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From rj...@apache.org
Subject svn commit: r1417624 [3/38] - in /tomcat/site/trunk/docs/tomcat-8.0-doc: ./ api/ appdev/ appdev/sample/ appdev/sample/docs/ appdev/sample/src/ appdev/sample/src/mypackage/ appdev/sample/web/ appdev/sample/web/WEB-INF/ appdev/sample/web/images/ architec...
Date Wed, 05 Dec 2012 20:21:01 GMT
Added: tomcat/site/trunk/docs/tomcat-8.0-doc/appdev/processes.html
URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc/tomcat/site/trunk/docs/tomcat-8.0-doc/appdev/processes.html?rev=1417624&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- tomcat/site/trunk/docs/tomcat-8.0-doc/appdev/processes.html (added)
+++ tomcat/site/trunk/docs/tomcat-8.0-doc/appdev/processes.html Wed Dec  5 20:20:35 2012
@@ -0,0 +1,327 @@
+<html><head><META http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1"><title>Application Developer's Guide (8.0.0-dev) - Development Processes</title><meta name="author" content="Craig R. McClanahan"><style type="text/css" media="print">
+            .noPrint {display: none;}
+            td#mainBody {width: 100%;}
+        </style><style type="text/css">
+            code {background-color:rgb(224,255,255);padding:0 0.1em;}
+            code.attributeName, code.propertyName {background-color:transparent;}
+        </style><style type="text/css">
+            .wrapped-source code { display: block; background-color: transparent; }
+            .wrapped-source div { margin: 0 0 0 1.25em; }
+            .wrapped-source p { margin: 0 0 0 1.25em; text-indent: -1.25em; }
+        </style><style type="text/css">
+            p.notice {
+                border: 1px solid rgb(255, 0, 0);
+                background-color: rgb(238, 238, 238);
+                color: rgb(0, 51, 102);
+                padding: 0.5em;
+                margin: 1em 2em 1em 1em;
+            }
+        </style></head><body bgcolor="#ffffff" text="#000000" link="#525D76" alink="#525D76" vlink="#525D76"><table border="0" width="100%" cellspacing="0"><!--PAGE HEADER--><tr><td><!--PROJECT LOGO--><a href="http://tomcat.apache.org/"><img src="../images/tomcat.gif" align="right" alt="
+      The Apache Tomcat Servlet/JSP Container
+    " border="0"></a></td><td><h1><font face="arial,helvetica,sanserif">Apache Tomcat 8</font></h1><font face="arial,helvetica,sanserif">Version 8.0.0-dev, Dec 5 2012</font></td><td><!--APACHE LOGO--><a href="http://www.apache.org/"><img src="../images/asf-logo.gif" align="right" alt="Apache Logo" border="0"></a></td></tr></table><table border="0" width="100%" cellspacing="4"><!--HEADER SEPARATOR--><tr><td colspan="2"><hr noshade size="1"></td></tr><tr><!--LEFT SIDE NAVIGATION--><td width="20%" valign="top" nowrap class="noPrint"><p><strong>Links</strong></p><ul><li><a href="../index.html">Docs Home</a></li><li><a href="index.html">App Dev Guide Home</a></li><li><a href="http://wiki.apache.org/tomcat/FAQ">FAQ</a></li><li><a href="#comments_section">User Comments</a></li></ul><p><strong>Contents</strong></p><ul><li><a href="index.html">Contents</a></li><li><a href="introduction.html">Introduction</a></li><li><a href="installation.html">Installation</a></li><li><a href="deploy
 ment.html">Deployment</a></li><li><a href="source.html">Source Code</a></li><li><a href="processes.html">Processes</a></li><li><a href="sample/">Example App</a></li></ul></td><!--RIGHT SIDE MAIN BODY--><td width="80%" valign="top" align="left" id="mainBody"><h1>Development Processes</h1><table border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="2"><tr><td bgcolor="#525D76"><font color="#ffffff" face="arial,helvetica.sanserif"><a name="Table of Contents"><!--()--></a><a name="Table_of_Contents"><strong>Table of Contents</strong></a></font></td></tr><tr><td><blockquote>
+<ul><li><a href="#Development_Processes">Development Processes</a><ol><li><a href="#One-Time_Setup_of_Ant_and_Tomcat_for_Development">One-Time Setup of Ant and Tomcat for Development</a></li><li><a href="#Create_Project_Source_Code_Directory">Create Project Source Code Directory</a></li><li><a href="#Edit_Source_Code_and_Pages">Edit Source Code and Pages</a></li><li><a href="#Build_the_Web_Application">Build the Web Application</a></li><li><a href="#Test_Your_Web_Application">Test Your Web Application</a></li><li><a href="#Creating_a_Release">Creating a Release</a></li></ol></li></ul>
+</blockquote></td></tr></table><table border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="2"><tr><td bgcolor="#525D76"><font color="#ffffff" face="arial,helvetica.sanserif"><a name="Development Processes"><!--()--></a><a name="Development_Processes"><strong>Development Processes</strong></a></font></td></tr><tr><td><blockquote>
+
+<p>Although application development can take many forms, this manual proposes
+a fairly generic process for creating web applications using Tomcat.  The
+following sections highlight the commands and tasks that you, as the developer
+of the code, will perform.  The same basic approach works when you have
+multiple programmers involved, as long as you have an appropriate source code
+control system and internal team rules about who is working on what parts
+of the application at any given time.</p>
+
+<p>The task descriptions below assume that you will be using CVS for source
+code control, and that you have already configured access to the appropriate
+CVS repository.  Instructions for doing this are beyond the scope of this
+manual.  If you are using a different source code control environment, you
+will need to figure out the corresponding commands for your system.</p>
+
+
+<table border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="2"><tr><td bgcolor="#828DA6"><font color="#ffffff" face="arial,helvetica.sanserif"><a name="One-Time Setup of Ant and Tomcat for Development"><!--()--></a><a name="One-Time_Setup_of_Ant_and_Tomcat_for_Development"><strong>One-Time Setup of Ant and Tomcat for Development</strong></a></font></td></tr><tr><td><blockquote>
+
+<p>In order to take advantage of the special Ant tasks that interact with the
+<em>Manager</em> web application, you need to perform the following tasks
+once (no matter how many web applications you plan to develop).</p>
+<ul>
+<li><em>Configure the Ant custom tasks</em>.  The implementation code for the
+    Ant custom tasks is in a JAR file named
+    <code>$CATALINA_HOME/lib/catalina-ant.jar</code>, which must be
+    copied in to the <code>lib</code> directory of your Ant installation.
+    <br><br></li>
+<li><em>Define one or more Tomcat users</em>.  The <em>Manager</em> web
+    application runs under a security constraint that requires a user to be
+    logged in, and have the security role <code>manager-script</code> assigned
+    to him or her.  How such users are defined depends on which Realm you have
+    configured in Tomcat's <code>conf/server.xml</code> file -- see the
+    <a href="../realm-howto.html">Realm Configuration HOW-TO</a> for more
+    information.  You may define any number of users (with any username
+    and password that you like) with the <code>manager-script</code> role.
+    <br><br></li>
+</ul>
+
+</blockquote></td></tr></table>
+
+
+<table border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="2"><tr><td bgcolor="#828DA6"><font color="#ffffff" face="arial,helvetica.sanserif"><a name="Create Project Source Code Directory"><!--()--></a><a name="Create_Project_Source_Code_Directory"><strong>Create Project Source Code Directory</strong></a></font></td></tr><tr><td><blockquote>
+
+<p>The first step is to create a new project source directory, and customize
+the <code>build.xml</code> and <code>build.properties</code> files you will
+be using.  The directory structure is described in <a href="source.html">the
+previous section</a>, or you can use the
+<a href="sample/">sample application</a> as a starting point.</p>
+
+<p>Create your project source directory, and define it within your CVS
+repository.  This might be done by a series of commands like this, where
+<code>{project}</code> is the name under which your project should be
+stored in the CVS repository, and {username} is your login username:</p>
+<div align="left"><table cellspacing="4" cellpadding="0" border="0"><tr><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td><td bgcolor="#023264" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td></tr><tr><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td><td bgcolor="#ffffff" height="1"><pre>
+cd {my home directory}
+mkdir myapp &lt;-- Assumed "project source directory"
+cd myapp
+mkdir docs
+mkdir src
+mkdir web
+mkdir web/WEB-INF
+cvs import -m "Initial Project Creation" {project} \
+    {username} start
+</pre></td><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td></tr><tr><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td><td bgcolor="#023264" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td></tr></table></div>
+
+<p>Now, to verify that it was created correctly in CVS, we will perform a
+checkout of the new project:</p>
+<div align="left"><table cellspacing="4" cellpadding="0" border="0"><tr><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td><td bgcolor="#023264" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td></tr><tr><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td><td bgcolor="#ffffff" height="1"><pre>
+cd ..
+mv myapp myapp.bu
+cvs checkout {project}
+</pre></td><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td></tr><tr><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td><td bgcolor="#023264" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td></tr></table></div>
+
+<p>Next, you will need to create and check in an initial version of the
+<code>build.xml</code> script to be used for development.  For getting
+started quickly and easily, base your <code>build.xml</code> on the
+<a href="build.xml.txt">basic build.xml file</a>, included with this manual,
+or code it from scratch.</p>
+<div align="left"><table cellspacing="4" cellpadding="0" border="0"><tr><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td><td bgcolor="#023264" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td></tr><tr><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td><td bgcolor="#ffffff" height="1"><pre>
+cd {my home directory}
+cd myapp
+emacs build.xml     &lt;-- if you want a real editor :-)
+cvs add build.xml
+cvs commit
+</pre></td><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td></tr><tr><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td><td bgcolor="#023264" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td></tr></table></div>
+
+<p>Until you perform the CVS commit, your changes are local to your own
+development directory.  Committing makes those changes visible to other
+developers on your team that are sharing the same CVS repository.</p>
+
+<p>The next step is to customize the Ant <em>properties</em> that are
+named in the <code>build.xml</code> script.  This is done by creating a
+file named <code>build.properties</code> in your project's top-level
+directory.  The supported properties are listed in the comments inside
+the sample <code>build.xml</code> script.  At a minimum, you will generally
+need to define the <code>catalina.home</code> property defining where
+Tomcat is installed, and the manager application username and password.
+You might end up with something like this:</p>
+<div align="left"><table cellspacing="4" cellpadding="0" border="0"><tr><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td><td bgcolor="#023264" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td></tr><tr><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td><td bgcolor="#ffffff" height="1"><pre>
+# Context path to install this application on
+app.path=/hello
+
+# Tomcat 7 installation directory
+catalina.home=/usr/local/apache-tomcat-7.0
+
+# Manager webapp username and password
+manager.username=myusername
+manager.password=mypassword
+</pre></td><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td></tr><tr><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td><td bgcolor="#023264" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td></tr></table></div>
+
+<p>In general, you will <strong>not</strong> want to check the
+<code>build.properties</code> file in to the CVS repository, because it
+is unique to each developer's environment.</p>
+
+<p>Now, create the initial version of the web application deployment
+descriptor.  You can base <code>web.xml</code> on the
+<a href="web.xml.txt">basic web.xml file</a>, or code it from scratch.</p>
+<div align="left"><table cellspacing="4" cellpadding="0" border="0"><tr><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td><td bgcolor="#023264" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td></tr><tr><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td><td bgcolor="#ffffff" height="1"><pre>
+cd {my home directory}
+cd myapp/web/WEB-INF
+emacs web.xml
+cvs add web.xml
+cvs commit
+</pre></td><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td></tr><tr><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td><td bgcolor="#023264" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td></tr></table></div>
+
+Note that this is only an example web.xml file.  The full definition
+of the deployment descriptor file is in the
+<a href="http://wiki.apache.org/tomcat/Specifications">Servlet Specification.</a>
+
+</blockquote></td></tr></table>
+
+
+<table border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="2"><tr><td bgcolor="#828DA6"><font color="#ffffff" face="arial,helvetica.sanserif"><a name="Edit Source Code and Pages"><!--()--></a><a name="Edit_Source_Code_and_Pages"><strong>Edit Source Code and Pages</strong></a></font></td></tr><tr><td><blockquote>
+
+<p>The edit/build/test tasks will generally be your most common activities
+during development and maintenance.  The following general principles apply.
+As described in <a href="source.html">Source Organization</a>, newly created
+source files should be located in the appropriate subdirectory, under your
+project source directory.</p>
+
+<p>Whenever you wish to refresh your development directory to reflect the
+work performed by other developers, you will ask CVS to do it for you:</p>
+<div align="left"><table cellspacing="4" cellpadding="0" border="0"><tr><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td><td bgcolor="#023264" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td></tr><tr><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td><td bgcolor="#ffffff" height="1"><pre>
+cd {my home directory}
+cd myapp
+cvs update -dP
+</pre></td><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td></tr><tr><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td><td bgcolor="#023264" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td></tr></table></div>
+
+<p>To create a new file, go to the appropriate directory, create the file,
+and register it with CVS.  When you are satisfied with it's contents (after
+building and testing is successful), commit the new file to the repository.
+For example, to create a new JSP page:</p>
+<div align="left"><table cellspacing="4" cellpadding="0" border="0"><tr><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td><td bgcolor="#023264" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td></tr><tr><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td><td bgcolor="#ffffff" height="1"><pre>
+cd {my home directory}
+cd myapp/web        &lt;-- Ultimate destination is document root
+emacs mypage.jsp
+cvs add mypage.jsp
+... build and test the application ...
+cvs commit
+</pre></td><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td></tr><tr><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td><td bgcolor="#023264" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td></tr></table></div>
+
+<p>Java source code that is defined in packages must be organized in a
+directory hierarchy (under the <strong>src/</strong> subdirectory) that
+matches the package names.  For example, a Java class named
+<code>com.mycompany.mypackage.MyClass.java</code> should be stored in file
+<code>src/com/mycompany/mypackage/MyClass.java</code>.
+Whenever you create a new subdirectory, don't forget to
+register it with CVS.</p>
+
+<p>To edit an existing source file, you will generally just start editing
+and testing, then commit the changed file when everything works.  Although
+CVS can be configured to required you to "check out" or "lock" a file you
+are going to be modifying, this is generally not used.</p>
+
+</blockquote></td></tr></table>
+
+
+<table border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="2"><tr><td bgcolor="#828DA6"><font color="#ffffff" face="arial,helvetica.sanserif"><a name="Build the Web Application"><!--()--></a><a name="Build_the_Web_Application"><strong>Build the Web Application</strong></a></font></td></tr><tr><td><blockquote>
+
+<p>When you are ready to compile the application, issue the following
+commands (generally, you will want a shell window open that is set to
+the project source directory, so that only the last command is needed):</p>
+<div align="left"><table cellspacing="4" cellpadding="0" border="0"><tr><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td><td bgcolor="#023264" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td></tr><tr><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td><td bgcolor="#ffffff" height="1"><pre>
+cd {my home directory}
+cd myapp        &lt;-- Normally leave a window open here
+ant
+</pre></td><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td></tr><tr><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td><td bgcolor="#023264" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td></tr></table></div>
+
+<p>The Ant tool will be execute the default "compile" target in your
+<code>build.xml</code> file, which will compile any new or updated Java
+code.  If this is the first time you compile after a "build clean",
+it will cause everything to be recompiled.</p>
+
+<p>To force the recompilation of your entire application, do this instead:</p>
+<div align="left"><table cellspacing="4" cellpadding="0" border="0"><tr><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td><td bgcolor="#023264" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td></tr><tr><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td><td bgcolor="#ffffff" height="1"><pre>
+cd {my home directory}
+cd myapp
+ant all
+</pre></td><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td></tr><tr><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td><td bgcolor="#023264" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td></tr></table></div>
+
+<p>This is a very good habit immediately before checking in changes, to
+make sure that you have not introduced any subtle problems that Javac's
+conditional checking did not catch.</p>
+
+</blockquote></td></tr></table>
+
+
+<table border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="2"><tr><td bgcolor="#828DA6"><font color="#ffffff" face="arial,helvetica.sanserif"><a name="Test Your Web Application"><!--()--></a><a name="Test_Your_Web_Application"><strong>Test Your Web Application</strong></a></font></td></tr><tr><td><blockquote>
+
+<p>To test your application, you will want to install it under Tomcat.  The
+quickest way to do that is to use the custom Ant tasks that are included in
+the sample <code>build.xml</code> script.  Using these commands might follow
+a pattern like this:</p>
+<ul>
+<li><em>Start Tomcat if needed</em>.  If Tomcat is not already running,
+    you will need to start it in the usual way.
+    <br><br></li>
+<li><em>Compile your application</em>.  Use the <code>ant compile</code>
+    command (or just <code>ant</code>, since this is the default).  Make
+    sure that there are no compilation errors.
+    <br><br></li>
+<li><em>Install the application</em>.  Use the <code>ant install</code>
+    command.  This tells Tomcat to immediately start running your app on
+    the context path defined in the <code>app.path</code> build property.
+    Tomcat does <strong>NOT</strong> have to be restarted for this to
+    take effect.<br><br></li>
+<li><em>Test the application</em>.  Using your browser or other testing
+    tools, test the functionality of your application.
+    <br><br></li>
+<li><em>Modify and rebuild as needed</em>.  As you discover that changes
+    are required, make those changes in the original <strong>source</strong>
+    files, not in the output build directory, and re-issue the
+    <code>ant compile</code> command.  This ensures that your changes will
+    be available to be saved (via <code>cvs commit</code>) later on --
+    the output build directory is deleted and recreated as necessary.
+    <br><br></li>
+<li><em>Reload the application</em>.  Tomcat will recognize changes in
+    JSP pages automatically, but it will continue to use the old versions
+    of any servlet or JavaBean classes until the application is reloaded.
+    You can trigger this by executing the <code>ant reload</code> command.
+    <br><br></li>
+<li><em>Remove the application when you re done</em>.  When you are through
+    working on this application, you can remove it from live execution by
+    running the <code>ant remove</code> command.</li>
+</ul>
+
+<p>Do not forget to commit your changes to the source code repository when
+you have completed your testing!</p>
+
+</blockquote></td></tr></table>
+
+
+<table border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="2"><tr><td bgcolor="#828DA6"><font color="#ffffff" face="arial,helvetica.sanserif"><a name="Creating a Release"><!--()--></a><a name="Creating_a_Release"><strong>Creating a Release</strong></a></font></td></tr><tr><td><blockquote>
+
+<p>When you are through adding new functionality, and you've tested everything
+(you DO test, don't you :-), it is time to create the distributable version
+of your web application that can be deployed on the production server.  The
+following general steps are required:</p>
+<ul>
+<li>Issue the command <code>ant all</code> from the project source
+    directory, to rebuild everything from scratch one last time.
+    <br><br></li>
+<li>Use the <code>cvs tag</code> command to create an identifier for
+    all of the source files utilized to create this release.  This allows
+    you to reliably reconstruct a release (from sources) at a later
+    time.</li>
+<li>Issue the command <code>ant dist</code> to create a distributable
+    web application archive (WAR) file, as well as a JAR file containing
+    the corresponding source code.
+    <br><br></li>
+<li>Package the contents of the <code>dist</code> directory using the
+    <strong>tar</strong> or <strong>zip</strong> utility, according to
+    the standard release procedures used by your organization.</li>
+</ul>
+
+</blockquote></td></tr></table>
+
+
+</blockquote></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr class="noPrint"><td width="20%" valign="top" nowrap class="noPrint"></td><td width="80%" valign="top" align="left"><table border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="2"><tr><td bgcolor="#525D76"><font color="#ffffff" face="arial,helvetica.sanserif"><a name="comments_section" id="comments_section"><strong>Comments</strong></a></font></td></tr><tr><td><blockquote><p class="notice"><strong>Notice: </strong>This is not a Q&amp;A section.
+              The Apache Comments System is explained
+              <a href="/tomcat-8.0-doc/comments.html">here</a>.
+              Comments should be pointed towards suggestions on improving the documentation
+              or server, and may be removed again by our moderators if they are either
+              implemented or considered invalid/off-topic.
+              Questions on how to manage Apache Tomcat should be directed
+              to our <a href="http://tomcat.apache.org/lists.html">mailing lists</a>.</p><script type="text/javascript"><!--//--><![CDATA[//><!--
+              var comments_shortname = 'tomcat';
+              var comments_identifier = 'http://tomcat.apache.org/tomcat-8.0-doc/appdev/processes.html';
+              (function(w, d) {
+                  if (w.location.hostname.toLowerCase() == "tomcat.apache.org") {
+                      d.write('<div id="comments_thread"><\/div>');
+                      var s = d.createElement('script');
+                      s.type = 'text/javascript';
+                      s.async = true;
+                      s.src = 'https://comments.apache.org/show_comments.lua?site=' + comments_shortname + '&page=' + comments_identifier;
+                      (d.getElementsByTagName('head')[0] || d.getElementsByTagName('body')[0]).appendChild(s);
+                  }
+                  else {
+                      d.write('<div id="comments_thread"><strong>Comments are disabled for this page at the moment.</strong><\/div>');
+                  }
+              })(window, document);
+              //--><!]]></script></blockquote></td></tr></table></td></tr><!--FOOTER SEPARATOR--><tr><td colspan="2"><hr noshade size="1"></td></tr><!--PAGE FOOTER--><tr><td colspan="2"><div align="center"><font color="#525D76" size="-1"><em>
+        Copyright &copy; 1999-2012, Apache Software Foundation
+        </em></font></div></td></tr></table></body></html>
\ No newline at end of file

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@@ -0,0 +1,514 @@
+<!--
+  Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
+  contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
+  this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
+  The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
+  (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
+  the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+
+      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+
+  Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
+  distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
+  WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
+  See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
+  limitations under the License.
+-->
+
+<!--
+     General purpose build script for web applications and web services,
+     including enhanced support for deploying directly to a Tomcat 6
+     based server.
+
+     This build script assumes that the source code of your web application
+     is organized into the following subdirectories underneath the source
+     code directory from which you execute the build script:
+
+        docs                 Static documentation files to be copied to
+                             the "docs" subdirectory of your distribution.
+
+        src                  Java source code (and associated resource files)
+                             to be compiled to the "WEB-INF/classes"
+                             subdirectory of your web application.
+
+        web                  Static HTML, JSP, and other content (such as
+                             image files), including the WEB-INF subdirectory
+                             and its configuration file contents.
+
+     $Id$
+-->
+
+
+<!-- A "project" describes a set of targets that may be requested
+     when Ant is executed.  The "default" attribute defines the
+     target which is executed if no specific target is requested,
+     and the "basedir" attribute defines the current working directory
+     from which Ant executes the requested task.  This is normally
+     set to the current working directory.
+-->
+
+<project name="My Project" default="compile" basedir=".">
+
+
+
+<!-- ===================== Property Definitions =========================== -->
+
+
+<!--
+
+  Each of the following properties are used in the build script.
+  Values for these properties are set by the first place they are
+  defined, from the following list:
+
+  * Definitions on the "ant" command line (ant -Dfoo=bar compile).
+
+  * Definitions from a "build.properties" file in the top level
+    source directory of this application.
+
+  * Definitions from a "build.properties" file in the developer's
+    home directory.
+
+  * Default definitions in this build.xml file.
+
+  You will note below that property values can be composed based on the
+  contents of previously defined properties.  This is a powerful technique
+  that helps you minimize the number of changes required when your development
+  environment is modified.  Note that property composition is allowed within
+  "build.properties" files as well as in the "build.xml" script.
+
+-->
+
+  <property file="build.properties"/>
+  <property file="${user.home}/build.properties"/>
+
+
+<!-- ==================== File and Directory Names ======================== -->
+
+
+<!--
+
+  These properties generally define file and directory names (or paths) that
+  affect where the build process stores its outputs.
+
+  app.name             Base name of this application, used to
+                       construct filenames and directories.
+                       Defaults to "myapp".
+
+  app.path             Context path to which this application should be
+                       deployed (defaults to "/" plus the value of the
+                       "app.name" property).
+
+  app.version          Version number of this iteration of the application.
+
+  build.home           The directory into which the "prepare" and
+                       "compile" targets will generate their output.
+                       Defaults to "build".
+
+  catalina.home        The directory in which you have installed
+                       a binary distribution of Tomcat 6.  This will
+                       be used by the "deploy" target.
+
+  dist.home            The name of the base directory in which
+                       distribution files are created.
+                       Defaults to "dist".
+
+  manager.password     The login password of a user that is assigned the
+                       "manager-script" role (so that he or she can execute
+                       commands via the "/manager" web application)
+
+  manager.url          The URL of the "/manager" web application on the
+                       Tomcat installation to which we will deploy web
+                       applications and web services.
+
+  manager.username     The login username of a user that is assigned the
+                       "manager-script" role (so that he or she can execute
+                       commands via the "/manager" web application)
+
+-->
+
+  <property name="app.name"      value="myapp"/>
+  <property name="app.path"      value="/${app.name}"/>
+  <property name="app.version"   value="0.1-dev"/>
+  <property name="build.home"    value="${basedir}/build"/>
+  <property name="catalina.home" value="../../../.."/> <!-- UPDATE THIS! -->
+  <property name="dist.home"     value="${basedir}/dist"/>
+  <property name="docs.home"     value="${basedir}/docs"/>
+  <property name="manager.url"   value="http://localhost:8080/manager/text"/>
+  <property name="src.home"      value="${basedir}/src"/>
+  <property name="web.home"      value="${basedir}/web"/>
+
+
+<!-- ==================== External Dependencies =========================== -->
+
+
+<!--
+
+  Use property values to define the locations of external JAR files on which
+  your application will depend.  In general, these values will be used for
+  two purposes:
+  * Inclusion on the classpath that is passed to the Javac compiler
+  * Being copied into the "/WEB-INF/lib" directory during execution
+    of the "deploy" target.
+
+  Because we will automatically include all of the Java classes that Tomcat 6
+  exposes to web applications, we will not need to explicitly list any of those
+  dependencies.  You only need to worry about external dependencies for JAR
+  files that you are going to include inside your "/WEB-INF/lib" directory.
+
+-->
+
+<!-- Dummy external dependency -->
+<!--
+  <property name="foo.jar"
+           value="/path/to/foo.jar"/>
+-->
+
+
+<!-- ==================== Compilation Classpath =========================== -->
+
+<!--
+
+  Rather than relying on the CLASSPATH environment variable, Ant includes
+  features that makes it easy to dynamically construct the classpath you
+  need for each compilation.  The example below constructs the compile
+  classpath to include the servlet.jar file, as well as the other components
+  that Tomcat makes available to web applications automatically, plus anything
+  that you explicitly added.
+
+-->
+
+  <path id="compile.classpath">
+
+    <!-- Include all JAR files that will be included in /WEB-INF/lib -->
+    <!-- *** CUSTOMIZE HERE AS REQUIRED BY YOUR APPLICATION *** -->
+<!--
+    <pathelement location="${foo.jar}"/>
+-->
+
+    <!-- Include all elements that Tomcat exposes to applications -->
+    <fileset dir="${catalina.home}/bin">
+      <include name="*.jar"/>
+    </fileset>
+    <pathelement location="${catalina.home}/lib"/>
+    <fileset dir="${catalina.home}/lib">
+      <include name="*.jar"/>
+    </fileset>
+
+  </path>
+
+
+
+<!-- ================== Custom Ant Task Definitions ======================= -->
+
+
+<!--
+
+  These properties define custom tasks for the Ant build tool that interact
+  with the "/manager" web application installed with Tomcat 6.  Before they
+  can be successfully utilized, you must perform the following steps:
+
+  - Copy the file "lib/catalina-ant.jar" from your Tomcat 6
+    installation into the "lib" directory of your Ant installation.
+
+  - Create a "build.properties" file in your application's top-level
+    source directory (or your user login home directory) that defines
+    appropriate values for the "manager.password", "manager.url", and
+    "manager.username" properties described above.
+
+  For more information about the Manager web application, and the functionality
+  of these tasks, see <http://localhost:8080/tomcat-docs/manager-howto.html>.
+
+-->
+
+  <taskdef resource="org/apache/catalina/ant/catalina.tasks"
+           classpathref="compile.classpath"/>
+
+
+<!--  ==================== Compilation Control Options ==================== -->
+
+<!--
+
+  These properties control option settings on the Javac compiler when it
+  is invoked using the <javac> task.
+
+  compile.debug        Should compilation include the debug option?
+
+  compile.deprecation  Should compilation include the deprecation option?
+
+  compile.optimize     Should compilation include the optimize option?
+
+-->
+
+  <property name="compile.debug"       value="true"/>
+  <property name="compile.deprecation" value="false"/>
+  <property name="compile.optimize"    value="true"/>
+
+
+
+<!-- ==================== All Target ====================================== -->
+
+<!--
+
+  The "all" target is a shortcut for running the "clean" target followed
+  by the "compile" target, to force a complete recompile.
+
+-->
+
+  <target name="all" depends="clean,compile"
+   description="Clean build and dist directories, then compile"/>
+
+
+
+<!-- ==================== Clean Target ==================================== -->
+
+<!--
+
+  The "clean" target deletes any previous "build" and "dist" directory,
+  so that you can be ensured the application can be built from scratch.
+
+-->
+
+  <target name="clean"
+   description="Delete old build and dist directories">
+    <delete dir="${build.home}"/>
+    <delete dir="${dist.home}"/>
+  </target>
+
+
+
+<!-- ==================== Compile Target ================================== -->
+
+<!--
+
+  The "compile" target transforms source files (from your "src" directory)
+  into object files in the appropriate location in the build directory.
+  This example assumes that you will be including your classes in an
+  unpacked directory hierarchy under "/WEB-INF/classes".
+
+-->
+
+  <target name="compile" depends="prepare"
+   description="Compile Java sources">
+
+    <!-- Compile Java classes as necessary -->
+    <mkdir    dir="${build.home}/WEB-INF/classes"/>
+    <javac srcdir="${src.home}"
+          destdir="${build.home}/WEB-INF/classes"
+            debug="${compile.debug}"
+      deprecation="${compile.deprecation}"
+         optimize="${compile.optimize}">
+        <classpath refid="compile.classpath"/>
+    </javac>
+
+    <!-- Copy application resources -->
+    <copy  todir="${build.home}/WEB-INF/classes">
+      <fileset dir="${src.home}" excludes="**/*.java"/>
+    </copy>
+
+  </target>
+
+
+
+<!-- ==================== Dist Target ===================================== -->
+
+
+<!--
+
+  The "dist" target creates a binary distribution of your application
+  in a directory structure ready to be archived in a tar.gz or zip file.
+  Note that this target depends on two others:
+
+  * "compile" so that the entire web application (including external
+    dependencies) will have been assembled
+
+  * "javadoc" so that the application Javadocs will have been created
+
+-->
+
+  <target name="dist" depends="compile,javadoc"
+   description="Create binary distribution">
+
+    <!-- Copy documentation subdirectories -->
+    <mkdir   dir="${dist.home}/docs"/>
+    <copy    todir="${dist.home}/docs">
+      <fileset dir="${docs.home}"/>
+    </copy>
+
+    <!-- Create application JAR file -->
+    <jar jarfile="${dist.home}/${app.name}-${app.version}.war"
+         basedir="${build.home}"/>
+
+    <!-- Copy additional files to ${dist.home} as necessary -->
+
+  </target>
+
+
+
+<!-- ==================== Install Target ================================== -->
+
+<!--
+
+  The "install" target tells the specified Tomcat 6 installation to dynamically
+  install this web application and make it available for execution.  It does
+  *not* cause the existence of this web application to be remembered across
+  Tomcat restarts; if you restart the server, you will need to re-install all
+  this web application.
+
+  If you have already installed this application, and simply want Tomcat to
+  recognize that you have updated Java classes (or the web.xml file), use the
+  "reload" target instead.
+
+  NOTE:  This target will only succeed if it is run from the same server that
+  Tomcat is running on.
+
+  NOTE:  This is the logical opposite of the "remove" target.
+
+-->
+
+  <target name="install" depends="compile"
+   description="Install application to servlet container">
+
+    <deploy url="${manager.url}"
+       username="${manager.username}"
+       password="${manager.password}"
+           path="${app.path}"
+       localWar="file://${build.home}"/>
+
+  </target>
+
+
+<!-- ==================== Javadoc Target ================================== -->
+
+<!--
+
+  The "javadoc" target creates Javadoc API documentation for the Java
+  classes included in your application.  Normally, this is only required
+  when preparing a distribution release, but is available as a separate
+  target in case the developer wants to create Javadocs independently.
+
+-->
+
+  <target name="javadoc" depends="compile"
+   description="Create Javadoc API documentation">
+
+    <mkdir          dir="${dist.home}/docs/api"/>
+    <javadoc sourcepath="${src.home}"
+                destdir="${dist.home}/docs/api"
+           packagenames="*">
+      <classpath refid="compile.classpath"/>
+    </javadoc>
+
+  </target>
+
+
+
+<!-- ====================== List Target =================================== -->
+
+<!--
+
+  The "list" target asks the specified Tomcat 6 installation to list the
+  currently running web applications, either loaded at startup time or
+  installed dynamically.  It is useful to determine whether or not the
+  application you are currently developing has been installed.
+
+-->
+
+  <target name="list"
+   description="List installed applications on servlet container">
+
+    <list    url="${manager.url}"
+        username="${manager.username}"
+        password="${manager.password}"/>
+
+  </target>
+
+
+<!-- ==================== Prepare Target ================================== -->
+
+<!--
+
+  The "prepare" target is used to create the "build" destination directory,
+  and copy the static contents of your web application to it.  If you need
+  to copy static files from external dependencies, you can customize the
+  contents of this task.
+
+  Normally, this task is executed indirectly when needed.
+
+-->
+
+  <target name="prepare">
+
+    <!-- Create build directories as needed -->
+    <mkdir  dir="${build.home}"/>
+    <mkdir  dir="${build.home}/WEB-INF"/>
+    <mkdir  dir="${build.home}/WEB-INF/classes"/>
+
+
+    <!-- Copy static content of this web application -->
+    <copy todir="${build.home}">
+      <fileset dir="${web.home}"/>
+    </copy>
+
+    <!-- Copy external dependencies as required -->
+    <!-- *** CUSTOMIZE HERE AS REQUIRED BY YOUR APPLICATION *** -->
+    <mkdir  dir="${build.home}/WEB-INF/lib"/>
+<!--
+    <copy todir="${build.home}/WEB-INF/lib" file="${foo.jar}"/>
+-->
+
+    <!-- Copy static files from external dependencies as needed -->
+    <!-- *** CUSTOMIZE HERE AS REQUIRED BY YOUR APPLICATION *** -->
+
+  </target>
+
+
+<!-- ==================== Reload Target =================================== -->
+
+<!--
+
+  The "reload" signals the specified application Tomcat 6 to shut itself down
+  and reload. This can be useful when the web application context is not
+  reloadable and you have updated classes or property files in the
+  /WEB-INF/classes directory or when you have added or updated jar files in the
+  /WEB-INF/lib directory.
+
+  NOTE: The /WEB-INF/web.xml web application configuration file is not reread
+  on a reload. If you have made changes to your web.xml file you must stop
+  then start the web application.
+
+-->
+
+  <target name="reload" depends="compile"
+   description="Reload application on servlet container">
+
+    <reload url="${manager.url}"
+       username="${manager.username}"
+       password="${manager.password}"
+           path="${app.path}"/>
+
+  </target>
+
+
+<!-- ==================== Remove Target =================================== -->
+
+<!--
+
+  The "remove" target tells the specified Tomcat 6 installation to dynamically
+  remove this web application from service.
+
+  NOTE:  This is the logical opposite of the "install" target.
+
+-->
+
+  <target name="remove"
+   description="Remove application on servlet container">
+
+    <undeploy url="${manager.url}"
+         username="${manager.username}"
+         password="${manager.password}"
+             path="${app.path}"/>
+
+  </target>
+
+
+</project>

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+++ tomcat/site/trunk/docs/tomcat-8.0-doc/appdev/sample/docs/README.txt Wed Dec  5 20:20:35 2012
@@ -0,0 +1,17 @@
+  Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
+  contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
+  this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
+  The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
+  (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
+  the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+
+      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+
+  Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
+  distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
+  WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
+  See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
+  limitations under the License.
+
+This is a dummy README file for the sample
+web application.

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+<!--
+  Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
+  contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
+  this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
+  The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
+  (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
+  the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+
+      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+
+  Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
+  distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
+  WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
+  See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
+  limitations under the License.
+-->
+<html>
+<head>
+<meta name="author" content="Ben Souther" />
+<title>Sample Application</title>
+</head>
+<body>
+<h2>Sample Application</h2>
+      <p>
+        The example app has been packaged as a war file and can be downloaded
+        <a href="sample.war">here</a> (Note: make sure your browser doesn't
+        change file extension or append a new one).
+      </p>
+      <p>
+        The easiest way to run this application is simply to move the war file
+        to your <b>CATALINA_HOME/webapps</b> directory. Tomcat will automatically
+        expand and deploy the application for you. You can view it with the
+        following URL (assuming that you're running tomcat on port 8080
+        as is the default):
+        <br />
+        <a href="http://localhost:8080/sample">http://localhost:8080/sample</a>
+      </p>
+      <p>
+        If you just want to browse the contents, you can unpack the war file
+        with the <b>jar</b> command.
+      </p>
+      <pre>
+        jar -xvf sample.war
+      </pre>
+</body>
+</html>
\ No newline at end of file

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@@ -0,0 +1,84 @@
+/*
+ * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
+ * contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
+ * this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
+ * The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
+ * (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
+ * the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+ *
+ *      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+ *
+ * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
+ * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
+ * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
+ * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
+ * limitations under the License.
+ */
+package mypackage;
+
+import java.io.IOException;
+import java.io.PrintWriter;
+
+import javax.servlet.ServletException;
+import javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet;
+import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;
+import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse;
+
+
+/**
+ * Simple servlet to validate that the Hello, World example can
+ * execute servlets.  In the web application deployment descriptor,
+ * this servlet must be mapped to correspond to the link in the
+ * "index.html" file.
+ *
+ * @author Craig R. McClanahan <Craig.McClanahan@eng.sun.com>
+ */
+
+public final class Hello extends HttpServlet {
+
+    private static final long serialVersionUID = 1L;
+
+    /**
+     * Respond to a GET request for the content produced by
+     * this servlet.
+     *
+     * @param request The servlet request we are processing
+     * @param response The servlet response we are producing
+     *
+     * @exception IOException if an input/output error occurs
+     * @exception ServletException if a servlet error occurs
+     */
+    @Override
+    public void doGet(HttpServletRequest request,
+                      HttpServletResponse response)
+      throws IOException, ServletException {
+
+        response.setContentType("text/html");
+        PrintWriter writer = response.getWriter();
+
+        writer.println("<html>");
+        writer.println("<head>");
+        writer.println("<title>Sample Application Servlet Page</title>");
+        writer.println("</head>");
+        writer.println("<body bgcolor=white>");
+
+        writer.println("<table border=\"0\">");
+        writer.println("<tr>");
+        writer.println("<td>");
+        writer.println("<img src=\"images/tomcat.gif\">");
+        writer.println("</td>");
+        writer.println("<td>");
+        writer.println("<h1>Sample Application Servlet</h1>");
+        writer.println("This is the output of a servlet that is part of");
+        writer.println("the Hello, World application.");
+        writer.println("</td>");
+        writer.println("</tr>");
+        writer.println("</table>");
+
+        writer.println("</body>");
+        writer.println("</html>");
+
+    }
+
+
+}

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@@ -0,0 +1,39 @@
+<!--
+  Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
+  contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
+  this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
+  The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
+  (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
+  the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+
+      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+
+  Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
+  distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
+  WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
+  See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
+  limitations under the License.
+-->
+<html>
+<head>
+<title>Sample Application JSP Page</title>
+</head>
+<body bgcolor=white>
+
+<table border="0">
+<tr>
+<td align=center>
+<img src="images/tomcat.gif">
+</td>
+<td>
+<h1>Sample Application JSP Page</h1>
+This is the output of a JSP page that is part of the Hello, World
+application.
+</td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+
+<%= new String("Hello!") %>
+
+</body>
+</html>

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@@ -0,0 +1,44 @@
+<!--
+  Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
+  contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
+  this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
+  The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
+  (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
+  the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+
+      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+
+  Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
+  distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
+  WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
+  See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
+  limitations under the License.
+-->
+<html>
+<head>
+<title>Sample "Hello, World" Application</title>
+</head>
+<body bgcolor=white>
+
+<table border="0">
+<tr>
+<td>
+<img src="images/tomcat.gif">
+</td>
+<td>
+<h1>Sample "Hello, World" Application</h1>
+<p>This is the home page for a sample application used to illustrate the
+source directory organization of a web application utilizing the principles
+outlined in the Application Developer's Guide.
+</td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+
+<p>To prove that they work, you can execute either of the following links:</p>
+<ul>
+<li>To a <a href="hello.jsp">JSP page</a>.</li>
+<li>To a <a href="hello">servlet</a>.</li>
+</ul>
+
+</body>
+</html>

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@@ -0,0 +1,325 @@
+<html><head><META http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1"><title>Application Developer's Guide (8.0.0-dev) - Source Organization</title><meta name="author" content="Craig R. McClanahan"><style type="text/css" media="print">
+            .noPrint {display: none;}
+            td#mainBody {width: 100%;}
+        </style><style type="text/css">
+            code {background-color:rgb(224,255,255);padding:0 0.1em;}
+            code.attributeName, code.propertyName {background-color:transparent;}
+        </style><style type="text/css">
+            .wrapped-source code { display: block; background-color: transparent; }
+            .wrapped-source div { margin: 0 0 0 1.25em; }
+            .wrapped-source p { margin: 0 0 0 1.25em; text-indent: -1.25em; }
+        </style><style type="text/css">
+            p.notice {
+                border: 1px solid rgb(255, 0, 0);
+                background-color: rgb(238, 238, 238);
+                color: rgb(0, 51, 102);
+                padding: 0.5em;
+                margin: 1em 2em 1em 1em;
+            }
+        </style></head><body bgcolor="#ffffff" text="#000000" link="#525D76" alink="#525D76" vlink="#525D76"><table border="0" width="100%" cellspacing="0"><!--PAGE HEADER--><tr><td><!--PROJECT LOGO--><a href="http://tomcat.apache.org/"><img src="../images/tomcat.gif" align="right" alt="
+      The Apache Tomcat Servlet/JSP Container
+    " border="0"></a></td><td><h1><font face="arial,helvetica,sanserif">Apache Tomcat 8</font></h1><font face="arial,helvetica,sanserif">Version 8.0.0-dev, Dec 5 2012</font></td><td><!--APACHE LOGO--><a href="http://www.apache.org/"><img src="../images/asf-logo.gif" align="right" alt="Apache Logo" border="0"></a></td></tr></table><table border="0" width="100%" cellspacing="4"><!--HEADER SEPARATOR--><tr><td colspan="2"><hr noshade size="1"></td></tr><tr><!--LEFT SIDE NAVIGATION--><td width="20%" valign="top" nowrap class="noPrint"><p><strong>Links</strong></p><ul><li><a href="../index.html">Docs Home</a></li><li><a href="index.html">App Dev Guide Home</a></li><li><a href="http://wiki.apache.org/tomcat/FAQ">FAQ</a></li><li><a href="#comments_section">User Comments</a></li></ul><p><strong>Contents</strong></p><ul><li><a href="index.html">Contents</a></li><li><a href="introduction.html">Introduction</a></li><li><a href="installation.html">Installation</a></li><li><a href="deploy
 ment.html">Deployment</a></li><li><a href="source.html">Source Code</a></li><li><a href="processes.html">Processes</a></li><li><a href="sample/">Example App</a></li></ul></td><!--RIGHT SIDE MAIN BODY--><td width="80%" valign="top" align="left" id="mainBody"><h1>Source Organization</h1><table border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="2"><tr><td bgcolor="#525D76"><font color="#ffffff" face="arial,helvetica.sanserif"><a name="Table of Contents"><!--()--></a><a name="Table_of_Contents"><strong>Table of Contents</strong></a></font></td></tr><tr><td><blockquote>
+<ul><li><a href="#Directory_Structure">Directory Structure</a><ol><li><a href="#External_Dependencies">External Dependencies</a></li></ol></li><li><a href="#Source_Code_Control">Source Code Control</a></li><li><a href="#BUILD.XML_Configuration_File">BUILD.XML Configuration File</a></li></ul>
+</blockquote></td></tr></table><table border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="2"><tr><td bgcolor="#525D76"><font color="#ffffff" face="arial,helvetica.sanserif"><a name="Directory Structure"><!--()--></a><a name="Directory_Structure"><strong>Directory Structure</strong></a></font></td></tr><tr><td><blockquote>
+
+    <blockquote><em>
+    <p>The description below uses the variable name $CATALINA_BASE to refer the
+    base directory against which most relative paths are resolved. If you have
+    not configured Tomcat for multiple instances by setting a CATALINA_BASE
+    directory, then $CATALINA_BASE will be set to the value of $CATALINA_HOME,
+    the directory into which you have installed Tomcat.</p>
+    </em></blockquote>
+
+<p>A key recommendation of this manual is to separate the directory
+hierarchy containing your source code (described in this section) from
+the directory hierarchy containing your deployable application
+(described in the preceding section).  Maintaining this separation has
+the following advantages:</p>
+<ul>
+<li>The contents of the source directories can be more easily administered,
+    moved, and backed up if the "executable" version of the application
+    is not intermixed.
+    <br><br></li>
+<li>Source code control is easier to manage on directories that contain
+    only source files.
+    <br><br></li>
+<li>The files that make up an installable distribution of your
+    application are much easier to select when the deployment
+    hierarchy is separate.</li>
+</ul>
+
+<p>As we will see, the <code>ant</code> development tool makes the creation
+and processing of such directory hierarchies nearly painless.</p>
+
+<p>The actual directory and file hierarchy used to contain the source code
+of an application can be pretty much anything you like.  However, the
+following organization has proven to be quite generally applicable, and is
+expected by the example <code>build.xml</code> configuration file that
+is discussed below.  All of these components exist under a top level
+<em>project source directory</em> for your application:</p>
+<ul>
+<li><strong>docs/</strong> - Documentation for your application, in whatever
+    format your development team is using.<br><br></li>
+<li><strong>src/</strong> - Java source files that generate the servlets,
+    beans, and other Java classes that are unique to your application.
+    If your source code is organized in packages (<strong>highly</strong>
+    recommended), the package hierarchy should be reflected as a directory
+    structure underneath this directory.<br><br></li>
+<li><strong>web/</strong> - The static content of your web site (HTML pages,
+    JSP pages, JavaScript files, CSS stylesheet files, and images) that will
+    be accessible to application clients.  This directory will be the
+    <em>document root</em> of your web application, and any subdirectory
+    structure found here will be reflected in the request URIs required to
+    access those files.<br><br></li>
+<li><strong>web/WEB-INF/</strong> - The special configuration files required
+    for your application, including the web application deployment descriptor
+    (<code>web.xml</code>, defined in the
+    <a href="http://wiki.apache.org/tomcat/Specifications">Servlet Specification</a>),
+    tag library descriptors for custom tag libraries
+    you have created, and other resource files you wish to include within
+    your web application.  Even though this directory appears to be a
+    subdirectory of your <em>document root</em>, the Servlet Specification
+    prohibits serving the contents of this directory (or any file it contains)
+    directly to a client request.  Therefore, this is a good place to store
+    configuration information that is sensitive (such as database connection
+    usernames and passwords), but is required for your application to
+    operate successfully.</li>
+</ul>
+
+<p>During the development process, two additional directories will be
+created on a temporary basis:</p>
+<ul>
+<li><strong>build/</strong> - When you execute a default build
+    (<code>ant</code>), this directory will contain an exact image
+    of the files in the web application archive for this application.
+    Tomcat allows you to deploy an application in an unpacked
+    directory like this, either by copying it to the
+    <code>$CATALINA_BASE/webapps</code> directory, or by <em>installing</em>
+    it via the "Manager" web application.  The latter approach is very
+    useful during development, and will be illustrated below.
+    <br><br></li>
+<li><strong>dist/</strong> - When you execute the <code>ant dist</code>
+    target, this directory will be created.  It will create an exact image
+    of the binary distribution for your web application, including an license
+    information, documentation, and README files that you have prepared.</li>
+</ul>
+
+<p>Note that these two directories should <strong>NOT</strong> be archived in
+your source code control system, because they are deleted and recreated (from
+scratch) as needed during development.  For that reason, you should not edit
+any source files in these directories if you want to maintain a permanent
+record of the changes, because the changes will be lost the next time that a
+build is performed.</p>
+
+  <table border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="2"><tr><td bgcolor="#828DA6"><font color="#ffffff" face="arial,helvetica.sanserif"><a name="External Dependencies"><!--()--></a><a name="External_Dependencies"><strong>External Dependencies</strong></a></font></td></tr><tr><td><blockquote>
+
+  <p>What do you do if your application requires JAR files (or other
+  resources) from external projects or packages?  A common example is that
+  you need to include a JDBC driver in your web application, in order to
+  operate.</p>
+
+  <p>Different developers take different approaches to this problem.
+  Some will encourage checking a copy of the JAR files you depend on into
+  the source code control archives for every application that requires those
+  JAR files.  However, this can cause significant management issues when you
+  use the same JAR in many applications - particular when faced with a need
+  to upgrade to a different version of that JAR file.</p>
+
+  <p>Therefore, this manual recommends that you <strong>NOT</strong> store
+  a copy of the packages you depend on inside the source control archives
+  of your applications.  Instead, the external dependencies should be
+  integrated as part of the process of <strong>building</strong> your
+  application.  In that way, you can always pick up the appropriate version
+  of the JAR files from wherever your development system administrator has
+  installed them, without having to worry about updating your application
+  every time the version of the dependent JAR file is changed.</p>
+
+  <p>In the example Ant <code>build.xml</code> file, we will demonstrate
+  how to define <em>build properties</em> that let you configure the locations
+  of the files to be copied, without having to modify <code>build.xml</code>
+  when these files change.  The build properties used by a particular
+  developer can be customized on a per-application basis, or defaulted to
+  "standard" build properties stored in the developer's home directory.</p>
+
+  <p>In many cases, your development system administrator will have already
+  installed the required JAR files into the <code>lib</code> directory of Tomcat.
+  If this has been done, you need
+  to take no actions at all - the example <code>build.xml</code> file
+  automatically constructs a compile classpath that includes these files.</p>
+
+  </blockquote></td></tr></table>
+
+</blockquote></td></tr></table><table border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="2"><tr><td bgcolor="#525D76"><font color="#ffffff" face="arial,helvetica.sanserif"><a name="Source Code Control"><!--()--></a><a name="Source_Code_Control"><strong>Source Code Control</strong></a></font></td></tr><tr><td><blockquote>
+
+<p>As mentioned earlier, it is highly recommended that you place all of the
+source files that comprise your application under the management of a
+source code control system like the Concurrent Version System (CVS).  If you
+elect to do this, every directory and file in the source hierarchy should be
+registered and saved -- but none of the generated files.  If you register
+binary format files (such as images or JAR libraries), be sure to indicate
+this to your source code control system.</p>
+
+<p>We recommended (in the previous section) that you should not store the
+contents of the <code>build/</code> and <code>dist/</code> directories
+created by your development process in the source code control system.  An
+easy way to tell CVS to ignore these directories is to create a file named
+<code>.cvsignore</code> (note the leading period) in your top-level source
+directory, with the following contents:</p>
+<div align="left"><table cellspacing="4" cellpadding="0" border="0"><tr><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td><td bgcolor="#023264" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td></tr><tr><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td><td bgcolor="#ffffff" height="1"><pre>
+build
+dist
+build.properties
+</pre></td><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td></tr><tr><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td><td bgcolor="#023264" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td></tr></table></div>
+
+<p>The reason for mentioning <code>build.properties</code> here will be
+explained in the <a href="processes.html">Processes</a> section.</p>
+
+<p>Detailed instructions for your source code control environment are beyond
+the scope of this manual.  However, the following steps are followed when
+using a command-line CVS client:</p>
+<ul>
+<li>To refresh the state of your source code to that stored in the
+    the source repository, go to your project source directory, and
+    execute <code>cvs update -dP</code>.
+    <br><br></li>
+<li>When you create a new subdirectory in the source code hierarchy, register
+    it in CVS with a command like <code>cvs add {subdirname}</code>.
+    <br><br></li>
+<li>When you first create a new source code file, navigate to the directory
+    that contains it, and register the new file with a command like
+    <code>cvs add {filename}</code>.
+    <br><br></li>
+<li>If you no longer need a particular source code file, navigate to the
+    containing directory and remove the file.  Then, deregister it in CVS
+    with a command like <code>cvs remove {filename}</code>.
+    <br><br></li>
+<li>While you are creating, modifying, and deleting source files, changes
+    are not yet reflected in the server repository.  To save your changes in
+    their current state, go to the project source directory
+    and execute <code>cvs commit</code>.  You will be asked to write a brief
+    description of the changes you have just completed, which will be stored
+    with the new version of any updated source file.</li>
+</ul>
+
+<p>CVS, like other source code control systems, has many additional features
+(such as the ability to tag the files that made up a particular release, and
+support for multiple development branches that can later be merged).  See the
+links and references in the <a href="introduction.html">Introduction</a> for
+more information.</p>
+
+</blockquote></td></tr></table><table border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="2"><tr><td bgcolor="#525D76"><font color="#ffffff" face="arial,helvetica.sanserif"><a name="BUILD.XML Configuration File"><!--()--></a><a name="BUILD.XML_Configuration_File"><strong>BUILD.XML Configuration File</strong></a></font></td></tr><tr><td><blockquote>
+
+<p>We will be using the <strong>ant</strong> tool to manage the compilation of
+our Java source code files, and creation of the deployment hierarchy.  Ant
+operates under the control of a build file, normally called
+<code>build.xml</code>, that defines the processing steps required.  This
+file is stored in the top-level directory of your source code hierarchy, and
+should be checked in to your source code control system.</p>
+
+<p>Like a Makefile, the <code>build.xml</code> file provides several
+"targets" that support optional development activities (such as creating
+the associated Javadoc documentation, erasing the deployment home directory
+so you can build your project from scratch, or creating the web application
+archive file so you can distribute your application.  A well-constructed
+<code>build.xml</code> file will contain internal documentation describing
+the targets that are designed for use by the developer, versus those targets
+used internally.  To ask Ant to display the project documentation, change to
+the directory containing the <code>build.xml</code> file and type:</p>
+<div align="left"><table cellspacing="4" cellpadding="0" border="0"><tr><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td><td bgcolor="#023264" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td></tr><tr><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td><td bgcolor="#ffffff" height="1"><pre>
+ant -projecthelp
+</pre></td><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td></tr><tr><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td><td bgcolor="#023264" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td><td bgcolor="#023264" width="1" height="1"><img src="../images/void.gif" alt="" width="1" height="1" vspace="0" hspace="0" border="0"></td></tr></table></div>
+
+<p>To give you a head start, a <a href="build.xml.txt">basic build.xml file</a>
+is provided that you can customize and install in the project source directory
+for your application.  This file includes comments that describe the various
+targets that can be executed.  Briefly, the following targets are generally
+provided:</p>
+<ul>
+<li><strong>clean</strong> - This target deletes any existing
+    <code>build</code> and <code>dist</code> directories, so that they
+    can be reconstructed from scratch.  This allows you to guarantee that
+    you have not made source code modifications that will result in
+    problems at runtime due to not recompiling all affected classes.
+    <br><br></li>
+<li><strong>compile</strong> - This target is used to compile any source code
+    that has been changed since the last time compilation took place.  The
+    resulting class files are created in the <code>WEB-INF/classes</code>
+    subdirectory of your <code>build</code> directory, exactly where the
+    structure of a web application requires them to be.  Because
+    this command is executed so often during development, it is normally
+    made the "default" target so that a simple <code>ant</code> command will
+    execute it.
+    <br><br></li>
+<li><strong>all</strong> - This target is a short cut for running the
+    <code>clean</code> target, followed by the <code>compile</code> target.
+    Thus, it guarantees that you will recompile the entire application, to
+    ensure that you have not unknowingly introduced any incompatible changes.
+    <br><br></li>
+<li><strong>javadoc</strong> - This target creates Javadoc API documentation
+    for the Java classes in this web application.  The example
+    <code>build.xml</code> file assumes you want to include the API
+    documentation with your app distribution, so it generates the docs
+    in a subdirectory of the <code>dist</code> directory.  Because you normally
+    do not need to generate the Javadocs on every compilation, this target is
+    usually a dependency of the <code>dist</code> target, but not of the
+    <code>compile</code> target.
+    <br><br></li>
+<li><strong>dist</strong> - This target creates a distribution directory for
+    your application, including any required documentation, the Javadocs for
+    your Java classes, and a web application archive (WAR) file that will be
+    delivered to system administrators who wish to install your application.
+    Because this target also depends on the <code>deploy</code> target, the
+    web application archive will have also picked up any external dependencies
+    that were included at deployment time.</li>
+</ul>
+
+<p>For interactive development and testing of your web application using
+Tomcat, the following additional targets are defined:</p>
+<ul>
+<li><strong>install</strong> - Tell the currently running Tomcat to make
+    the application you are developing immediately available for execution
+    and testing.  This action does not require Tomcat to be restarted, but
+    it is also not remembered after Tomcat is restarted the next time.
+    <br><br></li>
+<li><strong>reload</strong> - Once the application is installed, you can
+    continue to make changes and recompile using the <code>compile</code>
+    target.  Tomcat will automatically recognize changes made to JSP pages,
+    but not to servlet or JavaBean classes - this command will tell Tomcat
+    to restart the currently installed application so that such changes are
+    recognized.
+    <br><br></li>
+<li><strong>remove</strong> - When you have completed your development and
+    testing activities, you can optionally tell Tomcat to remove this
+    application from service.
+    </li>
+</ul>
+
+<p>Using the development and testing targets requires some additional
+one-time setup that is described on the next page.</p>
+
+</blockquote></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr class="noPrint"><td width="20%" valign="top" nowrap class="noPrint"></td><td width="80%" valign="top" align="left"><table border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="2"><tr><td bgcolor="#525D76"><font color="#ffffff" face="arial,helvetica.sanserif"><a name="comments_section" id="comments_section"><strong>Comments</strong></a></font></td></tr><tr><td><blockquote><p class="notice"><strong>Notice: </strong>This is not a Q&amp;A section.
+              The Apache Comments System is explained
+              <a href="/tomcat-8.0-doc/comments.html">here</a>.
+              Comments should be pointed towards suggestions on improving the documentation
+              or server, and may be removed again by our moderators if they are either
+              implemented or considered invalid/off-topic.
+              Questions on how to manage Apache Tomcat should be directed
+              to our <a href="http://tomcat.apache.org/lists.html">mailing lists</a>.</p><script type="text/javascript"><!--//--><![CDATA[//><!--
+              var comments_shortname = 'tomcat';
+              var comments_identifier = 'http://tomcat.apache.org/tomcat-8.0-doc/appdev/source.html';
+              (function(w, d) {
+                  if (w.location.hostname.toLowerCase() == "tomcat.apache.org") {
+                      d.write('<div id="comments_thread"><\/div>');
+                      var s = d.createElement('script');
+                      s.type = 'text/javascript';
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+                      s.src = 'https://comments.apache.org/show_comments.lua?site=' + comments_shortname + '&page=' + comments_identifier;
+                      (d.getElementsByTagName('head')[0] || d.getElementsByTagName('body')[0]).appendChild(s);
+                  }
+                  else {
+                      d.write('<div id="comments_thread"><strong>Comments are disabled for this page at the moment.</strong><\/div>');
+                  }
+              })(window, document);
+              //--><!]]></script></blockquote></td></tr></table></td></tr><!--FOOTER SEPARATOR--><tr><td colspan="2"><hr noshade size="1"></td></tr><!--PAGE FOOTER--><tr><td colspan="2"><div align="center"><font color="#525D76" size="-1"><em>
+        Copyright &copy; 1999-2012, Apache Software Foundation
+        </em></font></div></td></tr></table></body></html>
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