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From Apache Wiki <>
Subject [Tomcat Wiki] Update of "TomcatHibernate" by MarkEggers
Date Fri, 07 May 2010 01:53:56 GMT
Dear Wiki user,

You have subscribed to a wiki page or wiki category on "Tomcat Wiki" for change notification.

The "TomcatHibernate" page has been changed by MarkEggers.


New page:
= Tomcat, Hibernate, and Database Connection Pooling =
== Introduction ==
This is my understanding concerning how the Tomcat / Hibernate / database environment works.
This is based on a post I made to the Tomcat Users mailing list. In this wiki article, I'll
work through both Tomcat - managed database connection pooling and Hibernate - managed database
connection pooling.

== Environments ==
I use primarily the following two environments when developing concepts and testing ideas.
||<tablewidth="400px" tableheight="365px"style="font-weight: bold;">Component ||<style="font-weight:
bold;">Version ||
||OS ||Fedora 11 32 bit ||
||JDK/JRE ||1.6.0_20 ||
||Tomcat ||6.0.26 ||
||MySQL ||5.1.41-2 ||
||IDE ||!NetBeans 6.8 ||
||Hibernate ||3.2.5 ga ||
|| || ||
||OS ||Windows/XP Professional SP 4 32 bit ||
||JDK/JRE ||1.6.0_20 ||
||Tomcat ||6.0.26 ||
||MySQL ||5.1.31 ||
||IDE ||!NetBeans 6.8 ||
||Hibernate ||3.2.5 ga ||

In order to work through the two configurations, I've chosen to use the [[|NetBeans
Hibernate Tutorial]]. The original tutorial does not make any use of database pooling. Modifications
to the tutorial will be shown below to use either Tomcat's database pooling via JNDI or Hibernate's
provided CP30 database pooling.

== Preliminaries ==
Before proceeding, either work through or download the [[|Netbeans
Hibernate Tutorial]]. This will ensure that the project is set up properly so that modifications
can be easily made.

== Tomcat JNDI Database Pooling Basics ==
=== Tomcat Preparation ===
Per Tomcat documentation, I've placed mysql-connector-java-5.1.11-bin.jar in Tomcat's lib
directory. This makes the JDBC driver  available to Tomcat in order to set up database pooling.
No Hibernate jars should be placed in Tomcat's lib directory.

=== Web Application ===
All Hibernate jars are located in WEB-INF/lib. !NetBeans  builds the war file correctly, so
no jar files have to be copied.

Per Tomcat documentation, a context.xml file in META-INF is created.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <Context antiJARLocking="true" path="/DVDStore">
  <Resource auth="Container"
  driverClassName="com.mysql.jdbc.Driver" maxActive="30" maxIdle="10" maxWait="10000" name="jdbc/sakila"
  type="javax.sql.DataSource" url="jdbc:mysql://localhost/sakila" username="*****"/>
Obviously, replace the asterisks with the appropriate username and password. Replace the database
url with your appropriate database.

In WEB-INF/web.xml you'll need to add the following lines.

  <description>This is a MySQL database connection</description>
Again, this is all boilerplate configuration and is documented on the Tomcat documentation
web site. In particular, please note that the '''res-ref-name''' in web.xml '''must match'''
the '''name''' attribute of the resource node in the context.xml file.

=== Hibernate Configuration ===
So far, this has all been more or less boilerplate Tomcat configuration. The next step is
to get Hibernate to talk to Tomcat's database connection pool as opposed to its own connection
pool or a direct connection.

After searching a bit on the Internet, I found that the following connection information works.

In hibernate.cfg.xml located in WEB-INF/, put the following.

<!-- using container-managed JNDI -->
Note that jdbc/sakila matches the web.xml resource-ref-name, which matches the name attribute
in context.xml. java:comp/env/ is the namespace to look up the jdbc reference.

No other connection or pooling information should be present in your hibernate.cfg.xml file.

If you are using Netbeans as your IDE, the hibernate.cfg.xml file will be found in <project-name>/src/java
by default.

=== Application Code ===
One of the nice things about Hibernate is that it shields your application code from database
connection particulars. You can change from Tomcat JNDI pooling to Hibernate pooling, to a
direct connection all without changing the underlying application code. In particular:

Creating the !SessionFactory

// SessionFactory from standard hibernate.cfg.xml file
try {
    sessionFactory = new AnnotationConfiguration().configure().buildSessionFactory();
} catch (Throwable ex) {
    // Log the exception.
    log.fatal("Initial SessionFactory creation failed.", ex); throw new ExceptionInInitializerError(ex);
and getting the !SessionFactory

public static SessionFactory getSessionFactory() {
    return sessionFactory;
work with no modifications.

For my application, both of these code snippets live in ! which !NetBeans
generates for you. My code also has an mbean for monitoring Hibernate.

You can then call this code from a class that implements !ServletContextListener. This will
then create the session factory, or throw an exception if this fails at application startup.
It's also handy for cleaning up resources when the application is shut down. In my case, I
use this to unregister the monitoring mbean.

=== Other Notes ===
If you look at your logs, you may see the following warning:

INFO SessionFactoryObjectFactory:82 - Not binding factory to JNDI, no JNDI name configured
This is due to the fact that Hibernate can bind a session factory to a JNDI name, but none
is configured. This is not the JDBC resource. This facility probably exists to make sharing
session factories easier, and to clean up calls like the following:

Session session = HibernateUtil.getSessionFactory().openSession();
Tomcat provides a read-only !InitialContext, while Hibernate requires read-write in order
to manage multiple session factories. Tomcat is apparently following the specification for
unmanaged containers. If you want to bind the session factory to a JNDI object, you'll either
have to move to a managed server (Glassfish, JBoss, etc.), or search on the Internet for some
posted work-arounds.

The recommendation from the Hibernate documentation is to just leave out the hibernate.session_factory_name
property when working with Tomcat to not try binding to JNDI.

== Hibernate Managed Database Pooling ==
I've tried this only briefly, since I always rely on container managed database connections.
However, it appears to work cleanly, and may be useful when frequently migrating between servlet

=== Web Application Configuration ===
 1. Remove the <Resource></Resource> element from the context.xml file. Tomcat
is not going to be managing the database connection.
 1. Remove the <resource-ref></resource-ref> element from the web.xml file. Tomcat
is not going to be managing the database connection.

=== Jar Files ===
According to the Tomcat classloader documentation, Tomcat makes jar files available to your
application in the following order:

 1. Bootstrap classes of your JVM
 1. System class loader classses (described above)
 1. /WEB-INF/classes of your web application
 1. /WEB-INF/lib/*.jar of your web application
 1. $CATALINA_HOME/lib/*.jar

In particular, the following two pieces of information should be noted.

 1. The jar files in lib/ are made available to both the application and to Tomcat. Database
connection jars are placed here if the application will be relying on Tomcat to manage connection
 1. In general, application-specific jars (such as Hibernate's connection pooling jars) should
NOT be placed in the lib/ directory of Tomcat.

Based on the above, the MySQL connection jar will need to be placed in the WEB-INF/lib directory.

'''Approach Using NetBeans'''

In order to do this with NetBeans, add the jar file to the project. An easy way to do this
on a per-project basis is the following:

 1. Right-mouse click on the project name and select "Properties" from the menu.
 1. Select the "Libraries" item and the "Compile" tab. Compile-time libraries will be propagated
to all other tasks.
 1. Click on the "Add Jar/Folder" button, and navigate to the jar file containing the appropriate
JDBC driver.
 1. When this project is built, the JDBC driver jar will be included in the WAR file in WEB-INF/lib.

Please note that the above method will cause all sorts of problems if you are sharing this
project or using SCM. Some more portable ways of adding third party jars include adding the
jar as a NetBeans library, creating a library project, or using Maven and placing the dependency
in the POM. All of these approaches are beyond the scope of this article.

'''Do not also copy the JDBC driver jar to $CATALINA_HOME/lib.'''

Hibernate ships with the CP30 connection pooling classes, so as long as the Hibernate jars
are in WEB-INF/lib directory (which they should be), they should be available.

=== Hibernate Application Configuration ===
Since Hibernate will be managing both the connection and the database pooling, Hibernate will
have to be configured with that information.

In hibernate.cfg.xml, both connection information and connection pooling information are needed.
Here are the snippets of that file.

<!-- connection information -->
<property name="hibernate.connection.driver_class">
<property name="hibernate.connection.url">
<property name="hibernate.connection.username">******</property>
<property name="hibernate.connection.password">******</property>

<!-- database pooling information -->
<property name="connection_provider_class">
<property name="c3p0.minPoolSize">5</property>
<property name="c3p0.timeout">1000</property>
There are probably other properties to configure, but that should get things up and running.
As always, change the database properties to reflect your particular application.

== Summary ==
Tomcat managed database connections:

 * Requires META-INF/context.xml information
 * Requires WEB-INF/web.xml information
 * Requires a simple JNDI configuration referencing the connection
 * Requires the MySQL connectors to be in $CATALINA_HOME/lib
 * Requires the Hibernate jars to be in WEB-INF/lib

'''Hibernate managed database connections:'''

 * Requires NO META-INF/context.xml information
 * Requires NO WEB-INF/web.xml information
 * Requires connection information to be in hibernate.cfg.xml
 * Requires pooling information to be in hibernate.cfg.xml
 * Requires MySQL connectors to be in WEB-INF/lib (ideally)
 * Requires the Hibernate jars to be in WEB-INF/lib

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