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From "Briggs, Patrick" <>
Subject Tomcat -> MySQL = No suitable driver ERROR
Date Tue, 29 Jun 2004 22:00:59 GMT
I'm trying to setup Tomcat 5.0.25 to talk to a MySQL database and I've had
no luck after several days of fighting with this thing.  I'm following along
the documentation at this URI:

The example says to edit server.xml "Add this in between the </Context> tag
of the examples context and the </Host> tag closing the localhost
So far I've not found any <Context> example in server.xml.  So that doesn't
appear to exist.  However, I have placed it before the </Host> tag and have
also tried putting it in the <GlobalNamingResources> as well, but that
didn't make any difference for me.
I have placed the mysql-connector-java-3.0.14-production-bin.jar file in
/tomcat/common/lib as instructed.  I have also tried placing it WEB-INF/lib,
that didn't work.  Also tried putting it in tomcat/server/lib and that
didn't help either.
I have the impressiont that the datasource-examples-howto is somehow out of
date, hasn't been really tested much, or is just plain incorrect because
I've found numerous other hits on GOOGLE.COM about this problem, but nobody
really has much of a solution.  Seems to me that setting this up shouldn't
be this complicated.
The error message I keep getting all the time is:
javax.servlet.ServletException: Unable to get connection, DataSource
invalid: "org.apache.commons.dbcp.SQLNestedException: Cannot create JDBC
driver of class '' for connect URL 'null', cause: No suitable driver"

Root Cause:
javax.servlet.jsp.JspException: Unable to get connection, DataSource
invalid: "org.apache.commons.dbcp.SQLNestedException: Cannot create JDBC
driver of class '' for connect URL 'null', cause: No suitable driver"
nown Source)
n Source)


<!-- Example Server Configuration File -->
<!-- Note that component elements are nested corresponding to their
     parent-child relationships with each other -->

<!-- A "Server" is a singleton element that represents the entire JVM,
     which may contain one or more "Service" instances.  The Server
     listens for a shutdown command on the indicated port.

     Note:  A "Server" is not itself a "Container", so you may not
     define subcomponents such as "Valves" or "Loggers" at this level.

<Server port="8005" shutdown="SHUTDOWN" debug="0">

  <!-- Comment these entries out to disable JMX MBeans support -->
  <!-- You may also configure custom components (e.g. Valves/Realms) by 
       including your own mbean-descriptor file(s), and setting the 
       "descriptors" attribute to point to a ';' seperated list of paths
       (in the ClassLoader sense) of files to add to the default list.
       e.g. descriptors="/com/myfirm/mypackage/mbean-descriptor.xml"
  <Listener className="org.apache.catalina.mbeans.ServerLifecycleListener"

  <!-- Global JNDI resources -->

    <!-- Test entry for demonstration purposes -->
    <Environment name="simpleValue" type="java.lang.Integer" value="30"/>

    <!-- Editable user database that can also be used by
         UserDatabaseRealm to authenticate users -->
    <Resource name="UserDatabase" auth="Container"
       description="User database that can be updated and saved">
    <ResourceParams name="UserDatabase">
  <Resource name="jdbc/TestDB" auth="Container"
			description="Test Database"/>

     <ResourceLink name="jdbc/TestDB"

  <ResourceParams name="jdbc/TestDB">

    <!-- Maximum number of dB connections in pool. Make sure you
         configure your mysqld max_connections large enough to handle
         all of your db connections. Set to 0 for no limit.

    <!-- Maximum number of idle dB connections to retain in pool.
         Set to 0 for no limit.

    <!-- Maximum time to wait for a dB connection to become available
         in ms, in this example 10 seconds. An Exception is thrown if
         this timeout is exceeded.  Set to -1 to wait indefinitely.

    <!-- MySQL dB username and password for dB connections  -->

    <!-- Class name for the old mm.mysql JDBC driver - uncomment this entry
and comment next
         if you want to use this driver - we recommend using Connector/J
    <!-- Class name for the official MySQL Connector/J driver -->
    <!-- The JDBC connection url for connecting to your MySQL dB.
         The autoReconnect=true argument to the url makes sure that the
         mm.mysql JDBC Driver will automatically reconnect if mysqld closed
         connection.  mysqld by default closes idle connections after 8

  <!-- A "Service" is a collection of one or more "Connectors" that share
       a single "Container" (and therefore the web applications visible
       within that Container).  Normally, that Container is an "Engine",
       but this is not required.

       Note:  A "Service" is not itself a "Container", so you may not
       define subcomponents such as "Valves" or "Loggers" at this level.

  <!-- Define the Tomcat Stand-Alone Service -->
  <Service name="Catalina">

    <!-- A "Connector" represents an endpoint by which requests are received
         and responses are returned.  Each Connector passes requests on to
         associated "Container" (normally an Engine) for processing.

         By default, a non-SSL HTTP/1.1 Connector is established on port
         You can also enable an SSL HTTP/1.1 Connector on port 8443 by
         following the instructions below and uncommenting the second
         entry.  SSL support requires the following steps (see the SSL
         HOWTO in the Tomcat 5 documentation bundle for more detailed
         * If your JDK version 1.3 or prior, download and install JSSE 1.0.2
           later, and put the JAR files into "$JAVA_HOME/jre/lib/ext".
         * Execute:
             %JAVA_HOME%\bin\keytool -genkey -alias tomcat -keyalg RSA
             $JAVA_HOME/bin/keytool -genkey -alias tomcat -keyalg RSA
           with a password value of "changeit" for both the certificate and
           the keystore itself.

         By default, DNS lookups are enabled when a web application calls
         request.getRemoteHost().  This can have an adverse impact on
         performance, so you can disable it by setting the
         "enableLookups" attribute to "false".  When DNS lookups are
         request.getRemoteHost() will return the String version of the
         IP address of the remote client.

    <!-- Define a non-SSL Coyote HTTP/1.1 Connector on the port specified
         during installation  -->
port="8080"               maxThreads="150" minSpareThreads="25"
               enableLookups="false" redirectPort="8443" acceptCount="100"
               debug="0" connectionTimeout="20000" 
               disableUploadTimeout="true" />
    <!-- Note : To disable connection timeouts, set connectionTimeout value
     to 0 -->
	<!-- Note : To use gzip compression you could set the following
properties :
			   noCompressionUserAgents="gozilla, traviata" 

    <!-- Define a SSL Coyote HTTP/1.1 Connector on port 8443 -->
    <Connector port="8443" 
               maxThreads="150" minSpareThreads="25" maxSpareThreads="75"
               enableLookups="false" disableUploadTimeout="true"
               acceptCount="100" debug="0" scheme="https" secure="true"
               clientAuth="false" sslProtocol="TLS" />

    <!-- Define a Coyote/JK2 AJP 1.3 Connector on port 8009 -->
    <Connector port="8009" 
               enableLookups="false" redirectPort="8443" debug="0"
               protocol="AJP/1.3" />

    <!-- Define a Proxied HTTP/1.1 Connector on port 8082 -->
    <!-- See proxy documentation for more information about using this. -->
    <Connector port="8082" 
               maxThreads="150" minSpareThreads="25" maxSpareThreads="75"
               acceptCount="100" debug="0" connectionTimeout="20000"
               proxyPort="80" disableUploadTimeout="true" />

    <!-- An Engine represents the entry point (within Catalina) that
         every request.  The Engine implementation for Tomcat stand alone
         analyzes the HTTP headers included with the request, and passes
         on to the appropriate Host (virtual host). -->

    <!-- You should set jvmRoute to support load-balancing via JK/JK2 ie :
    <Engine name="Standalone" defaultHost="localhost" debug="0"
    <!-- Define the top level container in our container hierarchy -->
    <Engine name="Catalina" defaultHost="localhost" debug="0">

      <!-- The request dumper valve dumps useful debugging information about
           the request headers and cookies that were received, and the
           headers and cookies that were sent, for all requests received by
           this instance of Tomcat.  If you care only about requests to a
           particular virtual host, or a particular application, nest this
           element inside the corresponding <Host> or <Context> entry

           For a similar mechanism that is portable to all Servlet 2.4
           containers, check out the "RequestDumperFilter" Filter in the
           example application (the source for this filter may be found in

           Request dumping is disabled by default.  Uncomment the following
           element to enable it. -->
      <Valve className="org.apache.catalina.valves.RequestDumperValve"/>

      <!-- Global logger unless overridden at lower levels -->
      <Logger className="org.apache.catalina.logger.FileLogger"
              prefix="catalina_log." suffix=".txt"

      <!-- Because this Realm is here, an instance will be shared globally

      <!-- This Realm uses the UserDatabase configured in the global JNDI
           resources under the key "UserDatabase".  Any edits
           that are performed against this UserDatabase are immediately
           available for use by the Realm.  -->
      <Realm className="org.apache.catalina.realm.UserDatabaseRealm"
                 debug="0" resourceName="UserDatabase"/>

      <!-- Comment out the old realm but leave here for now in case we
           need to go back quickly -->
      <Realm className="org.apache.catalina.realm.MemoryRealm" />

      <!-- Replace the above Realm with one of the following to get a Realm
           stored in a database and accessed via JDBC -->

      <Realm  className="org.apache.catalina.realm.JDBCRealm" debug="99"
         connectionName="test" connectionPassword="test"
              userTable="users" userNameCol="user_name"
          userRoleTable="user_roles" roleNameCol="role_name" />

      <Realm  className="org.apache.catalina.realm.JDBCRealm" debug="99"
         connectionName="scott" connectionPassword="tiger"
              userTable="users" userNameCol="user_name"
          userRoleTable="user_roles" roleNameCol="role_name" />

      <Realm  className="org.apache.catalina.realm.JDBCRealm" debug="99"
              userTable="users" userNameCol="user_name"
          userRoleTable="user_roles" roleNameCol="role_name" />

      <!-- Define the default virtual host
           Note: XML Schema validation will not work with Xerces 2.2.
      <Host name="localhost" debug="0" appBase="webapps"
       unpackWARs="true" autoDeploy="true"
       xmlValidation="false" xmlNamespaceAware="false">

        <!-- Defines a cluster for this node,
             By defining this element, means that every manager will be
             So when running a cluster, only make sure that you have webapps
in there
             that need to be clustered and remove the other ones.
             A cluster has the following parameters:

             className = the fully qualified name of the cluster class

             name = a descriptive name for your cluster, can be anything

             debug = the debug level, higher means more output

             mcastAddr = the multicast address, has to be the same for all
the nodes

             mcastPort = the multicast port, has to be the same for all the

             mcastFrequency = the number of milliseconds in between sending
a "I'm alive" heartbeat

             mcastDropTime = the number a milliseconds before a node is
considered "dead" if no heartbeat is received

             tcpThreadCount = the number of threads to handle incoming
replication requests, optimal would be the same amount of threads as nodes 

             tcpListenAddress = the listen address (bind address) for TCP
cluster request on this host, 
                                in case of multiple ethernet cards.
                                auto means that address becomes

             tcpListenPort = the tcp listen port

             tcpSelectorTimeout = the timeout (ms) for the
method in case the OS
                                  has a wakup bug in java.nio. Set to 0 for
no timeout

             printToScreen = true means that managers will also print to

             expireSessionsOnShutdown = true means that 

             useDirtyFlag = true means that we only replicate a session
after setAttribute,removeAttribute has been called.
                            false means to replicate the session after each
                            false means that replication would work for the
following piece of code:
                            HashMap map =
             replicationMode = can be either 'pooled', 'synchronous' or
                               * Pooled means that the replication happens
using several sockets in a synchronous way. Ie, the data gets replicated,
then the request return. This is the same as the 'synchronous' setting
except it uses a pool of sockets, hence it is multithreaded. This is the
fastest and safest configuration. To use this, also increase the nr of tcp
threads that you have dealing with replication.
                               * Synchronous means that the thread that
executes the request, is also the
                               thread the replicates the data to the other
nodes, and will not return until all
                               nodes have received the information.
                               * Asynchronous means that there is a specific
'sender' thread for each cluster node,
                               so the request thread will queue the
replication request into a "smart" queue,
                               and then return to the client.
                               The "smart" queue is a queue where when a
session is added to the queue, and the same session
                               already exists in the queue from a previous
request, that session will be replaced
                               in the queue instead of replicating two
requests. This almost never happens, unless there is a 
                               large network delay.
            When configuring for clustering, you also add in a valve to
catch all the requests
            coming in, at the end of the request, the session may or may not
be replicated.
            A session is replicated if and only if all the conditions are
            1. useDirtyFlag is true or setAttribute or removeAttribute has
been called AND
            2. a session exists (has been created)
            3. the request is not trapped by the "filter" attribute

            The filter attribute is to filter out requests that could not
modify the session,
            hence we don't replicate the session after the end of this
            The filter is negative, ie, anything you put in the filter, you
mean to filter out,
            ie, no replication will be done on requests that match one of
the filters.
            The filter attribute is delimited by ;, so you can't escape out
; even if you wanted to.

            filter=".*\.gif;.*\.js;" means that we will not replicate the
session after requests with the URI
            ending with .gif and .js are intercepted.





        <!-- Normally, users must authenticate themselves to each web app
             individually.  Uncomment the following entry if you would like
             a user to be authenticated the first time they encounter a
             resource protected by a security constraint, and then have that
             user identity maintained across *all* web applications
             in this virtual host. -->
        <Valve className="org.apache.catalina.authenticator.SingleSignOn"

        <!-- Access log processes all requests for this virtual host.  By
             default, log files are created in the "logs" directory relative
             $CATALINA_HOME.  If you wish, you can specify a different
             directory with the "directory" attribute.  Specify either a
             (to $CATALINA_HOME) or absolute path to the desired directory.
        <Valve className="org.apache.catalina.valves.AccessLogValve"
                 directory="logs"  prefix="localhost_access_log."
                 pattern="common" resolveHosts="false"/>

        <!-- Logger shared by all Contexts related to this virtual host.  By
             default (when using FileLogger), log files are created in the
             directory relative to $CATALINA_HOME.  If you wish, you can
             a different directory with the "directory" attribute.  Specify
either a
             relative (to $CATALINA_HOME) or absolute path to the desired
        <Logger className="org.apache.catalina.logger.FileLogger"
                 directory="logs"  prefix="localhost_log." suffix=".txt"






<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE web-app PUBLIC "-//Sun Microsystems, Inc.//DTD Web Application
2.3//EN" "">
<web-app xmlns=""
  <description>MySQL Test App</description>
      <description>DB Connection</description>


<%@ taglib uri="" prefix="sql" %>
<%@ taglib uri="" prefix="c" %>

<sql:query var="rs" dataSource="jdbc/DBTest">
select id, foo, bar from testdata

    <title>DB Test</title>

<c:forEach var="row" items="${rs.rows}">
    Foo ${}<br/>
    Bar ${}<br/>


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