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From anat...@apache.org
Subject svn commit: r1663437 [1/3] - in /incubator/tamaya/site/trunk/content/documentation: API.html Core.html TamayaDocumentation.html
Date Mon, 02 Mar 2015 21:27:35 GMT
Author: anatole
Date: Mon Mar  2 21:27:35 2015
New Revision: 1663437

URL: http://svn.apache.org/r1663437
Log:
Updated site (not yet committed).

Added:
    incubator/tamaya/site/trunk/content/documentation/API.html
    incubator/tamaya/site/trunk/content/documentation/Core.html
    incubator/tamaya/site/trunk/content/documentation/TamayaDocumentation.html

Added: incubator/tamaya/site/trunk/content/documentation/API.html
URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc/incubator/tamaya/site/trunk/content/documentation/API.html?rev=1663437&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- incubator/tamaya/site/trunk/content/documentation/API.html (added)
+++ incubator/tamaya/site/trunk/content/documentation/API.html Mon Mar  2 21:27:35 2015
@@ -0,0 +1,1534 @@
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+<body class="article">
+<div id="header">
+<h1>Apache Tamaya&#8201;&#8212;&#8201;API</h1>
+<div class="details">
+<span id="author" class="author">Anatole Tresch</span><br>
+<span id="email" class="email">&lt;<a href="mailto:anatole@apache.org" title="Apache Tamaya">anatole@apache.org</a>&gt;</span><br>
+<span id="revnumber">version 0.1-SNAPSHOT,</span>
+<span id="revdate">January 2014</span>
+<br><span id="revremark">Incubator</span>
+</div>
+<div id="toc" class="toc">
+<div id="toctitle">Table of Contents</div>
+<ul class="sectlevel1">
+<li><a href="#API">1. The Tamaya API</a>
+<ul class="sectlevel2">
+<li><a href="#_overview">1.1. Overview</a></li>
+<li><a href="#_compatibility">1.2. Compatibility</a></li>
+<li><a href="#APIKeyValues">1.3. Key/Value Pairs</a></li>
+<li><a href="#ExtensionPoints">1.4. Extension Points</a></li>
+<li><a href="#ConfigException">1.5. ConfigException</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><a href="#SPI">2. SPI</a>
+<ul class="sectlevel2">
+<li><a href="#PropertySource">2.1. Interface PropertySource</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><a href="#_examples">3. Examples</a>
+<ul class="sectlevel2">
+<li><a href="#_accessing_configuration">3.1. Accessing Configuration</a></li>
+<li><a href="#_environment_and_system_properties">3.2. Environment and System Properties</a></li>
+<li><a href="#_adding_a_custom_configuration">3.3. Adding a Custom Configuration</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div id="content">
+<div id="preamble">
+<div class="sectionbody">
+<hr>
+<div style="page-break-after: always;"></div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>&#8594; add image : : <a href="https://raw.githubusercontent.com/JavaConfig/config-api/master/src/main/asciidoc/images/javaconfig.jpg" class="bare">https://raw.githubusercontent.com/JavaConfig/config-api/master/src/main/asciidoc/images/javaconfig.jpg</a></p>
+</div>
+<!-- toc disabled -->
+<div style="page-break-after: always;"></div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="content">
+<pre>Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+distributed with this work for additional information
+regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+"License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+
+   http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+
+Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing,
+software distributed under the License is distributed on an
+"AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY
+KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the
+specific language governing permissions and limitations
+under the License.</pre>
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="sect1">
+<h2 id="API">1. The Tamaya API</h2>
+<div class="sectionbody">
+<div class="sect2">
+<h3 id="_overview">1.1. Overview</h3>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>Though Tamaya is a very powerful and flexible solution there are basically only a few simple core concepts required
+that build the base of all the other mechanisms:</p>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>The API provides these artifacts, which are:</p>
+</div>
+<div class="ulist">
+<ul>
+<li>
+<p>A simple but complete SE <strong>API</strong> for accessing key/value based <em>Configuration</em>:</p>
+<div class="ulist">
+<ul>
+<li>
+<p><code>Configuration</code> hereby models configuration, the main interface of Tamaya. <code>Configuration</code> provides</p>
+<div class="ulist">
+<ul>
+<li>
+<p>access to literal key/value pairs.</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>functional extension points (<code>with,query</code>) based un <code>UnaryOperator&lt;Configuration&gt;</code> (operator) and
+<code>Function&lt;Configuration,T&gt;</code> (query).</p>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p><code>ConfigurationProvider</code> provides the static entry point for accessing configuration.</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p><code>ConfigProvider</code> provides static access to the current <code>Configuration</code> (default configuration)</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p><code>ConfigException</code> defines a runtime exception for usage by the configuration system.</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p><code>PropertyConverter</code>, which defines conversion of String values into any required target types.</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p><code>TypeLiteral</code> provides a possibility to type safe define the target type to be returned by a registered
+<code>PropertyProvider</code>.</p>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Additionally the <strong>SPI</strong> provides:</p>
+<div class="ulist">
+<ul>
+<li>
+<p><em>PropertySource:</em> is the the SPI for adding configuration data. A <code>PropertySource</code>
+hereby</p>
+<div class="ulist">
+<ul>
+<li>
+<p>is designed as a minimalistic data interface to be implemented by any kind of data providers (local or remote)</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>provides data key/value pairs in raw format as String key/values only</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>can optionally support scanning of its provided values</p>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p><em>PropertySourceProvider:</em> allows to add property sources dynamically.</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p><code>ConfigurationProviderSpi</code> defines the SPI that is used as a backing bean for the <code>ConfigurationProvider</code>
+singleton.</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p><code>PropertyFilter</code>, which allows filtering of property values prior getting returned to the caller.</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p><code>ConfigurationContext</code>, which provides the container that contains the property sources and filters that form a
+configuration.</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p><code>PropertyValueCombinationPolicy</code> optionally can be registered to change the way how different key/value
+pairs are combined to build up the final <code>Configuration</code> passed over to the filters registered.</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p><code>ServiceContext</code>, which provides access to the components loaded, depending on the current runtime stack.</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p><code>ServiceContextManager</code> provides static access to the <code>ServiceContext</code> loaded.</p>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>This is also reflected in the main parts of the API, which is quite small:</p>
+</div>
+<div class="ulist">
+<ul>
+<li>
+<p><code>org.apache.tamaya</code> contains the main API abstractions used by users.</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p><code>org.apache.tamaya.spi</code> contains the SPI interfaces to be implemented by implementations and the <code>ServiceContext</code>
+mechanism.</p>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="sect2">
+<h3 id="_compatibility">1.2. Compatibility</h3>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>The Tamaya API basically is compatible with Java 7 and Java 8. Java 8 additionally introduces additional methods
+hereby leveraging the newly added Java 8 <code>Optional</code> features and <em>default</em> methods.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="sect2">
+<h3 id="APIKeyValues">1.3. Key/Value Pairs</h3>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>Basically configuration is a very generic concept. Therefore it should be modelled in a generic way. The most simple
+and most commonly used approach are simple literal key/value pairs. So the core building block of Tamaya are key/value pairs.
+You can think of a common <code>.properties</code> file, e.g.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="title">A simple properties file</div>
+<div class="content">
+<pre class="CodeRay highlight"><code data-lang="properties">a.b.c=cVal
+a.b.c.1=cVal1
+a.b.c.2=cVal2
+a=aVal
+a.b=abVal
+a.b2=abVal</code></pre>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>Now you can use <code>java.util.Properties</code> to read this file and access the corresponding properties, e.g.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="content">
+<pre class="CodeRay highlight"><code data-lang="properties">Properties props = new Properties();
+props.readProperties(...);
+String val = props.getProperty(&quot;a.b.c&quot;);
+val = props.getProperty(&quot;a.b.c.1&quot;);
+...</code></pre>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="sect3">
+<h4 id="_why_using_strings_only">1.3.1. Why Using Strings Only</h4>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>There are good reason to keep of non String-values as core storage representation of configuration. Mostly
+there are several huge advantages:</p>
+</div>
+<div class="ulist">
+<ul>
+<li>
+<p>Strings are simple to understand</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Strings are human readable and therefore easy to prove for correctness</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Strings can easily be used within different language, different VMs, files or network communications.</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Strings can easily be compared and manipulated</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Strings can easily be searched, indexed and cached</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>It is very easy to provide Strings as configuration, which gives much flexibility for providing configuration in
+production as well in testing.</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>and more&#8230;&#8203;</p>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>On the other side there are also disadvantages:</p>
+</div>
+<div class="ulist">
+<ul>
+<li>
+<p>Strings are inherently not type safe, they do not provide validation out of the box for special types, such as
+numbers, dates etc.</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>In many cases you want to access configuration in a typesafe way avoiding conversion to the target types explicitly
+throughout your code.</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Strings are neither hierarchical nor multi-valued, so mapping hierarchical and collection structures requires some
+extra efforts.</p>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>Nevertheless most of these advantages can be mitigated easily, hereby still keeping all the benefits from above:</p>
+</div>
+<div class="ulist">
+<ul>
+<li>
+<p>Adding type safe adapters on top of String allow to add any type easily, that can be directly mapped out of Strings.
+This includes all common base types such as numbers, dates, time, but also timezones, formatting patterns and more.</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Also multi-valued, complex and collection types can be defined as a corresponding <code>PropertyAdapter</code> knows how to
+parse and create the target instance required.</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>String s also can be used as references pointing to other locations and formats, where configuration is
+accessible.</p>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>[[API Configuration]]
+=== Configuration</p>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p><code>Configuration</code> is the main API provided by Tamaya. It allows reading of single property values or the whole
+property map, but also supports type safe access.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="sect3">
+<h4 id="_configuration_java_7">1.3.2. Configuration (Java 7)</h4>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>The minimal API defined for Java version earlier than Java 8 looks as follows:</p>
+</div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="title">Interface Configuration in Java 7</div>
+<div class="content">
+<pre class="CodeRay highlight"><code data-lang="java"><span class="directive">public</span> <span class="type">interface</span> <span class="class">Configuration</span>{
+    <span class="predefined-type">String</span> get(<span class="predefined-type">String</span> key);
+    &lt;T&gt; T get(<span class="predefined-type">String</span> key, <span class="predefined-type">Class</span>&lt;T&gt; type);
+    &lt;T&gt; T get(<span class="predefined-type">String</span> key, TypeLiteral&lt;T&gt; type);
+    &lt;T&gt; T get(<span class="predefined-type">String</span> key, PropertyConverter&lt;T&gt; type);
+    <span class="predefined-type">Map</span>&lt;<span class="predefined-type">String</span>,<span class="predefined-type">String</span>&gt; getProperties();
+
+    <span class="comment">// extension points</span>
+    <span class="predefined-type">Configuration</span> with(ConfigOperator operator);
+    &lt;T&gt; T query(ConfigQuery&lt;T&gt; query);
+}</code></pre>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>Hereby</p>
+</div>
+<div class="ulist">
+<ul>
+<li>
+<p><code>&lt;T&gt; T get(String, Class&lt;T&gt;)</code> provides type safe accessors for all basic wrapper types of the JDK. Basically all this
+methods delegate to the <code>get(String, PropertyConverter)</code> method, additionally passing the required <code>PropertyConverter</code>.</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p><code>get(String, PropertyConverter)</code> allow accessing any type, hereby also passing a <code>PropertyConverter</code> explicitly
+that converts  the configured literal value to the type required.</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p><code>with, query</code> provide the extension points for adding additional functionality.</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p><code>getProperties()</code> provides access to all key/values, whereas entries from non scannable property sources may not
+be included.</p>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>The class <code>TypeLiteral</code> is basically similar to the same class provided with CDI:</p>
+</div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="content">
+<pre class="CodeRay highlight"><code data-lang="java"><span class="directive">public</span> <span class="type">class</span> <span class="class">TypeLiteral</span>&lt;T&gt; <span class="directive">implements</span> <span class="predefined-type">Serializable</span> {
+
+    [...]
+
+    <span class="directive">protected</span> TypeLiteral(<span class="predefined-type">Type</span> type) {
+        <span class="local-variable">this</span>.type = type;
+    }
+
+    <span class="directive">protected</span> TypeLiteral() { }
+
+    <span class="directive">public</span> <span class="directive">static</span> &lt;L&gt; TypeLiteral&lt;L&gt; of(<span class="predefined-type">Type</span> type){...}
+    <span class="directive">public</span> <span class="directive">static</span> &lt;L&gt; TypeLiteral&lt;L&gt; of(<span class="predefined-type">Class</span>&lt;L&gt; type){...}
+
+    <span class="directive">public</span> <span class="directive">final</span> <span class="predefined-type">Type</span> getType() {...}
+    <span class="directive">public</span> <span class="directive">final</span> <span class="predefined-type">Class</span>&lt;T&gt; getRawType() {...}
+
+    <span class="directive">public</span> <span class="directive">static</span> <span class="predefined-type">Type</span> getGenericInterfaceTypeParameter(<span class="predefined-type">Class</span>&lt;?&gt; clazz, <span class="predefined-type">Class</span>&lt;?&gt; interfaceType){...}
+    <span class="directive">public</span> <span class="directive">static</span> <span class="predefined-type">Type</span> getTypeParameter(<span class="predefined-type">Class</span>&lt;?&gt; clazz, <span class="predefined-type">Class</span>&lt;?&gt; interfaceType){...}
+
+    [...]
+}</code></pre>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>Instances of <code>Configuration</code> can be accessed from the <code>ConfigurationProvider</code> singleton:</p>
+</div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="title">Accessing Configuration</div>
+<div class="content">
+<pre class="CodeRay highlight"><code data-lang="java"><span class="predefined-type">Configuration</span> config = ConfigurationProvider.getConfiguration();</code></pre>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>Hereby the singleton is backed up by an instance of <code>ConfigurationProviderSpi</code>.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="sect3">
+<h4 id="_configuration_java_8">1.3.3. Configuration (Java 8)</h4>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>The API for Java 8 adds additional support for <code>Optional</code>:</p>
+</div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="title">Interface Configuration in Java 8</div>
+<div class="content">
+<pre class="CodeRay highlight"><code data-lang="java"><span class="directive">public</span> <span class="type">interface</span> <span class="class">Configuration</span>{
+    <span class="comment">// methods also defined in Java 7</span>
+    <span class="predefined-type">String</span> get(<span class="predefined-type">String</span> key);
+    &lt;T&gt; T get(<span class="predefined-type">String</span> key, <span class="predefined-type">Class</span>&lt;T&gt; type);
+    &lt;T&gt; T get(<span class="predefined-type">String</span> key, TypeLiteral&lt;T&gt; type);
+    &lt;T&gt; T get(<span class="predefined-type">String</span> key, PropertyConverter&lt;T&gt; type);
+    <span class="predefined-type">Map</span>&lt;<span class="predefined-type">String</span>,<span class="predefined-type">String</span>&gt; getProperties();
+    <span class="predefined-type">Configuration</span> with(ConfigOperator operator);
+    &lt;T&gt; T query(ConfigQuery&lt;T&gt; query);
+
+    <span class="comment">// new java 8 optional support</span>
+    <span class="keyword">default</span> Optional&lt;<span class="predefined-type">String</span>&gt; getOptional(<span class="predefined-type">String</span> key){...}
+    <span class="keyword">default</span> &lt;T&gt; Optional&lt;T&gt; getOptional(<span class="predefined-type">String</span> key, <span class="predefined-type">Class</span>&lt;T&gt; type){...}
+    <span class="keyword">default</span> &lt;T&gt; Optional&lt;T&gt; getOptional(<span class="predefined-type">String</span> key, TypeLiteral&lt;T&gt; type){...}
+    <span class="keyword">default</span> &lt;T&gt; Optional&lt;T&gt; getOptional(<span class="predefined-type">String</span> key, PropertyConverter&lt;T&gt; converter){...}
+
+    <span class="keyword">default</span> <span class="predefined-type">Boolean</span> getBoolean(<span class="predefined-type">String</span> key){...}
+    <span class="keyword">default</span> OptionalInt getInteger(<span class="predefined-type">String</span> key){...}
+    <span class="keyword">default</span> OptionalLong getLong(<span class="predefined-type">String</span> key){...}
+    <span class="keyword">default</span> OptionalDouble getDouble(<span class="predefined-type">String</span> key){...}
+}</code></pre>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>Hereby</p>
+</div>
+<div class="ulist">
+<ul>
+<li>
+<p><code>get(String)</code> and <code>getOptional(String)</code> provide easy access to any kind of configuration properties in their
+String format.</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p><code>get(String, TypeLiteral)</code>, <code>getOptional(String, TypeLiteral)</code>, <code>get(String, Class), getOptional(String, Class)</code> and
+<code>getOptional(String, PropertyConverter)</code> provide type safe access to configuration properties. If a
+<code>PropertyConverter</code> is passed, it will replace any predefined standard
+converters defined for the type. By default several <code>PropertyConverter</code> instances can be registered for a given
+target type. The are managed in an ordered list, whereas the ordering is defined by <code>@Priority</code> annotations
+on the converters.</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p><code>getProperties()</code> gives access to all known (=scannable) properties.</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p><code>with, query</code> provide the extension points for adding additional functionality modelled by <code>ConfigOperator,
+ConfigQuery</code>.</p>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>Instances of <code>Configuration</code> can be accessed, exactly like in Java 7, from the <code>ConfigurationProvider</code> singleton:</p>
+</div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="title">Accessing Configuration</div>
+<div class="content">
+<pre class="CodeRay highlight"><code data-lang="java"><span class="predefined-type">Configuration</span> config = ConfigurationProvider.getConfiguration();</code></pre>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>Hereby the <code>ConfigurationProvider</code> singleton is backed up by an instance of <code><a href="#ConfigurationProviderSpi">Implementing and Managing Configuration</a></code>.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="sect3">
+<h4 id="PropertyConverter">1.3.4. Property Converters</h4>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>As illustrated in the previous section, <code>Configuration</code> also to access non String types. Nevertheless internally
+all properties are strictly modelled as pure Strings only, so non String types must be derived by converting the
+configured String values into the required target type. This is achieved with the help of <code>PropertyConverters</code>:</p>
+</div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="content">
+<pre class="CodeRay highlight"><code data-lang="java"><span class="directive">public</span> <span class="type">interface</span> <span class="class">PropertyConverter</span>&lt;T&gt;{
+    T convert(<span class="predefined-type">String</span> value);
+    <span class="comment">//X TODO Collection&lt;String&gt; getSupportedFormats();</span>
+}</code></pre>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p><code>PropertyConverter</code> instances can be implemented and registered by default using the <code>ServiceLoader</code>. Hereby
+a configuration String value is passed to all registered converters for a type in order of their annotated <code>@Priority</code>
+value. The first non-null result of a converter is then returned as the current configuration value.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>Also worth mentioning is the fact, that the <code>PropertyConverter</code> to be used can also be explicitly defined, when
+a configuration value is accessed, by using the methods
+<code>&lt;T&gt; Optional&lt;T&gt; Configuration#getOptional(String, PropertyConverter&lt;T&gt; converter)</code> (Java 8 only) and
+<code>&lt;T&gt; T Configuration#get(String, PropertyConverter&lt;T&gt; converter)</code>.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>Access to converters is provided by the current <code>ConfigurationContext</code>, which is accessible from
+the <code>ConfigurationProvider</code> singleton.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="sect2">
+<h3 id="ExtensionPoints">1.4. Extension Points</h3>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>We are well aware of the fact that this library will not be able to cover all kinds of use cases. Therefore
+we have added functional extension mechanisms to <code>Configuration</code> that were used in other areas of the Java eco-system
+as well:</p>
+</div>
+<div class="ulist">
+<ul>
+<li>
+<p><code>with(ConfigOperator operator)</code> allows to pass arbitrary unary functions that take and return instances of
+<code>Configuration</code>. Operators can be used to cover use cases such as filtering, configuration views, security
+interception and more.</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p><code>query(ConfigQuery query)</code> allows to apply a function returning any kind of result based on a
+<code>Configuration</code> instance. Queries are used for accessing/deriving any kind of data based on of a <code>Configuration</code>
+instance, e.g. accessing a <code>Set&lt;String&gt;</code> of root keys present.</p>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>Both interfaces hereby are functional interfaces. Because of backward compatibility with Java 7 we did not use
+<code>UnaryOperator</code> and <code>Function</code> from the <code>java.util.function</code> package. Nevertheless usage is similar, so you can
+use Lambdas and method references in Java 8:</p>
+</div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="title">Applying a <code>ConfigurationQuery</code> using a method reference</div>
+<div class="content">
+<pre class="CodeRay highlight"><code data-lang="java">ConfigSecurity securityContext = <span class="predefined-type">Configuration</span>.current().query(ConfigSecurity::targetSecurityContext);</code></pre>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="admonitionblock note">
+<table>
+<tr>
+<td class="icon">
+<img src="data:image/png:base64," alt="Note">
+</td>
+<td class="content">
+<code>ConfigSecurity</code> is an arbitrary class only for demonstration purposes.
+</td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>Operator calls basically look similar:</p>
+</div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="title">Applying a <code>ConfigurationOperator</code> using a lambda expression:</div>
+<div class="content">
+<pre class="CodeRay highlight"><code data-lang="java"><span class="predefined-type">Configuration</span> secured = ConfigurationProvider.getConfiguration()
+                           .with((config) -&gt;
+                                 config.getOptional(<span class="string"><span class="delimiter">&quot;</span><span class="content">foo</span><span class="delimiter">&quot;</span></span>).isPresent()?;
+                                 FooFilter.apply(config):
+                                 config);</code></pre>
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="sect2">
+<h3 id="ConfigException">1.5. ConfigException</h3>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>The class <code>ConfigException</code> models the base <strong>runtime</strong> exception used by the configuration system.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="sect1">
+<h2 id="SPI">2. SPI</h2>
+<div class="sectionbody">
+<div class="sect2">
+<h3 id="PropertySource">2.1. Interface PropertySource</h3>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>We have seen that constraining configuration aspects to simple literal key/value pairs provides us with an easy to
+understand, generic, flexible, yet expendable mechanism. Looking at the Java language features a <code>java.util.Map&lt;String,
+String&gt;</code> and <code>java.util.Properties</code> basically model these aspects out of the box.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>Though there are advantages in using these types as a model, there are some severe drawbacks, notably implementation
+of these types is far not trivial and the collection API offers additional functionality not useful when aiming
+for modelling simple property sources.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>To render an implementation of a custom <code>PropertySource</code> as convenient as possible only the following methods were
+identified to be necessary:</p>
+</div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="content">
+<pre class="CodeRay highlight"><code data-lang="java"><span class="directive">public</span> <span class="type">interface</span> <span class="class">PropertySource</span>{
+      <span class="type">int</span> getOrdinal();
+      <span class="predefined-type">String</span> getName();
+      <span class="predefined-type">String</span> get(<span class="predefined-type">String</span> key);
+      <span class="type">boolean</span> isScannable();
+      <span class="predefined-type">Map</span>&lt;<span class="predefined-type">String</span>, <span class="predefined-type">String</span>&gt; getProperties();
+}</code></pre>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>Hereby</p>
+</div>
+<div class="ulist">
+<ul>
+<li>
+<p><code>get</code> looks similar to the methods on <code>Map</code>. It may return <code>null</code> in case no such entry is available.</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p><code>getProperties</code> allows to extract all property data to a <code>Map&lt;String,String&gt;</code>. Other methods like <code>containsKey,
+keySet</code> as well as streaming operations then can be applied on the returned <code>Map</code> instance.</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>But not in all scenarios a property source may be scannable, e.g. when looking up keys is very inefficient, it
+may not make sense to iterator over all keys to collect the corresponding properties.
+This can be evaluated by calling <code>isScannable()</code>. If a <code>PropertySource</code> is defined as non scannable accesses to
+<code>getProperties()</code> may not return all key/value pairs that would be available when accessed directly using the
+<code>String get(String)</code> method.</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p><code>getOrdinal()</code> defines the ordinal of the <code>PropertySource</code>. Property sources are managed in an ordered chain, where
+property sources with higher ordinals override the ones with lower ordinals. If ordinal are the same, the natural
+ordering of the fulloy qualified class names of the property source implementations are used. The reason for
+not using <code>@Priority</code> annotations is that property sources can define dynamically their ordinals, e.g. based on
+a property contained with the configuration itself.</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Finally <code>getName()</code> returns a (unique) name that identifies the <code>PropertySource</code> within the current
+<code>ConfigurationContext</code>.</p>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>This interface can be implemented by any kind of logic. It could be a simple in memory map, a distributed configuration
+provided by a data grid, a database, the JNDI tree or other resources. Or it can be a combination of multiple
+property sources with additional combination/aggregation rules in place.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p><code>PropertySources</code> are by default registered using the Java <code>ServiceLoader</code> or the mechanism provided by the current
+ active <code>ServiceContext</code>.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="sect3">
+<h4 id="PropertySourceProvider">2.1.1. Interface PropertySourceProvider</h4>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>Instances of this type can be used to register multiple instances of <code>PropertySource</code>.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="content">
+<pre class="CodeRay highlight"><code data-lang="java"><span class="comment">// @FunctionalInterface in Java 8</span>
+<span class="directive">public</span> <span class="type">interface</span> <span class="class">PropertySourceProvider</span>{
+    <span class="predefined-type">Collection</span>&lt;PropertySource&gt; getPropertySources();
+}</code></pre>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>This allows to evaluate the property sources to be read/that are available dynamically. All property sources
+are read out and added to the current chain of <code>PropertySource</code> instances within the current <code>ConfigurationContext</code>,
+refer also to <a id="ConfigurationContext"></a>.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p><code>PropertySourceProviders</code> are by default registered using the Java <code>ServiceLoader</code> or the mechanism provided by the
+current active <code>ServiceContext</code>.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="sect3">
+<h4 id="PropertyFilter">2.1.2. Interface PropertyFilter</h4>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>Also <code>PropertyFilters</code> can be added to a <code>Configuration</code>. They are evaluated before a <code>Configuration</code> instance is
+passed to the user. Filters can hereby used for multiple purposes, such as</p>
+</div>
+<div class="ulist">
+<ul>
+<li>
+<p>resolving placeholders</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>masking sensitive entries, such as passwords</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>constraining visibility based on the current active user</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>&#8230;&#8203;</p>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p><code>PropertyFilters</code> are by default registered using the Java <code>ServiceLoader</code> or the mechanism provided by the current
+active <code>ServiceContext</code>. Similar to property sources they are managed in an ordered filter chain, based on the
+applied <code>@Priority</code> annotations.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>A <code>PropertyFilter</code> is defined as follows:</p>
+</div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="content">
+<pre class="CodeRay highlight"><code data-lang="java"><span class="comment">// @FunctionalInterface in Java 8</span>
+<span class="directive">public</span> <span class="type">interface</span> <span class="class">PropertyConverter</span>{
+    <span class="predefined-type">String</span> filterProperty(<span class="predefined-type">String</span> key, <span class="predefined-type">String</span> valueToBeFiltered);
+}</code></pre>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>Hereby:</p>
+</div>
+<div class="ulist">
+<ul>
+<li>
+<p>returning <code>null</code> will remove the key from the final result</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>non null values are used as the current value of the key. Nevertheless for resolving multi-step dependencies
+filter evaluation has to be continued as long as filters are still changing some of the values to be returned.
+To prevent possible endless loops after a defined number of loops evaluation is stopped.</p>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>This method is called each time a single entry is accessed, and for each property in a full properties result.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="sect3">
+<h4 id="PropertyValueCombinationPolicy">2.1.3. Interface PropertyValueCombinationPolicy</h4>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>This interface can be implemented optional. It can be used to adapt the way how property key/value pairs are combined to
+build up the final Configuration to be passed over to the <code>PropertyFilters</code>. The default implementation is just
+overriding all values read before with the new value read. Nevertheless for collections and other use cases it is
+often useful to have alternate combination policies in place, e.g. for combining values from previous sources with the
+new value.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="content">
+<pre class="CodeRay highlight"><code data-lang="java"><span class="annotation">@FunctionalInterface</span>
+<span class="directive">public</span> <span class="type">interface</span> <span class="class">PropertyValueCombinationPolicy</span>{
+
+   <span class="directive">public</span> <span class="directive">final</span> PropertyValueCombinationPolicy DEFAULT_OVERRIDING_COLLECTOR =
+           (current, key, propertySource) -&gt; Optional.ofNullable(propertySource.get(key))
+                                                     .filter(s -&gt; !s.isEmpty())
+                                                     .orElse(current);
+
+   <span class="predefined-type">String</span> collect(<span class="predefined-type">String</span> currentValue, <span class="predefined-type">String</span> key, PropertySource propertySource);
+}</code></pre>
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="sect3">
+<h4 id="ConfigurationContext">2.1.4. The Configuration Context</h4>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>A <code>Configuration</code> is basically based on a so called <code>ConfigurationContext</code>, which is
+managed by the <code>ConfigurationProvider</code>. Similarly the current <code>ConfigurationContext</code> can be accessed from the
+<code>ConfigurationProvider</code> singleton:</p>
+</div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="title">Accessing the current <code>ConfigurationContext</code></div>
+<div class="content">
+<pre class="CodeRay highlight"><code data-lang="java">ConfigurationContext context = ConfigurationProvider.getConfigurationContext();</code></pre>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>The <code>ConfigurationContext</code> provides access to the internal building blocks that determine the final <code>Configuration</code>:</p>
+</div>
+<div class="ulist">
+<ul>
+<li>
+<p><code>PropertySources</code> registered (including the PropertySources provided from <code>PropertySourceProvider</code> instances).</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p><code>PropertyFilter</code> registered that filter values before they are returned to the client</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p><code>PropertyConverter</code> instances that provide conversion functionality for converting String values to any other types.</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>the current <code>PropertyValueCombinationPolicy</code> that determines how property values from different PropertySources are
+combined to the final property value returned to the client.</p>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="sect3">
+<h4 id="Mutability">2.1.5. Changing the current Configuration Context</h4>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>By default the <code>ConfigurationContext</code> is not mutable once it is created. In most cases mutability is also not wanted
+or at least not a needed feature. Nevertheless there are use cases where the current <code>ConfigurationContext</code> (and
+consequently <code>Configuration</code>) must be adapted:</p>
+</div>
+<div class="ulist">
+<ul>
+<li>
+<p>New configuration files where detected in a folder observed by Tamaya.</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Remote configuration, e.g. stored in a database or alternate ways has been updated and the current system must
+be adapted to these changes.</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>The overall configuration context is manually setup by the application logic.</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Within unit testing alternate configuration setup should be setup to meet the configuration requirements of the
+tests executed.</p>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>In such cases the <code>ConfigurationContext</code> must be mutable, meaning it must be possible:</p>
+</div>
+<div class="ulist">
+<ul>
+<li>
+<p>to add or remove <code>PropertySource</code> instances</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>to add or remove <code>PropertyFilter</code> instances</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>to add or remove <code>PropertyConverter</code> instances</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>to redefine the current <code>PropertyValueCombinationPolicy</code> instances.</p>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>This can be achieved by obtaining an instance of <code>ConfigurationContextBuilder</code>. Instances of this builder can be
+accessed either</p>
+</div>
+<div class="ulist">
+<ul>
+<li>
+<p>from the current <code>ConfigurationContext</code>, hereby returning a builder instance preinitialized with the values from the
+current <code>ConfigurationContext</code></p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>from the current <code>ConfigurationProvider</code> singleton.</p>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="title">Accessing a <code>ConfigurationContextBuilder</code></div>
+<div class="content">
+<pre class="CodeRay highlight"><code data-lang="java">ConfigurationContextBuilder preinitializedContextBuilder = ConfigurationProvider.getConfigurationContext().toBuilder();
+ConfigurationContextBuilder emptyContextBuilder = ConfigurationProvider.getConfigurationContextBuilder();</code></pre>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>With such a builder a nre <code>ConfigurationContext</code> can be created and then applied:</p>
+</div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="title">Creating and applying a new <code>ConfigurationContext</code></div>
+<div class="content">
+<pre class="CodeRay highlight"><code data-lang="java">ConfigurationContextBuilder preinitializedContextBuilder = ConfigurationProvider.getConfigurationContext().toBuilder();
+ConfigurationContext context = preinitializedContextBuilder.addPropertySources(<span class="keyword">new</span> MyPropertySource())
+                                                           .addPropertyFilter(<span class="keyword">new</span> MyFilter()).build();
+ConfigurationProvider.setConfigurationContext(context);</code></pre>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>Hereby <code>ConfigurationProvider.setConfigurationContext(context)</code> can throw a <code>UnsupportedOperationException</code>. if not
+sure one may access the method <code>boolean ConfigurationProvider.isConfigurationContextSettable()</code> to check if the current
+<code>ConfigurationContext</code> is mutable.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="sect3">
+<h4 id="ConfigurationProviderSpi">2.1.6. Implementing and Managing Configuration</h4>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>One of the most important SPI in Tamaya if the <code>ConfigurationProviderSpi</code> interface, which is backing up the
+<code>ConfigurationProvider</code> singleton. Implementing this class allows</p>
+</div>
+<div class="ulist">
+<ul>
+<li>
+<p>to fully determine the implementation class for <code>Configuration</code></p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>to manage the current <code>ConfigurationContext</code> in the scope and granularity required.</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>to provide access to the right <code>Configuration/ConfigurationContext</code> based on the current runtime context.</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>Performing changes as set with the current <code>ConfigurationContextBuilder</code>.</p>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="sect3">
+<h4 id="ServiceContext">2.1.7. The ServiceContext</h4>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>The <code>ServiceContext</code> is also a very important SPI, which allows to define how components are loaded in Tamaya.
+The <code>ServiceContext</code> hereby defines access methods to obtain components, whereas itself it is available from the
+<code>ServiceContextManager</code> singleton:</p>
+</div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="title">Accessing the <code>ServiceContext</code></div>
+<div class="content">
+<pre class="CodeRay highlight"><code data-lang="java">ServiceContext serviceContext = ServiceContextManager.getServiceContext();
+
+<span class="directive">public</span> <span class="type">interface</span> <span class="class">ServiceContext</span>{
+    <span class="type">int</span> ordinal();
+    &lt;T&gt; T getService(<span class="predefined-type">Class</span>&lt;T&gt; serviceType);
+    &lt;T&gt; <span class="predefined-type">List</span>&lt;T&gt; getServices(<span class="predefined-type">Class</span>&lt;T&gt; serviceType);
+}</code></pre>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>With the <code>ServiceContext</code> a component can be accessed in two different ways:</p>
+</div>
+<div class="olist arabic">
+<ol class="arabic">
+<li>
+<p>access as as a single property. Hereby the registered instances (if multiple) are sorted by priority and then finally
+the most significant instance is returned only.</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>access all items given its type. This will return (by default) all  instances loadedable from the current
+runtime context, ordered by priority, hereby the most significant components added first.</p>
+</li>
+</ol>
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="sect1">
+<h2 id="_examples">3. Examples</h2>
+<div class="sectionbody">
+<div class="sect2">
+<h3 id="_accessing_configuration">3.1. Accessing Configuration</h3>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p><em>Configuration</em> is obtained from the ConfigurationProvider singleton:</p>
+</div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="title">Accessing <code>Configuration</code></div>
+<div class="content">
+<pre class="CodeRay highlight"><code data-lang="java"><span class="predefined-type">Configuration</span> config = ConfigurationProvider.getConfiguration();</code></pre>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>Many users in a SE context will probably only work with <em>Configuration</em>, since it offers all functionality
+needed for basic configuration with a very lean memory and runtime footprint. In Java 7 access to the keys is
+very similar to <strong>Map&lt;String,String&gt;</strong>, whereas in Java 8 additionally usage of <em>Optional</em> is supported:</p>
+</div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="content">
+<pre class="CodeRay highlight"><code data-lang="java"><span class="predefined-type">Configuration</span> config = ConfigurationProvider.getConfiguration();
+<span class="predefined-type">String</span> myKey = config.get(<span class="string"><span class="delimiter">&quot;</span><span class="content">myKey</span><span class="delimiter">&quot;</span></span>);                         <span class="comment">// may return null</span>
+<span class="type">int</span> myLimit = config.getInt(<span class="string"><span class="delimiter">&quot;</span><span class="content">all.size.limit</span><span class="delimiter">&quot;</span></span>).getAsInt();   <span class="comment">// Never returns null</span></code></pre>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>In Java 8 the following would be possible as well:</p>
+</div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="content">
+<pre class="CodeRay highlight"><code data-lang="java"><span class="type">int</span> myLimit = config.getOptionalInt(<span class="string"><span class="delimiter">&quot;</span><span class="content">all.size.limit</span><span class="delimiter">&quot;</span></span>).getAsInt(); <span class="comment">// OptionalInt</span>
+<span class="predefined-type">Class</span>&lt;T&gt; targetClass = config.get(<span class="string"><span class="delimiter">&quot;</span><span class="content">myClass</span><span class="delimiter">&quot;</span></span>, <span class="predefined-type">Class</span>.class);        <span class="comment">// Optional&lt;Class&gt;, returns  never null</span></code></pre>
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="sect2">
+<h3 id="_environment_and_system_properties">3.2. Environment and System Properties</h3>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>By default environment and system properties are provided automatically as part of the default <em>Configuration</em>. The
+environment properties hereby are prefixed with <em>env.</em>. So we can access the current <em>PROMPT</em> environment variable
+as follows:</p>
+</div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="content">
+<pre class="CodeRay highlight"><code data-lang="java"><span class="predefined-type">String</span> prompt = ConfigurationProvider.getConfiguration().get(<span class="string"><span class="delimiter">&quot;</span><span class="content">env.PROMPT</span><span class="delimiter">&quot;</span></span>);</code></pre>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>Similary the system properties are directly applied to the <em>Configuration</em>. So if we pass the following system
+property to our JVM:</p>
+</div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="content">
+<pre class="CodeRay highlight"><code data-lang="java">java ... -Duse.my.system.answer=yes</code></pre>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>we can access it as follows:</p>
+</div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="content">
+<pre class="CodeRay highlight"><code data-lang="java"><span class="type">boolean</span> useMySystem = ConfigurationProvider.getBoolean(<span class="string"><span class="delimiter">&quot;</span><span class="content">use.my.system.answer</span><span class="delimiter">&quot;</span></span>);</code></pre>
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="sect2">
+<h3 id="_adding_a_custom_configuration">3.3. Adding a Custom Configuration</h3>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>Adding a classpath based configuration is simply as well: just implement an according <em>PropertySource</em>. With the
+Tamaya core module you just have to perform the following steps:</p>
+</div>
+<div class="olist arabic">
+<ol class="arabic">
+<li>
+<p>Define a PropertySource as follows:</p>
+</li>
+</ol>
+</div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="content">
+<pre class="CodeRay highlight"><code data-lang="java">  <span class="directive">public</span> <span class="type">class</span> <span class="class">MyPropertySource</span> <span class="directive">extends</span> PropertiesFilePropertySource{
+
+    <span class="directive">public</span> MyPropertySource(){
+        <span class="local-variable">super</span>(<span class="predefined-type">ClassLoader</span>.getSystemClassLoader().getResource(<span class="string"><span class="delimiter">&quot;</span><span class="content">META-INF/cfg/myconfig.properties</span><span class="delimiter">&quot;</span></span>));
+    }
+  }</code></pre>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="olist arabic">
+<ol class="arabic">
+<li>
+<p>Register the new PropertySource using the ServiceLoader by adding the following file:</p>
+</li>
+</ol>
+</div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="content">
+<pre class="CodeRay highlight"><code data-lang="listing">META-INF/services/org.apache.tamaya.spi.PropertySource</code></pre>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>And adding there the entry for the new PropertySource:</p>
+</div>
+<div class="listingblock">
+<div class="content">
+<pre class="CodeRay highlight"><code data-lang="listing">comp.mapackage.MyPropertySource</code></pre>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>Basically thst&#8217;s all.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div id="footer">
+<div id="footer-text">
+Version 0.1-SNAPSHOT<br>
+Last updated 2015-03-02 22:18:21 MEZ
+</div>
+</div>
+</body>
+</html>
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