Hi All,

Thank you so much for the replies.  

Currently, I have the following list that can potentially cause some sort of corruption in a Cassandra cluster.



Ok, let me try and explain the issue we are having, I am under a lot of pressure from above to get this fixed and I can't figure it out.

This is a PRE-PROD environment.

We also have 2 Reaper Nodes we use for repair.  One reaper node in each datacenter each running with its own Cassandra back end in a cluster together.

OS Details [Red Hat Linux]
cass_a@x 0 10:53:01 ~ $ uname -a
Linux x 3.10.0-957.5.1.el7.x86_64 #1 SMP Wed Dec 19 10:46:58 EST 2018 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux

cass_a@x 0 10:57:31 ~ $ cat /etc/*release
NAME="Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server"
VERSION="7.6 (Maipo)"
ID="rhel"


Storage Layout
cass_a@xx 0 10:46:28 ~ $ df -h
Filesystem                         Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/vg01-lv_root            20G  2.2G   18G  11% /
devtmpfs                            63G     0   63G   0% /dev
tmpfs                               63G     0   63G   0% /dev/shm
tmpfs                               63G  4.1G   59G   7% /run
tmpfs                               63G     0   63G   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
>> 4 cassandra instances
/dev/sdd                           1.5T  802G  688G  54% /data/ssd4
/dev/sda                           1.5T  798G  692G  54% /data/ssd1
/dev/sdb                           1.5T  681G  810G  46% /data/ssd2
/dev/sdc                           1.5T  558G  932G  38% /data/ssd3


Cassandra load is about 200GB and the rest of the space is snapshots

CPU
cass_a@x 127 10:58:47 ~ $ lscpu | grep -E '^Thread|^Core|^Socket|^CPU\('
CPU(s):                64
Thread(s) per core:    2
Core(s) per socket:    16
Socket(s):             2

Description of problem:
During repair of the cluster, we are seeing multiple corruptions in the log files on a lot of instances.  There seems to be no pattern to the corruption.  It seems that the repair job is finding all the corrupted files for us.  The repair will hang on the node where the corrupted file is found.  To fix this we remove/rename the datafile and bounce the Cassandra instance.  Our hardware/OS team have stated there is no problem on their side.  I do not believe it the repair causing the corruption.

We have maintenance scripts that run every night running compactions and creating snapshots, I decided to turn these off, fix any corruptions we currently had and ran major compaction on all nodes, once this was done we had a "clean" cluster and we left the cluster for a few days.  After the process we noticed one corruption in the cluster, this datafile was created after I turned off the maintenance scripts so my theory of the scripts causing the issue was wrong.  We then kicked off another repair and started to find more corrupt files created after the maintenance script was turned off.


So let me give you an example of a corrupted file and maybe someone might be able to work through it with me?

When this corrupted file was reported in the log it looks like it was the repair that found it.

$ journalctl -u cassmeta-cass_b.service --since "2019-08-07 22:25:00" --until "2019-08-07 22:45:00"

Aug 07 22:30:33 cassandra[34611]: INFO  21:30:33 Writing Memtable-compactions_in_progress@830377457(0.008KiB serialized bytes, 1 ops, 0%/0% of on/off-heap limit)
Aug 07 22:30:33 cassandra[34611]: ERROR 21:30:33 Failed creating a merkle tree for [repair #9587a200-b95a-11e9-8920-9f72868b8375 on KeyspaceMetadata/x, (-1476350953672479093,-1474461
Aug 07 22:30:33 cassandra[34611]: ERROR 21:30:33 Exception in thread Thread[ValidationExecutor:825,1,main]
Aug 07 22:30:33 cassandra[34611]: org.apache.cassandra.io.FSReadError: org.apache.cassandra.io.sstable.CorruptSSTableException: Corrupted: /x/ssd2/data/KeyspaceMetadata/x-1e453cb0

Aug 07 22:30:33 cassandra[34611]: at org.apache.cassandra.io.util.RandomAccessReader.readBytes(RandomAccessReader.java:365) ~[apache-cassandra-2.2.13.jar:2.2.13]
Aug 07 22:30:33 cassandra[34611]: at org.apache.cassandra.utils.ByteBufferUtil.read(ByteBufferUtil.java:361) ~[apache-cassandra-2.2.13.jar:2.2.13]
Aug 07 22:30:33 cassandra[34611]: at org.apache.cassandra.utils.ByteBufferUtil.readWithShortLength(ByteBufferUtil.java:340) ~[apache-cassandra-2.2.13.jar:2.2.13]
Aug 07 22:30:33 cassandra[34611]: at org.apache.cassandra.db.composites.AbstractCType$Serializer.deserialize(AbstractCType.java:382) ~[apache-cassandra-2.2.13.jar:2.2.13]
Aug 07 22:30:33 cassandra[34611]: at org.apache.cassandra.db.composites.AbstractCType$Serializer.deserialize(AbstractCType.java:366) ~[apache-cassandra-2.2.13.jar:2.2.13]
Aug 07 22:30:33 cassandra[34611]: at org.apache.cassandra.db.OnDiskAtom$Serializer.deserializeFromSSTable(OnDiskAtom.java:81) ~[apache-cassandra-2.2.13.jar:2.2.13]
Aug 07 22:30:33 cassandra[34611]: at org.apache.cassandra.db.AbstractCell$1.computeNext(AbstractCell.java:52) ~[apache-cassandra-2.2.13.jar:2.2.13]
Aug 07 22:30:33 cassandra[34611]: at org.apache.cassandra.db.AbstractCell$1.computeNext(AbstractCell.java:46) ~[apache-cassandra-2.2.13.jar:2.2.13]
Aug 07 22:30:33 cassandra[34611]: at com.google.common.collect.AbstractIterator.tryToComputeNext(AbstractIterator.java:143) ~[guava-16.0.jar:na]
Aug 07 22:30:33 cassandra[34611]: at com.google.common.collect.AbstractIterator.hasNext(AbstractIterator.java:138) ~[guava-16.0.jar:na]
Aug 07 22:30:33 cassandra[34611]: at org.apache.cassandra.io.sstable.SSTableIdentityIterator.hasNext(SSTableIdentityIterator.java:169) ~[apache-cassandra-2.2.13.jar:2.2.13]
Aug 07 22:30:33 cassandra[34611]: at org.apache.cassandra.utils.MergeIterator$OneToOne.computeNext(MergeIterator.java:202) ~[apache-cassandra-2.2.13.jar:2.2.13]
Aug 07 22:30:33 cassandra[34611]: at com.google.common.collect.AbstractIterator.tryToComputeNext(AbstractIterator.java:143) ~[guava-16.0.jar:na]
Aug 07 22:30:33 cassandra[34611]: at com.google.common.collect.AbstractIterator.hasNext(AbstractIterator.java:138) ~[guava-16.0.jar:na]
Aug 07 22:30:33 cassandra[34611]: at com.google.common.collect.Iterators$7.computeNext(Iterators.java:645) ~[guava-16.0.jar:na]
Aug 07 22:30:33 cassandra[34611]: at com.google.common.collect.AbstractIterator.tryToComputeNext(AbstractIterator.java:143) ~[guava-16.0.jar:na]
Aug 07 22:30:33 cassandra[34611]: at com.google.common.collect.AbstractIterator.hasNext(AbstractIterator.java:138) ~[guava-16.0.jar:na]
Aug 07 22:30:33 cassandra[34611]: at org.apache.cassandra.db.ColumnIndex$Builder.buildForCompaction(ColumnIndex.java:174) ~[apache-cassandra-2.2.13.jar:2.2.13]
Aug 07 22:30:33 cassandra[34611]: at org.apache.cassandra.db.compaction.LazilyCompactedRow.update(LazilyCompactedRow.java:187) ~[apache-cassandra-2.2.13.jar:2.2.13]
Aug 07 22:30:33 cassandra[34611]: at org.apache.cassandra.repair.Validator.rowHash(Validator.java:201) ~[apache-cassandra-2.2.13.jar:2.2.13]
Aug 07 22:30:33 cassandra[34611]: at org.apache.cassandra.repair.Validator.add(Validator.java:150) ~[apache-cassandra-2.2.13.jar:2.2.13]
Aug 07 22:30:33 cassandra[34611]: at org.apache.cassandra.db.compaction.CompactionManager.doValidationCompaction(CompactionManager.java:1166) ~[apache-cassandra-2.2.13.jar:2.2.13]
Aug 07 22:30:33 cassandra[34611]: at org.apache.cassandra.db.compaction.CompactionManager.access$600(CompactionManager.java:76) ~[apache-cassandra-2.2.13.jar:2.2.13]
Aug 07 22:30:33 cassandra[34611]: at org.apache.cassandra.db.compaction.CompactionManager$10.call(CompactionManager.java:736) ~[apache-cassandra-2.2.13.jar:2.2.13]
Aug 07 22:30:33 cassandra[34611]: at java.util.concurrent.FutureTask.run(FutureTask.java:266) ~[na:1.8.0_172]
Aug 07 22:30:33 cassandra[34611]: at java.util.concurrent.ThreadPoolExecutor.runWorker(ThreadPoolExecutor.java:1149) ~[na:1.8.0_172]
Aug 07 22:30:33 cassandra[34611]: at java.util.concurrent.ThreadPoolExecutor$Worker.run(ThreadPoolExecutor.java:624) [na:1.8.0_172]
Aug 07 22:30:33 cassandra[34611]: at java.lang.Thread.run(Thread.java:748) [na:1.8.0_172]
Aug 07 22:30:33 cassandra[34611]: Caused by: org.apache.cassandra.io.sstable.CorruptSSTableException: Corrupted: /data/ssd2/data/KeyspaceMetadata/x-x/l
Aug 07 22:30:33 cassandra[34611]: at org.apache.cassandra.io.compress.CompressedRandomAccessReader.reBufferMmap(CompressedRandomAccessReader.java:216) ~[apache-cassandra-2.2.13.jar:2.2.13]
Aug 07 22:30:33 cassandra[34611]: at org.apache.cassandra.io.compress.CompressedRandomAccessReader.reBuffer(CompressedRandomAccessReader.java:226) ~[apache-cassandra-2.2.13.jar:2.2.13]
Aug 07 22:30:33 cassandra[34611]: at org.apache.cassandra.io.compress.CompressedThrottledReader.reBuffer(CompressedThrottledReader.java:42) ~[apache-cassandra-2.2.13.jar:2.2.13]
Aug 07 22:30:33 cassandra[34611]: at org.apache.cassandra.io.util.RandomAccessReader.readBytes(RandomAccessReader.java:352) ~[apache-cassandra-2.2.13.jar:2.2.13]
Aug 07 22:30:33 cassandra[34611]: ... 27 common frames omitted
Aug 07 22:30:33 cassandra[34611]: Caused by: org.apache.cassandra.io.compress.CorruptBlockException: (/data/ssd2/data/KeyspaceMetadata/x-x/lb-26203-big
Aug 07 22:30:33 cassandra[34611]: at org.apache.cassandra.io.compress.CompressedRandomAccessReader.reBufferMmap(CompressedRandomAccessReader.java:185) ~[apache-cassandra-2.2.13.jar:2.2.13]
Aug 07 22:30:33 cassandra[34611]: ... 30 common frames omitted
Aug 07 22:30:33 cassandra[34611]: INFO  21:30:33 Not a global repair, will not do anticompaction
Aug 07 22:30:33 cassandra[34611]: ERROR 21:30:33 Stopping gossiper
Aug 07 22:30:33 cassandra[34611]: WARN  21:30:33 Stopping gossip by operator request
Aug 07 22:30:33 cassandra[34611]: INFO  21:30:33 Announcing shutdown
Aug 07 22:30:33 cassandra[34611]: INFO  21:30:33 Node /10.2.57.37 state jump to shutdown



So I went to the file system to see when this corrupt file was created and it was created on July 30th at 15.55

root@x 0 01:14:03 ~ # ls -l /data/ssd2/data/KeyspaceMetadata/x-x/lb-26203-big-Data.db
-rw-r--r-- 1 cass_b cass_b 3182243670 Jul 30 15:55 /data/ssd2/data/KeyspaceMetadata/x-x/lb-26203-big-Data.db




So I checked /var/log/messages for errors around that time
The only thing that stands out to me is the message "Cannot perform a full major compaction as repaired and unrepaired sstables cannot be compacted together", I'm not sure if this would be an issue though and cause corruption.

Jul 30 15:55:06 x systemd: Created slice User Slice of root.
Jul 30 15:55:06 x systemd: Started Session c165280 of user root.
Jul 30 15:55:06 x audispd: node=x. type=USER_START msg=audit(1564498506.021:457933): pid=17533 uid=0 auid=4294967295 ses=4294967295 msg='op=PAM:session_open grantors=pam_keyinit,pam_limits,pam_keyinit,pam_limits,pam_tty_audit,pam_systemd,pam_unix acct="root" exe="/usr/bin/sudo" hostname=? addr=? terminal=? res=success'
Jul 30 15:55:06 x systemd: Removed slice User Slice of root.
Jul 30 15:55:14 x tag_audit_log: type=USER_CMD msg=audit(1564498506.013:457932): pid=17533 uid=509 auid=4294967295 ses=4294967295 msg='cwd="/" cmd=2F7573722F7362696E2F69706D692D73656E736F7273202D2D71756965742D6361636865202D2D7364722D63616368652D7265637265617465202D2D696E746572707265742D6F656D2D64617461202D2D6F75747075742D73656E736F722D7374617465202D2D69676E6F72652D6E6F742D617661696C61626C652D73656E736F7273202D2D6F75747075742D73656E736F722D7468726573686F6C6473 terminal=? res=success'
Jul 30 15:55:14 x tag_audit_log: type=USER_START msg=audit(1564498506.021:457933): pid=17533 uid=0 auid=4294967295 ses=4294967295 msg='op=PAM:session_open grantors=pam_keyinit,pam_limits,pam_keyinit,pam_limits,pam_tty_audit,pam_systemd,pam_unix acct="root" exe="/usr/bin/sudo" hostname=? addr=? terminal=? res=success'
Jul 30 15:55:19 x cassandra: INFO  14:55:19 Writing Memtable-compactions_in_progress@1462227999(0.008KiB serialized bytes, 1 ops, 0%/0% of on/off-heap limit)
Jul 30 15:55:19 x cassandra: INFO  14:55:19 Cannot perform a full major compaction as repaired and unrepaired sstables cannot be compacted together. These two set of sstables will be compacted separately.
Jul 30 15:55:19 x cassandra: INFO  14:55:19 Writing Memtable-compactions_in_progress@1198535528(1.002KiB serialized bytes, 57 ops, 0%/0% of on/off-heap limit)
Jul 30 15:55:20 x cassandra: INFO  14:55:20 Writing Memtable-compactions_in_progress@2039409834(0.008KiB serialized bytes, 1 ops, 0%/0% of on/off-heap limit)
Jul 30 15:55:24 x audispd: node=x. type=USER_LOGOUT msg=audit(1564498524.409:457934): pid=46620 uid=0 auid=464400029 ses=2747 msg='op=login id=464400029 exe="/usr/sbin/sshd" hostname=? addr=? terminal=/dev/pts/0 res=success'
Jul 30 15:55:24 x audispd: node=x. type=USER_LOGOUT msg=audit(1564498524.409:457935): pid=4878 uid=0 auid=464400029 ses=2749 msg='op=login id=464400029 exe="/usr/sbin/sshd" hostname=? addr=? terminal=/dev/pts/1 res=success'

Jul 30 15:55:57 x systemd: Created slice User Slice of root.
Jul 30 15:55:57 x systemd: Started Session c165288 of user root.
Jul 30 15:55:57 x audispd: node=x. type=USER_START msg=audit(1564498557.294:457958): pid=19687 uid=0 auid=4294967295 ses=4294967295 msg='op=PAM:session_open grantors=pam_keyinit,pam_limits,pam_keyinit,pam_limits,pam_tty_audit,pam_systemd,pam_unix acct="root" exe="/usr/bin/sudo" hostname=? addr=? terminal=? res=success'
Jul 30 15:55:57 x audispd: node=x. type=USER_START msg=audit(1564498557.298:457959): pid=19690 uid=0 auid=4294967295 ses=4294967295 msg='op=PAM:session_open grantors=pam_keyinit,pam_systemd,pam_keyinit,pam_limits,pam_unix acct="cass_b" exe="/usr/sbin/runuser" hostname=? addr=? terminal=? res=success'
Jul 30 15:55:58 x systemd: Removed slice User Slice of root.
Jul 30 15:56:02 x cassandra: INFO  14:56:02 Writing Memtable-compactions_in_progress@1532791194(0.008KiB serialized bytes, 1 ops, 0%/0% of on/off-heap limit)
Jul 30 15:56:02 x cassandra: INFO  14:56:02 Cannot perform a full major compaction as repaired and unrepaired sstables cannot be compacted together. These two set of sstables will be compacted separately.
Jul 30 15:56:02 x cassandra: INFO  14:56:02 Writing Memtable-compactions_in_progress@1455399453(0.281KiB serialized bytes, 16 ops, 0%/0% of on/off-heap limit)
Jul 30 15:56:04 x tag_audit_log: type=USER_CMD msg=audit(1564498555.190:457951): pid=19294 uid=509 auid=4294967295 ses=4294967295 msg='cwd="/" cmd=72756E75736572202D73202F62696E2F62617368202D6C20636173735F62202D632063617373616E6472612D6D6574612F63617373616E6472612F62696E2F6E6F6465746F6F6C2074707374617473 terminal=? res=success'




We have checked a number of other things like NTP setting etc but nothing is telling us what could cause so many corruptions across the entire cluster.
Things were healthy with this cluster for months, the only thing I can think is that we started loading data from a load of 20GB per instance up to 200GB where it sits now, maybe this just highlighted the issue.



Compaction and Compression on Keyspace CL's [mixture]
All CF's are using compression.

AND compaction = {'min_threshold': '4', 'class': 'org.apache.cassandra.db.compaction.SizeTieredCompactionStrategy', 'max_threshold': '32'}
AND compression = {'sstable_compression': 'org.apache.cassandra.io.compress.SnappyCompressor'}

AND compaction = {'min_threshold': '4', 'class': 'org.apache.cassandra.db.compaction.SizeTieredCompactionStrategy', 'max_threshold': '32'}
AND compression = {'sstable_compression': 'org.apache.cassandra.io.compress.LZ4Compressor'}

AND compaction = {'class': 'org.apache.cassandra.db.compaction.LeveledCompactionStrategy'}
AND compression = {'sstable_compression': 'org.apache.cassandra.io.compress.SnappyCompressor'}

--We are also using internode network compression:
internode_compression: all



Does anyone have any idea what I should check next?
Our next theory is that there may be an issue with Checksum, but I'm not sure where to go with this.

Any help would be very much appreciated before I lose the last bit of hair I have on my head. 

Kind Regards,
Phil

On Wed, 7 Aug 2019 at 20:51, Nitan Kainth <nitankainth@gmail.com> wrote:
Repair during upgrade have caused corruption too.

Also, dropping and adding columns with same name but different type


Regards,

Nitan

Cell: 510 449 9629


On Aug 7, 2019, at 2:42 PM, Jeff Jirsa <jjirsa@gmail.com> wrote:

Is compression enabled?

If not, bit flips on disk can corrupt data files and reads + repair may send that corruption to other hosts in the cluster 


On Aug 7, 2019, at 3:46 AM, Philip Ó Condúin <philipoconduin@gmail.com> wrote:

Hi All,

I am currently experiencing multiple datafile corruptions across most nodes in my cluster, there seems to be no pattern to the corruption.  I'm starting to think it might be a bug, we're using Cassandra 2.2.13.

Without going into detail about the issue I just want to confirm something.

Can someone share with me a list of scenarios that would cause corruption?

1. OS failure
2. Cassandra disturbed during the writing 

etc etc.

I need to investigate each scenario and don't want to leave any out.

--
Regards,
Phil


--
Regards,
Phil