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From "Shapira, Yoav" <>
Subject RE: Tomcat 4.1 slower than Tomcat 3.3
Date Wed, 02 Apr 2003 17:02:58 GMT


>Is Tomcat 4 slower than Tomcat 3?

Too broad of a question to answer, although in general I'd say no,
tomcat4 is faster and has been faster for every app I've benchmarked.

But from the rest of your email, your question isn't about speed, it's
about CPU usage.

>I've recently tried to port my Tomcat 3.3 webapp to Tomcat 4.1. It's

Just to make sure: it's also the same JDK on the same hardware, right?

>Example: at peak load, one of our Tomcat 3.3 servers served 20,000 page
>impressions in an hour, at an average %usr CPU of 60%. Using Tomcat
4.1, we
>can only serve about 7,000 pages if we down-weight it so that it is at

Define down-weight.  What is the "un-down-weighed" number and CPU usage?

>We have tried profiling the app using hprof and these are the results:
>Method                             Tomcat 3    Tomcat 4
>         33.62%      22.60%
>    14.15%      18.77%
>   1.87%       3.47%

Total for tomcat 3 of above: 49.64%
Total for tomcat 4 of above: 44.84%

So tomcat 4 is spending less total time in these three methods, and
significantly less time in the URLEncoder, but more time in read and

>this particular test, T4.1 used about 1.5 times the CPU that T3.3 used.

Umm, how is 33.62% in tomcat3 as opposed to 22.60% in tomcat4 1.5 times?
It's 50% less time spent by tomcat4.

>- Experimented with numerous JVM settings: -server -d64 -Xmn256mb
>-Xconcurrentio (no effect)

Did you use any runtime options at all in tomcat 3.3 server?  Or did it
just run with the default 64MB on the heap?

Have you tried a more powerful / easy to use profiler like OptimizeIt
and JProbe to see what really going on?

>I don't have any more ideas how to fix it; instead I am clutching at

What are you trying to fix?  Is the response speed a problem, or it is
the increased CPU usage to process the same number of requests?

>- Disabling socket keepalive in Apache.

This is an interesting option.

>Until we can fix this, we are sticking with Tomcat 3.3, which has so
>been stable, fast and robust (except for allowing sessions between
>and http).

Good to know ;)  Is there an overriding reason that's making you upgrade
to tomcat 4.x at all?

Yoav Shapira
Millennium ChemInformatics

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