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From lukaszlen...@apache.org
Subject [32/50] [abbrv] struts git commit: WW-4507 - clone Tomcat UDecoder and use it for in query string handling (cherry picked from commit 5421930)
Date Fri, 15 Jul 2016 13:18:59 GMT
http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/struts/blob/76f18840/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/util/tomcat/buf/MessageBytes.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/util/tomcat/buf/MessageBytes.java b/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/util/tomcat/buf/MessageBytes.java
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..df07284
--- /dev/null
+++ b/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/util/tomcat/buf/MessageBytes.java
@@ -0,0 +1,546 @@
+/*
+ *  Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
+ *  contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
+ *  this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
+ *  The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
+ *  (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
+ *  the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+ *
+ *      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+ *
+ *  Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
+ *  distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
+ *  WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
+ *  See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
+ *  limitations under the License.
+ */
+package org.apache.struts2.util.tomcat.buf;
+
+import java.io.IOException;
+import java.io.Serializable;
+import java.nio.ByteBuffer;
+import java.nio.charset.Charset;
+import java.util.Locale;
+
+/**
+ * This class is used to represent a subarray of bytes in an HTTP message.
+ * It represents all request/response elements. The byte/char conversions are
+ * delayed and cached. Everything is recyclable.
+ *
+ * The object can represent a byte[], a char[], or a (sub) String. All
+ * operations can be made in case sensitive mode or not.
+ *
+ * @author dac@eng.sun.com
+ * @author James Todd [gonzo@eng.sun.com]
+ * @author Costin Manolache
+ */
+public final class MessageBytes implements Cloneable, Serializable {
+    private static final long serialVersionUID = 1L;
+
+    // primary type ( whatever is set as original value )
+    private int type = T_NULL;
+
+    public static final int T_NULL = 0;
+    /** getType() is T_STR if the the object used to create the MessageBytes
+        was a String */
+    public static final int T_STR  = 1;
+    /** getType() is T_STR if the the object used to create the MessageBytes
+        was a byte[] */
+    public static final int T_BYTES = 2;
+    /** getType() is T_STR if the the object used to create the MessageBytes
+        was a char[] */
+    public static final int T_CHARS = 3;
+
+    private int hashCode=0;
+    // did we compute the hashcode ?
+    private boolean hasHashCode=false;
+
+    // Internal objects to represent array + offset, and specific methods
+    private final ByteChunk byteC=new ByteChunk();
+    private final CharChunk charC=new CharChunk();
+
+    // String
+    private String strValue;
+    // true if a String value was computed. Probably not needed,
+    // strValue!=null is the same
+    private boolean hasStrValue=false;
+
+    /**
+     * Creates a new, uninitialized MessageBytes object.
+     * Use static newInstance() in order to allow
+     *   future hooks.
+     */
+    private MessageBytes() {
+    }
+
+    /** Construct a new MessageBytes instance
+     */
+    public static MessageBytes newInstance() {
+        return factory.newInstance();
+    }
+
+    public boolean isNull() {
+        // should we check also hasStrValue ???
+        return byteC.isNull() && charC.isNull() && ! hasStrValue;
+        // bytes==null && strValue==null;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Resets the message bytes to an uninitialized (NULL) state.
+     */
+    public void recycle() {
+        type=T_NULL;
+        byteC.recycle();
+        charC.recycle();
+
+        strValue=null;
+
+        hasStrValue=false;
+        hasHashCode=false;
+        hasLongValue=false;
+    }
+
+
+    /**
+     * Sets the content to the specified subarray of bytes.
+     *
+     * @param b the bytes
+     * @param off the start offset of the bytes
+     * @param len the length of the bytes
+     */
+    public void setBytes(byte[] b, int off, int len) {
+        byteC.setBytes( b, off, len );
+        type=T_BYTES;
+        hasStrValue=false;
+        hasHashCode=false;
+        hasLongValue=false;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Sets the content to be a char[]
+     *
+     * @param c the bytes
+     * @param off the start offset of the bytes
+     * @param len the length of the bytes
+     */
+    public void setChars( char[] c, int off, int len ) {
+        charC.setChars( c, off, len );
+        type=T_CHARS;
+        hasStrValue=false;
+        hasHashCode=false;
+        hasLongValue=false;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Set the content to be a string
+     */
+    public void setString( String s ) {
+        strValue=s;
+        hasHashCode=false;
+        hasLongValue=false;
+        if (s == null) {
+            hasStrValue=false;
+            type=T_NULL;
+        } else {
+            hasStrValue=true;
+            type=T_STR;
+        }
+    }
+
+    // -------------------- Conversion and getters --------------------
+
+    /** Compute the string value
+     */
+    @Override
+    public String toString() {
+        if( hasStrValue ) {
+            return strValue;
+        }
+
+        switch (type) {
+        case T_CHARS:
+            strValue=charC.toString();
+            hasStrValue=true;
+            return strValue;
+        case T_BYTES:
+            strValue=byteC.toString();
+            hasStrValue=true;
+            return strValue;
+        }
+        return null;
+    }
+
+    //----------------------------------------
+    /** Return the type of the original content. Can be
+     *  T_STR, T_BYTES, T_CHARS or T_NULL
+     */
+    public int getType() {
+        return type;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns the byte chunk, representing the byte[] and offset/length.
+     * Valid only if T_BYTES or after a conversion was made.
+     */
+    public ByteChunk getByteChunk() {
+        return byteC;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns the char chunk, representing the char[] and offset/length.
+     * Valid only if T_CHARS or after a conversion was made.
+     */
+    public CharChunk getCharChunk() {
+        return charC;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns the string value.
+     * Valid only if T_STR or after a conversion was made.
+     */
+    public String getString() {
+        return strValue;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Get the Charset used for string<->byte conversions.
+     */
+    public Charset getCharset() {
+        return byteC.getCharset();
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Set the Charset used for string<->byte conversions.
+     */
+    public void setCharset(Charset charset) {
+        byteC.setCharset(charset);
+    }
+
+    /** Do a char->byte conversion.
+     */
+    public void toBytes() {
+        if (!byteC.isNull()) {
+            type=T_BYTES;
+            return;
+        }
+        toString();
+        type=T_BYTES;
+        Charset charset = byteC.getCharset();
+        ByteBuffer result = charset.encode(strValue);
+        byteC.setBytes(result.array(), result.arrayOffset(), result.limit());
+    }
+
+    /** Convert to char[] and fill the CharChunk.
+     *  XXX Not optimized - it converts to String first.
+     */
+    public void toChars() {
+        if( ! charC.isNull() ) {
+            type=T_CHARS;
+            return;
+        }
+        // inefficient
+        toString();
+        type=T_CHARS;
+        char cc[]=strValue.toCharArray();
+        charC.setChars(cc, 0, cc.length);
+    }
+
+
+    /**
+     * Returns the length of the original buffer.
+     * Note that the length in bytes may be different from the length
+     * in chars.
+     */
+    public int getLength() {
+        if(type==T_BYTES) {
+            return byteC.getLength();
+        }
+        if(type==T_CHARS) {
+            return charC.getLength();
+        }
+        if(type==T_STR) {
+            return strValue.length();
+        }
+        toString();
+        if( strValue==null ) {
+            return 0;
+        }
+        return strValue.length();
+    }
+
+    // -------------------- equals --------------------
+
+    /**
+     * Compares the message bytes to the specified String object.
+     * @param s the String to compare
+     * @return true if the comparison succeeded, false otherwise
+     */
+    public boolean equals(String s) {
+        switch (type) {
+        case T_STR:
+            if (strValue == null) {
+                return s == null;
+            }
+            return strValue.equals( s );
+        case T_CHARS:
+            return charC.equals( s );
+        case T_BYTES:
+            return byteC.equals( s );
+        default:
+            return false;
+        }
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Compares the message bytes to the specified String object.
+     * @param s the String to compare
+     * @return true if the comparison succeeded, false otherwise
+     */
+    public boolean equalsIgnoreCase(String s) {
+        switch (type) {
+        case T_STR:
+            if (strValue == null) {
+                return s == null;
+            }
+            return strValue.equalsIgnoreCase( s );
+        case T_CHARS:
+            return charC.equalsIgnoreCase( s );
+        case T_BYTES:
+            return byteC.equalsIgnoreCase( s );
+        default:
+            return false;
+        }
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public boolean equals(Object obj) {
+        if (obj instanceof MessageBytes) {
+            return equals((MessageBytes) obj);
+        }
+        return false;
+    }
+
+    public boolean equals(MessageBytes mb) {
+        switch (type) {
+        case T_STR:
+            return mb.equals( strValue );
+        }
+
+        if( mb.type != T_CHARS &&
+            mb.type!= T_BYTES ) {
+            // it's a string or int/date string value
+            return equals( mb.toString() );
+        }
+
+        // mb is either CHARS or BYTES.
+        // this is either CHARS or BYTES
+        // Deal with the 4 cases ( in fact 3, one is symmetric)
+
+        if( mb.type == T_CHARS && type==T_CHARS ) {
+            return charC.equals( mb.charC );
+        }
+        if( mb.type==T_BYTES && type== T_BYTES ) {
+            return byteC.equals( mb.byteC );
+        }
+        if( mb.type== T_CHARS && type== T_BYTES ) {
+            return byteC.equals( mb.charC );
+        }
+        if( mb.type== T_BYTES && type== T_CHARS ) {
+            return mb.byteC.equals( charC );
+        }
+        // can't happen
+        return true;
+    }
+
+
+    /**
+     * Returns true if the message bytes starts with the specified string.
+     * @param s the string
+     * @param pos The start position
+     */
+    public boolean startsWithIgnoreCase(String s, int pos) {
+        switch (type) {
+        case T_STR:
+            if( strValue==null ) {
+                return false;
+            }
+            if( strValue.length() < pos + s.length() ) {
+                return false;
+            }
+
+            for( int i=0; i<s.length(); i++ ) {
+                if( Ascii.toLower( s.charAt( i ) ) !=
+                    Ascii.toLower( strValue.charAt( pos + i ))) {
+                    return false;
+                }
+            }
+            return true;
+        case T_CHARS:
+            return charC.startsWithIgnoreCase( s, pos );
+        case T_BYTES:
+            return byteC.startsWithIgnoreCase( s, pos );
+        default:
+            return false;
+        }
+    }
+
+
+    // -------------------- Hash code  --------------------
+    @Override
+    public  int hashCode() {
+        if( hasHashCode ) {
+            return hashCode;
+        }
+        int code = 0;
+
+        code=hash();
+        hashCode=code;
+        hasHashCode=true;
+        return code;
+    }
+
+    // normal hash.
+    private int hash() {
+        int code=0;
+        switch (type) {
+        case T_STR:
+            // We need to use the same hash function
+            for (int i = 0; i < strValue.length(); i++) {
+                code = code * 37 + strValue.charAt( i );
+            }
+            return code;
+        case T_CHARS:
+            return charC.hash();
+        case T_BYTES:
+            return byteC.hash();
+        default:
+            return 0;
+        }
+    }
+
+    // Inefficient initial implementation. Will be replaced on the next
+    // round of tune-up
+    public int indexOf(String s, int starting) {
+        toString();
+        return strValue.indexOf( s, starting );
+    }
+
+    // Inefficient initial implementation. Will be replaced on the next
+    // round of tune-up
+    public int indexOf(String s) {
+        return indexOf( s, 0 );
+    }
+
+    public int indexOfIgnoreCase(String s, int starting) {
+        toString();
+        String upper=strValue.toUpperCase(Locale.ENGLISH);
+        String sU=s.toUpperCase(Locale.ENGLISH);
+        return upper.indexOf( sU, starting );
+    }
+
+    /** Copy the src into this MessageBytes, allocating more space if
+     *  needed
+     */
+    public void duplicate( MessageBytes src ) throws IOException
+    {
+        switch( src.getType() ) {
+        case MessageBytes.T_BYTES:
+            type=T_BYTES;
+            ByteChunk bc=src.getByteChunk();
+            byteC.allocate( 2 * bc.getLength(), -1 );
+            byteC.append( bc );
+            break;
+        case MessageBytes.T_CHARS:
+            type=T_CHARS;
+            CharChunk cc=src.getCharChunk();
+            charC.allocate( 2 * cc.getLength(), -1 );
+            charC.append( cc );
+            break;
+        case MessageBytes.T_STR:
+            type=T_STR;
+            String sc=src.getString();
+            this.setString( sc );
+            break;
+        }
+    }
+
+    // -------------------- Deprecated code --------------------
+    // efficient long
+    // XXX used only for headers - shouldn't be stored here.
+    private long longValue;
+    private boolean hasLongValue=false;
+
+    /** Set the buffer to the representation of an long
+     */
+    public void setLong(long l) {
+        byteC.allocate(32, 64);
+        long current = l;
+        byte[] buf = byteC.getBuffer();
+        int start = 0;
+        int end = 0;
+        if (l == 0) {
+            buf[end++] = (byte) '0';
+        }
+        if (l < 0) {
+            current = -l;
+            buf[end++] = (byte) '-';
+        }
+        while (current > 0) {
+            int digit = (int) (current % 10);
+            current = current / 10;
+            buf[end++] = HexUtils.getHex(digit);
+        }
+        byteC.setOffset(0);
+        byteC.setEnd(end);
+        // Inverting buffer
+        end--;
+        if (l < 0) {
+            start++;
+        }
+        while (end > start) {
+            byte temp = buf[start];
+            buf[start] = buf[end];
+            buf[end] = temp;
+            start++;
+            end--;
+        }
+        longValue=l;
+        hasStrValue=false;
+        hasHashCode=false;
+        hasLongValue=true;
+        type=T_BYTES;
+    }
+
+    // Used for headers conversion
+    /** Convert the buffer to an long, cache the value
+     */
+    public long getLong() {
+        if( hasLongValue ) {
+            return longValue;
+        }
+
+        switch (type) {
+        case T_BYTES:
+            longValue=byteC.getLong();
+            break;
+        default:
+            longValue= Long.parseLong(toString());
+        }
+
+        hasLongValue=true;
+        return longValue;
+
+     }
+
+    // -------------------- Future may be different --------------------
+
+    private static final MessageBytesFactory factory=new MessageBytesFactory();
+
+    private static class MessageBytesFactory {
+        protected MessageBytesFactory() {
+        }
+        public MessageBytes newInstance() {
+            return new MessageBytes();
+        }
+    }
+}

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/struts/blob/76f18840/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/util/tomcat/buf/StringCache.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/util/tomcat/buf/StringCache.java b/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/util/tomcat/buf/StringCache.java
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..3a72d49
--- /dev/null
+++ b/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/util/tomcat/buf/StringCache.java
@@ -0,0 +1,695 @@
+/*
+ *  Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
+ *  contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
+ *  this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
+ *  The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
+ *  (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
+ *  the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+ *
+ *      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+ *
+ *  Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
+ *  distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
+ *  WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
+ *  See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
+ *  limitations under the License.
+ */
+package org.apache.struts2.util.tomcat.buf;
+
+import com.opensymphony.xwork2.util.logging.Logger;
+import com.opensymphony.xwork2.util.logging.LoggerFactory;
+
+import java.nio.charset.Charset;
+import java.util.ArrayList;
+import java.util.HashMap;
+import java.util.Map.Entry;
+import java.util.TreeMap;
+
+/**
+ * This class implements a String cache for ByteChunk and CharChunk.
+ *
+ * @author Remy Maucherat
+ */
+public class StringCache {
+
+
+    private static final Logger log = LoggerFactory.getLogger(StringCache.class);
+
+
+    // ------------------------------------------------------- Static Variables
+
+
+    /**
+     * Enabled ?
+     */
+    protected static boolean byteEnabled = ("true".equals(System.getProperty(
+            "tomcat.util.buf.StringCache.byte.enabled", "false")));
+
+
+    protected static boolean charEnabled = ("true".equals(System.getProperty(
+            "tomcat.util.buf.StringCache.char.enabled", "false")));
+
+
+    protected static int trainThreshold = Integer.parseInt(System.getProperty(
+            "tomcat.util.buf.StringCache.trainThreshold", "20000"));
+
+
+    protected static int cacheSize = Integer.parseInt(System.getProperty(
+            "tomcat.util.buf.StringCache.cacheSize", "200"));
+
+
+    protected static final int maxStringSize =
+            Integer.parseInt(System.getProperty(
+                    "tomcat.util.buf.StringCache.maxStringSize", "128"));
+
+
+   /**
+     * Statistics hash map for byte chunk.
+     */
+    protected static final HashMap<ByteEntry,int[]> bcStats =
+            new HashMap<ByteEntry, int[]>(cacheSize);
+
+
+    /**
+     * toString count for byte chunk.
+     */
+    protected static int bcCount = 0;
+
+
+    /**
+     * Cache for byte chunk.
+     */
+    protected static ByteEntry[] bcCache = null;
+
+
+    /**
+     * Statistics hash map for char chunk.
+     */
+    protected static final HashMap<CharEntry,int[]> ccStats =
+            new HashMap<CharEntry, int[]>(cacheSize);
+
+
+    /**
+     * toString count for char chunk.
+     */
+    protected static int ccCount = 0;
+
+
+    /**
+     * Cache for char chunk.
+     */
+    protected static CharEntry[] ccCache = null;
+
+
+    /**
+     * Access count.
+     */
+    protected static int accessCount = 0;
+
+
+    /**
+     * Hit count.
+     */
+    protected static int hitCount = 0;
+
+
+    // ------------------------------------------------------------ Properties
+
+
+    /**
+     * @return Returns the cacheSize.
+     */
+    public int getCacheSize() {
+        return cacheSize;
+    }
+
+
+    /**
+     * @param cacheSize The cacheSize to set.
+     */
+    public void setCacheSize(int cacheSize) {
+        StringCache.cacheSize = cacheSize;
+    }
+
+
+    /**
+     * @return Returns the enabled.
+     */
+    public boolean getByteEnabled() {
+        return byteEnabled;
+    }
+
+
+    /**
+     * @param byteEnabled The enabled to set.
+     */
+    public void setByteEnabled(boolean byteEnabled) {
+        StringCache.byteEnabled = byteEnabled;
+    }
+
+
+    /**
+     * @return Returns the enabled.
+     */
+    public boolean getCharEnabled() {
+        return charEnabled;
+    }
+
+
+    /**
+     * @param charEnabled The enabled to set.
+     */
+    public void setCharEnabled(boolean charEnabled) {
+        StringCache.charEnabled = charEnabled;
+    }
+
+
+    /**
+     * @return Returns the trainThreshold.
+     */
+    public int getTrainThreshold() {
+        return trainThreshold;
+    }
+
+
+    /**
+     * @param trainThreshold The trainThreshold to set.
+     */
+    public void setTrainThreshold(int trainThreshold) {
+        StringCache.trainThreshold = trainThreshold;
+    }
+
+
+    /**
+     * @return Returns the accessCount.
+     */
+    public int getAccessCount() {
+        return accessCount;
+    }
+
+
+    /**
+     * @return Returns the hitCount.
+     */
+    public int getHitCount() {
+        return hitCount;
+    }
+
+
+    // -------------------------------------------------- Public Static Methods
+
+
+    public void reset() {
+        hitCount = 0;
+        accessCount = 0;
+        synchronized (bcStats) {
+            bcCache = null;
+            bcCount = 0;
+        }
+        synchronized (ccStats) {
+            ccCache = null;
+            ccCount = 0;
+        }
+    }
+
+
+    public static String toString(ByteChunk bc) {
+
+        // If the cache is null, then either caching is disabled, or we're
+        // still training
+        if (bcCache == null) {
+            String value = bc.toStringInternal();
+            if (byteEnabled && (value.length() < maxStringSize)) {
+                // If training, everything is synced
+                synchronized (bcStats) {
+                    // If the cache has been generated on a previous invocation
+                    // while waiting for the lock, just return the toString
+                    // value we just calculated
+                    if (bcCache != null) {
+                        return value;
+                    }
+                    // Two cases: either we just exceeded the train count, in
+                    // which case the cache must be created, or we just update
+                    // the count for the string
+                    if (bcCount > trainThreshold) {
+                        long t1 = System.currentTimeMillis();
+                        // Sort the entries according to occurrence
+                        TreeMap<Integer,ArrayList<ByteEntry>> tempMap =
+                                new TreeMap<Integer, ArrayList<ByteEntry>>();
+                        for (Entry<ByteEntry,int[]> item : bcStats.entrySet()) {
+                            ByteEntry entry = item.getKey();
+                            int[] countA = item.getValue();
+                            Integer count = Integer.valueOf(countA[0]);
+                            // Add to the list for that count
+                            ArrayList<ByteEntry> list = tempMap.get(count);
+                            if (list == null) {
+                                // Create list
+                                list = new ArrayList<ByteEntry>();
+                                tempMap.put(count, list);
+                            }
+                            list.add(entry);
+                        }
+                        // Allocate array of the right size
+                        int size = bcStats.size();
+                        if (size > cacheSize) {
+                            size = cacheSize;
+                        }
+                        ByteEntry[] tempbcCache = new ByteEntry[size];
+                        // Fill it up using an alphabetical order
+                        // and a dumb insert sort
+                        ByteChunk tempChunk = new ByteChunk();
+                        int n = 0;
+                        while (n < size) {
+                            Object key = tempMap.lastKey();
+                            ArrayList<ByteEntry> list = tempMap.get(key);
+                            for (int i = 0; i < list.size() && n < size; i++) {
+                                ByteEntry entry = list.get(i);
+                                tempChunk.setBytes(entry.name, 0,
+                                        entry.name.length);
+                                int insertPos = findClosest(tempChunk,
+                                        tempbcCache, n);
+                                if (insertPos == n) {
+                                    tempbcCache[n + 1] = entry;
+                                } else {
+                                    System.arraycopy(tempbcCache, insertPos + 1,
+                                            tempbcCache, insertPos + 2,
+                                            n - insertPos - 1);
+                                    tempbcCache[insertPos + 1] = entry;
+                                }
+                                n++;
+                            }
+                            tempMap.remove(key);
+                        }
+                        bcCount = 0;
+                        bcStats.clear();
+                        bcCache = tempbcCache;
+                        if (log.isDebugEnabled()) {
+                            long t2 = System.currentTimeMillis();
+                            log.debug("ByteCache generation time: " +
+                                    (t2 - t1) + "ms");
+                        }
+                    } else {
+                        bcCount++;
+                        // Allocate new ByteEntry for the lookup
+                        ByteEntry entry = new ByteEntry();
+                        entry.value = value;
+                        int[] count = bcStats.get(entry);
+                        if (count == null) {
+                            int end = bc.getEnd();
+                            int start = bc.getStart();
+                            // Create byte array and copy bytes
+                            entry.name = new byte[bc.getLength()];
+                            System.arraycopy(bc.getBuffer(), start, entry.name,
+                                    0, end - start);
+                            // Set encoding
+                            entry.charset = bc.getCharset();
+                            // Initialize occurrence count to one
+                            count = new int[1];
+                            count[0] = 1;
+                            // Set in the stats hash map
+                            bcStats.put(entry, count);
+                        } else {
+                            count[0] = count[0] + 1;
+                        }
+                    }
+                }
+            }
+            return value;
+        } else {
+            accessCount++;
+            // Find the corresponding String
+            String result = find(bc);
+            if (result == null) {
+                return bc.toStringInternal();
+            }
+            // Note: We don't care about safety for the stats
+            hitCount++;
+            return result;
+        }
+
+    }
+
+
+    public static String toString(CharChunk cc) {
+
+        // If the cache is null, then either caching is disabled, or we're
+        // still training
+        if (ccCache == null) {
+            String value = cc.toStringInternal();
+            if (charEnabled && (value.length() < maxStringSize)) {
+                // If training, everything is synced
+                synchronized (ccStats) {
+                    // If the cache has been generated on a previous invocation
+                    // while waiting for the lock, just return the toString
+                    // value we just calculated
+                    if (ccCache != null) {
+                        return value;
+                    }
+                    // Two cases: either we just exceeded the train count, in
+                    // which case the cache must be created, or we just update
+                    // the count for the string
+                    if (ccCount > trainThreshold) {
+                        long t1 = System.currentTimeMillis();
+                        // Sort the entries according to occurrence
+                        TreeMap<Integer,ArrayList<CharEntry>> tempMap =
+                                new TreeMap<Integer, ArrayList<CharEntry>>();
+                        for (Entry<CharEntry,int[]> item : ccStats.entrySet()) {
+                            CharEntry entry = item.getKey();
+                            int[] countA = item.getValue();
+                            Integer count = Integer.valueOf(countA[0]);
+                            // Add to the list for that count
+                            ArrayList<CharEntry> list = tempMap.get(count);
+                            if (list == null) {
+                                // Create list
+                                list = new ArrayList<CharEntry>();
+                                tempMap.put(count, list);
+                            }
+                            list.add(entry);
+                        }
+                        // Allocate array of the right size
+                        int size = ccStats.size();
+                        if (size > cacheSize) {
+                            size = cacheSize;
+                        }
+                        CharEntry[] tempccCache = new CharEntry[size];
+                        // Fill it up using an alphabetical order
+                        // and a dumb insert sort
+                        CharChunk tempChunk = new CharChunk();
+                        int n = 0;
+                        while (n < size) {
+                            Object key = tempMap.lastKey();
+                            ArrayList<CharEntry> list = tempMap.get(key);
+                            for (int i = 0; i < list.size() && n < size; i++) {
+                                CharEntry entry = list.get(i);
+                                tempChunk.setChars(entry.name, 0,
+                                        entry.name.length);
+                                int insertPos = findClosest(tempChunk,
+                                        tempccCache, n);
+                                if (insertPos == n) {
+                                    tempccCache[n + 1] = entry;
+                                } else {
+                                    System.arraycopy(tempccCache, insertPos + 1,
+                                            tempccCache, insertPos + 2,
+                                            n - insertPos - 1);
+                                    tempccCache[insertPos + 1] = entry;
+                                }
+                                n++;
+                            }
+                            tempMap.remove(key);
+                        }
+                        ccCount = 0;
+                        ccStats.clear();
+                        ccCache = tempccCache;
+                        if (log.isDebugEnabled()) {
+                            long t2 = System.currentTimeMillis();
+                            log.debug("CharCache generation time: " +
+                                    (t2 - t1) + "ms");
+                        }
+                    } else {
+                        ccCount++;
+                        // Allocate new CharEntry for the lookup
+                        CharEntry entry = new CharEntry();
+                        entry.value = value;
+                        int[] count = ccStats.get(entry);
+                        if (count == null) {
+                            int end = cc.getEnd();
+                            int start = cc.getStart();
+                            // Create char array and copy chars
+                            entry.name = new char[cc.getLength()];
+                            System.arraycopy(cc.getBuffer(), start, entry.name,
+                                    0, end - start);
+                            // Initialize occurrence count to one
+                            count = new int[1];
+                            count[0] = 1;
+                            // Set in the stats hash map
+                            ccStats.put(entry, count);
+                        } else {
+                            count[0] = count[0] + 1;
+                        }
+                    }
+                }
+            }
+            return value;
+        } else {
+            accessCount++;
+            // Find the corresponding String
+            String result = find(cc);
+            if (result == null) {
+                return cc.toStringInternal();
+            }
+            // Note: We don't care about safety for the stats
+            hitCount++;
+            return result;
+        }
+
+    }
+
+
+    // ----------------------------------------------------- Protected Methods
+
+
+    /**
+     * Compare given byte chunk with byte array.
+     * Return -1, 0 or +1 if inferior, equal, or superior to the String.
+     */
+    protected static final int compare(ByteChunk name, byte[] compareTo) {
+        int result = 0;
+
+        byte[] b = name.getBuffer();
+        int start = name.getStart();
+        int end = name.getEnd();
+        int len = compareTo.length;
+
+        if ((end - start) < len) {
+            len = end - start;
+        }
+        for (int i = 0; (i < len) && (result == 0); i++) {
+            if (b[i + start] > compareTo[i]) {
+                result = 1;
+            } else if (b[i + start] < compareTo[i]) {
+                result = -1;
+            }
+        }
+        if (result == 0) {
+            if (compareTo.length > (end - start)) {
+                result = -1;
+            } else if (compareTo.length < (end - start)) {
+                result = 1;
+            }
+        }
+        return result;
+    }
+
+
+    /**
+     * Find an entry given its name in the cache and return the associated
+     * String.
+     */
+    protected static final String find(ByteChunk name) {
+        int pos = findClosest(name, bcCache, bcCache.length);
+        if ((pos < 0) || (compare(name, bcCache[pos].name) != 0)
+                || !(name.getCharset().equals(bcCache[pos].charset))) {
+            return null;
+        } else {
+            return bcCache[pos].value;
+        }
+    }
+
+
+    /**
+     * Find an entry given its name in a sorted array of map elements.
+     * This will return the index for the closest inferior or equal item in the
+     * given array.
+     */
+    protected static final int findClosest(ByteChunk name, ByteEntry[] array,
+            int len) {
+
+        int a = 0;
+        int b = len - 1;
+
+        // Special cases: -1 and 0
+        if (b == -1) {
+            return -1;
+        }
+
+        if (compare(name, array[0].name) < 0) {
+            return -1;
+        }
+        if (b == 0) {
+            return 0;
+        }
+
+        int i = 0;
+        while (true) {
+            i = (b + a) >>> 1;
+            int result = compare(name, array[i].name);
+            if (result == 1) {
+                a = i;
+            } else if (result == 0) {
+                return i;
+            } else {
+                b = i;
+            }
+            if ((b - a) == 1) {
+                int result2 = compare(name, array[b].name);
+                if (result2 < 0) {
+                    return a;
+                } else {
+                    return b;
+                }
+            }
+        }
+
+    }
+
+
+    /**
+     * Compare given char chunk with char array.
+     * Return -1, 0 or +1 if inferior, equal, or superior to the String.
+     */
+    protected static final int compare(CharChunk name, char[] compareTo) {
+        int result = 0;
+
+        char[] c = name.getBuffer();
+        int start = name.getStart();
+        int end = name.getEnd();
+        int len = compareTo.length;
+
+        if ((end - start) < len) {
+            len = end - start;
+        }
+        for (int i = 0; (i < len) && (result == 0); i++) {
+            if (c[i + start] > compareTo[i]) {
+                result = 1;
+            } else if (c[i + start] < compareTo[i]) {
+                result = -1;
+            }
+        }
+        if (result == 0) {
+            if (compareTo.length > (end - start)) {
+                result = -1;
+            } else if (compareTo.length < (end - start)) {
+                result = 1;
+            }
+        }
+        return result;
+    }
+
+
+    /**
+     * Find an entry given its name in the cache and return the associated
+     * String.
+     */
+    protected static final String find(CharChunk name) {
+        int pos = findClosest(name, ccCache, ccCache.length);
+        if ((pos < 0) || (compare(name, ccCache[pos].name) != 0)) {
+            return null;
+        } else {
+            return ccCache[pos].value;
+        }
+    }
+
+
+    /**
+     * Find an entry given its name in a sorted array of map elements.
+     * This will return the index for the closest inferior or equal item in the
+     * given array.
+     */
+    protected static final int findClosest(CharChunk name, CharEntry[] array,
+            int len) {
+
+        int a = 0;
+        int b = len - 1;
+
+        // Special cases: -1 and 0
+        if (b == -1) {
+            return -1;
+        }
+
+        if (compare(name, array[0].name) < 0 ) {
+            return -1;
+        }
+        if (b == 0) {
+            return 0;
+        }
+
+        int i = 0;
+        while (true) {
+            i = (b + a) >>> 1;
+            int result = compare(name, array[i].name);
+            if (result == 1) {
+                a = i;
+            } else if (result == 0) {
+                return i;
+            } else {
+                b = i;
+            }
+            if ((b - a) == 1) {
+                int result2 = compare(name, array[b].name);
+                if (result2 < 0) {
+                    return a;
+                } else {
+                    return b;
+                }
+            }
+        }
+
+    }
+
+
+    // -------------------------------------------------- ByteEntry Inner Class
+
+
+    private static class ByteEntry {
+
+        private byte[] name = null;
+        private Charset charset = null;
+        private String value = null;
+
+        @Override
+        public String toString() {
+            return value;
+        }
+        @Override
+        public int hashCode() {
+            return value.hashCode();
+        }
+        @Override
+        public boolean equals(Object obj) {
+            if (obj instanceof ByteEntry) {
+                return value.equals(((ByteEntry) obj).value);
+            }
+            return false;
+        }
+
+    }
+
+
+    // -------------------------------------------------- CharEntry Inner Class
+
+
+    private static class CharEntry {
+
+        private char[] name = null;
+        private String value = null;
+
+        @Override
+        public String toString() {
+            return value;
+        }
+        @Override
+        public int hashCode() {
+            return value.hashCode();
+        }
+        @Override
+        public boolean equals(Object obj) {
+            if (obj instanceof CharEntry) {
+                return value.equals(((CharEntry) obj).value);
+            }
+            return false;
+        }
+
+    }
+
+
+}

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/struts/blob/76f18840/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/util/tomcat/buf/UDecoder.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/util/tomcat/buf/UDecoder.java b/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/util/tomcat/buf/UDecoder.java
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..b52cda7
--- /dev/null
+++ b/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/util/tomcat/buf/UDecoder.java
@@ -0,0 +1,421 @@
+/*
+ *  Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
+ *  contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
+ *  this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
+ *  The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
+ *  (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
+ *  the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+ *
+ *      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+ *
+ *  Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
+ *  distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
+ *  WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
+ *  See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
+ *  limitations under the License.
+ */
+package org.apache.struts2.util.tomcat.buf;
+
+import com.opensymphony.xwork2.util.logging.LoggerFactory;
+
+import com.opensymphony.xwork2.util.logging.Logger;
+import java.io.CharConversionException;
+import java.io.IOException;
+import java.io.UnsupportedEncodingException;
+
+/**
+ *  All URL decoding happens here. This way we can reuse, review, optimize
+ *  without adding complexity to the buffers.
+ *
+ *  The conversion will modify the original buffer.
+ *
+ *  @author Costin Manolache
+ */
+public final class UDecoder {
+
+    private static final Logger log = LoggerFactory.getLogger(UDecoder.class);
+
+    public static final boolean ALLOW_ENCODED_SLASH =
+        Boolean.parseBoolean(System.getProperty("org.apache.tomcat.util.buf.UDecoder.ALLOW_ENCODED_SLASH", "false"));
+
+    private static class DecodeException extends CharConversionException {
+        private static final long serialVersionUID = 1L;
+        public DecodeException(String s) {
+            super(s);
+        }
+
+        @Override
+        public synchronized Throwable fillInStackTrace() {
+            // This class does not provide a stack trace
+            return this;
+        }
+    }
+
+    /** Unexpected end of data. */
+    private static final IOException EXCEPTION_EOF = new DecodeException("EOF");
+
+    /** %xx with not-hex digit */
+    private static final IOException EXCEPTION_NOT_HEX_DIGIT = new DecodeException(
+            "isHexDigit");
+
+    /** %-encoded slash is forbidden in resource path */
+    private static final IOException EXCEPTION_SLASH = new DecodeException(
+            "noSlash");
+
+    public UDecoder()
+    {
+    }
+
+    /** URLDecode, will modify the source.
+     */
+    public void convert( ByteChunk mb, boolean query )
+        throws IOException
+    {
+        int start=mb.getOffset();
+        byte buff[]=mb.getBytes();
+        int end=mb.getEnd();
+
+        int idx= ByteChunk.findByte( buff, start, end, (byte) '%' );
+        int idx2=-1;
+        if( query ) {
+            idx2= ByteChunk.findByte( buff, start, (idx >= 0 ? idx : end), (byte) '+' );
+        }
+        if( idx<0 && idx2<0 ) {
+            return;
+        }
+
+        // idx will be the smallest positive index ( first % or + )
+        if( (idx2 >= 0 && idx2 < idx) || idx < 0 ) {
+            idx=idx2;
+        }
+
+        final boolean noSlash = !(ALLOW_ENCODED_SLASH || query);
+
+        for( int j=idx; j<end; j++, idx++ ) {
+            if( buff[ j ] == '+' && query) {
+                buff[idx]= (byte)' ' ;
+            } else if( buff[ j ] != '%' ) {
+                buff[idx]= buff[j];
+            } else {
+                // read next 2 digits
+                if( j+2 >= end ) {
+                    throw EXCEPTION_EOF;
+                }
+                byte b1= buff[j+1];
+                byte b2=buff[j+2];
+                if( !isHexDigit( b1 ) || ! isHexDigit(b2 )) {
+                    throw EXCEPTION_NOT_HEX_DIGIT;
+                }
+
+                j+=2;
+                int res=x2c( b1, b2 );
+                if (noSlash && (res == '/')) {
+                    throw EXCEPTION_SLASH;
+                }
+                buff[idx]=(byte)res;
+            }
+        }
+
+        mb.setEnd( idx );
+
+        return;
+    }
+
+    // -------------------- Additional methods --------------------
+    // XXX What do we do about charset ????
+
+    /** In-buffer processing - the buffer will be modified
+     */
+    public void convert( CharChunk mb, boolean query )
+        throws IOException
+    {
+        //        log( "Converting a char chunk ");
+        int start=mb.getOffset();
+        char buff[]=mb.getBuffer();
+        int cend=mb.getEnd();
+
+        int idx= CharChunk.indexOf( buff, start, cend, '%' );
+        int idx2=-1;
+        if( query ) {
+            idx2= CharChunk.indexOf( buff, start, (idx >= 0 ? idx : cend), '+' );
+        }
+        if( idx<0 && idx2<0 ) {
+            return;
+        }
+
+        // idx will be the smallest positive index ( first % or + )
+        if( (idx2 >= 0 && idx2 < idx) || idx < 0 ) {
+            idx=idx2;
+        }
+
+        final boolean noSlash = !(ALLOW_ENCODED_SLASH || query);
+
+        for( int j=idx; j<cend; j++, idx++ ) {
+            if( buff[ j ] == '+' && query ) {
+                buff[idx]=( ' ' );
+            } else if( buff[ j ] != '%' ) {
+                buff[idx]=buff[j];
+            } else {
+                // read next 2 digits
+                if( j+2 >= cend ) {
+                    // invalid
+                    throw EXCEPTION_EOF;
+                }
+                char b1= buff[j+1];
+                char b2=buff[j+2];
+                if( !isHexDigit( b1 ) || ! isHexDigit(b2 )) {
+                    throw EXCEPTION_NOT_HEX_DIGIT;
+                }
+
+                j+=2;
+                int res=x2c( b1, b2 );
+                if (noSlash && (res == '/')) {
+                    throw EXCEPTION_SLASH;
+                }
+                buff[idx]=(char)res;
+            }
+        }
+        mb.setEnd( idx );
+    }
+
+    /** URLDecode, will modify the source
+     */
+    public void convert(MessageBytes mb, boolean query)
+        throws IOException
+    {
+
+        switch (mb.getType()) {
+        case MessageBytes.T_STR:
+            String strValue=mb.toString();
+            if( strValue==null ) {
+                return;
+            }
+            try {
+                mb.setString( convert( strValue, query ));
+            } catch (RuntimeException ex) {
+                throw new DecodeException(ex.getMessage());
+            }
+            break;
+        case MessageBytes.T_CHARS:
+            CharChunk charC=mb.getCharChunk();
+            convert( charC, query );
+            break;
+        case MessageBytes.T_BYTES:
+            ByteChunk bytesC=mb.getByteChunk();
+            convert( bytesC, query );
+            break;
+        }
+    }
+
+    // XXX Old code, needs to be replaced !!!!
+    //
+    public final String convert(String str, boolean query)
+    {
+        if (str == null) {
+            return  null;
+        }
+
+        if( (!query || str.indexOf( '+' ) < 0) && str.indexOf( '%' ) < 0 ) {
+            return str;
+        }
+
+        final boolean noSlash = !(ALLOW_ENCODED_SLASH || query);
+
+        StringBuilder dec = new StringBuilder();    // decoded string output
+        int strPos = 0;
+        int strLen = str.length();
+
+        dec.ensureCapacity(str.length());
+        while (strPos < strLen) {
+            int laPos;        // lookahead position
+
+            // look ahead to next URLencoded metacharacter, if any
+            for (laPos = strPos; laPos < strLen; laPos++) {
+                char laChar = str.charAt(laPos);
+                if ((laChar == '+' && query) || (laChar == '%')) {
+                    break;
+                }
+            }
+
+            // if there were non-metacharacters, copy them all as a block
+            if (laPos > strPos) {
+                dec.append(str.substring(strPos,laPos));
+                strPos = laPos;
+            }
+
+            // shortcut out of here if we're at the end of the string
+            if (strPos >= strLen) {
+                break;
+            }
+
+            // process next metacharacter
+            char metaChar = str.charAt(strPos);
+            if (metaChar == '+') {
+                dec.append(' ');
+                strPos++;
+                continue;
+            } else if (metaChar == '%') {
+                // We throw the original exception - the super will deal with
+                // it
+                //                try {
+                char res = (char) Integer.parseInt(
+                        str.substring(strPos + 1, strPos + 3), 16);
+                if (noSlash && (res == '/')) {
+                    throw new IllegalArgumentException("noSlash");
+                }
+                dec.append(res);
+                strPos += 3;
+            }
+        }
+
+        return dec.toString();
+    }
+
+
+    /**
+     * Decode and return the specified URL-encoded String.
+     * When the byte array is converted to a string, the system default
+     * character encoding is used...  This may be different than some other
+     * servers. It is assumed the string is not a query string.
+     *
+     * @param str The url-encoded string
+     *
+     * @exception IllegalArgumentException if a '%' character is not followed
+     * by a valid 2-digit hexadecimal number
+     */
+    public static String URLDecode(String str) {
+        return URLDecode(str, null);
+    }
+
+
+    /**
+     * Decode and return the specified URL-encoded String. It is assumed the
+     * string is not a query string.
+     *
+     * @param str The url-encoded string
+     * @param enc The encoding to use; if null, the default encoding is used. If
+     * an unsupported encoding is specified null will be returned
+     * @exception IllegalArgumentException if a '%' character is not followed
+     * by a valid 2-digit hexadecimal number
+     */
+    public static String URLDecode(String str, String enc) {
+        return URLDecode(str, enc, false);
+    }
+
+
+    /**
+     * Decode and return the specified URL-encoded String.
+     *
+     * @param str The url-encoded string
+     * @param enc The encoding to use; if null, the default encoding is used. If
+     * an unsupported encoding is specified null will be returned
+     * @param isQuery Is this a query string being processed
+     * @exception IllegalArgumentException if a '%' character is not followed
+     * by a valid 2-digit hexadecimal number
+     */
+    public static String URLDecode(String str, String enc, boolean isQuery) {
+        if (str == null)
+            return (null);
+
+        // use the specified encoding to extract bytes out of the
+        // given string so that the encoding is not lost. If an
+        // encoding is not specified, use ISO-8859-1
+        byte[] bytes = null;
+        try {
+            if (enc == null) {
+                bytes = str.getBytes("ISO-8859-1");
+            } else {
+                bytes = str.getBytes(B2CConverter.getCharset(enc));
+            }
+        } catch (UnsupportedEncodingException uee) {
+            if (log.isDebugEnabled()) {
+                log.debug("Unable to URL decode the specified input since the encoding "+ enc + " is not supported.", uee);
+            }
+        }
+
+        return URLDecode(bytes, enc, isQuery);
+
+    }
+
+
+    /**
+     * Decode and return the specified URL-encoded byte array.
+     *
+     * @param bytes The url-encoded byte array
+     * @param enc The encoding to use; if null, the default encoding is used. If
+     * an unsupported encoding is specified null will be returned
+     * @param isQuery Is this a query string being processed
+     * @exception IllegalArgumentException if a '%' character is not followed
+     * by a valid 2-digit hexadecimal number
+     */
+    public static String URLDecode(byte[] bytes, String enc, boolean isQuery) {
+
+        if (bytes == null)
+            return null;
+
+        int len = bytes.length;
+        int ix = 0;
+        int ox = 0;
+        while (ix < len) {
+            byte b = bytes[ix++];     // Get byte to test
+            if (b == '+' && isQuery) {
+                b = (byte)' ';
+            } else if (b == '%') {
+                if (ix + 2 > len) {
+                    throw new IllegalArgumentException(
+                            "The % character must be followed by two hexademical digits");
+                }
+                b = (byte) ((convertHexDigit(bytes[ix++]) << 4)
+                            + convertHexDigit(bytes[ix++]));
+            }
+            bytes[ox++] = b;
+        }
+        if (enc != null) {
+            try {
+                return new String(bytes, 0, ox, B2CConverter.getCharset(enc));
+            } catch (UnsupportedEncodingException uee) {
+                if (log.isDebugEnabled()) {
+                    log.debug("Unable to URL decode the specified input since the encoding " + enc + " is not supported.", uee);
+                }
+                return null;
+            }
+        }
+        return new String(bytes, 0, ox);
+
+    }
+
+
+    private static byte convertHexDigit( byte b ) {
+        if ((b >= '0') && (b <= '9')) return (byte)(b - '0');
+        if ((b >= 'a') && (b <= 'f')) return (byte)(b - 'a' + 10);
+        if ((b >= 'A') && (b <= 'F')) return (byte)(b - 'A' + 10);
+        throw new IllegalArgumentException(((char) b) + " is not a hexadecimal digit");
+    }
+
+
+    private static boolean isHexDigit( int c ) {
+        return ( ( c>='0' && c<='9' ) ||
+                 ( c>='a' && c<='f' ) ||
+                 ( c>='A' && c<='F' ));
+    }
+
+
+    private static int x2c( byte b1, byte b2 ) {
+        int digit= (b1>='A') ? ( (b1 & 0xDF)-'A') + 10 :
+            (b1 -'0');
+        digit*=16;
+        digit +=(b2>='A') ? ( (b2 & 0xDF)-'A') + 10 :
+            (b2 -'0');
+        return digit;
+    }
+
+
+    private static int x2c( char b1, char b2 ) {
+        int digit= (b1>='A') ? ( (b1 & 0xDF)-'A') + 10 :
+            (b1 -'0');
+        digit*=16;
+        digit +=(b2>='A') ? ( (b2 & 0xDF)-'A') + 10 :
+            (b2 -'0');
+        return digit;
+    }
+}

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/struts/blob/76f18840/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/util/tomcat/buf/Utf8Decoder.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/util/tomcat/buf/Utf8Decoder.java b/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/util/tomcat/buf/Utf8Decoder.java
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..b08b236
--- /dev/null
+++ b/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/util/tomcat/buf/Utf8Decoder.java
@@ -0,0 +1,293 @@
+/*
+ * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
+ * contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
+ * this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
+ * The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
+ * (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
+ * the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+ *
+ *      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+ *
+ * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
+ * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
+ * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
+ * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
+ * limitations under the License.
+ */
+package org.apache.struts2.util.tomcat.buf;
+
+import java.nio.ByteBuffer;
+import java.nio.CharBuffer;
+import java.nio.charset.CharsetDecoder;
+import java.nio.charset.CoderResult;
+
+/**
+ * Decodes bytes to UTF-8. Extracted from Apache Harmony and modified to reject
+ * code points from U+D800 to U+DFFF as per RFC3629. The standard Java decoder
+ * does not reject these. It has also been modified to reject code points
+ * greater than U+10FFFF which the standard Java decoder rejects but the harmony
+ * one does not.
+ */
+public class Utf8Decoder extends CharsetDecoder {
+
+    // The next table contains information about UTF-8 charset and
+    // correspondence of 1st byte to the length of sequence
+    // For information please visit http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3629.txt
+    //
+    // Please note, o means 0, actually.
+    // -------------------------------------------------------------------
+    // 0 1 2 3 Value
+    // -------------------------------------------------------------------
+    // oxxxxxxx                            00000000 00000000 0xxxxxxx
+    // 11oyyyyy 1oxxxxxx                   00000000 00000yyy yyxxxxxx
+    // 111ozzzz 1oyyyyyy 1oxxxxxx          00000000 zzzzyyyy yyxxxxxx
+    // 1111ouuu 1ouuzzzz 1oyyyyyy 1oxxxxxx 000uuuuu zzzzyyyy yyxxxxxx
+    private static final int remainingBytes[] = {
+            // 1owwwwww
+            -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1,
+            -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1,
+            -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1,
+            -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1,
+            // 11oyyyyy
+            -1, -1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1,
+            1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1,
+            // 111ozzzz
+            2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2,
+            // 1111ouuu
+            3, 3, 3, 3, 3, -1, -1, -1,
+            // > 11110111
+            -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1};
+    private static final int remainingNumbers[] = {0, // 0 1 2 3
+            4224, // (01o00000b << 6)+(1o000000b)
+            401536, // (011o0000b << 12)+(1o000000b << 6)+(1o000000b)
+            29892736 // (0111o000b << 18)+(1o000000b << 12)+(1o000000b <<
+            // 6)+(1o000000b)
+    };
+    private static final int lowerEncodingLimit[] = {-1, 0x80, 0x800, 0x10000};
+
+
+    public Utf8Decoder() {
+        super(B2CConverter.UTF_8, 1.0f, 1.0f);
+    }
+
+
+    @Override
+    protected CoderResult decodeLoop(ByteBuffer in, CharBuffer out) {
+        if (in.hasArray() && out.hasArray()) {
+            return decodeHasArray(in, out);
+        }
+        return decodeNotHasArray(in, out);
+    }
+
+
+    private CoderResult decodeNotHasArray(ByteBuffer in, CharBuffer out) {
+        int outRemaining = out.remaining();
+        int pos = in.position();
+        int limit = in.limit();
+        try {
+            while (pos < limit) {
+                if (outRemaining == 0) {
+                    return CoderResult.OVERFLOW;
+                }
+                int jchar = in.get();
+                if (jchar < 0) {
+                    jchar = jchar & 0x7F;
+                    int tail = remainingBytes[jchar];
+                    if (tail == -1) {
+                        return CoderResult.malformedForLength(1);
+                    }
+                    if (limit - pos < 1 + tail) {
+                        // No early test for invalid sequences here as peeking
+                        // at the next byte is harder
+                        return CoderResult.UNDERFLOW;
+                    }
+                    int nextByte;
+                    for (int i = 0; i < tail; i++) {
+                        nextByte = in.get() & 0xFF;
+                        if ((nextByte & 0xC0) != 0x80) {
+                            return CoderResult.malformedForLength(1 + i);
+                        }
+                        jchar = (jchar << 6) + nextByte;
+                    }
+                    jchar -= remainingNumbers[tail];
+                    if (jchar < lowerEncodingLimit[tail]) {
+                        // Should have been encoded in a fewer octets
+                        return CoderResult.malformedForLength(1);
+                    }
+                    pos += tail;
+                }
+                // Apache Tomcat added test
+                if (jchar >= 0xD800 && jchar <= 0xDFFF) {
+                    return CoderResult.unmappableForLength(3);
+                }
+                // Apache Tomcat added test
+                if (jchar > 0x10FFFF) {
+                    return CoderResult.unmappableForLength(4);
+                }
+                if (jchar <= 0xffff) {
+                    out.put((char) jchar);
+                    outRemaining--;
+                } else {
+                    if (outRemaining < 2) {
+                        return CoderResult.OVERFLOW;
+                    }
+                    out.put((char) ((jchar >> 0xA) + 0xD7C0));
+                    out.put((char) ((jchar & 0x3FF) + 0xDC00));
+                    outRemaining -= 2;
+                }
+                pos++;
+            }
+            return CoderResult.UNDERFLOW;
+        } finally {
+            in.position(pos);
+        }
+    }
+
+
+    private CoderResult decodeHasArray(ByteBuffer in, CharBuffer out) {
+        int outRemaining = out.remaining();
+        int pos = in.position();
+        int limit = in.limit();
+        final byte[] bArr = in.array();
+        final char[] cArr = out.array();
+        final int inIndexLimit = limit + in.arrayOffset();
+        int inIndex = pos + in.arrayOffset();
+        int outIndex = out.position() + out.arrayOffset();
+        // if someone would change the limit in process,
+        // he would face consequences
+        for (; inIndex < inIndexLimit && outRemaining > 0; inIndex++) {
+            int jchar = bArr[inIndex];
+            if (jchar < 0) {
+                jchar = jchar & 0x7F;
+                // If first byte is invalid, tail will be set to -1
+                int tail = remainingBytes[jchar];
+                if (tail == -1) {
+                    in.position(inIndex - in.arrayOffset());
+                    out.position(outIndex - out.arrayOffset());
+                    return CoderResult.malformedForLength(1);
+                }
+                // Additional checks to detect invalid sequences ASAP
+                // Checks derived from Unicode 6.2, Chapter 3, Table 3-7
+                // Check 2nd byte
+                int tailAvailable = inIndexLimit - inIndex - 1;
+                if (tailAvailable > 0) {
+                    // First byte C2..DF, second byte 80..BF
+                    if (jchar > 0x41 && jchar < 0x60 &&
+                            (bArr[inIndex + 1] & 0xC0) != 0x80) {
+                        in.position(inIndex - in.arrayOffset());
+                        out.position(outIndex - out.arrayOffset());
+                        return CoderResult.malformedForLength(1);
+                    }
+                    // First byte E0, second byte A0..BF
+                    if (jchar == 0x60 && (bArr[inIndex + 1] & 0xE0) != 0xA0) {
+                        in.position(inIndex - in.arrayOffset());
+                        out.position(outIndex - out.arrayOffset());
+                        return CoderResult.malformedForLength(1);
+                    }
+                    // First byte E1..EC, second byte 80..BF
+                    if (jchar > 0x60 && jchar < 0x6D &&
+                            (bArr[inIndex + 1] & 0xC0) != 0x80) {
+                        in.position(inIndex - in.arrayOffset());
+                        out.position(outIndex - out.arrayOffset());
+                        return CoderResult.malformedForLength(1);
+                    }
+                    // First byte ED, second byte 80..9F
+                    if (jchar == 0x6D && (bArr[inIndex + 1] & 0xE0) != 0x80) {
+                        in.position(inIndex - in.arrayOffset());
+                        out.position(outIndex - out.arrayOffset());
+                        return CoderResult.malformedForLength(1);
+                    }
+                    // First byte EE..EF, second byte 80..BF
+                    if (jchar > 0x6D && jchar < 0x70 &&
+                            (bArr[inIndex + 1] & 0xC0) != 0x80) {
+                        in.position(inIndex - in.arrayOffset());
+                        out.position(outIndex - out.arrayOffset());
+                        return CoderResult.malformedForLength(1);
+                    }
+                    // First byte F0, second byte 90..BF
+                    if (jchar == 0x70 &&
+                            ((bArr[inIndex + 1] & 0xFF) < 0x90 ||
+                                    (bArr[inIndex + 1] & 0xFF) > 0xBF)) {
+                        in.position(inIndex - in.arrayOffset());
+                        out.position(outIndex - out.arrayOffset());
+                        return CoderResult.malformedForLength(1);
+                    }
+                    // First byte F1..F3, second byte 80..BF
+                    if (jchar > 0x70 && jchar < 0x74 &&
+                            (bArr[inIndex + 1] & 0xC0) != 0x80) {
+                        in.position(inIndex - in.arrayOffset());
+                        out.position(outIndex - out.arrayOffset());
+                        return CoderResult.malformedForLength(1);
+                    }
+                    // First byte F4, second byte 80..8F
+                    if (jchar == 0x74 &&
+                            (bArr[inIndex + 1] & 0xF0) != 0x80) {
+                        in.position(inIndex - in.arrayOffset());
+                        out.position(outIndex - out.arrayOffset());
+                        return CoderResult.malformedForLength(1);
+                    }
+                }
+                // Check third byte if present and expected
+                if (tailAvailable > 1 && tail > 1) {
+                    if ((bArr[inIndex + 2] & 0xC0) != 0x80) {
+                        in.position(inIndex - in.arrayOffset());
+                        out.position(outIndex - out.arrayOffset());
+                        return CoderResult.malformedForLength(2);
+                    }
+                }
+                // Check fourth byte if present and expected
+                if (tailAvailable > 2 && tail > 2) {
+                    if ((bArr[inIndex + 3] & 0xC0) != 0x80) {
+                        in.position(inIndex - in.arrayOffset());
+                        out.position(outIndex - out.arrayOffset());
+                        return CoderResult.malformedForLength(3);
+                    }
+                }
+                if (tailAvailable < tail) {
+                    break;
+                }
+                for (int i = 0; i < tail; i++) {
+                    int nextByte = bArr[inIndex + i + 1] & 0xFF;
+                    if ((nextByte & 0xC0) != 0x80) {
+                        in.position(inIndex - in.arrayOffset());
+                        out.position(outIndex - out.arrayOffset());
+                        return CoderResult.malformedForLength(1 + i);
+                    }
+                    jchar = (jchar << 6) + nextByte;
+                }
+                jchar -= remainingNumbers[tail];
+                if (jchar < lowerEncodingLimit[tail]) {
+                    // Should have been encoded in fewer octets
+                    in.position(inIndex - in.arrayOffset());
+                    out.position(outIndex - out.arrayOffset());
+                    return CoderResult.malformedForLength(1);
+                }
+                inIndex += tail;
+            }
+            // Apache Tomcat added test
+            if (jchar >= 0xD800 && jchar <= 0xDFFF) {
+                return CoderResult.unmappableForLength(3);
+            }
+            // Apache Tomcat added test
+            if (jchar > 0x10FFFF) {
+                return CoderResult.unmappableForLength(4);
+            }
+            if (jchar <= 0xffff) {
+                cArr[outIndex++] = (char) jchar;
+                outRemaining--;
+            } else {
+                if (outRemaining < 2) {
+                    return CoderResult.OVERFLOW;
+                }
+                cArr[outIndex++] = (char) ((jchar >> 0xA) + 0xD7C0);
+                cArr[outIndex++] = (char) ((jchar & 0x3FF) + 0xDC00);
+                outRemaining -= 2;
+            }
+        }
+        in.position(inIndex - in.arrayOffset());
+        out.position(outIndex - out.arrayOffset());
+        return (outRemaining == 0 && inIndex < inIndexLimit) ?
+                CoderResult.OVERFLOW :
+                CoderResult.UNDERFLOW;
+    }
+}
\ No newline at end of file

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/struts/blob/76f18840/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/views/util/DefaultUrlHelper.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/views/util/DefaultUrlHelper.java b/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/views/util/DefaultUrlHelper.java
index 4e62c21..9e8418b 100644
--- a/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/views/util/DefaultUrlHelper.java
+++ b/core/src/main/java/org/apache/struts2/views/util/DefaultUrlHelper.java
@@ -27,6 +27,7 @@ import org.apache.commons.lang3.StringUtils;
 import org.apache.logging.log4j.LogManager;
 import org.apache.logging.log4j.Logger;
 import org.apache.struts2.StrutsConstants;
+import org.apache.struts2.util.URLDecoderUtil;
 
 import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;
 import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse;
@@ -267,15 +268,15 @@ public class DefaultUrlHelper implements UrlHelper {
 	}
 
 	/**
-	 * Decodes the URL using {@link java.net.URLDecoder#decode(String, String)} with the encoding specified in the configuration.
+	 * Decodes the URL using {@link URLDecoderUtil#decode(String, String)} with the encoding specified in the configuration.
 	 *
 	 * @param input the input to decode
 	 * @return the encoded string
 	 */
 	public String decode( String input ) {
 		try {
-			return URLDecoder.decode(input, encoding);
-		} catch (UnsupportedEncodingException e) {
+            return URLDecoderUtil.decode(input, encoding);
+		} catch (Exception e) {
     		LOG.warn("Could not decode URL parameter '{}', returning value un-decoded", input);
 			return input;
 		}

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/struts/blob/76f18840/core/src/test/java/org/apache/struts2/util/URLDecoderUtilTest.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/core/src/test/java/org/apache/struts2/util/URLDecoderUtilTest.java b/core/src/test/java/org/apache/struts2/util/URLDecoderUtilTest.java
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..f21c08f
--- /dev/null
+++ b/core/src/test/java/org/apache/struts2/util/URLDecoderUtilTest.java
@@ -0,0 +1,71 @@
+package org.apache.struts2.util;
+
+import org.junit.Test;
+
+import static org.junit.Assert.*;
+
+public class URLDecoderUtilTest {
+
+    @Test
+    public void testURLDecodeStringInvalid() {
+        // %n rather than %nn should throw an IAE according to the Javadoc
+        Exception exception = null;
+        try {
+            URLDecoderUtil.decode("%5xxxxx", "ISO-8859-1");
+        } catch (Exception e) {
+            exception = e;
+        }
+        assertTrue(exception instanceof IllegalArgumentException);
+
+        // Edge case trying to trigger ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
+        exception = null;
+        try {
+            URLDecoderUtil.decode("%5", "ISO-8859-1");
+        } catch (Exception e) {
+            exception = e;
+        }
+        assertTrue(exception instanceof IllegalArgumentException);
+    }
+
+    @Test
+    public void testURLDecodeStringValidIso88591Start() {
+
+        String result = URLDecoderUtil.decode("%41xxxx", "ISO-8859-1");
+        assertEquals("Axxxx", result);
+    }
+
+    @Test
+    public void testURLDecodeStringValidIso88591Middle() {
+
+        String result = URLDecoderUtil.decode("xx%41xx", "ISO-8859-1");
+        assertEquals("xxAxx", result);
+    }
+
+    @Test
+    public void testURLDecodeStringValidIso88591End() {
+
+        String result = URLDecoderUtil.decode("xxxx%41", "ISO-8859-1");
+        assertEquals("xxxxA", result);
+    }
+
+    @Test
+    public void testURLDecodeStringValidUtf8Start() {
+        String result = URLDecoderUtil.decode("%c3%aaxxxx", "UTF-8");
+        assertEquals("\u00eaxxxx", result);
+    }
+
+    @Test
+    public void testURLDecodeStringValidUtf8Middle() {
+
+        String result = URLDecoderUtil.decode("xx%c3%aaxx", "UTF-8");
+        assertEquals("xx\u00eaxx", result);
+    }
+
+    @Test
+    public void testURLDecodeStringValidUtf8End() {
+
+        String result = URLDecoderUtil.decode("xxxx%c3%aa", "UTF-8");
+        assertEquals("xxxx\u00ea", result);
+    }
+
+}
\ No newline at end of file


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