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From Apache Wiki <wikidi...@apache.org>
Subject [Tomcat Wiki] Update of "OutOfMemory" by markt
Date Tue, 01 Dec 2009 15:05:39 GMT
Dear Wiki user,

You have subscribed to a wiki page or wiki category on "Tomcat Wiki" for change notification.

The "OutOfMemory" page has been changed by markt.
The comment on this change is: Remove some nonsense. Replace it with more useful content..
http://wiki.apache.org/tomcat/OutOfMemory?action=diff&rev1=9&rev2=10

--------------------------------------------------

  An Out Of Memory can be thrown by several causes:
  
   * A servlet trying to load a several GBytes file into memory will surely kill the server.
These kind of errors must be considered a simple bug in our program.
-  * To compensate for the data your servlet tries to load, you increase the heap size so
that there is no room to create the stack size for the threads that need to be created.  Each
thread takes 2M and in some OS's (like Debian Sarge) is not reducible with the -Xss parameter.
[[http://goobsoft.homeip.net/Wiki.jsp?page=JavaDebianTuning|1]]  Rule of Thumb, use no more
than 1G for heap space in a 32-bit web application.
+  * To compensate for the data your servlet tries to load, you increase the heap size so
that there is no room to create the stack size for the threads that need to be created.  The
memory required by each thread will vary by OS but can be as high as 2M by default and in
some OS's (like Debian Sarge) is not reducible with the -Xss parameter. [[http://goobsoft.homeip.net/Wiki.jsp?page=JavaDebianTuning|1]]
 Rule of Thumb, use no more than 1G for heap space in a 32-bit web application.
   * Deep recursive algorithms can also lead to Out Of Memory problems. In this case, the
only fixes are increasing the thread stack size ({{{-Xss}}}), or refactoring the algorithms
to reduce the depth, or the local data size per call.
   * A webapp that uses lots of libraries with many dependencies, or a server maintaining
lots of webapps could exhauste the JVM PermGen space. This space is where the VM stores the
classes and methods data. In those cases, the fix is to increase this size. The Sun VM has
the flag {{{-XX:MaxPermSize}}} that allows to set its size (the default value is 64M)
   * Hard references to classes can prevent the garbage collector from reclaiming the memory
allocated for them when a ClassLoader is discarded. This will occur on JSP recompilations,
and webapps reloads. If these operations are common in a webapp having these kinds of problems,
it will be a matter of time, until the PermGen space gets full and an Out Of Memory is thrown.
@@ -29, +29 @@

  
  == Threads ==
  
- No other threads started in the servlet must run. Otherwise they keep local variables, their
classes and the whole class loader hard referenced.
+ Any threads a web application starts, a web application should stop. !ServletContextListener
is your friend. Note Tomcat 7 will warn you if you do this and will also provide a (highly
dangerous - use at your own risk) option to terminate the threads.
  
  == DriverManager ==
  
- If you load a java.sql.Driver in your own classloader (or servlets), the driver should be
removed before undeploying. Each driver is registered in !DriverManager which is loaded in
system classloader and references the local driver.
+ If you load a java.sql.Driver in your own classloader (or servlets), the driver should be
removed before undeploying. Each driver is registered in !DriverManager which is loaded in
system classloader and references the local driver. Note Tomcat will do this for you if you
forget.
  
  {{{
                  Enumeration<Driver> drivers = DriverManager.getDrivers();
@@ -49, +49 @@

                  }
  }}}
  
- == The Singleton Pattern ==
+ == ThreadLocal ==
  
- This is a VERY used pattern in many java programs. It works safe and sound in any standalone
application, and it looks something like:
+ The lifecycle of a !ThreadLocal should match that of a request. There is no guarantee that
a thread will ever be used to process a request again so if a !ThreadLocal is left on the
thread at the end of the request there may be no opportunity for the web application to clean
it up. Note Tomcat 7 will do this for you.
  
+ == ContextClassLoader ==
- {{{
- public class MyClass {
-   private static final MyClass instance = new MyClass();
  
+ There are various parts of the Java API that retain a permanent reference to the context
class loader. If this happens to be a web application class loader then a memory leak will
occur. Tomcat provides [[http://svn.apache.org/repos/asf/tomcat/trunk/java/org/apache/catalina/core/JreMemoryLeakPreventionListener.java|workarounds]]
for these where known but there are undoubtedly others.
-   public static MyClass getInstance() {
-     return instance;
-   }
  
+ == Logging Frameworks ==
-   private MyClass() { }
- }
- }}}
  
- The problem with this pattern is that it creates a hard reference to a class instance into
the class itself. As long as this instance is not released, the class will not be unloadable.
At the end, this leads to the server being unable to reclaim the space for the entire webapp
class loader.
+ Most logging frameworks provide a mechanism to release all resources when you have finished
with the framework. These should always be used in a container environment.
  
- Many of the workarounds below will sacrifice some of the virtues of the original pattern,
for the sake of the server integrity. It is up to the designer/developer to decide whether
these sacrifices are worth the benefits.
+ = When all else fails =
  
- === Validation ===
+ If you still have a leak then you'll need to debug the root cause. The outline of the process
is:
+  1. You'll need a profiler (I use !YourKit), Tomcat and a copy of the app that leaks.
+  1. Configure Tomcat for use with the profiler. This usually means setting / adding to PATH
and CATALINA_OPTS in setenv.(bat|sh)
+  1. Start Tomcat with the app deployed.
+  1. Reload the app once.
+  1. Start up the profiler and connected it to Tomcat.
+  1. Get a heap dump.
+  1. Look for instances of !WebappClassLoader. If there are more instances than you have
apps deployed, you have a leak.
+  1. If there is a leak, there should be one extra instance of !WebappClassLoader.
+  1. Examine each of the !WebappClassLoader objects in turn to find the one where started==false.
+  1. Trace the GC roots of this object to find out what is holding on to a reference to that
object that shouldn't be. That will be the source of the leak.
  
- Before you refactor your whole application, please ensure if this is really the problem.
My singletons are definitely removed, but tomcat keeps crashing.
- 
-   1. Override method finalize in such a singleton class and put a System.out.println()-Message.

-   2. In the constructor call several time System.gc() (because the garbage collector is
a little bit lazy)
-   3. Redeploy the application several times
-   4. Probably you will see that the old singletons are definitely finalized which is only
the case if the class loader is garbage collected.
-   5. After several redeployments an out of memory occures, even with one or two "singletons"
in memory.
- 
- === Workaround 1: Move the class to another classloader ===
- 
- This workaround is for the case this class should be shared between webapps, or if the server
will contain only one webapp. That is, we need to use the same instance across several webapps
in the same server, or there is no need to worry about it. In this case, the class will need
to be deployed on a shared classloader. This means this class must be in the {{{shared/lib}}}
or {{{shared/classes}}} directory.
- 
- This way, the class will be loaded by a parent classloader, and not by the webapp classloader
itself, so no resources need to be reclaimed on webapp reloadings.
- 
- This workaround may not always fit well with your code or design. In particular, care must
be taken to avoid the singleton to keep references to classes loaded through the webapp classloader,
because such references would prevent the classloader from being deallocated. A servlet context
listener could be used to get rid of those references before the context is destroyed.
- 
- 
- === Workaround 2: Use commons-discovery ===
- 
- If you need to have a singleton instance for each webapp, you could use {{{commons-discovery}}}.
This library provides a class named {{{DiscoverSingleton}}} that can be used to implement
singletons in your webapp.
- 
- For using it, the class to be used as singleton will need to implement an interface (SPI)
with the methods to be used. The following code is an example of usage of this library:
- 
- {{{
-   MyClass instance = DiscoverSingleton.find(MyClass.class, MyClassImpl.class.getName());
- }}}
- 
- It is important, for this library to work correctly, to not keep static references to the
returned instances.
- 
- Just by using this syntax, you get the following advantages:
- 
-  * Any class could be used as a singleton, as long as it implements an SPI interface.
-  * Your singleton class has been converted into a replaceable component in your webapp,
so you can "plug-in" a different implementation whenever you want.
- 
- But only this does not make for a workaround. The most important advantage is the {{{DiscoverSingleton.release()}}}
method, that releases all references to instantiated singletons in the current classloader.
A call to this method could be placed into a ServletContextListener, into its contextDestroyed()
method.
- 
- That is, with a ServletContextListener simple implementation like the following:
- 
- {{{
- public class SingletonReleaser implements ServletContextListener {
-   public contextInitialized(ServletContextEvent event) { }
- 
-   public contextDestroyed(ServletContextEvent event) {
-     DiscoverSingleton.release();
-   }
- }
- }}}
- 
- we could release all cached references to the instantiated singletons. Of course, this listener
should be registered on the web.xml descriptor before any other listener that could use a
singleton.
- 
- 
- === Workaround 3: Use ServletContext attributes ===
- 
- This refactoring will work well provided the ServletContext instance is available, as a
local variable or as a parameter.
- 
- It will be more efficient than using {{{commons-discovery}}}, but has the disadvantage of
making your code depend on the web layer (ServletContext class). Anyway, I have found out
that, in some cases, it is a reasonable approach.
- 
- There are many ways to do this refactoring, so I will just present one implementation that
works well for me:
- 
-  * Create the following ServletContextListener:
- {{{
- public class SingletonFactory implements ServletContextListener {
-   public static final String MY_CLASS = "...";
- 
-   /**
-    * @see ServletContextListener#contextInitialized(ServletContextEvent)
-    */
-   public void contextInitialized(ServletContextEvent event) {
-     ServletContext ctx = event.getServletContext();
-     ctx.setAttribute(MY_CLASS, new MyClass());
-   }
- 
-   /**
-    * @see ServletContextListener#contextDestroyed(ServletContextEvent)
-    */
-   public void contextDestroyed(ServletContextEvent event) {
-     ctx.setAttribute(MY_CLASS, null);
-   }
- 
-   /**
-    * Optional method for getting the MyClass singleton instance.
-    */
-   public static MyClass getMyClassInstance(ServletContext ctx) {
-     return (MyClass)ctx.getAttribute(MY_CLASS);
-   }
- }
- }}}
-  * Register the listener in the web.xml descriptor
-  * Replace the calls to {{{MyClass.getInstance()}}} by:
- {{{
-   MyClass instance = (MyClass)ctx.getAttribute(SingletonFactory.MY_CLASS);
- 
-   /* or, if implemented:
-   MyClass instance = SingletonFactory.getMyClassInstance(ctx);
-   */
- }}}
- 

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