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From an...@apache.org
Subject [08/17] zookeeper git commit: ZOOKEEPER-3155: Remove Forrest XMLs and their build process from the …
Date Sat, 10 Nov 2018 00:10:11 GMT
http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/zookeeper/blob/cf24deb2/docs/zookeeperProgrammers.html
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-        PDF</a>
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-<h1>ZooKeeper Programmer's Guide</h1>
-<h3>Developing Distributed Applications that use ZooKeeper</h3>
-<div id="front-matter">
-<div id="minitoc-area">
-<ul class="minitoc">
-<li>
-<a href="#_introduction">Introduction</a>
-</li>
-<li>
-<a href="#ch_zkDataModel">The ZooKeeper Data Model</a>
-<ul class="minitoc">
-<li>
-<a href="#sc_zkDataModel_znodes">ZNodes</a>
-<ul class="minitoc">
-<li>
-<a href="#sc_zkDataMode_watches">Watches</a>
-</li>
-<li>
-<a href="#Data+Access">Data Access</a>
-</li>
-<li>
-<a href="#Ephemeral+Nodes">Ephemeral Nodes</a>
-</li>
-<li>
-<a href="#Sequence+Nodes+--+Unique+Naming">Sequence Nodes -- Unique Naming</a>
-</li>
-</ul>
-</li>
-<li>
-<a href="#sc_timeInZk">Time in ZooKeeper</a>
-</li>
-<li>
-<a href="#sc_zkStatStructure">ZooKeeper Stat Structure</a>
-</li>
-</ul>
-</li>
-<li>
-<a href="#ch_zkSessions">ZooKeeper Sessions</a>
-</li>
-<li>
-<a href="#ch_zkWatches">ZooKeeper Watches</a>
-<ul class="minitoc">
-<li>
-<a href="#sc_WatchSemantics">Semantics of Watches</a>
-</li>
-<li>
-<a href="#sc_WatchGuarantees">What ZooKeeper Guarantees about Watches</a>
-</li>
-<li>
-<a href="#sc_WatchRememberThese">Things to Remember about Watches</a>
-</li>
-</ul>
-</li>
-<li>
-<a href="#sc_ZooKeeperAccessControl">ZooKeeper access control using ACLs</a>
-<ul class="minitoc">
-<li>
-<a href="#sc_ACLPermissions">ACL Permissions</a>
-<ul class="minitoc">
-<li>
-<a href="#sc_BuiltinACLSchemes">Builtin ACL Schemes</a>
-</li>
-<li>
-<a href="#ZooKeeper+C+client+API">ZooKeeper C client API</a>
-</li>
-</ul>
-</li>
-</ul>
-</li>
-<li>
-<a href="#sc_ZooKeeperPluggableAuthentication">Pluggable ZooKeeper authentication</a>
-</li>
-<li>
-<a href="#ch_zkGuarantees">Consistency Guarantees</a>
-</li>
-<li>
-<a href="#ch_bindings">Bindings</a>
-<ul class="minitoc">
-<li>
-<a href="#Java+Binding">Java Binding</a>
-</li>
-<li>
-<a href="#C+Binding">C Binding</a>
-<ul class="minitoc">
-<li>
-<a href="#Installation">Installation</a>
-</li>
-<li>
-<a href="#Building+Your+Own+C+Client">Building Your Own C Client</a>
-</li>
-</ul>
-</li>
-</ul>
-</li>
-<li>
-<a href="#ch_guideToZkOperations">Building Blocks: A Guide to ZooKeeper Operations</a>
-<ul class="minitoc">
-<li>
-<a href="#sc_errorsZk">Handling Errors</a>
-</li>
-<li>
-<a href="#sc_connectingToZk">Connecting to ZooKeeper</a>
-</li>
-<li>
-<a href="#sc_readOps">Read Operations</a>
-</li>
-<li>
-<a href="#sc_writeOps">Write Operations</a>
-</li>
-<li>
-<a href="#sc_handlingWatches">Handling Watches</a>
-</li>
-<li>
-<a href="#sc_miscOps">Miscelleaneous ZooKeeper Operations</a>
-</li>
-</ul>
-</li>
-<li>
-<a href="#ch_programStructureWithExample">Program Structure, with Simple Example</a>
-</li>
-<li>
-<a href="#ch_gotchas">Gotchas: Common Problems and Troubleshooting</a>
-</li>
-</ul>
-</div>
-</div>
-  
-
-  
-
-  
-
-  
-<a name="_introduction"></a>
-<h2 class="h3">Introduction</h2>
-<div class="section">
-<p>This document is a guide for developers wishing to create
-    distributed applications that take advantage of ZooKeeper's coordination
-    services. It contains conceptual and practical information.</p>
-<p>The first four sections of this guide present higher level
-    discussions of various ZooKeeper concepts. These are necessary both for an
-    understanding of how ZooKeeper works as well how to work with it. It does
-    not contain source code, but it does assume a familiarity with the
-    problems associated with distributed computing. The sections in this first
-    group are:</p>
-<ul>
-      
-<li>
-        
-<p>
-<a href="#ch_zkDataModel">The ZooKeeper Data Model</a>
-</p>
-      
-</li>
-
-      
-<li>
-        
-<p>
-<a href="#ch_zkSessions">ZooKeeper Sessions</a>
-</p>
-      
-</li>
-
-      
-<li>
-        
-<p>
-<a href="#ch_zkWatches">ZooKeeper Watches</a>
-</p>
-      
-</li>
-
-      
-<li>
-        
-<p>
-<a href="#ch_zkGuarantees">Consistency Guarantees</a>
-</p>
-      
-</li>
-    
-</ul>
-<p>The next four sections provide practical programming
-    information. These are:</p>
-<ul>
-      
-<li>
-        
-<p>
-<a href="#ch_guideToZkOperations">Building Blocks: A Guide to ZooKeeper Operations</a>
-</p>
-      
-</li>
-
-      
-<li>
-        
-<p>
-<a href="#ch_bindings">Bindings</a>
-</p>
-      
-</li>
-
-      
-<li>
-        
-<p>
-<a href="#ch_programStructureWithExample">Program Structure, with Simple Example</a>
-        <em>[tbd]</em>
-</p>
-      
-</li>
-
-      
-<li>
-        
-<p>
-<a href="#ch_gotchas">Gotchas: Common Problems and Troubleshooting</a>
-</p>
-      
-</li>
-    
-</ul>
-<p>The book concludes with an <a href="#apx_linksToOtherInfo">appendix</a> containing links to other
-    useful, ZooKeeper-related information.</p>
-<p>Most of information in this document is written to be accessible as
-    stand-alone reference material. However, before starting your first
-    ZooKeeper application, you should probably at least read the chaptes on
-    the <a href="#ch_zkDataModel">ZooKeeper Data Model</a> and <a href="#ch_guideToZkOperations">ZooKeeper Basic Operations</a>. Also,
-    the <a href="#ch_programStructureWithExample">Simple Programmming
-    Example</a> <em>[tbd]</em> is helpful for understanding the basic
-    structure of a ZooKeeper client application.</p>
-</div>
-
-  
-<a name="ch_zkDataModel"></a>
-<h2 class="h3">The ZooKeeper Data Model</h2>
-<div class="section">
-<p>ZooKeeper has a hierarchal name space, much like a distributed file
-    system. The only difference is that each node in the namespace can have
-    data associated with it as well as children. It is like having a file
-    system that allows a file to also be a directory. Paths to nodes are
-    always expressed as canonical, absolute, slash-separated paths; there are
-    no relative reference. Any unicode character can be used in a path subject
-    to the following constraints:</p>
-<ul>
-      
-<li>
-        
-<p>The null character (\u0000) cannot be part of a path name. (This
-        causes problems with the C binding.)</p>
-      
-</li>
-
-      
-<li>
-        
-<p>The following characters can't be used because they don't
-        display well, or render in confusing ways: \u0001 - \u0019 and \u007F
-        - \u009F.</p>
-      
-</li>
-
-      
-<li>
-        
-<p>The following characters are not allowed: \ud800 -uF8FFF,
-        \uFFF0 - uFFFF.</p>
-      
-</li>
-
-      
-<li>
-        
-<p>The "." character can be used as part of another name, but "."
-        and ".." cannot alone be used to indicate a node along a path,
-        because ZooKeeper doesn't use relative paths. The following would be
-        invalid: "/a/b/./c" or "/a/b/../c".</p>
-      
-</li>
-
-      
-<li>
-        
-<p>The token "zookeeper" is reserved.</p>
-      
-</li>
-    
-</ul>
-<a name="sc_zkDataModel_znodes"></a>
-<h3 class="h4">ZNodes</h3>
-<p>Every node in a ZooKeeper tree is referred to as a
-      <em>znode</em>. Znodes maintain a stat structure that
-      includes version numbers for data changes, acl changes. The stat
-      structure also has timestamps. The version number, together with the
-      timestamp, allows ZooKeeper to validate the cache and to coordinate
-      updates. Each time a znode's data changes, the version number increases.
-      For instance, whenever a client retrieves data, it also receives the
-      version of the data. And when a client performs an update or a delete,
-      it must supply the version of the data of the znode it is changing. If
-      the version it supplies doesn't match the actual version of the data,
-      the update will fail. (This behavior can be overridden. For more
-      information see... )<em>[tbd...]</em>
-</p>
-<div class="note">
-<div class="label">Note</div>
-<div class="content">
-        
-<p>In distributed application engineering, the word
-        <em>node</em> can refer to a generic host machine, a
-        server, a member of an ensemble, a client process, etc. In the ZooKeeper
-        documentation, <em>znodes</em> refer to the data nodes.
-        <em>Servers</em>  refer to machines that make up the
-        ZooKeeper service; <em>quorum peers</em> refer to the
-        servers that make up an ensemble; client refers to any host or process
-        which uses a ZooKeeper service.</p>
-      
-</div>
-</div>
-<p> A znode is the main abstraction a programmer needs to be aware of. Znodes have
-      several characteristics that are worth mentioning here.</p>
-<a name="sc_zkDataMode_watches"></a>
-<h4>Watches</h4>
-<p>Clients can set watches on znodes. Changes to that znode trigger
-        the watch and then clear the watch. When a watch triggers, ZooKeeper
-        sends the client a notification. More information about watches can be
-        found in the section 
-	    <a href="#ch_zkWatches">ZooKeeper Watches</a>.</p>
-<a name="Data+Access"></a>
-<h4>Data Access</h4>
-<p>The data stored at each znode in a namespace is read and written
-        atomically. Reads get all the data bytes associated with a znode and a
-        write replaces all the data. Each node has an Access Control List
-        (ACL) that restricts who can do what.</p>
-<p>ZooKeeper was not designed to be a general database or large
-        object store. Instead, it manages coordination data. This data can
-        come in the form of configuration, status information, rendezvous, etc.
-        A common property of the various forms of coordination data is that
-        they are relatively small: measured in kilobytes.
-        The ZooKeeper client and the server implementations have sanity checks
-        to ensure that znodes have less than 1M of data, but the data should
-        be much less than that on average. Operating on relatively large data
-        sizes will cause some operations to take much more time than others and
-        will affect the latencies of some operations because of the extra time
-        needed to move more data over the network and onto storage media. If
-        large data storage is needed, the usually pattern of dealing with such
-        data is to store it on a bulk storage system, such as NFS or HDFS, and
-        store pointers to the storage locations in ZooKeeper.</p>
-<a name="Ephemeral+Nodes"></a>
-<h4>Ephemeral Nodes</h4>
-<p>ZooKeeper also has the notion of ephemeral nodes. These znodes
-        exists as long as the session that created the znode is active. When
-        the session ends the znode is deleted. Because of this behavior
-        ephemeral znodes are not allowed to have children.</p>
-<a name="Sequence+Nodes+--+Unique+Naming"></a>
-<h4>Sequence Nodes -- Unique Naming</h4>
-<p>When creating a znode you can also request that
-        ZooKeeper append a monotonically increasing counter to the end
-        of path. This counter is unique to the parent znode. The
-        counter has a format of %010d -- that is 10 digits with 0
-        (zero) padding (the counter is formatted in this way to
-        simplify sorting), i.e. "&lt;path&gt;0000000001". See
-        <a href="recipes.html#sc_recipes_Queues">Queue
-        Recipe</a> for an example use of this feature. Note: the
-        counter used to store the next sequence number is a signed int
-        (4bytes) maintained by the parent node, the counter will
-        overflow when incremented beyond 2147483647 (resulting in a
-        name "&lt;path&gt;-2147483648").</p>
-<a name="sc_timeInZk"></a>
-<h3 class="h4">Time in ZooKeeper</h3>
-<p>ZooKeeper tracks time multiple ways:</p>
-<ul>
-        
-<li>
-          
-<p>
-<strong>Zxid</strong>
-</p>
-
-          
-<p>Every change to the ZooKeeper state receives a stamp in the
-          form of a <em>zxid</em> (ZooKeeper Transaction Id).
-          This exposes the total ordering of all changes to ZooKeeper. Each
-          change will have a unique zxid and if zxid1 is smaller than zxid2
-          then zxid1 happened before zxid2.</p>
-        
-</li>
-
-        
-<li>
-          
-<p>
-<strong>Version numbers</strong>
-</p>
-
-          
-<p>Every change to a node will cause an increase to one of the
-          version numbers of that node. The three version numbers are version
-          (number of changes to the data of a znode), cversion (number of
-          changes to the children of a znode), and aversion (number of changes
-          to the ACL of a znode).</p>
-        
-</li>
-
-        
-<li>
-          
-<p>
-<strong>Ticks</strong>
-</p>
-
-          
-<p>When using multi-server ZooKeeper, servers use ticks to define
-          timing of events such as status uploads, session timeouts,
-          connection timeouts between peers, etc. The tick time is only
-          indirectly exposed through the minimum session timeout (2 times the
-          tick time); if a client requests a session timeout less than the
-          minimum session timeout, the server will tell the client that the
-          session timeout is actually the minimum session timeout.</p>
-        
-</li>
-
-        
-<li>
-          
-<p>
-<strong>Real time</strong>
-</p>
-
-          
-<p>ZooKeeper doesn't use real time, or clock time, at all except
-          to put timestamps into the stat structure on znode creation and
-          znode modification.</p>
-        
-</li>
-      
-</ul>
-<a name="sc_zkStatStructure"></a>
-<h3 class="h4">ZooKeeper Stat Structure</h3>
-<p>The Stat structure for each znode in ZooKeeper is made up of the
-      following fields:</p>
-<ul>
-        
-<li>
-          
-<p>
-<strong>czxid</strong>
-</p>
-
-          
-<p>The zxid of the change that caused this znode to be
-          created.</p>
-        
-</li>
-
-        
-<li>
-          
-<p>
-<strong>mzxid</strong>
-</p>
-
-          
-<p>The zxid of the change that last modified this znode.</p>
-        
-</li>
-
-        
-<li>
-          
-<p>
-<strong>pzxid</strong>
-</p>
-
-          
-<p>The zxid of the change that last modified children of this znode.</p>
-        
-</li>
-
-        
-<li>
-          
-<p>
-<strong>ctime</strong>
-</p>
-
-          
-<p>The time in milliseconds from epoch when this znode was
-          created.</p>
-        
-</li>
-
-        
-<li>
-          
-<p>
-<strong>mtime</strong>
-</p>
-
-          
-<p>The time in milliseconds from epoch when this znode was last
-          modified.</p>
-        
-</li>
-
-        
-<li>
-          
-<p>
-<strong>version</strong>
-</p>
-
-          
-<p>The number of changes to the data of this znode.</p>
-        
-</li>
-
-        
-<li>
-          
-<p>
-<strong>cversion</strong>
-</p>
-
-          
-<p>The number of changes to the children of this znode.</p>
-        
-</li>
-
-        
-<li>
-          
-<p>
-<strong>aversion</strong>
-</p>
-
-          
-<p>The number of changes to the ACL of this znode.</p>
-        
-</li>
-
-        
-<li>
-          
-<p>
-<strong>ephemeralOwner</strong>
-</p>
-
-          
-<p>The session id of the owner of this znode if the znode is an
-          ephemeral node. If it is not an ephemeral node, it will be
-          zero.</p>
-        
-</li>
-
-        
-<li>
-          
-<p>
-<strong>dataLength</strong>
-</p>
-
-          
-<p>The length of the data field of this znode.</p>
-        
-</li>
-
-        
-<li>
-          
-<p>
-<strong>numChildren</strong>
-</p>
-
-          
-<p>The number of children of this znode.</p>
-        
-</li>
-
-      
-</ul>
-</div>
-
-  
-<a name="ch_zkSessions"></a>
-<h2 class="h3">ZooKeeper Sessions</h2>
-<div class="section">
-<p>A ZooKeeper client establishes a session with the ZooKeeper
-    service by creating a handle to the service using a language
-    binding. Once created, the handle starts of in the CONNECTING state
-    and the client library tries to connect to one of the servers that
-    make up the ZooKeeper service at which point it switches to the
-    CONNECTED state. During normal operation will be in one of these
-    two states. If an unrecoverable error occurs, such as session
-    expiration or authentication failure, or if the application explicitly
-    closes the handle, the handle will move to the CLOSED state.
-    The following figure shows the possible state transitions of a
-    ZooKeeper client:</p>
-<img alt="" src="images/state_dia.jpg"><p>To create a client session the application code must provide
-    a connection string containing a comma separated list of host:port pairs,
-    each corresponding to a ZooKeeper server (e.g. "127.0.0.1:4545" or
-    "127.0.0.1:3000,127.0.0.1:3001,127.0.0.1:3002"). The ZooKeeper
-    client library will pick an arbitrary server and try to connect to
-    it. If this connection fails, or if the client becomes
-    disconnected from the server for any reason, the client will
-    automatically try the next server in the list, until a connection
-    is (re-)established.</p>
-<p> 
-<strong>Added in 3.2.0</strong>: An
-    optional "chroot" suffix may also be appended to the connection
-    string. This will run the client commands while interpreting all
-    paths relative to this root (similar to the unix chroot
-    command). If used the example would look like:
-    "127.0.0.1:4545/app/a" or
-    "127.0.0.1:3000,127.0.0.1:3001,127.0.0.1:3002/app/a" where the
-    client would be rooted at "/app/a" and all paths would be relative
-    to this root - ie getting/setting/etc...  "/foo/bar" would result
-    in operations being run on "/app/a/foo/bar" (from the server
-    perspective). This feature is particularly useful in multi-tenant
-    environments where each user of a particular ZooKeeper service
-    could be rooted differently. This makes re-use much simpler as
-    each user can code his/her application as if it were rooted at
-    "/", while actual location (say /app/a) could be determined at
-    deployment time.</p>
-<p>When a client gets a handle to the ZooKeeper service,
-    ZooKeeper creates a ZooKeeper session, represented as a 64-bit
-    number, that it assigns to the client. If the client connects to a
-    different ZooKeeper server, it will send the session id as a part
-    of the connection handshake.  As a security measure, the server
-    creates a password for the session id that any ZooKeeper server
-    can validate.The password is sent to the client with the session
-    id when the client establishes the session. The client sends this
-    password with the session id whenever it reestablishes the session
-    with a new server.</p>
-<p>One of the parameters to the ZooKeeper client library call
-    to create a ZooKeeper session is the session timeout in
-    milliseconds. The client sends a requested timeout, the server
-    responds with the timeout that it can give the client. The current
-    implementation requires that the timeout be a minimum of 2 times
-    the tickTime (as set in the server configuration) and a maximum of
-    20 times the tickTime. The ZooKeeper client API allows access to
-    the negotiated timeout.</p>
-<p>When a client (session) becomes partitioned from the ZK
-    serving cluster it will begin searching the list of servers that
-    were specified during session creation. Eventually, when
-    connectivity between the client and at least one of the servers is
-    re-established, the session will either again transition to the
-    "connected" state (if reconnected within the session timeout
-    value) or it will transition to the "expired" state (if
-    reconnected after the session timeout). It is not advisable to
-    create a new session object (a new ZooKeeper.class or zookeeper
-    handle in the c binding) for disconnection. The ZK client library
-    will handle reconnect for you. In particular we have heuristics
-    built into the client library to handle things like "herd effect",
-    etc... Only create a new session when you are notified of session
-    expiration (mandatory).</p>
-<p>Session expiration is managed by the ZooKeeper cluster
-    itself, not by the client. When the ZK client establishes a
-    session with the cluster it provides a "timeout" value detailed
-    above. This value is used by the cluster to determine when the
-    client's session expires. Expirations happens when the cluster
-    does not hear from the client within the specified session timeout
-    period (i.e. no heartbeat). At session expiration the cluster will
-    delete any/all ephemeral nodes owned by that session and
-    immediately notify any/all connected clients of the change (anyone
-    watching those znodes). At this point the client of the expired
-    session is still disconnected from the cluster, it will not be
-    notified of the session expiration until/unless it is able to
-    re-establish a connection to the cluster. The client will stay in
-    disconnected state until the TCP connection is re-established with
-    the cluster, at which point the watcher of the expired session
-    will receive the "session expired" notification.</p>
-<p>Example state transitions for an expired session as seen by
-    the expired session's watcher:</p>
-<ol>
-      
-<li>
-<p>'connected' : session is established and client
-      is communicating with cluster (client/server communication is
-      operating properly)</p>
-</li>
-      
-<li>
-<p>.... client is partitioned from the
-      cluster</p>
-</li>
-      
-<li>
-<p>'disconnected' : client has lost connectivity
-      with the cluster</p>
-</li>
-      
-<li>
-<p>.... time elapses, after 'timeout' period the
-      cluster expires the session, nothing is seen by client as it is
-      disconnected from cluster</p>
-</li>
-      
-<li>
-<p>.... time elapses, the client regains network
-      level connectivity with the cluster</p>
-</li>
-      
-<li>
-<p>'expired' : eventually the client reconnects to
-      the cluster, it is then notified of the
-      expiration</p>
-</li>
-    
-</ol>
-<p>Another parameter to the ZooKeeper session establishment
-    call is the default watcher. Watchers are notified when any state
-    change occurs in the client. For example if the client loses
-    connectivity to the server the client will be notified, or if the
-    client's session expires, etc... This watcher should consider the
-    initial state to be disconnected (i.e. before any state changes
-    events are sent to the watcher by the client lib). In the case of
-    a new connection, the first event sent to the watcher is typically
-    the session connection event.</p>
-<p>The session is kept alive by requests sent by the client. If
-    the session is idle for a period of time that would timeout the
-    session, the client will send a PING request to keep the session
-    alive. This PING request not only allows the ZooKeeper server to
-    know that the client is still active, but it also allows the
-    client to verify that its connection to the ZooKeeper server is
-    still active. The timing of the PING is conservative enough to
-    ensure reasonable time to detect a dead connection and reconnect
-    to a new server.</p>
-<p>
-      Once a connection to the server is successfully established
-      (connected) there are basically two cases where the client lib generates
-      connectionloss (the result code in c binding, exception in Java -- see 
-      the API documentation for binding specific details) when either a synchronous or
-      asynchronous operation is performed and one of the following holds:
-    </p>
-<ol>
-      
-<li>
-<p>The application calls an operation on a session that is no
-      longer alive/valid</p>
-</li>
-      
-<li>
-<p>The ZooKeeper client disconnects from a server when there
-      are pending operations to that server, i.e., there is a pending asynchronous call.
-      </p>
-</li>
-    
-</ol>
-<p> 
-<strong>Added in 3.2.0 -- SessionMovedException</strong>. There is an internal
-      exception that is generally not seen by clients called the SessionMovedException.
-      This exception occurs because a request was received on a connection for a session
-      which has been reestablished on a different server. The normal cause of this error is
-      a client that sends a request to a server, but the network packet gets delayed, so
-      the client times out and connects to a new server. When the delayed packet arrives at
-      the first server, the old server detects that the session has moved, and closes the
-      client connection. Clients normally do not see this error since they do not read
-      from those old connections. (Old connections are usually closed.) One situation in which this
-      condition can be seen is when two clients try to reestablish the same connection using
-      a saved session id and password. One of the clients will reestablish the connection
-      and the second client will be disconnected (causing the pair to attempt to re-establish
-      its connection/session indefinitely).</p>
-</div>
-
-  
-<a name="ch_zkWatches"></a>
-<h2 class="h3">ZooKeeper Watches</h2>
-<div class="section">
-<p>All of the read operations in ZooKeeper - <strong>getData()</strong>, <strong>getChildren()</strong>, and <strong>exists()</strong> - have the option of setting a watch as a
-    side effect. Here is ZooKeeper's definition of a watch: a watch event is
-    one-time trigger, sent to the client that set the watch, which occurs when
-    the data for which the watch was set changes. There are three key points
-    to consider in this definition of a watch:</p>
-<ul>
-      
-<li>
-        
-<p>
-<strong>One-time trigger</strong>
-</p>
-
-        
-<p>One watch event will be sent to the client when the data has changed.
-        For example, if a client does a getData("/znode1", true) and later the
-        data for /znode1 is changed or deleted, the client will get a watch
-        event for /znode1. If /znode1 changes again, no watch event will be
-        sent unless the client has done another read that sets a new
-        watch.</p>
-      
-</li>
-
-      
-<li>
-        
-<p>
-<strong>Sent to the client</strong>
-</p>
-
-        
-<p>This implies that an event is on the way to the client, but may
-        not reach the client before the successful return code to the change
-        operation reaches the client that initiated the change. Watches are
-        sent asynchronously to watchers. ZooKeeper provides an ordering
-        guarantee: a client will never see a change for which it has set a
-        watch until it first sees the watch event. Network delays or other
-        factors may cause different clients to see watches and return codes
-        from updates at different times. The key point is that everything seen
-        by the different clients will have a consistent order.</p>
-      
-</li>
-
-      
-<li>
-        
-<p>
-<strong>The data for which the watch was
-        set</strong>
-</p>
-
-        
-<p>This refers to the different ways a node can change.  It
-        helps to think of ZooKeeper as maintaining two lists of
-        watches: data watches and child watches.  getData() and
-        exists() set data watches. getChildren() sets child
-        watches. Alternatively, it may help to think of watches being
-        set according to the kind of data returned. getData() and
-        exists() return information about the data of the node,
-        whereas getChildren() returns a list of children.  Thus,
-        setData() will trigger data watches for the znode being set
-        (assuming the set is successful). A successful create() will
-        trigger a data watch for the znode being created and a child
-        watch for the parent znode. A successful delete() will trigger
-        both a data watch and a child watch (since there can be no
-        more children) for a znode being deleted as well as a child
-        watch for the parent znode.</p>
-      
-</li>
-    
-</ul>
-<p>Watches are maintained locally at the ZooKeeper server to which the
-    client is connected. This allows watches to be lightweight to set,
-    maintain, and dispatch. When a client connects to a new server, the watch
-    will be triggered for any session events. Watches will not be received
-    while disconnected from a server. When a client reconnects, any previously
-    registered watches will be reregistered and triggered if needed. In
-    general this all occurs transparently. There is one case where a watch
-    may be missed: a watch for the existence of a znode not yet created will
-    be missed if the znode is created and deleted while disconnected.</p>
-<a name="sc_WatchSemantics"></a>
-<h3 class="h4">Semantics of Watches</h3>
-<p> We can set watches with the three calls that read the state of 
-	  ZooKeeper: exists, getData, and getChildren. The following list details
-	  the events that a watch can trigger and the calls that enable them:
-	  </p>
-<ul>
-        
-<li>
-          
-<p>
-<strong>Created event:</strong>
-</p>
-          
-<p>Enabled with a call to exists.</p>
-        
-</li>
-        
-        
-<li>
-          
-<p>
-<strong>Deleted event:</strong>
-</p>
-          
-<p>Enabled with a call to exists, getData, and getChildren.</p>
-        
-</li>
-        
-        
-<li>
-          
-<p>
-<strong>Changed event:</strong>
-</p>
-          
-<p>Enabled with a call to exists and getData.</p>
-        
-</li>
-        
-        
-<li>
-          
-<p>
-<strong>Child event:</strong>
-</p>
-          
-<p>Enabled with a call to getChildren.</p>
-        
-</li>
-      
-</ul>
-<a name="sc_WatchGuarantees"></a>
-<h3 class="h4">What ZooKeeper Guarantees about Watches</h3>
-<p>With regard to watches, ZooKeeper maintains these
-      guarantees:</p>
-<ul>
-        
-<li>
-          
-<p>Watches are ordered with respect to other events, other
-          watches, and asynchronous replies. The ZooKeeper client libraries
-          ensures that everything is dispatched in order.</p>
-        
-</li>
-      
-</ul>
-<ul>
-        
-<li>
-          
-<p>A client will see a watch event for a znode it is watching
-          before seeing the new data that corresponds to that znode.</p>
-        
-</li>
-      
-</ul>
-<ul>
-        
-<li>
-          
-<p>The order of watch events from ZooKeeper corresponds to the
-          order of the updates as seen by the ZooKeeper service.</p>
-        
-</li>
-      
-</ul>
-<a name="sc_WatchRememberThese"></a>
-<h3 class="h4">Things to Remember about Watches</h3>
-<ul>
-        
-<li>
-          
-<p>Watches are one time triggers; if you get a watch event and
-          you want to get notified of future changes, you must set another
-          watch.</p>
-        
-</li>
-      
-</ul>
-<ul>
-        
-<li>
-          
-<p>Because watches are one time triggers and there is latency
-          between getting the event and sending a new request to get a watch
-          you cannot reliably see every change that happens to a node in
-          ZooKeeper. Be prepared to handle the case where the znode changes
-          multiple times between getting the event and setting the watch
-          again. (You may not care, but at least realize it may
-          happen.)</p>
-        
-</li>
-      
-</ul>
-<ul>
-        
-<li>
-          
-<p>A watch object, or function/context pair, will only be
-          triggered once for a given notification. For example, if the same
-          watch object is registered for an exists and a getData call for the
-          same file and that file is then deleted, the watch object would
-          only be invoked once with the deletion notification for the file.
-          </p>
-        
-</li>
-      
-</ul>
-<ul>
-        
-<li>
-          
-<p>When you disconnect from a server (for example, when the
-          server fails), you will not get any watches until the connection
-          is reestablished. For this reason session events are sent to all
-          outstanding watch handlers. Use session events to go into a safe
-          mode: you will not be receiving events while disconnected, so your
-          process should act conservatively in that mode.</p>
-        
-</li>
-      
-</ul>
-</div>
-
-  
-<a name="sc_ZooKeeperAccessControl"></a>
-<h2 class="h3">ZooKeeper access control using ACLs</h2>
-<div class="section">
-<p>ZooKeeper uses ACLs to control access to its znodes (the
-    data nodes of a ZooKeeper data tree). The ACL implementation is
-    quite similar to UNIX file access permissions: it employs
-    permission bits to allow/disallow various operations against a
-    node and the scope to which the bits apply. Unlike standard UNIX
-    permissions, a ZooKeeper node is not limited by the three standard
-    scopes for user (owner of the file), group, and world
-    (other). ZooKeeper does not have a notion of an owner of a
-    znode. Instead, an ACL specifies sets of ids and permissions that
-    are associated with those ids.</p>
-<p>Note also that an ACL pertains only to a specific znode. In
-    particular it does not apply to children. For example, if
-    <em>/app</em> is only readable by ip:172.16.16.1 and
-    <em>/app/status</em> is world readable, anyone will
-    be able to read <em>/app/status</em>; ACLs are not
-    recursive.</p>
-<p>ZooKeeper supports pluggable authentication schemes. Ids are
-    specified using the form <em>scheme:id</em>,
-    where <em>scheme</em> is a the authentication scheme
-    that the id corresponds to. For
-    example, <em>ip:172.16.16.1</em> is an id for a
-    host with the address <em>172.16.16.1</em>.</p>
-<p>When a client connects to ZooKeeper and authenticates
-    itself, ZooKeeper associates all the ids that correspond to a
-    client with the clients connection. These ids are checked against
-    the ACLs of znodes when a clients tries to access a node. ACLs are
-    made up of pairs of <em>(scheme:expression,
-    perms)</em>. The format of
-    the <em>expression</em> is specific to the scheme. For
-    example, the pair <em>(ip:19.22.0.0/16, READ)</em>
-    gives the <em>READ</em> permission to any clients with
-    an IP address that starts with 19.22.</p>
-<a name="sc_ACLPermissions"></a>
-<h3 class="h4">ACL Permissions</h3>
-<p>ZooKeeper supports the following permissions:</p>
-<ul>
-        
-<li>
-<p>
-<strong>CREATE</strong>: you can create a child node</p>
-</li>
-        
-<li>
-<p>
-<strong>READ</strong>: you can get data from a node and list its children.</p>
-</li>
-        
-<li>
-<p>
-<strong>WRITE</strong>: you can set data for a node</p>
-</li>
-        
-<li>
-<p>
-<strong>DELETE</strong>: you can delete a child node</p>
-</li>
-        
-<li>
-<p>
-<strong>ADMIN</strong>: you can set permissions</p>
-</li>
-      
-</ul>
-<p>The <em>CREATE</em>
-      and <em>DELETE</em> permissions have been broken out
-      of the <em>WRITE</em> permission for finer grained
-      access controls. The cases for <em>CREATE</em>
-      and <em>DELETE</em> are the following:</p>
-<p>You want A to be able to do a set on a ZooKeeper node, but
-      not be able to <em>CREATE</em>
-      or <em>DELETE</em> children.</p>
-<p>
-<em>CREATE</em>
-      without <em>DELETE</em>: clients create requests by
-      creating ZooKeeper nodes in a parent directory. You want all
-      clients to be able to add, but only request processor can
-      delete. (This is kind of like the APPEND permission for
-      files.)</p>
-<p>Also, the <em>ADMIN</em> permission is there
-      since ZooKeeper doesn&rsquo;t have a notion of file owner. In some
-      sense the <em>ADMIN</em> permission designates the
-      entity as the owner. ZooKeeper doesn&rsquo;t support the LOOKUP
-      permission (execute permission bit on directories to allow you
-      to LOOKUP even though you can't list the directory). Everyone
-      implicitly has LOOKUP permission. This allows you to stat a
-      node, but nothing more. (The problem is, if you want to call
-      zoo_exists() on a node that doesn't exist, there is no
-      permission to check.)</p>
-<a name="sc_BuiltinACLSchemes"></a>
-<h4>Builtin ACL Schemes</h4>
-<p>ZooKeeeper has the following built in schemes:</p>
-<ul>
-        
-<li>
-<p>
-<strong>world</strong> has a
-        single id, <em>anyone</em>, that represents
-        anyone.</p>
-</li>
-
-        
-<li>
-<p>
-<strong>auth</strong> doesn't
-        use any id, represents any authenticated
-        user.</p>
-</li>
-
-        
-<li>
-<p>
-<strong>digest</strong> uses
-        a <em>username:password</em> string to generate
-        MD5 hash which is then used as an ACL ID
-        identity. Authentication is done by sending
-        the <em>username:password</em> in clear text. When
-        used in the ACL the expression will be
-        the <em>username:base64</em>
-        encoded <em>SHA1</em>
-        password <em>digest</em>.</p>
-        
-</li>
-
-        
-<li>
-<p>
-<strong>ip</strong> uses the
-        client host IP as an ACL ID identity. The ACL expression is of
-        the form <em>addr/bits</em> where the most
-        significant <em>bits</em>
-        of <em>addr</em> are matched against the most
-        significant <em>bits</em> of the client host
-        IP.</p>
-</li>
-
-      
-</ul>
-<a name="ZooKeeper+C+client+API"></a>
-<h4>ZooKeeper C client API</h4>
-<p>The following constants are provided by the ZooKeeper C
-      library:</p>
-<ul>
-        
-<li>
-<p>
-<em>const</em> <em>int</em> ZOO_PERM_READ; //can read node&rsquo;s value and list its children</p>
-</li>
-        
-<li>
-<p>
-<em>const</em> <em>int</em> ZOO_PERM_WRITE;// can set the node&rsquo;s value</p>
-</li>
-        
-<li>
-<p>
-<em>const</em> <em>int</em> ZOO_PERM_CREATE; //can create children</p>
-</li>
-        
-<li>
-<p>
-<em>const</em> <em>int</em> ZOO_PERM_DELETE;// can delete children</p>
-</li>
-        
-<li>
-<p>
-<em>const</em> <em>int</em> ZOO_PERM_ADMIN; //can execute set_acl()</p>
-</li>
-        
-<li>
-<p>
-<em>const</em> <em>int</em> ZOO_PERM_ALL;// all of the above flags OR&rsquo;d together</p>
-</li>
-      
-</ul>
-<p>The following are the standard ACL IDs:</p>
-<ul>
-        
-<li>
-<p>
-<em>struct</em> Id ZOO_ANYONE_ID_UNSAFE; //(&lsquo;world&rsquo;,&rsquo;anyone&rsquo;)</p>
-</li>
-        
-<li>
-<p>
-<em>struct</em> Id ZOO_AUTH_IDS;// (&lsquo;auth&rsquo;,&rsquo;&rsquo;)</p>
-</li>
-      
-</ul>
-<p>ZOO_AUTH_IDS empty identity string should be interpreted as &ldquo;the identity of the creator&rdquo;.</p>
-<p>ZooKeeper client comes with three standard ACLs:</p>
-<ul>
-        
-<li>
-<p>
-<em>struct</em> ACL_vector ZOO_OPEN_ACL_UNSAFE; //(ZOO_PERM_ALL,ZOO_ANYONE_ID_UNSAFE)</p>
-</li>
-        
-<li>
-<p>
-<em>struct</em> ACL_vector ZOO_READ_ACL_UNSAFE;// (ZOO_PERM_READ, ZOO_ANYONE_ID_UNSAFE)</p>
-</li>
-        
-<li>
-<p>
-<em>struct</em> ACL_vector ZOO_CREATOR_ALL_ACL; //(ZOO_PERM_ALL,ZOO_AUTH_IDS)</p>
-</li>
-      
-</ul>
-<p>The ZOO_OPEN_ACL_UNSAFE is completely open free for all
-      ACL: any application can execute any operation on the node and
-      can create, list and delete its children. The
-      ZOO_READ_ACL_UNSAFE is read-only access for any
-      application. CREATE_ALL_ACL grants all permissions to the
-      creator of the node. The creator must have been authenticated by
-      the server (for example, using &ldquo;<em>digest</em>&rdquo;
-      scheme) before it can create nodes with this ACL.</p>
-<p>The following ZooKeeper operations deal with ACLs:</p>
-<ul>
-<li>
-          
-<p>
-<em>int</em> <em>zoo_add_auth</em>
-            (zhandle_t *zh,<em>const</em> <em>char</em>*
-            scheme,<em>const</em> <em>char</em>*
-            cert, <em>int</em> certLen, void_completion_t
-            completion, <em>const</em> <em>void</em>
-            *data);</p>
-      
-</li>
-</ul>
-<p>The application uses the zoo_add_auth function to
-      authenticate itself to the server. The function can be called
-      multiple times if the application wants to authenticate using
-      different schemes and/or identities.</p>
-<ul>
-<li>
-          
-<p>
-<em>int</em> <em>zoo_create</em>
-            (zhandle_t *zh, <em>const</em> <em>char</em>
-            *path, <em>const</em> <em>char</em>
-            *value,<em>int</em>
-            valuelen, <em>const</em> <em>struct</em>
-            ACL_vector *acl, <em>int</em>
-            flags,<em>char</em>
-            *realpath, <em>int</em>
-            max_realpath_len);</p>
-      
-</li>
-</ul>
-<p>zoo_create(...) operation creates a new node. The acl
-      parameter is a list of ACLs associated with the node. The parent
-      node must have the CREATE permission bit set.</p>
-<ul>
-<li>
-          
-<p>
-<em>int</em> <em>zoo_get_acl</em>
-            (zhandle_t *zh, <em>const</em> <em>char</em>
-            *path,<em>struct</em> ACL_vector
-            *acl, <em>struct</em> Stat *stat);</p>
-      
-</li>
-</ul>
-<p>This operation returns a node&rsquo;s ACL info.</p>
-<ul>
-<li>
-          
-<p>
-<em>int</em> <em>zoo_set_acl</em>
-            (zhandle_t *zh, <em>const</em> <em>char</em>
-            *path, <em>int</em>
-            version,<em>const</em> <em>struct</em>
-            ACL_vector *acl);</p>
-      
-</li>
-</ul>
-<p>This function replaces node&rsquo;s ACL list with a new one. The
-      node must have the ADMIN permission set.</p>
-<p>Here is a sample code that makes use of the above APIs to
-      authenticate itself using the &ldquo;<em>foo</em>&rdquo; scheme
-      and create an ephemeral node &ldquo;/xyz&rdquo; with create-only
-      permissions.</p>
-<div class="note">
-<div class="label">Note</div>
-<div class="content">
-<p>This is a very simple example which is intended to show
-        how to interact with ZooKeeper ACLs
-        specifically. See <span class="codefrag filename">.../trunk/src/c/src/cli.c</span>
-        for an example of a C client implementation</p>
-      
-</div>
-</div>
-<pre class="code">
-#include &lt;string.h&gt;
-#include &lt;errno.h&gt;
-
-#include "zookeeper.h"
-
-static zhandle_t *zh;
-
-/**
- * In this example this method gets the cert for your
- *   environment -- you must provide
- */
-char *foo_get_cert_once(char* id) { return 0; }
-
-/** Watcher function -- empty for this example, not something you should
- * do in real code */
-void watcher(zhandle_t *zzh, int type, int state, const char *path,
-             void *watcherCtx) {}
-
-int main(int argc, char argv) {
-  char buffer[512];
-  char p[2048];
-  char *cert=0;
-  char appId[64];
-
-  strcpy(appId, "example.foo_test");
-  cert = foo_get_cert_once(appId);
-  if(cert!=0) {
-    fprintf(stderr,
-            "Certificate for appid [%s] is [%s]\n",appId,cert);
-    strncpy(p,cert, sizeof(p)-1);
-    free(cert);
-  } else {
-    fprintf(stderr, "Certificate for appid [%s] not found\n",appId);
-    strcpy(p, "dummy");
-  }
-
-  zoo_set_debug_level(ZOO_LOG_LEVEL_DEBUG);
-
-  zh = zookeeper_init("localhost:3181", watcher, 10000, 0, 0, 0);
-  if (!zh) {
-    return errno;
-  }
-  if(zoo_add_auth(zh,"foo",p,strlen(p),0,0)!=ZOK)
-    return 2;
-
-  struct ACL CREATE_ONLY_ACL[] = {{ZOO_PERM_CREATE, ZOO_AUTH_IDS}};
-  struct ACL_vector CREATE_ONLY = {1, CREATE_ONLY_ACL};
-  int rc = zoo_create(zh,"/xyz","value", 5, &amp;CREATE_ONLY, ZOO_EPHEMERAL,
-                      buffer, sizeof(buffer)-1);
-
-  /** this operation will fail with a ZNOAUTH error */
-  int buflen= sizeof(buffer);
-  struct Stat stat;
-  rc = zoo_get(zh, "/xyz", 0, buffer, &amp;buflen, &amp;stat);
-  if (rc) {
-    fprintf(stderr, "Error %d for %s\n", rc, __LINE__);
-  }
-
-  zookeeper_close(zh);
-  return 0;
-}
-      </pre>
-</div>
-
-  
-<a name="sc_ZooKeeperPluggableAuthentication"></a>
-<h2 class="h3">Pluggable ZooKeeper authentication</h2>
-<div class="section">
-<p>ZooKeeper runs in a variety of different environments with
-    various different authentication schemes, so it has a completely
-    pluggable authentication framework. Even the builtin authentication
-    schemes use the pluggable authentication framework.</p>
-<p>To understand how the authentication framework works, first you must
-    understand the two main authentication operations. The framework 
-    first must authenticate the client. This is usually done as soon as
-    the client connects to a server and consists of validating information
-    sent from or gathered about a client and associating it with the connection.
-    The second operation handled by the framework is finding the entries in an
-    ACL that correspond to client. ACL entries are &lt;<em>idspec, 
-    permissions</em>&gt; pairs. The <em>idspec</em> may be
-    a simple string match against the authentication information associated
-    with the connection or it may be a expression that is evaluated against that
-    information. It is up to the implementation of the authentication plugin
-    to do the match. Here is the interface that an authentication plugin must
-    implement:</p>
-<pre class="code">
-public interface AuthenticationProvider {
-    String getScheme();
-    KeeperException.Code handleAuthentication(ServerCnxn cnxn, byte authData[]);
-    boolean isValid(String id);
-    boolean matches(String id, String aclExpr);
-    boolean isAuthenticated();
-}
-    </pre>
-<p>The first method <em>getScheme</em> returns the string
-    that identifies the plugin. Because we support multiple methods of authentication,
-    an authentication credential or an <em>idspec</em> will always be
-    prefixed with <em>scheme:</em>. The ZooKeeper server uses the scheme
-    returned by the authentication plugin to determine which ids the scheme
-    applies to.</p>
-<p>
-<em>handleAuthentication</em> is called when a client
-    sends authentication information to be associated with a connection. The
-    client specifies the scheme to which the information corresponds. The
-    ZooKeeper server passes the information to the authentication plugin whose
-    <em>getScheme</em> matches the scheme passed by the client. The
-    implementor of <em>handleAuthentication</em> will usually return
-    an error if it determines that the information is bad, or it will associate information
-    with the connection using <em>cnxn.getAuthInfo().add(new Id(getScheme(), data))</em>.
-    </p>
-<p>The authentication plugin is involved in both setting and using ACLs. When an
-    ACL is set for a znode, the ZooKeeper server will pass the id part of the entry to
-    the <em>isValid(String id)</em> method. It is up to the plugin to verify
-    that the id has a correct form. For example, <em>ip:172.16.0.0/16</em>
-    is a valid id, but <em>ip:host.com</em> is not. If the new ACL includes
-    an "auth" entry, <em>isAuthenticated</em> is used to see if the 
-    authentication information for this scheme that is assocatied with the connection
-    should be added to the ACL. Some schemes
-    should not be included in auth. For example, the IP address of the client is not
-    considered as an id that should be added to the ACL if auth is specified.</p>
-<p>ZooKeeper invokes
-    <em>matches(String id, String aclExpr)</em> when checking an ACL. It
-    needs to match authentication information of the client against the relevant ACL
-    entries. To find the entries which apply to the client, the ZooKeeper server will
-    find the scheme of each entry and if there is authentication information
-    from that client for that scheme, <em>matches(String id, String aclExpr)</em>
-    will be called with <em>id</em> set to the authentication information
-    that was previously added to the connection by <em>handleAuthentication</em> and
-    <em>aclExpr</em> set to the id of the ACL entry. The authentication plugin
-    uses its own logic and matching scheme to determine if <em>id</em> is included
-    in <em>aclExpr</em>. 
-    </p>
-<p>There are two built in authentication plugins: <em>ip</em> and
-    <em>digest</em>. Additional plugins can adding using system properties. At
-    startup the ZooKeeper server will look for system properties that start with
-    "zookeeper.authProvider." and interpret the value of those properties as the class name
-    of an authentication plugin. These properties can be set using the
-    <em>-Dzookeeeper.authProvider.X=com.f.MyAuth</em> or adding entries such as
-    the following in the server configuration file:</p>
-<pre class="code">
-authProvider.1=com.f.MyAuth
-authProvider.2=com.f.MyAuth2
-    </pre>
-<p>Care should be taking to ensure that the suffix on the property is unique. If there are 
-    duplicates such as <em>-Dzookeeeper.authProvider.X=com.f.MyAuth -Dzookeeper.authProvider.X=com.f.MyAuth2</em>,
-    only one will be used. Also all servers must have the same plugins defined, otherwise clients using
-    the authentication schemes provided by the plugins will have problems connecting to some servers.
-    </p>
-</div>
-      
-  
-<a name="ch_zkGuarantees"></a>
-<h2 class="h3">Consistency Guarantees</h2>
-<div class="section">
-<p>ZooKeeper is a high performance, scalable service. Both reads and
-    write operations are designed to be fast, though reads are faster than
-    writes. The reason for this is that in the case of reads, ZooKeeper can
-    serve older data, which in turn is due to ZooKeeper's consistency
-    guarantees:</p>
-<dl>
-      
-<dt>
-<term>Sequential Consistency</term>
-</dt>
-<dd>
-<p>Updates from a client will be applied in the order that they
-          were sent.</p>
-</dd>
-
-      
-<dt>
-<term>Atomicity</term>
-</dt>
-<dd>
-<p>Updates either succeed or fail -- there are no partial
-          results.</p>
-</dd>
-
-      
-<dt>
-<term>Single System Image</term>
-</dt>
-<dd>
-<p>A client will see the same view of the service regardless of
-          the server that it connects to.</p>
-</dd>
-
-      
-<dt>
-<term>Reliability</term>
-</dt>
-<dd>
-<p>Once an update has been applied, it will persist from that
-          time forward until a client overwrites the update. This guarantee
-          has two corollaries:</p>
-<ol>
-            
-<li>
-              
-<p>If a client gets a successful return code, the update will
-              have been applied. On some failures (communication errors,
-              timeouts, etc) the client will not know if the update has
-              applied or not. We take steps to minimize the failures, but the
-              guarantee is only present with successful return codes.
-              (This is called the <em>monotonicity condition</em> in Paxos.)</p>
-            
-</li>
-
-            
-<li>
-              
-<p>Any updates that are seen by the client, through a read
-              request or successful update, will never be rolled back when
-              recovering from server failures.</p>
-            
-</li>
-          
-</ol>
-</dd>
-
-      
-<dt>
-<term>Timeliness</term>
-</dt>
-<dd>
-<p>The clients view of the system is guaranteed to be up-to-date
-          within a certain time bound (on the order of tens of seconds).
-          Either system changes will be seen by a client within this bound, or
-          the client will detect a service outage.</p>
-</dd>
-    
-</dl>
-<p>Using these consistency guarantees it is easy to build higher level
-    functions such as leader election, barriers, queues, and read/write
-    revocable locks solely at the ZooKeeper client (no additions needed to
-    ZooKeeper). See <a href="recipes.html">Recipes and Solutions</a>
-    for more details.</p>
-<div class="note">
-<div class="label">Note</div>
-<div class="content">
-        
-<p>Sometimes developers mistakenly assume one other guarantee that
-        ZooKeeper does <em>not</em> in fact make. This is:</p>
-
-        
-<dl>
-          
-<dt>
-<term>Simultaneously Consistent Cross-Client Views</term>
-</dt>
-<dd>
-<p>ZooKeeper does not guarantee that at every instance in
-              time, two different clients will have identical views of
-              ZooKeeper data. Due to factors like network delays, one client
-              may perform an update before another client gets notified of the
-              change. Consider the scenario of two clients, A and B. If client
-              A sets the value of a znode /a from 0 to 1, then tells client B
-              to read /a, client B may read the old value of 0, depending on
-              which server it is connected to. If it
-              is important that Client A and Client B read the same value,
-              Client B should should call the <strong>sync()</strong> method from the ZooKeeper API
-              method before it performs its read.</p>
-<p>So, ZooKeeper by itself doesn't guarantee that changes occur 
-              synchronously across all servers, but ZooKeeper
-              primitives can be used to construct higher level functions that
-              provide useful client synchronization. (For more information,
-              see the <a href="recipes.html">ZooKeeper Recipes</a>.
-              <em>[tbd:..]</em>).</p>
-</dd>
-        
-</dl>
-      
-</div>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-  
-<a name="ch_bindings"></a>
-<h2 class="h3">Bindings</h2>
-<div class="section">
-<p>The ZooKeeper client libraries come in two languages: Java and C.
-    The following sections describe these.</p>
-<a name="Java+Binding"></a>
-<h3 class="h4">Java Binding</h3>
-<p>There are two packages that make up the ZooKeeper Java binding:
-      <strong>org.apache.zookeeper</strong> and <strong>org.apache.zookeeper.data</strong>. The rest of the
-      packages that make up ZooKeeper are used internally or are part of the
-      server implementation. The <strong>org.apache.zookeeper.data</strong> package is made up of
-      generated classes that are used simply as containers.</p>
-<p>The main class used by a ZooKeeper Java client is the <strong>ZooKeeper</strong> class. Its two constructors differ only
-      by an optional session id and password. ZooKeeper supports session
-      recovery accross instances of a process. A Java program may save its
-      session id and password to stable storage, restart, and recover the
-      session that was used by the earlier instance of the program.</p>
-<p>When a ZooKeeper object is created, two threads are created as
-      well: an IO thread and an event thread. All IO happens on the IO thread
-      (using Java NIO). All event callbacks happen on the event thread.
-      Session maintenance such as reconnecting to ZooKeeper servers and
-      maintaining heartbeat is done on the IO thread. Responses for
-      synchronous methods are also processed in the IO thread. All responses
-      to asynchronous methods and watch events are processed on the event
-      thread. There are a few things to notice that result from this
-      design:</p>
-<ul>
-        
-<li>
-          
-<p>All completions for asynchronous calls and watcher callbacks
-          will be made in order, one at a time. The caller can do any
-          processing they wish, but no other callbacks will be processed
-          during that time.</p>
-        
-</li>
-
-        
-<li>
-          
-<p>Callbacks do not block the processing of the IO thread or the
-          processing of the synchronous calls.</p>
-        
-</li>
-
-        
-<li>
-          
-<p>Synchronous calls may not return in the correct order. For
-          example, assume a client does the following processing: issues an
-          asynchronous read of node <strong>/a</strong> with
-          <em>watch</em> set to true, and then in the completion
-          callback of the read it does a synchronous read of <strong>/a</strong>. (Maybe not good practice, but not illegal
-          either, and it makes for a simple example.)</p>
-
-          
-<p>Note that if there is a change to <strong>/a</strong> between the asynchronous read and the
-          synchronous read, the client library will receive the watch event
-          saying <strong>/a</strong> changed before the
-          response for the synchronous read, but because the completion
-          callback is blocking the event queue, the synchronous read will
-          return with the new value of <strong>/a</strong>
-          before the watch event is processed.</p>
-        
-</li>
-      
-</ul>
-<p>Finally, the rules associated with shutdown are straightforward:
-      once a ZooKeeper object is closed or receives a fatal event
-      (SESSION_EXPIRED and AUTH_FAILED), the ZooKeeper object becomes invalid.
-      On a close, the two threads shut down and any further access on zookeeper
-      handle is undefined behavior and should be avoided. </p>
-<a name="C+Binding"></a>
-<h3 class="h4">C Binding</h3>
-<p>The C binding has a single-threaded and multi-threaded library.
-      The multi-threaded library is easiest to use and is most similar to the
-      Java API. This library will create an IO thread and an event dispatch
-      thread for handling connection maintenance and callbacks. The
-      single-threaded library allows ZooKeeper to be used in event driven
-      applications by exposing the event loop used in the multi-threaded
-      library.</p>
-<p>The package includes two shared libraries: zookeeper_st and
-      zookeeper_mt. The former only provides the asynchronous APIs and
-      callbacks for integrating into the application's event loop. The only
-      reason this library exists is to support the platforms were a
-      <em>pthread</em> library is not available or is unstable
-      (i.e. FreeBSD 4.x). In all other cases, application developers should
-      link with zookeeper_mt, as it includes support for both Sync and Async
-      API.</p>
-<a name="Installation"></a>
-<h4>Installation</h4>
-<p>If you're building the client from a check-out from the Apache
-        repository, follow the steps outlined below. If you're building from a
-        project source package downloaded from apache, skip to step <strong>3</strong>.</p>
-<ol>
-          
-<li>
-            
-<p>Run <span class="codefrag command">ant compile_jute</span> from the ZooKeeper
-            top level directory (<span class="codefrag filename">.../trunk</span>).
-            This will create a directory named "generated" under
-            <span class="codefrag filename">.../trunk/src/c</span>.</p>
-          
-</li>
-
-          
-<li>
-            
-<p>Change directory to the<span class="codefrag filename">.../trunk/src/c</span>
-            and run <span class="codefrag command">autoreconf -if</span> to bootstrap <strong>autoconf</strong>, <strong>automake</strong> and <strong>libtool</strong>. Make sure you have <strong>autoconf version 2.59</strong> or greater installed.
-            Skip to step<strong> 4</strong>.</p>
-          
-</li>
-
-          
-<li>
-            
-<p>If you are building from a project source package,
-            unzip/untar the source tarball and cd to the<span class="codefrag filename">
-            zookeeper-x.x.x/src/c</span> directory.</p>
-          
-</li>
-
-          
-<li>
-            
-<p>Run <span class="codefrag command">./configure &lt;your-options&gt;</span> to
-            generate the makefile. Here are some of options the <strong>configure</strong> utility supports that can be
-            useful in this step:</p>
-
-            
-<ul>
-              
-<li>
-                
-<p>
-<span class="codefrag command">--enable-debug</span>
-</p>
-
-                
-<p>Enables optimization and enables debug info compiler
-                options. (Disabled by default.)</p>
-              
-</li>
-
-              
-<li>
-                
-<p>
-<span class="codefrag command">--without-syncapi </span>
-</p>
-
-                
-<p>Disables Sync API support; zookeeper_mt library won't be
-                built. (Enabled by default.)</p>
-              
-</li>
-
-              
-<li>
-                
-<p>
-<span class="codefrag command">--disable-static </span>
-</p>
-
-                
-<p>Do not build static libraries. (Enabled by
-                default.)</p>
-              
-</li>
-
-              
-<li>
-                
-<p>
-<span class="codefrag command">--disable-shared</span>
-</p>
-
-                
-<p>Do not build shared libraries. (Enabled by
-                default.)</p>
-              
-</li>
-            
-</ul>
-
-            
-<div class="note">
-<div class="label">Note</div>
-<div class="content">
-              
-<p>See INSTALL for general information about running
-              <strong>configure</strong>.</p>
-            
-</div>
-</div>
-          
-</li>
-
-          
-<li>
-            
-<p>Run <span class="codefrag command">make</span> or <span class="codefrag command">make
-            install</span> to build the libraries and install them.</p>
-          
-</li>
-
-          
-<li>
-            
-<p>To generate doxygen documentation for the ZooKeeper API, run
-            <span class="codefrag command">make doxygen-doc</span>. All documentation will be
-            placed in a new subfolder named docs. By default, this command
-            only generates HTML. For information on other document formats,
-            run <span class="codefrag command">./configure --help</span>
-</p>
-          
-</li>
-        
-</ol>
-<a name="Building+Your+Own+C+Client"></a>
-<h4>Building Your Own C Client</h4>
-<p>In order to be able to use the ZooKeeper API in your application
-        you have to remember to</p>
-<ol>
-          
-<li>
-            
-<p>Include ZooKeeper header: #include
-              &lt;zookeeper/zookeeper.h&gt;</p>
-          
-</li>
-
-          
-<li>
-            
-<p>If you are building a multithreaded client, compile with
-            -DTHREADED compiler flag to enable the multi-threaded version of
-            the library, and then link against against the
-            <em>zookeeper_mt</em> library. If you are building a
-            single-threaded client, do not compile with -DTHREADED, and be
-            sure to link against the<em> zookeeper_st
-            </em>library.</p>
-          
-</li>
-        
-</ol>
-<div class="note">
-<div class="label">Note</div>
-<div class="content">
-<p>
-          See <span class="codefrag filename">.../trunk/src/c/src/cli.c</span>
-            for an example of a C client implementation</p>
-        
-</div>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-   
-<a name="ch_guideToZkOperations"></a>
-<h2 class="h3">Building Blocks: A Guide to ZooKeeper Operations</h2>
-<div class="section">
-<p>This section surveys all the operations a developer can perform
-    against a ZooKeeper server. It is lower level information than the earlier
-    concepts chapters in this manual, but higher level than the ZooKeeper API
-    Reference. It covers these topics:</p>
-<ul>
-      
-<li>
-        
-<p>
-<a href="#sc_connectingToZk">Connecting to ZooKeeper</a>
-</p>
-      
-</li>
-    
-</ul>
-<a name="sc_errorsZk"></a>
-<h3 class="h4">Handling Errors</h3>
-<p>Both the Java and C client bindings may report errors. The Java client binding does so by throwing KeeperException, calling code() on the exception will return the specific error code. The C client binding returns an error code as defined in the enum ZOO_ERRORS. API callbacks indicate result code for both language bindings. See the API documentation (javadoc for Java, doxygen for C) for full details on the possible errors and their meaning.</p>
-<a name="sc_connectingToZk"></a>
-<h3 class="h4">Connecting to ZooKeeper</h3>
-<p></p>
-<a name="sc_readOps"></a>
-<h3 class="h4">Read Operations</h3>
-<p></p>
-<a name="sc_writeOps"></a>
-<h3 class="h4">Write Operations</h3>
-<p></p>
-<a name="sc_handlingWatches"></a>
-<h3 class="h4">Handling Watches</h3>
-<p></p>
-<a name="sc_miscOps"></a>
-<h3 class="h4">Miscelleaneous ZooKeeper Operations</h3>
-<p></p>
-</div>
-
-  
-<a name="ch_programStructureWithExample"></a>
-<h2 class="h3">Program Structure, with Simple Example</h2>
-<div class="section">
-<p>
-<em>[tbd]</em>
-</p>
-</div>
-
-  
-<a name="ch_gotchas"></a>
-<h2 class="h3">Gotchas: Common Problems and Troubleshooting</h2>
-<div class="section">
-<p>So now you know ZooKeeper. It's fast, simple, your application
-    works, but wait ... something's wrong. Here are some pitfalls that
-    ZooKeeper users fall into:</p>
-<ol>
-      
-<li>
-        
-<p>If you are using watches, you must look for the connected watch
-        event. When a ZooKeeper client disconnects from a server, you will
-        not receive notification of changes until reconnected. If you are
-        watching for a znode to come into existence, you will miss the event
-        if the znode is created and deleted while you are disconnected.</p>
-      
-</li>
-
-      
-<li>
-        
-<p>You must test ZooKeeper server failures. The ZooKeeper service
-        can survive failures as long as a majority of servers are active. The
-        question to ask is: can your application handle it? In the real world
-        a client's connection to ZooKeeper can break. (ZooKeeper server
-        failures and network partitions are common reasons for connection
-        loss.) The ZooKeeper client library takes care of recovering your
-        connection and letting you know what happened, but you must make sure
-        that you recover your state and any outstanding requests that failed.
-        Find out if you got it right in the test lab, not in production - test
-        with a ZooKeeper service made up of a several of servers and subject
-        them to reboots.</p>
-      
-</li>
-
-      
-<li>
-        
-<p>The list of ZooKeeper servers used by the client must match the
-        list of ZooKeeper servers that each ZooKeeper server has. Things can
-        work, although not optimally, if the client list is a subset of the
-        real list of ZooKeeper servers, but not if the client lists ZooKeeper
-        servers not in the ZooKeeper cluster.</p>
-      
-</li>
-
-      
-<li>
-        
-<p>Be careful where you put that transaction log. The most
-        performance-critical part of ZooKeeper is the transaction log.
-        ZooKeeper must sync transactions to media before it returns a
-        response. A dedicated transaction log device is key to consistent good
-        performance. Putting the log on a busy device will adversely effect
-        performance. If you only have one storage device, put trace files on
-        NFS and increase the snapshotCount; it doesn't eliminate the problem,
-        but it can mitigate it.</p>
-      
-</li>
-
-      
-<li>
-        
-<p>Set your Java max heap size correctly. It is very important to
-        <em>avoid swapping.</em> Going to disk unnecessarily will
-        almost certainly degrade your performance unacceptably. Remember, in
-        ZooKeeper, everything is ordered, so if one request hits the disk, all
-        other queued requests hit the disk.</p>
-
-        
-<p>To avoid swapping, try to set the heapsize to the amount of
-        physical memory you have, minus the amount needed by the OS and cache.
-        The best way to determine an optimal heap size for your configurations
-        is to <em>run load tests</em>. If for some reason you
-        can't, be conservative in your estimates and choose a number well
-        below the limit that would cause your machine to swap. For example, on
-        a 4G machine, a 3G heap is a conservative estimate to start
-        with.</p>
-      
-</li>
-    
-</ol>
-</div>
-
-  
-<a name="apx_linksToOtherInfo"></a>
-<appendix id="apx_linksToOtherInfo">
-    
-<title>Links to Other Information</title>
-
-    
-<p>Outside the formal documentation, there're several other sources of
-    information for ZooKeeper developers.</p>
-
-    
-<dl>
-      
-<dt>
-<term>ZooKeeper Whitepaper <em>[tbd: find url]</em>
-</term>
-</dt>
-<dd>
-<p>The definitive discussion of ZooKeeper design and performance,
-          by Yahoo! Research</p>
-</dd>
-
-      
-<dt>
-<term>API Reference <em>[tbd: find url]</em>
-</term>
-</dt>
-<dd>
-<p>The complete reference to the ZooKeeper API</p>
-</dd>
-
-      
-<dt>
-<term>
-<a href="http://us.dl1.yimg.com/download.yahoo.com/dl/ydn/zookeeper.m4v">ZooKeeper
-        Talk at the Hadoup Summit 2008</a>
-</term>
-</dt>
-<dd>
-<p>A video introduction to ZooKeeper, by Benjamin Reed of Yahoo!
-          Research</p>
-</dd>
-
-      
-<dt>
-<term>
-<a href="https://cwiki.apache.org/confluence/display/ZOOKEEPER/Tutorial">Barrier and
-        Queue Tutorial</a>
-</term>
-</dt>
-<dd>
-<p>The excellent Java tutorial by Flavio Junqueira, implementing
-          simple barriers and producer-consumer queues using ZooKeeper.</p>
-</dd>
-
-      
-<dt>
-<term>
-<a href="https://cwiki.apache.org/confluence/display/ZOOKEEPER/ZooKeeperArticles">ZooKeeper
-        - A Reliable, Scalable Distributed Coordination System</a>
-</term>
-</dt>
-<dd>
-<p>An article by Todd Hoff (07/15/2008)</p>
-</dd>
-
-      
-<dt>
-<term>
-<a href="recipes.html">ZooKeeper Recipes</a>
-</term>
-</dt>
-<dd>
-<p>Pseudo-level discussion of the implementation of various
-          synchronization solutions with ZooKeeper: Event Handles, Queues,
-          Locks, and Two-phase Commits.</p>
-</dd>
-
-      
-<dt>
-<term>
-<em>[tbd]</em>
-</term>
-</dt>
-<dd>
-<p>Any other good sources anyone can think of...</p>
-</dd>
-    
-</dl>
-  
-</appendix>
-
-<p align="right">
-<font size="-2"></font>
-</p>
-</div>
-<!--+
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-<h3>A Guide to Deployment and Administration</h3>
-<div id="front-matter">
-<div id="minitoc-area">
-<ul class="minitoc">
-<li>
-<a href="#zookeeper_quotas">Quotas</a>
-<ul class="minitoc">
-<li>
-<a href="#Setting+Quotas">Setting Quotas</a>
-</li>
-<li>
-<a href="#Listing+Quotas">Listing Quotas</a>
-</li>
-<li>
-<a href="#Deleting+Quotas"> Deleting Quotas</a>
-</li>
-</ul>
-</li>
-</ul>
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-	
-	
-	
-	
-<a name="zookeeper_quotas"></a>
-<h2 class="h3">Quotas</h2>
-<div class="section">
-<p> ZooKeeper has both namespace and bytes quotas. You can use the ZooKeeperMain class to setup quotas.
-	ZooKeeper prints <em>WARN</em> messages if users exceed the quota assigned to them. The messages 
-	are printed in the log of the ZooKeeper. 
-	</p>
-<p>
-<span class="codefrag computeroutput">$ bin/zkCli.sh -server host:port</span>
-</p>
-<p> The above command gives you a command line option of using quotas.</p>
-<a name="Setting+Quotas"></a>
-<h3 class="h4">Setting Quotas</h3>
-<p>You can use 
-	 <em>setquota</em> to set a quota on a ZooKeeper node. It has an option of setting quota with
-	  -n (for namespace)
-	 and -b (for bytes). </p>
-<p> The ZooKeeper quota are stored in ZooKeeper itself in /zookeeper/quota. To disable other people from
-	changing the quota's set the ACL for /zookeeper/quota such that only admins are able to read and write to it.
-	</p>
-<a name="Listing+Quotas"></a>
-<h3 class="h4">Listing Quotas</h3>
-<p> You can use
-	<em>listquota</em> to list a quota on a ZooKeeper node.
-	</p>
-<a name="Deleting+Quotas"></a>
-<h3 class="h4"> Deleting Quotas</h3>
-<p> You can use
-	<em>delquota</em> to delete quota on a ZooKeeper node.
-	</p>
-</div>
-	
-<p align="right">
-<font size="-2"></font>
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