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From ph...@apache.org
Subject svn commit: r724936 - in /hadoop/zookeeper/trunk: CHANGES.txt docs/zookeeperAdmin.html docs/zookeeperAdmin.pdf src/docs/src/documentation/content/xdocs/zookeeperAdmin.xml
Date Wed, 10 Dec 2008 00:11:48 GMT
Author: phunt
Date: Tue Dec  9 16:11:48 2008
New Revision: 724936

URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc?rev=724936&view=rev
Log:
ZOOKEEPER-161. Content needed: "Designing a ZooKeeper Deployment"

Modified:
    hadoop/zookeeper/trunk/CHANGES.txt
    hadoop/zookeeper/trunk/docs/zookeeperAdmin.html
    hadoop/zookeeper/trunk/docs/zookeeperAdmin.pdf
    hadoop/zookeeper/trunk/src/docs/src/documentation/content/xdocs/zookeeperAdmin.xml

Modified: hadoop/zookeeper/trunk/CHANGES.txt
URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc/hadoop/zookeeper/trunk/CHANGES.txt?rev=724936&r1=724935&r2=724936&view=diff
==============================================================================
--- hadoop/zookeeper/trunk/CHANGES.txt (original)
+++ hadoop/zookeeper/trunk/CHANGES.txt Tue Dec  9 16:11:48 2008
@@ -5,58 +5,62 @@
 Backward compatibile changes:
 
 BUGFIXES: 
-   ZOOKEEPER-211 Not all Mock tests are working (ben via phunt)
+  ZOOKEEPER-211. Not all Mock tests are working (ben via phunt)
 
-   ZOOKEEPER-223. change default level in root logger to INFO.
-   (pat via mahadev) 
+  ZOOKEEPER-223. change default level in root logger to INFO.
+  (pat via mahadev) 
    
-   ZOOKEEPER-212. fix the snapshot to be asynchronous. (mahadev and ben)
+  ZOOKEEPER-212. fix the snapshot to be asynchronous. (mahadev and ben)
 
-   ZOOKEEPER-213. fix programmer guide C api docs to be  in sync with latest
-   zookeeper.h (pat via mahadev)
+  ZOOKEEPER-213. fix programmer guide C api docs to be  in sync with latest
+  zookeeper.h (pat via mahadev)
 
-   ZOOKEEPER-219. fix events.poll timeout in watcher test to be longer.
-   (pat via mahadev)
+  ZOOKEEPER-219. fix events.poll timeout in watcher test to be longer.
+  (pat via mahadev)
    
-   ZOOKEEPER-217. Fix errors in config to be thrown as Exceptions. (mahadev)
+  ZOOKEEPER-217. Fix errors in config to be thrown as Exceptions. (mahadev)
 
-   ZOOKEEPER-228. fix apache header missing in DBTest. (mahadev)
+  ZOOKEEPER-228. fix apache header missing in DBTest. (mahadev)
 
-   ZOOKEEPER-218. fix the error in the barrier example code. (pat via mahadev)
+  ZOOKEEPER-218. fix the error in the barrier example code. (pat via mahadev)
 
-   ZOOKEEPER-206. documentation tab should contain the version number and 
-   other small site changes. (pat via mahadev) 
+  ZOOKEEPER-206. documentation tab should contain the version number and 
+  other small site changes. (pat via mahadev) 
 
-   ZOOKEEPER-226. fix exists calls that fail on server if node has null data.
-   (mahadev) 
+  ZOOKEEPER-226. fix exists calls that fail on server if node has null data.
+  (mahadev) 
 
-   ZOOKEEPER-204. SetWatches needs to be the first message after auth messages
-to the server (ben via mahadev)
+  ZOOKEEPER-204. SetWatches needs to be the first message after auth
+  messages to the server (ben via mahadev)
   
-   ZOOKEEPER-208. Zookeeper C client uses API that are not thread safe,
-causing crashes when multiple instances are active. (austin shoemaker, chris
-daroch and ben reed via mahadev) 
+  ZOOKEEPER-208. Zookeeper C client uses API that are not thread safe,
+  causing crashes when multiple instances are active.
+  (austin shoemaker, chris daroch and ben reed via mahadev) 
 
-   ZOOKEEPER-227. gcc warning from recordio.h (chris darroch via mahadev)
+  ZOOKEEPER-227. gcc warning from recordio.h (chris darroch via mahadev)
 
-   ZOOKEEPER-232. fix apache licence header in TestableZookeeper (mahadev)
+  ZOOKEEPER-232. fix apache licence header in TestableZookeeper (mahadev)
 
-   ZOOKEEPER-249. QuorumPeer.getClientPort() always returns -1. (nitay 
-joffe via mahadev)
+  ZOOKEEPER-249. QuorumPeer.getClientPort() always returns -1.
+  (nitay joffe via mahadev)
 
-  ZOOKEEPER-248.  QuorumPeer should use Map interface instead of 
-HashMap implementation. (nitay joffe via mahadev)
+  ZOOKEEPER-248.  QuorumPeer should use Map interface instead of HashMap
+  implementation. (nitay joffe via mahadev)
 
-  ZOOKEEPER-241. Build of a distro fails after clean target is run. (patrick
-hunt via mahadev)
+  ZOOKEEPER-241. Build of a distro fails after clean target is run.
+  (patrick hunt via mahadev)
 
 IMPROVEMENTS:
    
-   ZOOKEEPER-64. Log system env information when initializing server and
-client (pat via mahadev)
+  ZOOKEEPER-161. Content needed: "Designing a ZooKeeper Deployment"
+  (breed via phunt)
+
+  ZOOKEEPER-64. Log system env information when initializing server and
+  client (pat via mahadev)
+
+  ZOOKEEPER-243. add SEQUENCE flag documentation to the programming guide.
+  (patrick hunt via mahadev)
 
-   ZOOKEEPER-243. add SEQUENCE flag documentation to the programming guide.
-(patrick hunt via mahadev)
 
 Release 3.0.0 - 2008-10-21
 

Modified: hadoop/zookeeper/trunk/docs/zookeeperAdmin.html
URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc/hadoop/zookeeper/trunk/docs/zookeeperAdmin.html?rev=724936&r1=724935&r2=724936&view=diff
==============================================================================
--- hadoop/zookeeper/trunk/docs/zookeeperAdmin.html (original)
+++ hadoop/zookeeper/trunk/docs/zookeeperAdmin.html Tue Dec  9 16:11:48 2008
@@ -201,6 +201,14 @@
 <ul class="minitoc">
 <li>
 <a href="#sc_designing">Designing a ZooKeeper Deployment</a>
+<ul class="minitoc">
+<li>
+<a href="#sc_CrossMachineRequirements">Cross Machine Requirements</a>
+</li>
+<li>
+<a href="#Single+Machine+Requirements">Single Machine Requirements</a>
+</li>
+</ul>
 </li>
 <li>
 <a href="#sc_provisioning">Provisioning</a>
@@ -621,20 +629,103 @@
 </ul>
 <a name="N10160"></a><a name="sc_designing"></a>
 <h3 class="h4">Designing a ZooKeeper Deployment</h3>
-<p></p>
-<a name="N10169"></a><a name="sc_provisioning"></a>
+<p>The reliablity of ZooKeeper rests on two basic assumptions.</p>
+<ol>
+        
+<li>
+<p> Only a minority of servers in a deployment
+            will fail. <em>Failure</em> in this context
+            means a machine crash, or some error in the network that
+            partitions a server off from the majority.</p>
+        
+</li>
+        
+<li>
+<p> Deployed machines operate correctly. To
+            operate correctly means to execute code correctly, to have
+            clocks that work properly, and to have storage and network
+            components that perform consistently.</p>
+        
+</li>
+      
+</ol>
+<p>The sections below contain considerations for ZooKeeper
+      administrators to maximize the probability for these assumptions
+      to hold true. Some of these are cross-machines considerations,
+      and others are things you should consider for each and every
+      machine in your deployment.</p>
+<a name="N1017C"></a><a name="sc_CrossMachineRequirements"></a>
+<h4>Cross Machine Requirements</h4>
+<p>For the ZooKeeper service to be active, there must be a
+        majority of non-failing machines that can communicate with
+        each other. To create a deployment that can tolerate the
+        failure of F machines, you should count on deploying 2xF+1
+        machines.  Thus, a deployment that consists of three machines
+        can handle one failure, and a deployment of five machines can
+        handle two failures. Note that a deployment of six machines
+        can only handle two failures since three machines is not a
+        majority.  For this reason, ZooKeeper deployments are usually
+        made up of an odd number of machines.</p>
+<p>To achieve the highest probability of tolerating a failure
+        you should try to make machine failures independent. For
+        example, if most of the machines share the same switch,
+        failure of that switch could cause a correlated failure and
+        bring down the service. The same holds true of shared power
+        circuits, cooling systems, etc.</p>
+<a name="N10189"></a><a name="Single+Machine+Requirements"></a>
+<h4>Single Machine Requirements</h4>
+<p>If ZooKeeper has to contend with other applications for
+        access to resourses like storage media, CPU, network, or
+        memory, its performance will suffer markedly.  ZooKeeper has
+        strong durability guarantees, which means it uses storage
+        media to log changes before the operation responsible for the
+        change is allowed to complete. You should be aware of this
+        dependency then, and take great care if you want to ensure
+        that ZooKeeper operations aren&rsquo;t held up by your media. Here
+        are some things you can do to minimize that sort of
+        degradation:
+      </p>
+<ul>
+        
+<li>
+          
+<p>ZooKeeper's transaction log must be on a dedicated
+            device. (A dedicated partition is not enough.) ZooKeeper
+            writes the log sequentially, without seeking Sharing your
+            log device with other processes can cause seeks and
+            contention, which in turn can cause multi-second
+            delays.</p>
+        
+</li>
+
+        
+<li>
+          
+<p>Do not put ZooKeeper in a situation that can cause a
+            swap. In order for ZooKeeper to function with any sort of
+            timeliness, it simply cannot be allowed to swap.
+            Therefore, make certain that the maximum heap size given
+            to ZooKeeper is not bigger than the amount of real memory
+            available to ZooKeeper.  For more on this, see
+            <a href="#sc_commonProblems">Things to Avoid</a>
+            below. </p>
+        
+</li>
+      
+</ul>
+<a name="N101A7"></a><a name="sc_provisioning"></a>
 <h3 class="h4">Provisioning</h3>
 <p></p>
-<a name="N10172"></a><a name="sc_strengthsAndLimitations"></a>
+<a name="N101B0"></a><a name="sc_strengthsAndLimitations"></a>
 <h3 class="h4">Things to Consider: ZooKeeper Strengths and Limitations</h3>
 <p></p>
-<a name="N1017B"></a><a name="sc_administering"></a>
+<a name="N101B9"></a><a name="sc_administering"></a>
 <h3 class="h4">Administering</h3>
 <p></p>
-<a name="N10184"></a><a name="sc_monitoring"></a>
+<a name="N101C2"></a><a name="sc_monitoring"></a>
 <h3 class="h4">Monitoring</h3>
 <p></p>
-<a name="N1018D"></a><a name="sc_logging"></a>
+<a name="N101CB"></a><a name="sc_logging"></a>
 <h3 class="h4">Logging</h3>
 <p>ZooKeeper uses <strong>log4j</strong> version 1.2 as 
       its logging infrastructure. The  ZooKeeper default <span class="codefrag filename">log4j.properties</span>

@@ -644,10 +735,10 @@
 <p>For more information, see 
       <a href="http://logging.apache.org/log4j/1.2/manual.html#defaultInit">Log4j Default
Initialization Procedure</a> 
       of the log4j manual.</p>
-<a name="N101AD"></a><a name="sc_troubleshooting"></a>
+<a name="N101EB"></a><a name="sc_troubleshooting"></a>
 <h3 class="h4">Troubleshooting</h3>
 <p></p>
-<a name="N101B6"></a><a name="sc_configuration"></a>
+<a name="N101F4"></a><a name="sc_configuration"></a>
 <h3 class="h4">Configuration Parameters</h3>
 <p>ZooKeeper's behavior is governed by the ZooKeeper configuration
       file. This file is designed so that the exact same file can be used by
@@ -655,7 +746,7 @@
       layouts are the same. If servers use different configuration files, care
       must be taken to ensure that the list of servers in all of the different
       configuration files match.</p>
-<a name="N101BF"></a><a name="sc_minimumConfiguration"></a>
+<a name="N101FD"></a><a name="sc_minimumConfiguration"></a>
 <h4>Minimum Configuration</h4>
 <p>Here are the minimum configuration keywords that must be defined
         in the configuration file:</p>
@@ -702,7 +793,7 @@
 </dd>
         
 </dl>
-<a name="N101E6"></a><a name="sc_advancedConfiguration"></a>
+<a name="N10224"></a><a name="sc_advancedConfiguration"></a>
 <h4>Advanced Configuration</h4>
 <p>The configuration settings in the section are optional. You can
         use them to further fine tune the behaviour of your ZooKeeper servers.
@@ -793,7 +884,7 @@
 </dd>
         
 </dl>
-<a name="N10246"></a><a name="sc_clusterOptions"></a>
+<a name="N10284"></a><a name="sc_clusterOptions"></a>
 <h4>Cluster Options</h4>
 <p>The options in this section are designed for use with an ensemble
         of servers -- that is, when deploying clusters of servers.</p>
@@ -883,7 +974,7 @@
         
 </dl>
 <p></p>
-<a name="N102A3"></a><a name="Unsafe+Options"></a>
+<a name="N102E1"></a><a name="Unsafe+Options"></a>
 <h4>Unsafe Options</h4>
 <p>The following options can be useful, but be careful when you use
         them. The risk of each is explained along with the explanation of what
@@ -928,7 +1019,7 @@
 </dd>
         
 </dl>
-<a name="N102D5"></a><a name="sc_zkCommands"></a>
+<a name="N10313"></a><a name="sc_zkCommands"></a>
 <h3 class="h4">ZooKeeper Commands: The Four Letter Words</h3>
 <p>ZooKeeper responds to a small set of commands. Each command is
       composed of four letters. You issue the commands to ZooKeeper via telnet
@@ -993,7 +1084,7 @@
 <pre class="code">$ echo ruok | nc 127.0.0.1 5111
 imok
 </pre>
-<a name="N10315"></a><a name="sc_dataFileManagement"></a>
+<a name="N10353"></a><a name="sc_dataFileManagement"></a>
 <h3 class="h4">Data File Management</h3>
 <p>ZooKeeper stores its data in a data directory and its transaction
       log in a transaction log directory. By default these two directories are
@@ -1001,7 +1092,7 @@
       transaction log files in a separate directory than the data files.
       Throughput increases and latency decreases when transaction logs reside
       on a dedicated log devices.</p>
-<a name="N1031E"></a><a name="The+Data+Directory"></a>
+<a name="N1035C"></a><a name="The+Data+Directory"></a>
 <h4>The Data Directory</h4>
 <p>This directory has two files in it:</p>
 <ul>
@@ -1047,14 +1138,14 @@
         idempotent nature of its updates. By replaying the transaction log
         against fuzzy snapshots ZooKeeper gets the state of the system at the
         end of the log.</p>
-<a name="N1035A"></a><a name="The+Log+Directory"></a>
+<a name="N10398"></a><a name="The+Log+Directory"></a>
 <h4>The Log Directory</h4>
 <p>The Log Directory contains the ZooKeeper transaction logs.
         Before any update takes place, ZooKeeper ensures that the transaction
         that represents the update is written to non-volatile storage. A new
         log file is started each time a snapshot is begun. The log file's
         suffix is the first zxid written to that log.</p>
-<a name="N10364"></a><a name="File+Management"></a>
+<a name="N103A2"></a><a name="File+Management"></a>
 <h4>File Management</h4>
 <p>The format of snapshot and log files does not change between
         standalone ZooKeeper servers and different configurations of
@@ -1071,7 +1162,7 @@
         needs the latest complete fuzzy snapshot and the log files from the
         start of that snapshot. The PurgeTxnLog utility implements a simple
         retention policy that administrators can use.</p>
-<a name="N10375"></a><a name="sc_commonProblems"></a>
+<a name="N103B3"></a><a name="sc_commonProblems"></a>
 <h3 class="h4">Things to Avoid</h3>
 <p>Here are some common problems you can avoid by configuring
       ZooKeeper correctly:</p>
@@ -1125,7 +1216,7 @@
 </dd>
       
 </dl>
-<a name="N10399"></a><a name="sc_bestPractices"></a>
+<a name="N103D7"></a><a name="sc_bestPractices"></a>
 <h3 class="h4">Best Practices</h3>
 <p>For best results, take note of the following list of good
       Zookeeper practices. <em>[tbd...]</em>

Modified: hadoop/zookeeper/trunk/docs/zookeeperAdmin.pdf
URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc/hadoop/zookeeper/trunk/docs/zookeeperAdmin.pdf?rev=724936&r1=724935&r2=724936&view=diff
==============================================================================
Binary files - no diff available.

Modified: hadoop/zookeeper/trunk/src/docs/src/documentation/content/xdocs/zookeeperAdmin.xml
URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc/hadoop/zookeeper/trunk/src/docs/src/documentation/content/xdocs/zookeeperAdmin.xml?rev=724936&r1=724935&r2=724936&view=diff
==============================================================================
--- hadoop/zookeeper/trunk/src/docs/src/documentation/content/xdocs/zookeeperAdmin.xml (original)
+++ hadoop/zookeeper/trunk/src/docs/src/documentation/content/xdocs/zookeeperAdmin.xml Tue
Dec  9 16:11:48 2008
@@ -282,7 +282,85 @@
     <section id="sc_designing">
       <title>Designing a ZooKeeper Deployment</title>
 
-      <para></para>
+      <para>The reliablity of ZooKeeper rests on two basic assumptions.</para>
+      <orderedlist>
+        <listitem><para> Only a minority of servers in a deployment
+            will fail. <emphasis>Failure</emphasis> in this context
+            means a machine crash, or some error in the network that
+            partitions a server off from the majority.</para>
+        </listitem>
+        <listitem><para> Deployed machines operate correctly. To
+            operate correctly means to execute code correctly, to have
+            clocks that work properly, and to have storage and network
+            components that perform consistently.</para>
+        </listitem>
+      </orderedlist>
+    
+    <para>The sections below contain considerations for ZooKeeper
+      administrators to maximize the probability for these assumptions
+      to hold true. Some of these are cross-machines considerations,
+      and others are things you should consider for each and every
+      machine in your deployment.</para>
+
+    <section id="sc_CrossMachineRequirements">
+      <title>Cross Machine Requirements</title>
+    
+      <para>For the ZooKeeper service to be active, there must be a
+        majority of non-failing machines that can communicate with
+        each other. To create a deployment that can tolerate the
+        failure of F machines, you should count on deploying 2xF+1
+        machines.  Thus, a deployment that consists of three machines
+        can handle one failure, and a deployment of five machines can
+        handle two failures. Note that a deployment of six machines
+        can only handle two failures since three machines is not a
+        majority.  For this reason, ZooKeeper deployments are usually
+        made up of an odd number of machines.</para>
+
+      <para>To achieve the highest probability of tolerating a failure
+        you should try to make machine failures independent. For
+        example, if most of the machines share the same switch,
+        failure of that switch could cause a correlated failure and
+        bring down the service. The same holds true of shared power
+        circuits, cooling systems, etc.</para>
+    </section>
+
+    <section>
+      <title>Single Machine Requirements</title>
+
+      <para>If ZooKeeper has to contend with other applications for
+        access to resourses like storage media, CPU, network, or
+        memory, its performance will suffer markedly.  ZooKeeper has
+        strong durability guarantees, which means it uses storage
+        media to log changes before the operation responsible for the
+        change is allowed to complete. You should be aware of this
+        dependency then, and take great care if you want to ensure
+        that ZooKeeper operations aren’t held up by your media. Here
+        are some things you can do to minimize that sort of
+        degradation:
+      </para>
+
+      <itemizedlist>
+        <listitem>
+          <para>ZooKeeper's transaction log must be on a dedicated
+            device. (A dedicated partition is not enough.) ZooKeeper
+            writes the log sequentially, without seeking Sharing your
+            log device with other processes can cause seeks and
+            contention, which in turn can cause multi-second
+            delays.</para>
+        </listitem>
+
+        <listitem>
+          <para>Do not put ZooKeeper in a situation that can cause a
+            swap. In order for ZooKeeper to function with any sort of
+            timeliness, it simply cannot be allowed to swap.
+            Therefore, make certain that the maximum heap size given
+            to ZooKeeper is not bigger than the amount of real memory
+            available to ZooKeeper.  For more on this, see
+            <xref linkend="sc_commonProblems"/>
+            below. </para>
+        </listitem>
+      </itemizedlist>
+    </section>
     </section>
 
     <section id="sc_provisioning">



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