com.opensymphony.xwork2.util.ValueStack;
+import org.apache.struts2.ServletActionContext;
+import org.apache.struts2.StrutsInternalTestCase;
+
+import javax.servlet.jsp.JspException;
 
 
 /**
  * PropertyTag test case.
- *
  */
 public class PropertyTagTest extends StrutsInternalTestCase {
 
@@ -163,8 +158,6 @@ public class PropertyTagTest extends StrutsInternalTestCase {
 
     public void testWithAltSyntax1() throws Exception {
         // setups
-        initDispatcher(new HashMap() {{ put(StrutsConstants.STRUTS_TAG_ALTSYNTAX, "true");}});
-
         Foo foo = new Foo();
         foo.setTitle("tm_jee");
         stack.push(foo);
@@ -193,27 +186,27 @@ public class PropertyTagTest extends StrutsInternalTestCase {
 
     public void testEscapeJavaScript() throws Exception {
         // setups
-        initDispatcher(new HashMap() {{ put(StrutsConstants.STRUTS_TAG_ALTSYNTAX, "true");}});
-
         Foo foo = new Foo();
-        foo.setTitle("\t\b\n\f\r\"\'/\\");
+        foo.setTitle("\t\b\n\f\r\"'/\\");
         stack.push(foo);
 
         MockJspWriter jspWriter = new MockJspWriter();
-        jspWriter.setExpectedData("Foo is: \\t\\b\\n\\f\\r\\\"\\\'\\/\\\\");
+        jspWriter.setExpectedData("Foo is: \\t\\b\\n\\f\\r\\\"\\'\\/\\\\");
 
         MockPageContext pageContext = new MockPageContext();
         pageContext.setJspWriter(jspWriter);
         pageContext.setRequest(request);
 
         // test
-        {PropertyTag tag = new PropertyTag();
-        tag.setEscapeHtml(false);
-        tag.setEscapeJavaScript(true);    
-        tag.setPageContext(pageContext);
-        tag.setValue("%{formatTitle()}");
-        tag.doStartTag();
-        tag.doEndTag();}
+        {
+            PropertyTag tag = new PropertyTag();
+            tag.setEscapeHtml(false);
+            tag.setEscapeJavaScript(true);
+            tag.setPageContext(pageContext);
+            tag.setValue("%{formatTitle()}");
+            tag.doStartTag();
+            tag.doEndTag();
+        }
 
         // verify test
         request.verify();
@@ -221,10 +214,8 @@ public class PropertyTagTest extends StrutsInternalTestCase {
         pageContext.verify();
     }
 
-     public void testEscapeXml() throws Exception {
+    public void testEscapeXml() throws Exception {
         // setups
-        initDispatcher(new HashMap() {{ put(StrutsConstants.STRUTS_TAG_ALTSYNTAX, "true");}});
-
         Foo foo = new Foo();
         foo.setTitle("<>'\"&");
         stack.push(foo);
@@ -237,13 +228,15 @@ public class PropertyTagTest extends StrutsInternalTestCase {
         pageContext.setRequest(request);
 
         // test
-        {PropertyTag tag = new PropertyTag();
-        tag.setEscapeHtml(false);
-        tag.setEscapeXml(true);
-        tag.setPageContext(pageContext);
-        tag.setValue("%{formatTitle()}");
-        tag.doStartTag();
-        tag.doEndTag();}
+        {
+            PropertyTag tag = new PropertyTag();
+            tag.setEscapeHtml(false);
+            tag.setEscapeXml(true);
+            tag.setPageContext(pageContext);
+            tag.setValue("%{formatTitle()}");
+            tag.doStartTag();
+            tag.doEndTag();
+        }
 
         // verify test
         request.verify();
@@ -251,10 +244,8 @@ public class PropertyTagTest extends StrutsInternalTestCase {
         pageContext.verify();
     }
 
-     public void testEscapeCsv() throws Exception {
+    public void testEscapeCsv() throws Exception {
         // setups
-        initDispatcher(new HashMap() {{ put(StrutsConstants.STRUTS_TAG_ALTSYNTAX, "true");}});
-
         Foo foo = new Foo();
         foo.setTitle("\"something,\",\"");
         stack.push(foo);
@@ -267,13 +258,15 @@ public class PropertyTagTest extends StrutsInternalTestCase {
         pageContext.setRequest(request);
 
         // test
-        {PropertyTag tag = new PropertyTag();
-        tag.setEscapeHtml(false);
-        tag.setEscapeCsv(true);
-        tag.setPageContext(pageContext);
-        tag.setValue("%{formatTitle()}");
-        tag.doStartTag();
-        tag.doEndTag();}
+        {
+            PropertyTag tag = new PropertyTag();
+            tag.setEscapeHtml(false);
+            tag.setEscapeCsv(true);
+            tag.setPageContext(pageContext);
+            tag.setValue("%{formatTitle()}");
+            tag.doStartTag();
+            tag.doEndTag();
+        }
 
         // verify test
         request.verify();
@@ -283,8 +276,6 @@ public class PropertyTagTest extends StrutsInternalTestCase {
 
     public void testWithAltSyntax2() throws Exception {
         // setups
-        initDispatcher(new HashMap() {{ put(StrutsConstants.STRUTS_TAG_ALTSYNTAX, "true");}});
-
         Foo foo = new Foo();
         foo.setTitle("tm_jee");
         stack.push(foo);
@@ -297,11 +288,13 @@ public class PropertyTagTest extends StrutsInternalTestCase {
         pageContext.setRequest(request);
 
         // test
-        {PropertyTag tag = new PropertyTag();
-        tag.setPageContext(pageContext);
-        tag.setValue("formatTitle()");
-        tag.doStartTag();
-        tag.doEndTag();}
+        {
+            PropertyTag tag = new PropertyTag();
+            tag.setPageContext(pageContext);
+            tag.setValue("formatTitle()");
+            tag.doStartTag();
+            tag.doEndTag();
+        }
 
         // verify test
         request.verify();
@@ -311,8 +304,6 @@ public class PropertyTagTest extends StrutsInternalTestCase {
 
     public void testWithoutAltSyntax1() throws Exception {
         //      setups
-        initDispatcher(new HashMap() {{ put(StrutsConstants.STRUTS_TAG_ALTSYNTAX, "false");}});
-
         Foo foo = new Foo();
         foo.setTitle("tm_jee");
         stack.push(foo);
@@ -325,11 +316,13 @@ public class PropertyTagTest extends StrutsInternalTestCase {
         pageContext.setRequest(request);
 
         // test
-        {PropertyTag tag = new PropertyTag();
-        tag.setPageContext(pageContext);
-        tag.setValue("formatTitle()");
-        tag.doStartTag();
-        tag.doEndTag();}
+        {
+            PropertyTag tag = new PropertyTag();
+            tag.setPageContext(pageContext);
+            tag.setValue("formatTitle()");
+            tag.doStartTag();
+            tag.doEndTag();
+        }
 
         // verify test
         request.verify();
@@ -340,8 +333,6 @@ public class PropertyTagTest extends StrutsInternalTestCase {
 
     public void testWithoutAltSyntax2() throws Exception {
         //      setups
-        initDispatcher(new HashMap() {{ put(StrutsConstants.STRUTS_TAG_ALTSYNTAX, "false");}});
-
         Foo foo = new Foo();
         foo.setTitle("tm_jee");
         stack.push(foo);
@@ -353,11 +344,13 @@ public class PropertyTagTest extends StrutsInternalTestCase {
         pageContext.setRequest(request);
 
         // test
-        {PropertyTag tag = new PropertyTag();
-        tag.setPageContext(pageContext);
-        tag.setValue("%{formatTitle()}");
-        tag.doStartTag();
-        tag.doEndTag();}
+        {
+            PropertyTag tag = new PropertyTag();
+            tag.setPageContext(pageContext);
+            tag.setValue("%{formatTitle()}");
+            tag.doStartTag();
+            tag.doEndTag();
+        }
 
         // verify test
         request.verify();
@@ -373,7 +366,7 @@ public class PropertyTagTest extends StrutsInternalTestCase {
     }
 
 
-    public class Foo {
+    public static class Foo {
         private String title;
 
         public void setTitle(String title) {
diff --git a/core/src/test/java/org/apache/struts2/views/jsp/ui/FormTagTest.java b/core/src/test/java/org/apache/struts2/views/jsp/ui/FormTagTest.java
index 79abd4c..ef3484c 100644
--- a/core/src/test/java/org/apache/struts2/views/jsp/ui/FormTagTest.java
+++ b/core/src/test/java/org/apache/struts2/views/jsp/ui/FormTagTest.java
@@ -18,31 +18,21 @@
  */
 package org.apache.struts2.views.jsp.ui;
 
-import com.opensymphony.xwork2.*;
-import com.opensymphony.xwork2.config.RuntimeConfiguration;
+import com.opensymphony.xwork2.Action;
+import com.opensymphony.xwork2.ActionContext;
+import com.opensymphony.xwork2.ActionInvocation;
+import com.opensymphony.xwork2.ActionProxy;
 import com.opensymphony.xwork2.config.entities.ActionConfig;
-import com.opensymphony.xwork2.config.entities.InterceptorMapping;
-import com.opensymphony.xwork2.config.impl.DefaultConfiguration;
-import com.opensymphony.xwork2.inject.Container;
-import com.opensymphony.xwork2.inject.Scope.Strategy;
-import com.opensymphony.xwork2.validator.ValidationInterceptor;
 import org.apache.struts2.StrutsConstants;
 import org.apache.struts2.TestAction;
 import org.apache.struts2.TestConfigurationProvider;
-import org.apache.struts2.components.Form;
-import org.apache.struts2.dispatcher.Dispatcher;
 import org.apache.struts2.dispatcher.mapper.ActionMapper;
 import org.apache.struts2.dispatcher.mapper.DefaultActionMapper;
 import org.apache.struts2.views.jsp.AbstractUITagTest;
 import org.apache.struts2.views.jsp.ActionTag;
 import org.easymock.EasyMock;
 
-import java.util.ArrayList;
 import java.util.HashMap;
-import java.util.List;
-import java.util.Map;
-import java.util.Set;
-import static org.apache.struts2.views.jsp.AbstractUITagTest.normalize;
 
 
 /**
@@ -50,8 +40,8 @@ import static org.apache.struts2.views.jsp.AbstractUITagTest.normalize;
  */
 public class FormTagTest extends AbstractUITagTest {
 
-    
-     public void testFormWithActionAttributeContainingQueryString() throws Exception {
+
+    public void testFormWithActionAttributeContainingQueryString() throws Exception {
         FormTag tag = new FormTag();
         tag.setPageContext(pageContext);
         tag.setName("myForm");
@@ -66,10 +56,10 @@ public class FormTagTest extends AbstractUITagTest {
 
         tag.doStartTag();
         tag.doEndTag();
-        
+
         verify(FormTag.class.getResource("Formtag-26.txt"));
     }
-    
+
     public void testFormWithActionAttributeContainingBothActionAndMethod() throws Exception {
         FormTag tag = new FormTag();
         tag.setPageContext(pageContext);
@@ -114,7 +104,7 @@ public class FormTagTest extends AbstractUITagTest {
 
         verify(FormTag.class.getResource("Formtag-13.txt"));
     }
-    
+
     public void testFormWithActionAttributeContainingBothActionAndDMIMethod() throws Exception {
         FormTag tag = new FormTag();
         tag.setPageContext(pageContext);
@@ -126,13 +116,13 @@ public class FormTagTest extends AbstractUITagTest {
         tag.setTitle("mytitle");
         tag.setOnsubmit("submitMe()");
 
-        ((DefaultActionMapper)container.getInstance(ActionMapper.class)).setAllowDynamicMethodCalls("true");
+        ((DefaultActionMapper) container.getInstance(ActionMapper.class)).setAllowDynamicMethodCalls("true");
 
         tag.doStartTag();
         tag.doEndTag();
 
         verify(FormTag.class.getResource("Formtag-23.txt"));
-    }    
+    }
 
     public void testFormWithFocusElement() throws Exception {
         FormTag tag = new FormTag();
@@ -208,7 +198,7 @@ public class FormTagTest extends AbstractUITagTest {
         verify(FormTag.class.getResource("Formtag-29.txt"));
     }
 
-     public void testFormNoNameOrId() throws Exception {
+    public void testFormNoNameOrId() throws Exception {
 
         request.setupGetServletPath("/testAction");
 
@@ -330,7 +320,7 @@ public class FormTagTest extends AbstractUITagTest {
         verify(FormTag.class.getResource("Formtag-22.txt"));
     }
 
-/**
+    /**
      * Tests the numbers are formatted correctly to not break the javascript, using doubles
      */
     public void testFormWithCustomOnsubmitEnabledWithValidateEnabled4() throws Exception {
@@ -420,7 +410,7 @@ public class FormTagTest extends AbstractUITagTest {
      * </p>
      */
     public void testFormTagWithDifferentActionExtension() throws Exception {
-        initDispatcher(new HashMap<String,String>(){{ 
+        initDispatcher(new HashMap<String, String>() {{
             put(StrutsConstants.STRUTS_ACTION_EXTENSION, "jspa");
             put("configProviders", TestConfigurationProvider.class.getName());
         }});
@@ -630,7 +620,7 @@ public class FormTagTest extends AbstractUITagTest {
 
     public void testFormWithActionAndExtension() throws Exception {
         request.setupGetServletPath("/BLA");
-        
+
         FormTag tag = new FormTag();
         tag.setPageContext(pageContext);
         tag.setAction("/testNamespace/testNamespaceAction.jspa");
@@ -684,7 +674,7 @@ public class FormTagTest extends AbstractUITagTest {
 
         verify(FormTag.class.getResource("Formtag-27.txt"));
     }
-    
+
     public void testFormWithTopLabelPositionCssXhtml() throws Exception {
         FormTag form = new FormTag();
         form.setTheme("css_xhtml");
@@ -725,7 +715,7 @@ public class FormTagTest extends AbstractUITagTest {
 
         verify(FormTag.class.getResource("Formtag-28.txt"));
     }
-    
+
     @Override
     protected void setUp() throws Exception {
         super.setUp();
diff --git a/core/src/test/java/org/apache/struts2/views/util/ContextUtilTest.java b/core/src/test/java/org/apache/struts2/views/util/ContextUtilTest.java
deleted file mode 100755
index 9a79cb8..0000000
--- a/core/src/test/java/org/apache/struts2/views/util/ContextUtilTest.java
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,113 +0,0 @@
-/*
- * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
- * or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
- * distributed with this work for additional information
- * regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
- * to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
- * "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
- * with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
- *
- *  http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
- *
- * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing,
- * software distributed under the License is distributed on an
- * "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY
- * KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the
- * specific language governing permissions and limitations
- * under the License.
- */
-package org.apache.struts2.views.util;
-
-import org.apache.struts2.StrutsConstants;
-import org.apache.struts2.StrutsInternalTestCase;
-
-import com.mockobjects.dynamic.C;
-import com.mockobjects.dynamic.Mock;
-import com.opensymphony.xwork2.ActionContext;
-import com.opensymphony.xwork2.inject.Container;
-import com.opensymphony.xwork2.util.ValueStack;
-
-/**
- * Test case for ContextUtil
- *
- */
-public class ContextUtilTest extends StrutsInternalTestCase {
-
-    private void setAltSyntax(ValueStack stack, String val) {
-        Mock container = new Mock(Container.class);
-        container.expectAndReturn("getInstance", C.args(C.eq(String.class), C.eq(StrutsConstants.STRUTS_TAG_ALTSYNTAX)), val);
-        stack.getActionContext().withContainer((Container) container.proxy());
-    }
-    
-    public void testAltSyntaxMethod1() throws Exception {
-        ValueStack stack = ActionContext.getContext().getValueStack();
-        stack.getContext().put("useAltSyntax", "true");
-
-        setAltSyntax(stack, "true");
-        assertTrue(ContextUtil.isUseAltSyntax(stack.getContext()));
-    }
-
-    public void testAltSyntaxMethod2() throws Exception {
-        ValueStack stack = ActionContext.getContext().getValueStack();
-        stack.getContext().put("useAltSyntax", "false");
-
-        setAltSyntax(stack, "true");
-        assertTrue(ContextUtil.isUseAltSyntax(stack.getContext()));
-    }
-
-    public void testAltSyntaxMethod3() throws Exception {
-        ValueStack stack = ActionContext.getContext().getValueStack();
-        stack.getContext().put("useAltSyntax", "true");
-
-        setAltSyntax(stack, "false");
-        assertTrue(ContextUtil.isUseAltSyntax(stack.getContext()));
-    }
-
-    public void testAltSyntaxMethod4() throws Exception {
-        ValueStack stack = ActionContext.getContext().getValueStack();
-        stack.getContext().put("useAltSyntax", "false");
-
-        setAltSyntax(stack, "false");
-        assertFalse(ContextUtil.isUseAltSyntax(stack.getContext()));
-    }
-
-    //========================================================
-
-    public void testAltSyntaxMethod5() throws Exception {
-        ValueStack stack = ActionContext.getContext().getValueStack();
-        stack.getContext().put("useAltSyntax", Boolean.TRUE);
-
-        setAltSyntax(stack, "true");
-        assertTrue(ContextUtil.isUseAltSyntax(stack.getContext()));
-    }
-    public void testAltSyntaxMethod6() throws Exception {
-        ValueStack stack = ActionContext.getContext().getValueStack();
-        stack.getContext().put("useAltSyntax", Boolean.FALSE);
-
-        setAltSyntax(stack, "true");
-        assertTrue(ContextUtil.isUseAltSyntax(stack.getContext()));
-    }
-    public void testAltSyntaxMethod7() throws Exception {
-        ValueStack stack = ActionContext.getContext().getValueStack();
-        stack.getContext().put("useAltSyntax", Boolean.TRUE);
-
-        setAltSyntax(stack, "false");
-        assertTrue(ContextUtil.isUseAltSyntax(stack.getContext()));
-    }
-    public void testAltSyntaxMethod8() throws Exception {
-        ValueStack stack = ActionContext.getContext().getValueStack();
-        stack.getContext().put("useAltSyntax", Boolean.FALSE);
-
-        setAltSyntax(stack, "false");
-        assertFalse(ContextUtil.isUseAltSyntax(stack.getContext()));
-    }
-
-    // ==========================================
-    public void testAltSyntaxMethod9() throws Exception {
-        ValueStack stack = ActionContext.getContext().getValueStack();
-        stack.getContext().put("useAltSyntax", null);
-
-        setAltSyntax(stack, "true");
-        assertTrue(ContextUtil.isUseAltSyntax(stack.getContext()));
-    }
-}
diff --git a/plugins/javatemplates/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/views/java/simple/AbstractTagHandler.java b/plugins/javatemplates/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/views/java/simple/AbstractTagHandler.java
index 74a0443..7c3a9c4 100644
--- a/plugins/javatemplates/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/views/java/simple/AbstractTagHandler.java
+++ b/plugins/javatemplates/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/views/java/simple/AbstractTagHandler.java
@@ -24,7 +24,6 @@ import org.apache.struts2.components.template.TemplateRenderingContext;
 import org.apache.struts2.util.ComponentUtils;
 import org.apache.struts2.views.java.Attributes;
 import org.apache.struts2.views.java.TagHandler;
-import org.apache.struts2.views.util.ContextUtil;
 
 import java.io.IOException;
 
@@ -32,7 +31,6 @@ public abstract class AbstractTagHandler implements TagHandler {
 
     protected TagHandler nextTagHandler;
     protected TemplateRenderingContext context;
-    protected boolean altSyntax;
 
     public void characters(String text) throws IOException {
         characters(text, true);
@@ -64,7 +62,6 @@ public abstract class AbstractTagHandler implements TagHandler {
 
     public void setup(TemplateRenderingContext context) {
         this.context = context;
-        this.altSyntax = ContextUtil.isUseAltSyntax(context.getStack().getContext());
         processParams();
     }
 
@@ -72,7 +69,11 @@ public abstract class AbstractTagHandler implements TagHandler {
     }
 
     protected String findString(String expr) {
-        return (String) findValue(expr, String.class);
+        if (expr == null) {
+            return null;
+        }
+        ValueStack stack = context.getStack();
+        return TextParseUtil.translateVariables('%', expr, stack);
     }
 
     protected Object findValue(String expr) {
@@ -81,16 +82,7 @@ public abstract class AbstractTagHandler implements TagHandler {
         }
 
         ValueStack stack = context.getStack();
-        return stack.findValue(ComponentUtils.stripExpressionIfAltSyntax(stack, expr));
+        return stack.findValue(ComponentUtils.stripExpression(expr));
     }
 
-    private Object findValue(String expr, Class toType) {
-        ValueStack stack = context.getStack();
-
-        if (altSyntax && toType == String.class) {
-            return TextParseUtil.translateVariables('%', expr, stack);
-        } else {
-            return stack.findValue(ComponentUtils.stripExpressionIfAltSyntax(stack, expr), toType);
-        }
-    }
 }
diff --git a/plugins/javatemplates/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/views/java/simple/DynamicAttributesHandler.java b/plugins/javatemplates/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/views/java/simple/DynamicAttributesHandler.java
index 7568c1c..150b412 100644
--- a/plugins/javatemplates/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/views/java/simple/DynamicAttributesHandler.java
+++ b/plugins/javatemplates/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/views/java/simple/DynamicAttributesHandler.java
@@ -42,7 +42,7 @@ public class DynamicAttributesHandler extends AbstractTagHandler {
     protected void processDynamicAttributes(Attributes a) {
         Map<String, String> dynamicAttributes = (Map<String, String>) context.getParameters().get("dynamicAttributes");
         for (Map.Entry<String, String> entry : dynamicAttributes.entrySet()) {
-            if (altSyntax && ComponentUtils.isExpression(entry.getValue())) {
+            if (ComponentUtils.isExpression(entry.getValue())) {
                 String value = ObjectUtils.defaultIfNull(findString(entry.getValue()), entry.getValue());
                 a.put(entry.getKey(), value);
             } else {
diff --git a/plugins/javatemplates/src/test/java/org/apache/struts2/views/java/simple/AbstractTest.java b/plugins/javatemplates/src/test/java/org/apache/struts2/views/java/simple/AbstractTest.java
index f35c03e..3c6c37f 100644
--- a/plugins/javatemplates/src/test/java/org/apache/struts2/views/java/simple/AbstractTest.java
+++ b/plugins/javatemplates/src/test/java/org/apache/struts2/views/java/simple/AbstractTest.java
@@ -28,7 +28,6 @@ import com.opensymphony.xwork2.util.OgnlTextParser;
 import com.opensymphony.xwork2.util.TextParser;
 import com.opensymphony.xwork2.util.ValueStack;
 import junit.framework.TestCase;
-import org.apache.struts2.StrutsConstants;
 import org.apache.struts2.components.Component;
 import org.apache.struts2.components.UIBean;
 import org.apache.struts2.components.template.Template;
@@ -113,7 +112,6 @@ public abstract class AbstractTest extends TestCase {
 
         Container container = createNiceMock(Container.class);
         XWorkConverter converter = new ConverterEx();
-        expect(container.getInstance(String.class, StrutsConstants.STRUTS_TAG_ALTSYNTAX)).andReturn("true").anyTimes();
         expect(container.getInstance(XWorkConverter.class)).andReturn(converter).anyTimes();
         TextParser parser = new OgnlTextParser();
         expect(container.getInstance(TextParser.class)).andReturn(parser).anyTimes();


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