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From craig...@apache.org
Subject cvs commit: jakarta-tomcat-4.0/webapps/tomcat-docs realm-howto.xml
Date Thu, 06 Sep 2001 03:43:12 GMT
craigmcc    01/09/05 20:43:12

  Modified:    .        RELEASE-PLAN-4.0.txt
               catalina/src/share/org/apache/catalina/realm JDBCRealm.java
                        JNDIRealm.java RealmBase.java
  Added:       webapps/tomcat-docs realm-howto.xml
  Log:
  Add the initial version of the 'realm-howto.xml' document describing how
  to use all three of the standard Realm implementations (JDBCRealm,
  JNDIRealm, and MemoryRealm).
  
  Migrate the static Digest() method, and the convenience main() method,
  from JDBCRealm to RealmBase because it is useful in all of the standard
  implementations.
  
  Revision  Changes    Path
  1.5       +5 -1      jakarta-tomcat-4.0/RELEASE-PLAN-4.0.txt
  
  Index: RELEASE-PLAN-4.0.txt
  ===================================================================
  RCS file: /home/cvs/jakarta-tomcat-4.0/RELEASE-PLAN-4.0.txt,v
  retrieving revision 1.4
  retrieving revision 1.5
  diff -u -r1.4 -r1.5
  --- RELEASE-PLAN-4.0.txt	2001/09/05 19:45:27	1.4
  +++ RELEASE-PLAN-4.0.txt	2001/09/06 03:43:11	1.5
  @@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
  -$Id: RELEASE-PLAN-4.0.txt,v 1.4 2001/09/05 19:45:27 craigmcc Exp $
  +$Id: RELEASE-PLAN-4.0.txt,v 1.5 2001/09/06 03:43:11 craigmcc Exp $
   
                         Release Plan for Apache Tomcat 4.0
                         ==================================
  @@ -52,6 +52,8 @@
   
   Catalina    3292    Class reloading fails (awaiting test case)
   
  +Catalina    3443    Class reloading fails for servlets that use JNI
  +
   Connectors  1788    mod_webapp errors on Win2k
   
   Connectors  2997    Webapp connector should recover when Tomcat is restarted
  @@ -98,6 +100,8 @@
   Catalina    3285    Tomcat 4.0-b5 class loader fails on IBM JDK
   
   Catalina    3293    Allow content lengths > 2^31
  +
  +Catalina    3434    NT/2K Service installation on JDK 1.4 b2 fails 
   
   Jasper      3055    <jsp:plugin> tag ignores the name attribute
   
  
  
  
  1.17      +1 -46     jakarta-tomcat-4.0/catalina/src/share/org/apache/catalina/realm/JDBCRealm.java
  
  Index: JDBCRealm.java
  ===================================================================
  RCS file: /home/cvs/jakarta-tomcat-4.0/catalina/src/share/org/apache/catalina/realm/JDBCRealm.java,v
  retrieving revision 1.16
  retrieving revision 1.17
  diff -u -r1.16 -r1.17
  --- JDBCRealm.java	2001/07/22 20:25:11	1.16
  +++ JDBCRealm.java	2001/09/06 03:43:11	1.17
  @@ -95,7 +95,7 @@
   * @author Craig R. McClanahan
   * @author Carson McDonald
   * @author Ignacio Ortega
  -* @version $Revision: 1.16 $ $Date: 2001/07/22 20:25:11 $
  +* @version $Revision: 1.17 $ $Date: 2001/09/06 03:43:11 $
   */
   
   public class JDBCRealm
  @@ -587,9 +587,6 @@
       }
   
   
  -    // -------------------------------------------------------- Private Methods
  -
  -
       // ------------------------------------------------------ Lifecycle Methods
   
   
  @@ -634,47 +631,5 @@
   
       }
   
  -    /**
  -     * Digest password using the algorithm especificied and
  -     * convert the result to a corresponding hex string.
  -     * If exception, the plain credentials string is returned
  -     *
  -     * @param credentials Password or other credentials to use in
  -     *  authenticating this username
  -     * @param algorithm Algorithm used to do th digest
  -     */
  -    public final static String Digest(String credentials, String algorithm) {
  -        try {
  -            // Obtain a new message digest with "digest" encryption
  -            MessageDigest md =
  -                (MessageDigest)MessageDigest.getInstance(algorithm).clone();
  -            // encode the credentials
  -            md.update(credentials.getBytes());
   
  -            // Digest the credentials and return as hexadecimal
  -            return (HexUtils.convert(md.digest()));
  -        } catch(Exception ex) {
  -            ex.printStackTrace();
  -            return credentials;
  -        }
  -    }
  -
  -    /**
  -     * Digest password using the algorithm especificied and
  -     * convert the result to a corresponding hex string.
  -     * If exception, the plain credentials string is returned
  -     *
  -     * @see JDBCRealm#Digest
  -     */
  -    public static void main(String args[]) {
  -        if(args.length > 2 && args[0].equalsIgnoreCase("-a")) {
  -            for(int i=2; i < args.length ; i++){
  -                System.out.print(args[i]+":");
  -                System.out.println(Digest(args[i], args[1]));
  -            }
  -        } else {
  -            System.out.println("Usage: JDBCRealm -a <algorithm> <credentials>");
  -        }
  -    }
   }
  -
  
  
  
  1.3       +2 -2      jakarta-tomcat-4.0/catalina/src/share/org/apache/catalina/realm/JNDIRealm.java
  
  Index: JNDIRealm.java
  ===================================================================
  RCS file: /home/cvs/jakarta-tomcat-4.0/catalina/src/share/org/apache/catalina/realm/JNDIRealm.java,v
  retrieving revision 1.2
  retrieving revision 1.3
  diff -u -r1.2 -r1.3
  --- JNDIRealm.java	2001/07/22 20:25:11	1.2
  +++ JNDIRealm.java	2001/09/06 03:43:11	1.3
  @@ -144,7 +144,7 @@
    *
    * @author John Holman
    * @author Craig R. McClanahan
  - * @version $Revision: 1.2 $ $Date: 2001/07/22 20:25:11 $
  + * @version $Revision: 1.3 $ $Date: 2001/09/06 03:43:11 $
    */
   
   public class JNDIRealm extends RealmBase {
  @@ -669,7 +669,7 @@
           // Perform the configured search and process the results
           if (debug >= 3) {
               log("  Searching role base '" + roleBase + "' for attribute '" +
  -                roleName + "'");
  +                roleName[0] + "'");
               log("  With filter expression '" + filter + "'");
           }
           NamingEnumeration results =
  
  
  
  1.6       +54 -4     jakarta-tomcat-4.0/catalina/src/share/org/apache/catalina/realm/RealmBase.java
  
  Index: RealmBase.java
  ===================================================================
  RCS file: /home/cvs/jakarta-tomcat-4.0/catalina/src/share/org/apache/catalina/realm/RealmBase.java,v
  retrieving revision 1.5
  retrieving revision 1.6
  diff -u -r1.5 -r1.6
  --- RealmBase.java	2001/07/30 20:04:04	1.5
  +++ RealmBase.java	2001/09/06 03:43:11	1.6
  @@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
   /*
  - * $Header: /home/cvs/jakarta-tomcat-4.0/catalina/src/share/org/apache/catalina/realm/RealmBase.java,v 1.5 2001/07/30 20:04:04 craigmcc Exp $
  - * $Revision: 1.5 $
  - * $Date: 2001/07/30 20:04:04 $
  + * $Header: /home/cvs/jakarta-tomcat-4.0/catalina/src/share/org/apache/catalina/realm/RealmBase.java,v 1.6 2001/09/06 03:43:11 craigmcc Exp $
  + * $Revision: 1.6 $
  + * $Date: 2001/09/06 03:43:11 $
    *
    * ====================================================================
    *
  @@ -95,7 +95,7 @@
    * location) are identical to those currently supported by Tomcat 3.X.
    *
    * @author Craig R. McClanahan
  - * @version $Revision: 1.5 $ $Date: 2001/07/30 20:04:04 $
  + * @version $Revision: 1.6 $ $Date: 2001/09/06 03:43:11 $
    */
   
   public abstract class RealmBase
  @@ -672,6 +672,56 @@
               System.out.println(getName()+"[" + name + "]: " + message);
               throwable.printStackTrace(System.out);
           }
  +    }
  +
  +
  +    // --------------------------------------------------------- Static Methods
  +
  +
  +    /**
  +     * Digest password using the algorithm especificied and
  +     * convert the result to a corresponding hex string.
  +     * If exception, the plain credentials string is returned
  +     *
  +     * @param credentials Password or other credentials to use in
  +     *  authenticating this username
  +     * @param algorithm Algorithm used to do th digest
  +     */
  +    public final static String Digest(String credentials, String algorithm) {
  +
  +        try {
  +            // Obtain a new message digest with "digest" encryption
  +            MessageDigest md =
  +                (MessageDigest) MessageDigest.getInstance(algorithm).clone();
  +            // encode the credentials
  +            md.update(credentials.getBytes());
  +            // Digest the credentials and return as hexadecimal
  +            return (HexUtils.convert(md.digest()));
  +        } catch(Exception ex) {
  +            ex.printStackTrace();
  +            return credentials;
  +        }
  +
  +    }
  +
  +
  +    /**
  +     * Digest password using the algorithm especificied and
  +     * convert the result to a corresponding hex string.
  +     * If exception, the plain credentials string is returned
  +     */
  +    public static void main(String args[]) {
  +
  +        if(args.length > 2 && args[0].equalsIgnoreCase("-a")) {
  +            for(int i=2; i < args.length ; i++){
  +                System.out.print(args[i]+":");
  +                System.out.println(Digest(args[i], args[1]));
  +            }
  +        } else {
  +            System.out.println
  +                ("Usage: RealmBase -a <algorithm> <credentials>");
  +        }
  +
       }
   
   
  
  
  
  1.1                  jakarta-tomcat-4.0/webapps/tomcat-docs/realm-howto.xml
  
  Index: realm-howto.xml
  ===================================================================
  <?xml version="1.0"?>
  <!DOCTYPE document [
    <!ENTITY project SYSTEM "project.xml">
  ]>
  <document>
  
      &project;
  
      <properties>
          <author email="craigmcc@apache.org">Craig R. McClanahan</author>
          <title>Realm Configuration HOW-TO</title>
      </properties>
  
  <body>
  
  
  <section name="Quick Start">
  
  <p>This document describes how to configure Tomcat to support <em>container
  managed security</em>, by connecting to an existing "database" of usernames,
  passwords, and user roles.  You only need to care about this if you are using
  a web application that includes one or more
  <code>&lt;security-constraint&gt;</code> elements, and a
  <code>&lt;login-config&gt;</code> element defining how users are required
  to authenticate themselves.  If you are not utilizing these features, you can
  safely skip this document.</p>
  
  <p>For fundamental background information about container managed security,
  see the <a href="http://java.sun.com/products/servlet/download.html">Servlet
  Specification (Version 2.3)</a>, Section 12.  For a more introductory level
  document for web application developers as well as administrators, see
  (<strong>FIXME</strong> - link to backgrounder on container managed security
  to be provided).</p>
  
  <p>For information about utilizing the <em>Single Sign On</em> feature of
  Tomcat 4 (allowing a user to authenticate themselves once across the entire
  set of web applications associated with a virtual host), see
  <a href="config/host.html#Single Sign On">here</a>.</p>
  
  </section>
  
  
  <section name="Overview">
  
  
  <subsection name="What is a Realm?">
  
  <p>A <strong>Realm</strong> is a "database" of usernames and passwords that
  identify valid users of a web application (or set of web applications), plus
  an enumeration of the list of <em>roles</em> associated with each valid user.
  You can think of roles as similar to <em>groups</em> in Unix-like operating
  systems, because access to specific web application resources is granted to
  all users possessing a particular role (rather than enumerating the list of
  associated usernames).  A particular user can have any number of roles
  associated with their username.</p>
  
  <p>Although the Servlet Specification describes a portable mechanism for
  applications to <em>declare</em> their security requirements (in the
  <code>web.xml</code> deployment descriptor), there is no portable API
  defining the interface between a servlet container and the associated user
  and role information.  In many cases, however, it is desireable to "connect"
  a servlet container to some existing authentication database or mechanism
  that already exists in the production environment.  Therefore, Tomcat 4
  defines a Java interface (<code>org.apache.catalina.Realm</code>) that
  can be implemented by "plug in" components to establish this connection.
  Three standard plug-ins are provided, supporting connection to three different
  sources of authentication information:</p>
  <ul>
  <li><a href="#JDBCRealm">JDBCRealm</a> - Accesses authentication information
      stored in a relational database, accessed via a JDBC driver.</li>
  <li><a href="#JNDIRealm">JNDIRealm</a> - Accesses authentication information
      stored in an LDAP based directory server, accessed via a JNDI provider.
      </li>
  <li><a href="#MemoryRealm">MemoryRealm</a> - Accesses authentication
      information stored in an in-memory object collection, which is initialized
      from an XML document (<code>conf/tomcat-users.xml</code>).</li>
  </ul>
  
  <p>It is also possible to write your own <code>Realm</code> implementation,
  and integrate it with Tomcat 4.  However, doing this is beyond the scope of
  this document.  See (<strong>FIXME</strong> - reference to developer stuff)
  for more information.</p>
  
  </subsection>
  
  
  <subsection name="Configuring a Realm">
  
  <p>Before getting into the details of the standard Realm implementations, it is
  important to understand, in general terms, how a Realm is configured.  In
  general, you will be adding an XML element to your <code>conf/server.xml</code>
  configuration file, that looks something like this:</p>
  
  <source>
  &lt;Realm className="... class name for this implementation"
         ... other attributes for this implementation .../&gt;
  </source>
  
  <p>The <code>&lt;Realm&gt;</code> element can be nested inside one of three
  different elements, which has a direct impact on the "scope" of that Realm
  (i.e. which web applications will share the same authentication information):
  </p>
  <ul>
  <li><em>Inside an &lt;Engine&gt; element</em> - This Realm will be shared
      across ALL web applications on ALL virtual hosts, UNLESS it is overridden
      by a Realm element nested inside a subordinate <code>&lt;Host&gt;</code>
      or <code>&lt;Context&gt;</code> element.</li>
  <li><em>Inside a &lt;Host&gt; element</em> - This Realm will be shared across
      ALL web applications for THIS virtual host, UNLESS it is overridden
      by a Realm element nested inside a subordinate <code>&lt;Context&gt;</code>
      element.</li>
  <li><em>Inside a &lt;Context&gt; element</em> - This Realm will be used ONLY
      for THIS web application.</li>
  </ul>
  
  
  </subsection>
  
  
  </section>
  
  
  <section name="Standard Realm Implementations">
  
  
  <subsection name="JDBCRealm">
  
  <h3>Introduction</h3>
  
  <p><strong>JDBCRealm</strong> is an implementation of the Tomcat 4
  <code>Realm</code> interface that looks up users in a relational database
  accessed via a JDBC driver.  There is substantial conviguration flexibility
  that lets you adapt to existing table and column names, as long as your
  database structure conforms to the following requirements:</p>
  <ul>
  <li>There must be a table, referenced below as the <em>users</em> table,
      that contains one row for every valid user that this <code>Realm</code>
      should recognize.</li>
  <li>The <em>users</em> table must contain at least two columns (it may
      contain more if your existing applications required it):
      <ul>
      <li>Username to be recognized by Tomcat when the user logs in.</li>
      <li>Password to be recognized by Tomcat when the user logs in.
          This value may in cleartext or digested - see below for more
          information.</li>
      </ul></li>
  <li>There must be a table, referenced below as the <em>user roles</em> table,
      that contains one row for every valid role that is assigned to a
      particular user.  It is legal for a user to have zero, one, or more than
      one valid role.</li>
  <li>The <em>user roles</em> table must contain at least two columns (it may
      contain more if your existing applications required it):
      <ul>
      <li>Username to be recognized by Tomcat (same value as is specified
          in the <em>users</em> table).</li>
      <li>Role name of a valid role associated with this user.</li>
      </ul></li>
  </ul>
  
  <h3>Quick Start</h3>
  
  <p>To set up Tomcat to use JDBCRealm, you will need to follow these steps:</p>
  <ol>
  <li>If you have not yet done so, create tables and columns in your database
      that conform to the requirements described above.</li>
  <li>Configure a database username and password for use by Tomcat, that has
      at least read only access to the tables described above.  (Tomcat will
      never attempt to write to these tables.)</li>
  <li>Place a copy of the JDBC driver you will be using inside the
      <code>$CATALINA_HOME/server/lib</code> directory (if you do not need it
      visible to web applications) or <code>$CATALINA_HOME/common/lib</code>
      (if it will be used both by Tomcat 4 <em>and</em> by your apps).
      Note that <strong>only</strong> JAR files are recognized!</li>
  <li>Set up a <code>&lt;Realm&gt;</code> element, as described below, in your
      <code>$CATALINA_HOME/conf/server.xml</code> file.</li>
  <li>Restart Tomcat 4 if it is already running.</li>
  </ol>
  
  <h3>Realm Element Attributes</h3>
  
  <p>To configure JDBCRealm, you will create a <code>&lt;Realm&gt;</code>
  element and nest it in your <code>$CATALINA_HOME/conf/server.xml</code> file,
  as described <a href="#Configuring a Realm">above</a>.  The following
  attributes are supported by this implementation:</p>
  
  <attributes>
  
    <attribute name="className" required="true">
      <p>The fully qualified Java class name of this Realm implementation.
      You <strong>MUST</strong> specify the value
      "<code>org.apache.catalina.realm.JDBCRealm</code>" here.</p>
    </attribute>
  
    <attribute name="connectionName" required="true">
      <p>The database username used to establish a JDBC connection.</p>
    </attribute>
  
    <attribute name="connectionPassword" required="true">
      <p>The database password used to establish a JDBC connection.</p>
    </attribute>
  
    <attribute name="connectionURL" required="true">
      <p>The database URL used to establish a JDBC connection.</p>
    </attribute>
  
    <attribute name="debug" required="false">
      <p>The level of debugging detail logged by this Realm
      to the associated <a href="config/logger.html">Logger</a>.  Higher numbers
      generate more detailed output.  If not specified, the default
      debugging detail level is zero (0).</p>
    </attribute>
  
    <attribute name="digest" required="false">
      <p>The digest algorithm used to store passwords in non-plaintext formats.
      Valid values are those accepted for the algorithm name by the
      <code>java.security.MessageDigest</code> class.  See
      <a href="#Digested Passwords">Digested Passwords</a> for more
      information.  If not specified, passwords are stored in clear text.</p>
    </attribute>
  
    <attribute name="driverName" required="true">
      <p>The fully qualified Java class name of the JDBC driver to be used.
      Consult the documentation for your JDBC driver for the appropriate
      value.</p>
    </attribute>
  
    <attribute name="roleNameCol" required="true">
      <p>The name of the column, in the <em>user roles</em> table, that
      contains the name of a role assigned to this user.</p>
    </attribute>
  
    <attribute name="userCredCol" required="true">
      <p>The name of the column, in the <em>users</em> table, that contains
      the password for this user (either in clear text, or digested if the
      <code>digest</code> attribute is set).</p>
    </attribute>
  
    <attribute name="userNameCol" required="true">
      <p>The name of the column, in the <em>users</em> and <em>user roles</em>
      tables, that contains the username of this user.</p>
    </attribute>
  
    <attribute name="userRoleTable" required="true">
      <p>The name of the table that contains one row for each <em>role</em>
      assigned to a particular <em>username</em>.  This table must include at
      least the columns named by the <code>userNameCol</code> and
      <code>roleNameCol</code> attributes.</p>
    </attribute>
  
    <attribute name="userTable" required="true">
      <p>The name of the table that contains one row for each <em>username</em>
      to be recognized by Tomcat.  This table must include at least the columns
      named by the <code>userNameCol</code> and <code>userCredCol</code>
      attributes.</p>
    </attribute>
  
  </attributes>
  
  <h3>Example</h3>
  
  <p>An example SQL script to create the needed tables might look something
  like this (adapt the syntax as required for your particular database):</p>
  <source>
  create table users (
    user_name         varchar(15) not null primary key,
    user_pass         varchar(15) not null
  );
  
  create table user_roles (
    user_name         varchar(15) not null,
    role_name         varchar(15) not null,
    primary key (user_name, role_name)
  );
  </source>
  
  <p>Example <code>Realm</code> elements are included (commented out) in the
  default <code>$CATALINA_HOME/conf/server.xml</code> file.  Here's an example
  for using a MySQL database called "authority", configured with the tables
  described above, and accessed with username "dbuser" and password "dbpass":</p>
  <source>
  &lt;Realm className="org.apache.catalina.realm.JDBCRealm" debug="99"
        driverName="org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver"
     connectionURL="jdbc:mysql://localhost/authority?user=dbuser;password=dbpass"
         userTable="users" userNameCol="user_name" userCredCol="user_pass"
     userRoleTable="user_roles" roleNameCol="role_name"/&gt;
  </source>
  
  <h3>Additional Notes</h3>
  
  <p>JDBCRealm operates according to the following rules:</p>
  <ul>
  <li>When a user attempts to access a protected resource for the first time,
      Tomcat 4 will call the <code>authenticate()</code> method of this
      <code>Realm</code>.  Thus, any changes you have made to the database
      directly (new users, changed passwords or roles, etc.) will be immediately
      reflected.</li>
  <li>Once a user has been authenticated, the user (and his or her associated
      roles) are cached within Tomcat for the duration of the user's login.
      (For FORM-based authentication, that means until the session times out or
      is invalidated; for BASIC authentication, that means until the user
      closes their browser).  Any changes to the database information for an
      already authenticated user will <strong>not</strong> be reflected until
      the next time that user logs on again.</li>
  <li>Administering the information in the <em>users</em> and <em>user roles</em>
      table is the responsibility of your own applications.  Tomcat does not
      provide any built-in capabilities to maintain users and roles.</li>
  <li>Debugging and exception messages logged by this <code>Realm</code> will
      be recorded by the <code>Logger</code> that is associated with our
      surrounding <code>Context</code>, <code>Host</code>, or
      <code>Engine</code>.  By default, the corresponding Logger will create a
      log file in the <code>$CATALINA_HOME/logs</code> directory.</li>
  </ul>
  
  </subsection>
  
  
  <subsection name="JNDIRealm">
  
  <h3>Introduction</h3>
  
  <p><strong>JNDIRealm</strong> is an implementation of the Tomcat 4
  <code>Realm</code> interface that looks up users in a directory server
  accessed by a JNDI provider (typically, the standard LDAP provider that
  is available with the JNDI API classes).  There is substantial configuration
  flexibility that lets you adapt to the existing schema inside your directory
  server, as long as it conforms to the following requirements:</p>
  <ul>
  <li>Each user that can be authenticated is represented by an individual
      element in the top level <code>DirContext</code> that is accessed
      via the <code>connectionURL</code> attribute.</li>
  <li>The <em>user</em> element must have the following characteristics:
      <ul>
      <li>The distinguished name (<code>dn</code>) attribute of this element
          contains the username that is presented for authentication.</li>
      <li>There must be an attribute (identified by the <code>userPassword</code>
          attribute of our <code>Realm</code> element) that contains the user's
          password, either in clear text or digested (see below for more info).
          </li>
      </ul></li>
  <li>Each group of users that has been assigned a particular role is
      represented by an individual element in the top level
      <code>DirContext</code> that is accessed via the
      <code>connectionURL</code> attribute.</li>
  <li>The <em>user group</em> element must have the following characteristics:
      <ul>
      <li>The set of all possible groups of interest can be selected by an LDAP
          search pattern configured by the <code>roleSearch</code> attribute
          of our <code>Realm</code> element.</li>
      <li>The <code>roleSearch</code> pattern optionally includes pattern
          replacements "{0}" for the distinguished name, and/or "{1} for the
          username, of the authenticated user for which roles will be
          retrieved.</li>
      <li>The <code>roleBase</code> attribute can be set to the element that
          is the base of the search for matching roles.  If not specified,
          the entire directory context will be searched.</li>
      <li>The <code>roleSubtree</code> attribute can be set to <code>true</code>
          if you wish to search the entire subtree of the directory context.
          The default value of <code>false</code> requests a search of only the
          current level.</li>
      <li>The element includes an attribute (whose name is configured by the
          <code>roleName</code> attribute of our <code>Realm</code> element)
          containing the name of the role represented by this element.</li>
      </ul></li>
  <li>There must be an administrator username and password that Tomcat can
      use to establish a connection to the directory server, with at least
      read-only access to the information described above.  A future
      version of Tomcat will support an option to use the user's username and
      password to attempt this connection.</li>
  </ul>
  
  <h3>Quick Start</h3>
  
  <p>To set up Tomcat to use JNDIRealm, you will need to follow these steps:</p>
  <ol>
  <li>Make sure your directory server is configured with a schema that matches
      the requirements listed above.</li>
  <li>Configure a username and password for use by Tomcat, that has
      at least read only access to the information described above.  (Tomcat will
      never attempt to modify this information.)</li>
  <li>Place a copy of the JNDI driver you will be using (typically
      <code>ldap.jar</code> available with JNDI) inside the
      <code>$CATALINA_HOME/server/lib</code> directory (if you do not need it
      visible to web applications) or <code>$CATALINA_HOME/common/lib</code>
      (if it will be used both by Tomcat 4 <em>and</em> by your apps).</li>
  <li>Set up a <code>&lt;Realm&gt;</code> element, as described below, in your
      <code>$CATALINA_HOME/conf/server.xml</code> file.</li>
  <li>Restart Tomcat 4 if it is already running.</li>
  </ol>
  
  <h3>Realm Element Attributes</h3>
  
  <p>To configure JNDIRealm, you will create a <code>&lt;Realm&gt;</code>
  element and nest it in your <code>$CATALINA_HOME/conf/server.xml</code> file,
  as described <a href="#Configuring a Realm">above</a>.  The following
  attributes are supported by this implementation:</p>
  
  <attributes>
  
    <attribute name="className" required="true">
      <p>The fully qualified Java class name of this Realm implementation.
      You <strong>MUST</strong> specify the value
      "<code>org.apache.catalina.realm.JDBCRealm</code>" here.</p>
    </attribute>
  
    <attribute name="connectionName" required="true">
      <p>The directory server username used to establish a JNDI connection.</p>
    </attribute>
  
    <attribute name="connectionPassword" required="true">
      <p>The directory server password used to establish a JNDI connection.</p>
    </attribute>
  
    <attribute name="connectionURL" required="true">
      <p>The directory server URL used to establish a JNDI connection.</p>
    </attribute>
  
    <attribute name="contextFactory" required="false">
      <p>The fully qualified Java class name of the JNDI context factory to be
      used for this connection.  By default, the standard JNDI LDAP provider
      is used (<code>com.sun.jndi.ldap.LdapCtxFactory</code>).</p>
    </attribute>
  
    <attribute name="debug" required="false">
      <p>The level of debugging detail logged by this Realm
      to the associated <a href="config/logger.html">Logger</a>.  Higher numbers
      generate more detailed output.  If not specified, the default
      debugging detail level is zero (0).</p>
    </attribute>
  
    <attribute name="digest" required="false">
      <p>The digest algorithm used to store passwords in non-plaintext formats.
      Valid values are those accepted for the algorithm name by the
      <code>java.security.MessageDigest</code> class.  See
      <a href="#Digested Passwords">Digested Passwords</a> for more
      information.  If not specified, passwords are stored in clear text.</p>
    </attribute>
  
    <attribute name="roleBase" required="false">
      <p>The base element for role searches.  If not specified, the top level
      element in the directory context will be used.</p>
    </attribute>
  
    <attribute name="roleName" required="true">
      <p>The name of the directory server attribute containing the role name.</p>
    </attribute>
  
    <attribute name="roleSearch" required="true">
      <p>An LDAP search pattern for selecting roles in this Realm, following the
      syntax supported by the <code>java.text.MessageFormat</code> class.  Use
      <code>{0}</code> to substitute in the distinguished name of the user you
      want roles for, and/or <code>{1}</code> to substitute in the username of
      the user you want roles for.</p>
    </attribute>
  
    <attribute name="roleSubtree" required="false">
      <p>Set to <code>true</code> if you want role searches to search subtrees
      of the element selected by <code>roleBase</code>.  The default value of
      <code>false</code> causes only the top level element to be searched.</p>
    </attribute>
  
    <attribute name="userPassword" required="true">
      <p>The name of the directory server attribute (in the user element) that
      contains the cleartext or digested user password (depending on the setting
      of the <code>digest</code> attribute).</p>
    </attribute>
  
    <attribute name="userPattern" required="true">
      <p>An LDAP search pattern for selecting users in this Realm, following the
      syntax supported by the <code>java.text.MessageFormat</code> class.  Use
      <code>{0}</code> to substitute in the distinguished name of the user you
      want to select.</p>
    </attribute>
  
  </attributes>
  
  <h3>Example</h3>
  
  <p>Creation of the appropriate schema in your directory server is beyond the
  scope of this document, because it is unique to each directory server
  implementation.  In the examples below, we will assume that you are using a
  distribution of the OpenLDAP directory server (version 2.0.11 or later), which
  can be downloaded from
  <a href="http://www.openldap.org">http://www.openldap.org</a>.  Assume that
  your <code>slapd.conf</code> file contains the following settings
  (among others):</p>
  <source>
  database ldbm
  suffix dc="mycompany",dc="com"
  rootdn "cn=Manager,dc=mycompany,dc=com"
  rootpw secret
  </source>
  
  <p>These settings help us identify values for the values to be specified for
  <code>connectionName</code>, and <code>connectionPassword</code>, and we
  will assume for <code>connectionURL</code> that the directory server runs on
  the same machine as Tomcat.  See
  <a href="http://java.sun.com/products/jndi/docs.html">http://java.sun.com/products/jndi/docs.html</a>
  for more information about configuring and using the JNDI LDAP provider.</p>
  
  <p>Next, assume that this directory server has been populated with elements
  as shown below (in LDIF format), which define the same users and roles
  as the default <code>$CATALINA_HOME/conf/tomcat-users.xml</code> does for
  MemoryRealm:</p>
  <source>
  # Define a user named 'tomcat'
  dn: cn=tomcat,dc=mycompany,dc=com
  cn: tomcat
  userPassword: tomcat
  sn: Tomcat User
  objectClass: person
  
  # Define a user named 'role1'
  dn: cn=role1,dc=mycompany,dc=com
  cn: role1
  userPassword: tomcat
  sn: Role1 User
  objectClass: person
  
  # Define a user named 'both'
  dn: cn=both,dc=mycompany,dc=com
  cn: both
  userPassword: tomcat
  sn: Both User
  objectClass: person
  
  # Define an entry to base role searches on
  dn: dc=roles,dc=mycompany,dc=com
  cn: roles
  objectClass: person
  sn: Roles Entry
  
  # Define all members of the 'tomcat' role
  dn: cn=tomcat,dc=roles,dc=mycompany,dc=com
  cn: tomcat
  objectClass: groupOfUniqueNames
  uniqueMember: cn=tomcat,dc=mycompany,dc=com
  uniqueMember: cn=both,dc=mycompany,dc=com
  
  # Define all members of the 'role1' role
  dn: cn=role1,dc=roles,dc=mycompany,dc=com
  cn: role1
  objectClass: groupOfUniqueNames
  uniqueMember: cn=role1,dc=mycompany,dc=com
  uniqueMember: cn=both,dc=mycompany,dc=com
  </source>
  
  <p>An example <code>Realm</code> element for the OpenLDAP directory server
  configured as described above might look like this:</p>
  <source>
  &lt;Realm   className="org.apache.catalina.realm.JNDIRealm" debug="99"
      connectionName="cn=Manager,dc=mycompany,dc=com"
  connectionPassword="secret"
       connectionURL="ldap://localhost:389"
            roleBase="dc=roles,dc=mcclan,dc=net"
            roleName="cn"
          roleSearch="(uniqueMember={0})"
         roleSubtree="false"
        userPassword="userPassword"
         userPattern="cn={0},dc=mycompany,dc=com"
  /&gt;
  </source>
  
  <h3>Additional Notes</h3>
  
  <p>JNDIRealm operates according to the following rules:</p>
  <ul>
  <li>When a user attempts to access a protected resource for the first time,
      Tomcat 4 will call the <code>authenticate()</code> method of this
      <code>Realm</code>.  Thus, any changes you have made to the database
      directly (new users, changed passwords or roles, etc.) will be immediately
      reflected.</li>
  <li>Once a user has been authenticated, the user (and his or her associated
      roles) are cached within Tomcat for the duration of the user's login.
      (For FORM-based authentication, that means until the session times out or
      is invalidated; for BASIC authentication, that means until the user
      closes their browser).  Any changes to the database information for an
      already authenticated user will <strong>not</strong> be reflected until
      the next time that user logs on again.</li>
  <li>Administering the information in the directory server
      is the responsibility of your own applications.  Tomcat does not
      provide any built-in capabilities to maintain users and roles.</li>
  <li>Debugging and exception messages logged by this <code>Realm</code> will
      be recorded by the <code>Logger</code> that is associated with our
      surrounding <code>Context</code>, <code>Host</code>, or
      <code>Engine</code>.  By default, the corresponding Logger will create a
      log file in the <code>$CATALINA_HOME/logs</code> directory.</li>
  </ul>
  
  </subsection>
  
  
  <subsection name="MemoryRealm">
  
  <h3>Introduction</h3>
  
  <p><strong>MemoryRealm</strong> is a simple demonstration implementation of the
  Tomcat 4 <code>Realm</code> interface.  It is not designed for production use.
  At startup time, MemoryRealm loads information about all users, and their
  corresponding roles, from an XML document (by default, this document is loaded from <code>$CATALINA_HOME/conf/tomcat-users.xml</code>).  Changes to the data
  in this file are not recognized until Tomcat is restarted.</p>
  
  <h3>Realm Element Attributes</h3>
  
  <p>To configure MemoryRealm, you will create a <code>&lt;Realm&gt;</code>
  element and nest it in your <code>$CATALINA_HOME/conf/server.xml</code> file,
  as described <a href="#Configuring a Realm">above</a>.  The following
  attributes are supported by this implementation:</p>
  
  <attributes>
  
    <attribute name="className" required="true">
      <p>The fully qualified Java class name of this Realm implementation.
      You <strong>MUST</strong> specify the value
      "<code>org.apache.catalina.realm.MemoryRealm</code>" here.</p>
    </attribute>
  
    <attribute name="debug" required="false">
      <p>The level of debugging detail logged by this Realm
      to the associated <a href="config/logger.html">Logger</a>.  Higher numbers
      generate more detailed output.  If not specified, the default
      debugging detail level is zero (0).</p>
    </attribute>
  
    <attribute name="digest" required="false">
      <p>The digest algorithm used to store passwords in non-plaintext formats.
      Valid values are those accepted for the algorithm name by the
      <code>java.security.MessageDigest</code> class.  See
      <a href="#Digested Passwords">Digested Passwords</a> for more
      information.  If not specified, passwords are stored in clear text.</p>
    </attribute>
  
    <attribute name="pathname" required="false">
      <p>Absolute or relative (to $CATALINA_HOME) pathname of the XML document
      containing our valid usernames, passwords, and roles.  See below for more
      information on the format of this file.  If not specified, the value
      <code>conf/tomcat-users.xml</code> is used.</p>
    </attribute>
  
  </attributes>
  
  <h3>User File Format</h3>
  
  <p>The users file (by default, <code>conf/tomcat-users.xml</code> must be an
  XML document, with a root element <code>&lt;tomcat-users&gt;</code>.  Nested
  inside the root element will be a <code>&lt;user&gt;</code> element for each
  valid user, consisting of the following attributes:</p>
  <ul>
  <li><strong>name</strong> - Username this user must log on with.</li>
  <li><strong>password</strong> - Password this user must log on with (in
      clear text if the <code>digest</code> attribute was not set on the
      <code>&lt;Realm&gt;</code> element, or digested appropriately as
      described <a href="#Digested Passwords">here</a> otherwise).</li>
  <li><strong>roles</strong> - Comma-delimited list of the role names
      associated with this user.</li>
  </ul>
  
  <h3>Example</h3>
  
  <p>The default installation of Tomcat 4 is configured with a MemoryRealm
  nested inside the <code>&lt;Engine&gt;</code> element, so that it applies
  to all virtual hosts and web applications.  The default contents of the
  <code>conf/tomcat-users.xml</code> file is:</p>
  <source>
  &lt;tomcat-users&gt;
    &lt;user name="tomcat" password="tomcat" roles="tomcat" /&gt;
    &lt;user name="role1"  password="tomcat" roles="role1"  /&gt;
    &lt;user name="both"   password="tomcat" roles="tomcat,role1" /&gt;
  &lt;/tomcat-users&gt;
  </source>
  
  <h3>Additional Notes</h3>
  
  <p>MemoryRealm operates according to the following rules:</p>
  <ul>
  <li>When Tomcat first starts up, it loads all defined users and their
      associated information from the users file.  Changes to the data in
      this file will <strong>not</strong> be recognized until Tomcat is
      restarted.</li>
  <li>When a user attempts to access a protected resource for the first time,
      Tomcat 4 will call the <code>authenticate()</code> method of this
      <code>Realm</code>.</li>
  <li>Once a user has been authenticated, the user (and his or her associated
      roles) are cached within Tomcat for the duration of the user's login.
      (For FORM-based authentication, that means until the session times out or
      is invalidated; for BASIC authentication, that means until the user
      closes their browser).</li>
  <li>Administering the information in the users file is the responsibility
      of your application.  Tomcat does not
      provide any built-in capabilities to maintain users and roles.</li>
  <li>Debugging and exception messages logged by this <code>Realm</code> will
      be recorded by the <code>Logger</code> that is associated with our
      surrounding <code>Context</code>, <code>Host</code>, or
      <code>Engine</code>.  By default, the corresponding Logger will create a
      log file in the <code>$CATALINA_HOME/logs</code> directory.</li>
  </ul>
  
  
  </subsection>
  
  
  </section>
  
  
  <section name="Common Features">
  
  
  <subsection name="Digested Passwords">
  
  <p>For each of the standard <code>Realm</code> implementations, the user's
  password (by default) is stored in clear text.  In many environments, this is
  undesireable because casual observers of the authentication data can collect
  enough information to log on successfully, and impersonate other users.
  To avoid this problem, the standard implementations support the concept of
  <em>digesting</em> user passwords.  This causes the stored version of the
  passwords to be encoded (in a form that is not easily reversible), but that
  the <code>Realm</code> implementation can still utilize for authentication.</p>
  
  <p>Digested passwords are selected by specifying the <code>digest</code>
  attribute on your <code>&lt;Realm&gt;</code> element.  The value for this
  attribute must be one of the digest algorithms supported by the
  <code>java.security.MessageDigest</code> class (SHA, MD2, or MD5).  When you
  select this option, the contents of the password that is stored in the
  <code>Realm</code> must be the cleartext version of the password, as digested
  by the specified algorithm.</p>
  
  <p>When the <code>authenticate()</code> method of the Realm is called, the
  (cleartext) password specified by the user is itself digested by the same
  algorithm, and the result is compared with the value returned by the
  <code>Realm</code>.  An equal match implies that the cleartext version of the
  original password is the same as the one presented by the user, so that this
  user should be authorized.</p>
  
  <p>To calculate the digested value of a cleartext password, two convenience
  techniques are supported:</p>
  <ul>
  <li>If you are writing an application that needs to calculate digested
      passowrds dynamically, call the static <code>Digest()</code> method of the
      <code>org.apache.catalina.realm.RealmBase</code> class, passing the
      cleartext password and the digest algorithm name as arguments.  This
      method will return the digested password.</li>
  <li>If you want to execute a command line utility to calculate the digested
      password, simply execute
  <source>
  java org.apache.catalina.realm.RealmBase \
      -a {algorithm} {cleartext-password}
  </source>
      and the digested version of this cleartext password will be returned to
      standard output.</li>
  </ul>
  
  <p>To use either of the above techniques, the
  <code>$CATALINA_HOME/server/lib/catalina.jar</code> file will need to be
  on your class path to make the <code>RealmBase</code> class available.</p>
  
  </subsection>
  
  
  <subsection name="Example Application">
  
  <p>The example application shipped with Tomcat 4 includes an area that is
  protected by a security constraint, utilizing form-based login.  To access it,
  point your browser at
  <a href="http://localhost:8080/examples/jsp/security/protected/">http://localhost:8080/examples/jsp/security/protected/</a>
  and log on with one of the usernames and passwords described for the default
  <a href="#MemoryRealm">MemoryRealm</a>.</p>
  
  </subsection>
  
  
  <subsection name="Manager Application">
  
  <p>If you wish to use the <a href="manager-howto.html">Manager Application</a>
  to deploy and undeploy applications in a running Tomcat 4 installation, you
  MUST add the "manager" role to at least one username in your selected Realm
  implementation.  This is because the manager web application itself uses a
  security constraint that requires role "manager" to access ANY request URI
  within that application.</p>
  
  <p>For security reasons, no username in the default Realm (i.e. using
  <code>conf/tomcat-users.xml</code> is assigned the "manager" role.  Therfore,
  no one will be able to utilize the features of this application until the
  Tomcat administrator specifically assigns this role to one or more users.</p>
  
  </subsection>
  
  
  </section>
  
  
  </body>
  
  </document>
  
  
  

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