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From André Warnier (tomcat) ...@ice-sa.com>
Subject Re: Tomcat 8 and authenticating Basic Auth users
Date Sun, 14 Oct 2018 20:58:10 GMT
On 14.10.2018 18:44, Tony Esposito wrote:
> Hello André,
>    As always I appreciate your detailed response.
>
>    The web server is indeed setup in this simplified, "basic" configuration (i.e. the
tomcat-users.xml file and server.xml file are configured as you described).
>    The password is always the same.  However, the users (hence, the user names) are unknown
and only over time will they we known.
>
>    How does this change your suggestion?  Could a database realm be the answer (as opposed
to the tomcat-users.xml file)?
>

Whether the back-end is a file or a database, to make it work you would need to have the 
corresponding userid/password pairs anyway.
So no, my suggestion does not work in that case.

As I understand it now :
- the Basic authentication is active, somehow, for your webapp
- the requests which come in for that webapp always have a Basic "Authorization:" header,
always with the same password part, but with a user-id which varies
- you cannot modify the front-end application part, which sends these headers in the first

place
- you do not really care about the user-id, and (in a way) the password only serves 
(possibly) to distinguish requests which are valid (iow coming from the front-end server),

from those that are not (coming from elsewhere, if that is possible)
- you want to avoid having and managing any kind of back-end database or file which would

have to contain all the users/passwords pairs

In such circumstances, the real thing to do would be to disable the Basic authentication 
for the webapp (which means you still need to find where it is specified), and protect the

access by some other means, for example by blocking all requests which do NOT come from 
your front-end server (by IP address e.g.). (There exists a Valve for that, which can be 
configured just for that webapp if need be. See : 
http://tomcat.apache.org/tomcat-8.5-doc/config/valve.html#Remote_Address_Valve)

Barring that, another way that I can imagine would be to create your own Realm
for the Basic auth. It could be totally dummy and have no users file back-end at all, 
since you only want to compare the password to some known fixed value.
Like all Tomcat code, the code for the existing Realms is open-source and available, so 
you could take one of them and modify it for that.
I am not really a Java programmer, so I would not try that myself, but I would imagine 
that for any Real Java Programmer that would not be a big problem.

You could even think about creating your own Valve, which would (subrepticiously) modify 
the incoming requests' Authorization headers, to replace the varying user-id part by a 
single user-id, which would then be the single one you need in the tomcat-users.xml file 
(or whatever other back-end is in use).

Now all of these things are somewhat flaky, and certainly weaken the security of your 
server. That may impact not only /your/ webapp, but also everything else that runs on that

same server. If that server is on the Internet, you should really think twice.
(I would at least consider running this connection over HTTPS, if you can).



> Tony
>
> -----Original Message-----
> From: André Warnier (tomcat) [mailto:aw@ice-sa.com]
> Sent: Sunday, October 14, 2018 5:55 AM
> To: users@tomcat.apache.org
> Subject: Re: Tomcat 8 and authenticating Basic Auth users
>
> On 14.10.2018 02:29, Tony Esposito wrote:
>> Hello André,
>>
>> It's routed through a server...
>> A co-worker noticed a Tomcat valve that might do the trick...
>> https://github.com/lokechenlin/tomcat-auto-login-valve
>>
>> Your thoughts?
>>
>
> They are as follows :
> If that works, fine.
> But as per Occam's razor principle, one should not introduce more complexity than necessary.
One additional dependency risks adding additional burdens in terms of debugging, support,
maintenance etc.
>
> And there shouldn't really be a need for anything additional.
>
> Assuming that indeed the intermediate routing server adds this Basic Auth header, with
a certain user-id/password pair, and that this user/password is always the same.
> (That's a big if of course).
> And assuming that indeed something as yet unidentified in the webapp, introduces a need
for Basic Auth, and that you cannot find it or remove it.
> Then the solution would be, to make sure that this Basic Auth succeeds.
> (One reason being, that the lockout Valve - which apparently is also present - would
not lockout this user, if it's authentication succeeded.)
>
> To make the Basic Auth succeed, one would have to insure that the Tomcat Realm that is
being used by this webapp to *verify* the correctness of this userid/password pair, indeed
knows this userid/password pair, and responds positively when enquired from.
>
> Of course, this requires finding out first, which Realm is being used, to back-up this
Basic Auth. And that also would require finding out which component wants this Basic Auth.
> But you can try at least one thing, just to check :
> In the standard "vanilla" Tomcat as downloaded from the Tomcat website, there is :
> - in the file conf/server.xml, a tag like : <Resource name="UserDatabase" auth="Container"..
> - this tag points to a file, normally :  pathname="conf/tomcat-users.xml"
> - that file "conf/tomcat-users.xml", there is a section, normally commented-out, like
:
> <!--
>     <role rolename="tomcat"/>
>     <role rolename="role1"/>
>     <user username="tomcat" password="<must-be-changed>" roles="tomcat"/>
>     <user username="both" password="<must-be-changed>" roles="tomcat,role1"/>
>     <user username="role1" password="<must-be-changed>" roles="role1"/>
> -->
> What you could try is to copy the following tags to a non-commented-out section like
this :
> <role rolename="tomcat"/>
> <user username="(user-that-you know)" password="(password-that-you-know, in clear)"
> roles="tomcat"/>
>
> save the file, and restart tomcat.
> Then see if it works.
>
> Chances are, that whoever configured this app in the first place, took the path of least
resistance, and configured that webapp for Basic Auth, using the simplest configuration available,
which is the above using a simple file as the back-end for authentication.
> By making the changes above, you may make your mystery user/password known to this simple
Realm, and so maybe now its authentication will succeed.
>
>
>
> @others : if any of the Tomcat devs is reading this, I am curious about something :
> If a HTTP request, in an unsollicited way, contains a Basic Auth "Authorization:" header,
could this automatically trigger some Basic Auth code in Tomcat, even if the webapp being
targeted does not have any such security constraints ?
> I would assume not, but just in case..
>
>
>
>> Tony
>>
>>
>> -----Original Message-----
>> From: André Warnier (tomcat) [mailto:aw@ice-sa.com]
>> Sent: Saturday, October 13, 2018 4:38 PM
>> To: users@tomcat.apache.org
>> Subject: Re: Tomcat 8 and authenticating Basic Auth users
>>
>> On 13.10.2018 18:54, Tony Esposito wrote:
>>> Hello André,
>>>
>>> Thank you for taking the time to put together this excellent explanation.
>>>
>>> I do not have control over the server that is passing me the Basic Auth header,
unfortunately.
>>
>> Ok, so to make things clearer : when Tomcat receives a request for this "myapp"
>> application, where does this request come from ?
>>    From a user browser, or from another server directly ?
>>
>>>
>>> You mentioned "In other words, there is no "trick" to add to stop Tomat trying
to authenticate the client. By default, it doesn't.
>>> If it does, it is because it was asked to, by something added to the default
configuration."
>>>
>>> Ok, maybe the server IS asking for Basic Auth.  I inherited this
>>> server (and this dilemma) show how/where do I check to see if Basic
>>> Auth is 'on'?  Because I don't see it and (less valid)
>>
>> That's the puzzle indeed, if the "myapp" webapp's web.xml does not contain any <security->
thing, and neither does the general conf/web.xml (which gets merged with every webapp's web.xml,
so it was a good idea to check there too).
>>
>> I think that you will have to activate (and look at) the Access Log, to find out
which requests really come into your server.
>> Look here :
>> http://tomcat.apache.org/tomcat-8.5-doc/config/valve.html#Access_Log_V
>> alve The Access Log produces lines like this :
>> 127.0.0.1 - - [10/Oct/2017:17:54:41 +0200] "GET /favicon.ico HTTP/1.1" 200 21630
The penultimate value is the status code returned by Tomcat to the client, for this request.
 The last value is the (data) size of the response (excluding headers).
>> You will be looking for requests which trigger a status code 401.
>> If there are any, that is a clear sign that the corresponding application (with the
URL in the same line) has some auth. requirement.
>>
>>
>>> I was told by the previous web admin that Basic Auth was turned off.
>>
>> Disregard that. Basic Auth cannot be "turned off". It is an inherent part of the
code (of any webserver, because it is mandated by the HTTP RFC); it is always there.
>> But it "activates" only when it is told to activate.
>>
>>>
>>> Thank you again for your time
>>>
>>> Tony
>>>
>>>
>>> -----Original Message-----
>>> From: André Warnier (tomcat) [mailto:aw@ice-sa.com]
>>> Sent: Saturday, October 13, 2018 7:53 AM
>>> To: users@tomcat.apache.org
>>> Subject: Re: Tomcat 8 and authenticating Basic Auth users
>>>
>>> On 13.10.2018 04:56, Tony Esposito wrote:
>>>> But you still want your application to see this Basic Auth header, because
it needs to check the "standard password" in it, right ?
>>>> (Otherwise, describe precisely what you want).
>>>>
>>>> If there is a way to disable Basic Auth (i.e. not compel the user to authenticate
yet again) without triggering on the password or ignoring the header altogether, then the
password is not important.
>>>> I mentioned the password in the hopes that I could use it in some way to
trigger the disabling of Basic Auth.
>>>>
>>>> P.S.
>>>>
>>>> 1) You say "Installed 'out of the box - as is'", but what box ?
>>>> The standard Tomcats 8.0 or 8.5 do not have an active Connector for port
8088.
>>>> So it does not look as if it is so 'out of the box - as is'.
>>>> Where does that Tomcat come from, really ?
>>>>
>>>> It was installed by the previous admin -- I inherited it.
>>>> Of course, there are other web apps on other ports.  For example, there are
2 Connectors defined in the server.xml file.
>>>> When I said 'as is' I was thinking in the context of Basic Auth.  I have
done nothing to change Basic Auth.
>>>>
>>>> 2) your application has a WEB-INF/web.xml file in it.
>>>> What does it say about authentication ?
>>>> The <TOMCAT_INSTALLED_DIRECTORY>/webapps/WEB-INF/myapp/web.xml file
for each app has no security constraints.
>>>> The <TOMCAT_INSTALLED_DIRECTORY>/conf/web.xml file also has no security
constraints.
>>>> There is no web.xml file under <TOMCAT_INSTALLED_DIRECTORY>/webapps/ROOT/WEB-INF.
>>>> Was there anything in particular you were referring to?
>>>>
>>> No. But that is strange.
>>> Not that this would imply in any way that I encourage you to set up some form
of bastard authentication without really knowing what you're doing (obviously), but here are
some pointers :
>>>
>>> A browser (or any respectful-of-the-HTTP-rfc client), will *send* an "Authorization:
>>> Basic" header (which contains a user-id and password in clear, just Base64-encoded)
to a server, *only* after the following has happened :
>>> 1) the client makes a first request to the server, for some URL
>>> 2) the server checks if the requested resource is "protected".
>>>       If not, it sends the resource to the client and that's then end of this
request.
>>> 3) If the resource is protected, the server checks if the client's request already
contains some form of authorization. If the "protection" indicates that this is protected
by a "HTTP Basic authentication", then what the server will be looking for, is a "Authorization:"
header, with a type "Basic".
>>> 4) if the request already contains such a header, the server decodes it into
a user-id/password, and /then/ checks with whatever back-end is configured (can be a file,
or a database, or whatever - that's what Tomcat calls a "Realm"), to see if these credentials
are correct.
>>> 5) If the credentials are ok, the server returns the requested resource, and
that's the end of the request.
>>> 6) If the credentials are not ok, the server returns a response to the client,
with a "status code" 401, meaning "needs authentication".  If the resource is protected by
an authentication "Basic", then the server response will include a "WWW-authenticate: Basic"
>>> header.
>>> 7) when the client receives this response, if it is a browser, it will then popup
a login dialog, to request the user-id/password from the user. When the user has entered that
userid/pw, the client will re-send the same request to the server, but this time with a "Authorization:"
header containing the userid/passwrd entered by the user.
>>> (If that client is not a browser, it is supposed to fetch a userid/pw from somewhere,
and do the same).
>>> 8) go back to (2)
>>>
>>> That is how Basic Auth works, in the HTTP RFC and in Tomcat.
>>>
>>> There is something special about Basic Auth, in the sense that once a
>>> client has succesfully accessed a location on the server, it will
>>> keep sending the same
>>> Authorization: header for that same location, without prompting the user again,
until you close the program and start anew.
>>>
>>> Now consider the above carefully, because it has some implications :
>>> a) the server will not send a 401 rsponse to the client, if the
>>> accessed resource is not protected by a Basic authentication
>>> b) without a 401 received from the server, a normal client will not
>>> send an "Authorization:" header
>>> c) if the client nevertheless sends an Authorization header, for a
>>> resource that is not protected on the server, the server will ignore
>>> this header
>>>
>>> So there is something wrong, either in your explanations so far, or in the configuration
of your server, or the client, because the server should not be "challenging" the client (with
a 401), unless the application which the client tries to access is protected by a Basic authentication.
>>> And the client should not be sending a Basic Authorization header, unless it
has been challenged previously by the server (with a 401).
>>>
>>> Which comes back to something Christopher mentioned already a good while back,
but which you seem to keep ignoring : if you do not want the client to try to authenticate,
then do not protect your application.
>>> In other words, there is no "trick" to add to stop Tomat trying to authenticate
the client. By default, it doesn't. If it does, it is because it was asked to, by something
added to the default configuration.
>>>
>>> Now if you want the client to send a Basic Authorization, but you want Tomcat
to ignore it, then tough luck, because the two go together. You cannot eat your cake and have
it.
>>>
>>> The only way you could achieve that, is by writing your own "Realm", which always
responds OK, no matter what the client-id/pw are.
>>> But there you are in uncharted and unsupported territory, so beware.
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>>>
>>>> Tony
>>>>
>>>>
>>>> -----Original Message-----
>>>> From: André Warnier (tomcat) [mailto:aw@ice-sa.com]
>>>> Sent: Friday, October 12, 2018 6:54 PM
>>>> To: users@tomcat.apache.org
>>>> Subject: Re: Tomcat 8 and authenticating Basic Auth users
>>>>
>>>> On 13.10.2018 00:04, Tony Esposito wrote:
>>>>> Addendum:
>>>>> The user "myuser" attempts to authenticate once, fails, and on the second
attempt the WARNING is thrown (i.e. user locked) which is to be expected.
>>>>> I want the user "myuser" not to authenticate at all by having the Tomcat
instance 'ignore/bypass' the Basic Auth (that is received in the header).
>>>>>
>>>> But you still want your application to see this Basic Auth header, because
it needs to check the "standard password" in it, right ?
>>>> (Otherwise, describe precisely what you want).
>>>>
>>>> P.S.
>>>>
>>>> 1) You say "Installed 'out of the box - as is'", but what box ?
>>>> The standard Tomcats 8.0 or 8.5 do not have an active Connector for port
8088.
>>>> So it does not look as if it is so 'out of the box - as is'.
>>>> Where does that Tomcat come from, really ?
>>>>
>>>> 2) your application has a WEB-INF/web.xml file in it.
>>>> What does it say about authentication ?
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>> Tony
>>>>>
>>>>> -----Original Message-----
>>>>> From: Tony Esposito
>>>>> Sent: Friday, October 12, 2018 4:42 PM
>>>>> To: Tomcat Users List <users@tomcat.apache.org>
>>>>> Cc: Tony Esposito <Tony.Esposito@region10.org>
>>>>> Subject: RE: Tomcat 8 and authenticating Basic Auth users
>>>>>
>>>>> Hi Christopher,
>>>>> 	The 'web server in question' is the Tomcat web server that I am trying
to get to ignore Basic Auth.
>>>>> 	Installed 'out of the box - as is', this Tomcat web server
>>>>> instance throws the error
>>>>>
>>>>> 	WARNING [http-nio-8088-exec-25] org.apache.catalina.realm.LockOutRealm.authenticate
An attempt was  made to authenticate the locked user "myuser"
>>>>>
>>>>> 	whenever a user (who has SSO'd successfully) tries to reach the web
app that runs on that Tomcat web server.
>>>>>
>>>>> Tony
>>>>>
>>>>> -----Original Message-----
>>>>> From: Christopher Schultz [mailto:chris@christopherschultz.net]
>>>>> Sent: Friday, October 12, 2018 3:33 PM
>>>>> To: users@tomcat.apache.org
>>>>> Subject: Re: Tomcat 8 and authenticating Basic Auth users
>>>>>
>>>>> -----BEGIN PGP SIGNED MESSAGE-----
>>>>> Hash: SHA256
>>>>>
>>>>> Tony,
>>>>>
>>>>> On 10/12/18 16:24, Tony Esposito wrote:
>>>>>> Some very good feedback here.  Thank you.
>>>>>>
>>>>>> The web server in question doesn't need to authenticate any users
>>>>>> at all.  But, as a part of the SSO handoff, the web server in
>>>>>> question is being passed Basic Auth in the header.
>>>>>>
>>>>>> Any further authentication (e.g. the examination of the header) is
>>>>>> handled by the application.  So, with regard to the web server in
>>>>>> question, how to ignore the Basic Auth?
>>>>>
>>>>> What is "the web server in question"? Most web servers will ignore authentication
headers unless they have been specifically configured to do something with it. You shouldn't
have to do anything specific to get the web server to ignore those headers.
>>>>>
>>>>> - -chris
>>>>>
>>>>>> -----Original Message----- From: Christopher Schultz
>>>>>> [mailto:chris@christopherschultz.net] Sent: Friday, October 12,
>>>>>> 2018 3:07 PM To: users@tomcat.apache.org Subject: Re: Tomcat 8 and
>>>>>> authenticating Basic Auth users
>>>>>>
>>>>>> Tony,
>>>>>>
>>>>>> On 10/12/18 15:41, Tony Esposito wrote:
>>>>>>> Concerning tomcat-user.xml versus database: The number of users
>>>>>>> has increased by an order of 2 magnitudes AND we don't know ahead
>>>>>>> of time who those users will be. The user count is an estimate
of
>>>>>>> the number of companies (known) multiplied by the number of users
>>>>>>> at each company (unknown - we know it is greater than 1).
>>>>>> Uhh... you need to authenticate users but you don't know who they
are?
>>>>>> This sounds like either you don't need authentication or you are
>>>>>> doing something very dangerous.
>>>>>>
>>>>>> Perhaps you are trying to solve Y but you are asking about X. What
>>>>>> is Y? What is the use-case, here? What are you protecting? Why do
>>>>>> you need authentication? How are you expected to do it without
>>>>>> being able to identify users?
>>>>>>
>>>>>> This seems like a good case for using CLIENT-CERT authentication
>>>>>> where you trust each company's root cert and each employee at that
>>>>>> company gets their cert issued by their company. There are
>>>>>> problems with CLIENT-CERT authentication (like revocation is a
>>>>>> PITA) but at least it fits the use-case better.
>>>>>>
>>>>>> Another option would be to tie-into each company's LDAP server.
>>>>>> Then, they can use their own username+password just like they use
>>>>>> for other services.
>>>>>>
>>>>>> Or, if you don't or can't implement the above, use something like
>>>>>> SAML/OAuth to transfer a user from one trusted system (like a
>>>>>> client company's system) into your own. You can request specific
>>>>>> user information be set to you as a part of that SSO handoff and
>>>>>> you can "register" them "locally" so you'll recognize them the
>>>>>> next time they authenticate.
>>>>>>
>>>>>>> Concerning Basic Auth:
>>>>>>
>>>>>>> Users are already signed on via SSO thru another application.
>>>>>>> And they cannot login directly to this application. A header
is
>>>>>>> passed to my web app which has the static password (so I can't
do
>>>>>>> much about that). (Yes, bad...bad...). Unfortunately, the header
>>>>>>> also has Basic Auth passed to my application.
>>>>>> You can always ignore that header.
>>>>>>
>>>>>>> I need Tomcat to pass this request on through, ignoring the Basic
>>>>>>> Auth in the header.
>>>>>>
>>>>>> No problem: just remove all authentication and authorization
>>>>>> configuration from web.xml and Tomcat will happily pass those
>>>>>> headers to your application without doing anything to them. Tomcat
>>>>>> will also happily pass that information to your application even
>>>>>> if those headers are being used for authentication and authorization.
>>>>>>
>>>>>> -chris
>>>>>>
>>>>>>> -----Original Message----- From: Christopher Schultz
>>>>>>> [mailto:chris@christopherschultz.net] Sent: Friday, October 12,
>>>>>>> 2018 2:25 PM To: users@tomcat.apache.org Subject: Re: Tomcat
8
>>>>>>> and authenticating Basic Auth users
>>>>>>
>>>>>>> Tony,
>>>>>>
>>>>>>> On 10/12/18 14:45, Tony Esposito wrote:
>>>>>>>> Thank you André for this feedback.
>>>>>>
>>>>>>>> If I may, I wish to approach this from another angle.  (The
user
>>>>>>>> community is larger than at first anticipated).
>>>>>>
>>>>>>> Since you are switching away from tomcat-users.xml to a real
data
>>>>>>> store, why does a larger user community change things further?
>>>>>>
>>>>>>>> If the header received has a certain password (which is static
>>>>>>>> for all users requesting access), then bypass Basic Auth
and let
>>>>>>>> the user connect.
>>>>>>
>>>>>>>> (The application does more security checking and authentication
>>>>>>>> on the header.)
>>>>>>
>>>>>>>> So the question becomes:
>>>>>>
>>>>>>>> How to disable Basic Auth when the header contains a password
>>>>>>>> which is static for all users requesting access?
>>>>>>> This make zero sense.
>>>>>>
>>>>>>> HTTP Basic authentication will require the user to enter their
>>>>>>> credentials. Once they enter their credentials, you'll inspect
>>>>>>> the password for some magic value and then you want to
>>>>>>> retroactively DISABLE HTTP Basic auth? I believe that requires
timey-wimeyness.
>>>>>>
>>>>>>> Why not simply always require username+password, and then
>>>>>>> opportunistically perform additional checks (as mentioned, but
>>>>>>> not
>>>>>>> described) above? Once the user has authenticated successfully,
>>>>>>> the browser will continue to send the
>>>>>>> username+password with each successive request and the user won't
>>>>>>> be asked again for their credentials.
>>>>>>
>>>>>>> The definition of "authenticated successfully" from the browser's
>>>>>>> view is when the server stops sending the "WWW-Authenticate"
>>>>>>> response header.
>>>>>>
>>>>>>> BTW static password == bad bad bad bad bad bad bad bad bad
>>>>>>
>>>>>>> If you have a static password, why bother asking for it in the
>>>>>>> first place? It's like requiring a username + password for a
>>>>>>> terminal and then stamping the username and password on the
>>>>>>> monitor. You may as well remove the challenge.
>>>>>>
>>>>>>> -chris
>>>>>>
>>>>>>>> -----Original Message----- From: André Warnier (tomcat)
>>>>>>>> [mailto:aw@ice-sa.com] Sent: Friday, October 12, 2018 11:29
AM
>>>>>>>> To: users@tomcat.apache.org Subject: Re: Tomcat 8 and
>>>>>>>> authenticating Basic Auth users
>>>>>>
>>>>>>>> Hi.
>>>>>>
>>>>>>>> On 12.10.2018 16:38, Tony Esposito wrote:
>>>>>>>>> Hello, Using Tomcat 8.0.22 on Linux CentOS 6.10:
>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>> Trying to setup Tomcat to authenticate users that use
Basic Auth.
>>>>>>>>> I could (possibly) enter these users into the tomcat-users.xml
>>>>>>>>> file but we are dealing with 1000 potential users.
>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>> What happens instead is (of course) the users fail to
>>>>>>>>> authenticate and then subsequent attempts by the same
user
>>>>>>>>> locks the user's account.
>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>> 11-Oct-2018 16:21:37.970 WARNING [http-nio-8088-exec-25]
>>>>>>>>> org.apache.catalina.realm.LockOutRealm.authenticate An
attempt
>>>>>>>>> was made to authenticate the locked user "myuser"
>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>> This is 'normal' since after a failed attempt to log
in, Tomcat
>>>>>>>>> suspects a 'brute force attack' and locks the account.
>>>>>>>>> I don't want to lose that security but (as mentioned
above) I
>>>>>>>>> can't just enter all users into the tomcat-users.xml
file
>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>> So the basic question:    How to do authentication of
1000
>>>>>>>>> users that use Basic Auth?
>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>> Thanks.
>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>> Tony
>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>
>>>>>>>> There are two separate parts to this (and it is not specific
to
>>>>>>>> Tomcat) :
>>>>>>
>>>>>>>> - the "basic auth" part, is the way it talks to the browser,
to
>>>>>>>> get a userid/pw (in this case, through a browser popup dialog)
>>>>>>
>>>>>>>> - the "realm", is the way that the server *verifies* the
>>>>>>>> user-id/pw, with some back-end "authority". In your case,
you
>>>>>>>> have specified that this realm is a file. But it can be
>>>>>>>> something else, like a database.
>>>>>>
>>>>>>>> The two are independent, and you can mix and match according
to
>>>>>>>> your needs. The on-line Tomcat documentation helps, see :
>>>>>>>> http://tomcat.apache.org/tomcat-8.5-doc/realm-howto.html
>>>>>>
>>
>>
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