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From jihoon...@apache.org
Subject [10/33] TAJO-1125: Separate logical plan and optimizer into a maven module.
Date Sun, 26 Oct 2014 05:46:09 GMT
http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/tajo/blob/b143f991/tajo-plan/src/main/java/org/apache/tajo/plan/LogicalPlanner.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/tajo-plan/src/main/java/org/apache/tajo/plan/LogicalPlanner.java b/tajo-plan/src/main/java/org/apache/tajo/plan/LogicalPlanner.java
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..84942a1
--- /dev/null
+++ b/tajo-plan/src/main/java/org/apache/tajo/plan/LogicalPlanner.java
@@ -0,0 +1,2004 @@
+/**
+ * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+ * or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+ * distributed with this work for additional information
+ * regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+ * to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+ * "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+ * with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+ *
+ *     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+ *
+ * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
+ * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
+ * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
+ * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
+ * limitations under the License.
+ */
+
+package org.apache.tajo.plan;
+
+import com.google.common.annotations.VisibleForTesting;
+import com.google.common.base.Joiner;
+import com.google.common.collect.Lists;
+import com.google.common.collect.Sets;
+import org.apache.commons.logging.Log;
+import org.apache.commons.logging.LogFactory;
+import org.apache.hadoop.conf.Configuration;
+import org.apache.hadoop.fs.ContentSummary;
+import org.apache.hadoop.fs.FileStatus;
+import org.apache.hadoop.fs.FileSystem;
+import org.apache.hadoop.fs.Path;
+import org.apache.tajo.OverridableConf;
+import org.apache.tajo.SessionVars;
+import org.apache.tajo.algebra.*;
+import org.apache.tajo.algebra.WindowSpec;
+import org.apache.tajo.catalog.*;
+import org.apache.tajo.catalog.partition.PartitionMethodDesc;
+import org.apache.tajo.catalog.proto.CatalogProtos;
+import org.apache.tajo.common.TajoDataTypes;
+import org.apache.tajo.datum.NullDatum;
+import org.apache.tajo.plan.LogicalPlan.QueryBlock;
+import org.apache.tajo.plan.algebra.BaseAlgebraVisitor;
+import org.apache.tajo.plan.expr.*;
+import org.apache.tajo.plan.exprrewrite.EvalTreeOptimizer;
+import org.apache.tajo.plan.logical.*;
+import org.apache.tajo.plan.nameresolver.NameResolvingMode;
+import org.apache.tajo.plan.rewrite.rules.ProjectionPushDownRule;
+import org.apache.tajo.plan.util.ExprFinder;
+import org.apache.tajo.plan.util.PlannerUtil;
+import org.apache.tajo.plan.util.SchemaUtil;
+import org.apache.tajo.plan.verifier.VerifyException;
+import org.apache.tajo.util.KeyValueSet;
+import org.apache.tajo.util.Pair;
+import org.apache.tajo.util.TUtil;
+
+import java.util.*;
+
+import static org.apache.tajo.algebra.CreateTable.PartitionType;
+import static org.apache.tajo.plan.ExprNormalizer.ExprNormalizedResult;
+import static org.apache.tajo.plan.LogicalPlan.BlockType;
+
+/**
+ * This class creates a logical plan from a nested tajo algebra expression ({@link org.apache.tajo.algebra})
+ */
+public class LogicalPlanner extends BaseAlgebraVisitor<LogicalPlanner.PlanContext, LogicalNode> {
+  private static Log LOG = LogFactory.getLog(LogicalPlanner.class);
+  private final CatalogService catalog;
+  private final LogicalPlanPreprocessor preprocessor;
+  private final EvalTreeOptimizer evalOptimizer;
+  private final ExprAnnotator exprAnnotator;
+  private final ExprNormalizer normalizer;
+
+  public LogicalPlanner(CatalogService catalog) {
+    this.catalog = catalog;
+    this.exprAnnotator = new ExprAnnotator(catalog);
+    this.preprocessor = new LogicalPlanPreprocessor(catalog, exprAnnotator);
+    this.normalizer = new ExprNormalizer();
+    this.evalOptimizer = new EvalTreeOptimizer();
+  }
+
+  public static class PlanContext {
+    OverridableConf queryContext;
+    LogicalPlan plan;
+    QueryBlock queryBlock;
+    EvalTreeOptimizer evalOptimizer;
+    boolean debugOrUnitTests;
+
+    public PlanContext(OverridableConf context, LogicalPlan plan, QueryBlock block, EvalTreeOptimizer evalOptimizer,
+                       boolean debugOrUnitTests) {
+      this.queryContext = context;
+      this.plan = plan;
+      this.queryBlock = block;
+      this.evalOptimizer = evalOptimizer;
+      this.debugOrUnitTests = debugOrUnitTests;
+    }
+
+    public PlanContext(PlanContext context, QueryBlock block) {
+      this.queryContext = context.queryContext;
+      this.plan = context.plan;
+      this.queryBlock = block;
+      this.evalOptimizer = context.evalOptimizer;
+      this.debugOrUnitTests = context.debugOrUnitTests;
+    }
+
+    public QueryBlock getQueryBlock() {
+      return queryBlock;
+    }
+
+    public String toString() {
+      return "block=" + queryBlock.getName() + ", relNum=" + queryBlock.getRelations().size() + ", "+
+          queryBlock.namedExprsMgr.toString();
+    }
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * This generates a logical plan.
+   *
+   * @param expr A relational algebraic expression for a query.
+   * @return A logical plan
+   */
+  public LogicalPlan createPlan(OverridableConf context, Expr expr) throws PlanningException {
+    return createPlan(context, expr, false);
+  }
+
+  @VisibleForTesting
+  public LogicalPlan createPlan(OverridableConf queryContext, Expr expr, boolean debug) throws PlanningException {
+
+    LogicalPlan plan = new LogicalPlan(this);
+
+    QueryBlock rootBlock = plan.newAndGetBlock(LogicalPlan.ROOT_BLOCK);
+    PlanContext context = new PlanContext(queryContext, plan, rootBlock, evalOptimizer, debug);
+    preprocessor.visit(context, new Stack<Expr>(), expr);
+    plan.resetGeneratedId();
+    LogicalNode topMostNode = this.visit(context, new Stack<Expr>(), expr);
+
+    // Add Root Node
+    LogicalRootNode root = plan.createNode(LogicalRootNode.class);
+    root.setInSchema(topMostNode.getOutSchema());
+    root.setChild(topMostNode);
+    root.setOutSchema(topMostNode.getOutSchema());
+    plan.getRootBlock().setRoot(root);
+
+    return plan;
+  }
+
+  public ExprAnnotator getExprAnnotator() {
+    return this.exprAnnotator;
+  }
+
+  public void preHook(PlanContext context, Stack<Expr> stack, Expr expr) throws PlanningException {
+    context.queryBlock.updateCurrentNode(expr);
+  }
+
+  public LogicalNode postHook(PlanContext context, Stack<Expr> stack, Expr expr, LogicalNode current)
+      throws PlanningException {
+
+
+    // Some generated logical nodes (e.g., implicit aggregation) without exprs will pass NULL as a expr parameter.
+    // We should skip them.
+    if (expr != null) {
+      // A relation list including a single ScanNode will return a ScanNode instance that already passed postHook.
+      // So, it skips the already-visited ScanNode instance.
+      if (expr.getType() == OpType.RelationList && current.getType() == NodeType.SCAN) {
+        return current;
+      }
+    }
+
+    QueryBlock queryBlock = context.queryBlock;
+    queryBlock.updateLatestNode(current);
+
+    // if this node is the topmost
+    if (stack.size() == 0) {
+      queryBlock.setRoot(current);
+    }
+
+    if (!stack.empty()) {
+      queryBlock.updateCurrentNode(stack.peek());
+    }
+    return current;
+  }
+
+  public LogicalNode visitExplain(PlanContext ctx, Stack<Expr> stack, Explain expr) throws PlanningException {
+    ctx.plan.setExplain();
+    return visit(ctx, stack, expr.getChild());
+  }
+
+  /*===============================================================================================
+    Data Manupulation Language (DML) SECTION
+   ===============================================================================================*/
+
+
+  /*===============================================================================================
+    PROJECTION SECTION
+   ===============================================================================================*/
+  @Override
+  public LogicalNode visitProjection(PlanContext context, Stack<Expr> stack, Projection projection)
+      throws PlanningException {
+
+
+    LogicalPlan plan = context.plan;
+    QueryBlock block = context.queryBlock;
+
+    // If a non-from statement is given
+    if (!projection.hasChild()) {
+      return buildPlanForNoneFromStatement(context, stack, projection);
+    }
+
+    String [] referenceNames;
+    // in prephase, insert all target list into NamedExprManagers.
+    // Then it gets reference names, each of which points an expression in target list.
+    Pair<String [], ExprNormalizer.WindowSpecReferences []> referencesPair = doProjectionPrephase(context, projection);
+    referenceNames = referencesPair.getFirst();
+
+    ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
+    // Visit and Build Child Plan
+    ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
+    stack.push(projection);
+    LogicalNode child = visit(context, stack, projection.getChild());
+
+    // check if it is implicit aggregation. If so, it inserts group-by node to its child.
+    if (block.isAggregationRequired()) {
+      child = insertGroupbyNode(context, child, stack);
+    }
+
+    if (block.hasWindowSpecs()) {
+      LogicalNode windowAggNode =
+          insertWindowAggNode(context, child, stack, referenceNames, referencesPair.getSecond());
+      if (windowAggNode != null) {
+        child = windowAggNode;
+      }
+    }
+    stack.pop();
+    ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
+
+    ProjectionNode projectionNode;
+    Target[] targets;
+    targets = buildTargets(context, referenceNames);
+
+    // Set ProjectionNode
+    projectionNode = context.queryBlock.getNodeFromExpr(projection);
+    projectionNode.setInSchema(child.getOutSchema());
+    projectionNode.setTargets(targets);
+    projectionNode.setChild(child);
+
+    if (projection.isDistinct() && block.hasNode(NodeType.GROUP_BY)) {
+      throw new VerifyException("Cannot support grouping and distinct at the same time yet");
+    } else {
+      if (projection.isDistinct()) {
+        insertDistinctOperator(context, projectionNode, child, stack);
+      }
+    }
+
+    // It's for debugging and unit tests purpose.
+    // It sets raw targets, all of them are raw expressions instead of references.
+    if (context.debugOrUnitTests) {
+      setRawTargets(context, targets, referenceNames, projection);
+    }
+
+    verifyProjectedFields(block, projectionNode);
+    return projectionNode;
+  }
+
+  private void setRawTargets(PlanContext context, Target[] targets, String[] referenceNames,
+                             Projection projection) throws PlanningException {
+    LogicalPlan plan = context.plan;
+    QueryBlock block = context.queryBlock;
+
+    // It's for debugging or unit tests.
+    Target [] rawTargets = new Target[projection.getNamedExprs().length];
+    for (int i = 0; i < projection.getNamedExprs().length; i++) {
+      NamedExpr namedExpr = projection.getNamedExprs()[i];
+      EvalNode evalNode = exprAnnotator.createEvalNode(context, namedExpr.getExpr(),
+          NameResolvingMode.RELS_AND_SUBEXPRS);
+      rawTargets[i] = new Target(evalNode, referenceNames[i]);
+    }
+    // it's for debugging or unit testing
+    block.setRawTargets(rawTargets);
+  }
+
+  private void insertDistinctOperator(PlanContext context, ProjectionNode projectionNode, LogicalNode child,
+                                      Stack<Expr> stack) throws PlanningException {
+    LogicalPlan plan = context.plan;
+    QueryBlock block = context.queryBlock;
+
+    Schema outSchema = projectionNode.getOutSchema();
+    GroupbyNode dupRemoval = context.plan.createNode(GroupbyNode.class);
+    dupRemoval.setChild(child);
+    dupRemoval.setInSchema(projectionNode.getInSchema());
+    dupRemoval.setTargets(PlannerUtil.schemaToTargets(outSchema));
+    dupRemoval.setGroupingColumns(outSchema.toArray());
+
+    block.registerNode(dupRemoval);
+    postHook(context, stack, null, dupRemoval);
+
+    projectionNode.setChild(dupRemoval);
+    projectionNode.setInSchema(dupRemoval.getOutSchema());
+  }
+
+  private Pair<String [], ExprNormalizer.WindowSpecReferences []> doProjectionPrephase(PlanContext context,
+                                                                                    Projection projection)
+      throws PlanningException {
+
+    QueryBlock block = context.queryBlock;
+
+    int finalTargetNum = projection.size();
+    String [] referenceNames = new String[finalTargetNum];
+    ExprNormalizedResult[] normalizedExprList = new ExprNormalizedResult[finalTargetNum];
+
+    List<ExprNormalizer.WindowSpecReferences> windowSpecReferencesList = TUtil.newList();
+
+    List<Integer> targetsIds = normalize(context, projection, normalizedExprList, new Matcher() {
+      @Override
+      public boolean isMatch(Expr expr) {
+        return ExprFinder.finds(expr, OpType.WindowFunction).size() == 0;
+      }
+    });
+
+    // Note: Why separate normalization and add(Named)Expr?
+    //
+    // ExprNormalizer internally makes use of the named exprs in NamedExprsManager.
+    // If we don't separate normalization work and addExprWithName, addExprWithName will find named exprs evaluated
+    // the same logical node. It will cause impossible evaluation in physical executors.
+    addNamedExprs(block, referenceNames, normalizedExprList, windowSpecReferencesList, projection, targetsIds);
+
+    targetsIds = normalize(context, projection, normalizedExprList, new Matcher() {
+      @Override
+      public boolean isMatch(Expr expr) {
+        return ExprFinder.finds(expr, OpType.WindowFunction).size() > 0;
+      }
+    });
+    addNamedExprs(block, referenceNames, normalizedExprList, windowSpecReferencesList, projection, targetsIds);
+
+    return new Pair<String[], ExprNormalizer.WindowSpecReferences []>(referenceNames,
+        windowSpecReferencesList.toArray(new ExprNormalizer.WindowSpecReferences[windowSpecReferencesList.size()]));
+  }
+
+  private interface Matcher {
+    public boolean isMatch(Expr expr);
+  }
+
+  public List<Integer> normalize(PlanContext context, Projection projection, ExprNormalizedResult [] normalizedExprList,
+                                 Matcher matcher) throws PlanningException {
+    List<Integer> targetIds = new ArrayList<Integer>();
+    for (int i = 0; i < projection.size(); i++) {
+      NamedExpr namedExpr = projection.getNamedExprs()[i];
+
+      if (PlannerUtil.existsAggregationFunction(namedExpr)) {
+        context.queryBlock.setAggregationRequire();
+      }
+
+      if (matcher.isMatch(namedExpr.getExpr())) {
+        // If a value is constant value, it adds the constant value with a proper name to the constant map
+        // of the current block
+        if (!namedExpr.hasAlias() && OpType.isLiteralType(namedExpr.getExpr().getType())) {
+          String generatedName = context.plan.generateUniqueColumnName(namedExpr.getExpr());
+          ConstEval constEval = (ConstEval) exprAnnotator.createEvalNode(context, namedExpr.getExpr(),
+              NameResolvingMode.RELS_ONLY);
+          context.getQueryBlock().addConstReference(generatedName, namedExpr.getExpr(), constEval);
+          normalizedExprList[i] = new ExprNormalizedResult(context, false);
+          normalizedExprList[i].baseExpr = new ColumnReferenceExpr(generatedName);
+
+        } else {
+          // dissect an expression into multiple parts (at most dissected into three parts)
+          normalizedExprList[i] = normalizer.normalize(context, namedExpr.getExpr());
+        }
+        targetIds.add(i);
+      }
+    }
+
+    return targetIds;
+  }
+
+  private void addNamedExprs(QueryBlock block, String [] referenceNames, ExprNormalizedResult [] normalizedExprList,
+                             List<ExprNormalizer.WindowSpecReferences> windowSpecReferencesList, Projection projection,
+                             List<Integer> targetIds) throws PlanningException {
+    for (int i : targetIds) {
+      NamedExpr namedExpr = projection.getNamedExprs()[i];
+      // Get all projecting references
+      if (namedExpr.hasAlias()) {
+        NamedExpr aliasedExpr = new NamedExpr(normalizedExprList[i].baseExpr, namedExpr.getAlias());
+        referenceNames[i] = block.namedExprsMgr.addNamedExpr(aliasedExpr);
+      } else {
+        referenceNames[i] = block.namedExprsMgr.addExpr(normalizedExprList[i].baseExpr);
+      }
+
+      // Add sub-expressions (i.e., aggregation part and scalar part) from dissected parts.
+      block.namedExprsMgr.addNamedExprArray(normalizedExprList[i].aggExprs);
+      block.namedExprsMgr.addNamedExprArray(normalizedExprList[i].scalarExprs);
+      block.namedExprsMgr.addNamedExprArray(normalizedExprList[i].windowAggExprs);
+
+      windowSpecReferencesList.addAll(normalizedExprList[i].windowSpecs);
+    }
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * It builds non-from statement (only expressions) like '<code>SELECT 1+3 as plus</code>'.
+   */
+  private EvalExprNode buildPlanForNoneFromStatement(PlanContext context, Stack<Expr> stack, Projection projection)
+      throws PlanningException {
+    LogicalPlan plan = context.plan;
+    QueryBlock block = context.queryBlock;
+
+    int finalTargetNum = projection.getNamedExprs().length;
+    Target [] targets = new Target[finalTargetNum];
+
+    for (int i = 0; i < targets.length; i++) {
+      NamedExpr namedExpr = projection.getNamedExprs()[i];
+      EvalNode evalNode = exprAnnotator.createEvalNode(context, namedExpr.getExpr(), NameResolvingMode.RELS_ONLY);
+      if (namedExpr.hasAlias()) {
+        targets[i] = new Target(evalNode, namedExpr.getAlias());
+      } else {
+        targets[i] = new Target(evalNode, context.plan.generateUniqueColumnName(namedExpr.getExpr()));
+      }
+    }
+    EvalExprNode evalExprNode = context.queryBlock.getNodeFromExpr(projection);
+    evalExprNode.setTargets(targets);
+    evalExprNode.setOutSchema(PlannerUtil.targetToSchema(targets));
+    // it's for debugging or unit testing
+    block.setRawTargets(targets);
+    return evalExprNode;
+  }
+
+  private Target [] buildTargets(PlanContext context, String[] referenceNames)
+      throws PlanningException {
+    QueryBlock block = context.queryBlock;
+
+    Target [] targets = new Target[referenceNames.length];
+
+    for (int i = 0; i < referenceNames.length; i++) {
+      String refName = referenceNames[i];
+      if (block.isConstReference(refName)) {
+        targets[i] = new Target(block.getConstByReference(refName), refName);
+      } else if (block.namedExprsMgr.isEvaluated(refName)) {
+        targets[i] = block.namedExprsMgr.getTarget(refName);
+      } else {
+        NamedExpr namedExpr = block.namedExprsMgr.getNamedExpr(refName);
+        EvalNode evalNode = exprAnnotator.createEvalNode(context, namedExpr.getExpr(),
+            NameResolvingMode.RELS_AND_SUBEXPRS);
+        block.namedExprsMgr.markAsEvaluated(refName, evalNode);
+        targets[i] = new Target(evalNode, refName);
+      }
+    }
+    return targets;
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * It checks if all targets of Projectable plan node can be evaluated from the child node.
+   * It can avoid potential errors which possibly occur in physical operators.
+   *
+   * @param block QueryBlock which includes the Projectable node
+   * @param projectable Projectable node to be valid
+   * @throws PlanningException
+   */
+  public static void verifyProjectedFields(QueryBlock block, Projectable projectable) throws PlanningException {
+    if (projectable instanceof GroupbyNode) {
+      GroupbyNode groupbyNode = (GroupbyNode) projectable;
+
+      if (!groupbyNode.isEmptyGrouping()) { // it should be targets instead of
+        int groupingKeyNum = groupbyNode.getGroupingColumns().length;
+
+        for (int i = 0; i < groupingKeyNum; i++) {
+          Target target = groupbyNode.getTargets()[i];
+          if (groupbyNode.getTargets()[i].getEvalTree().getType() == EvalType.FIELD) {
+            FieldEval grpKeyEvalNode = target.getEvalTree();
+            if (!groupbyNode.getInSchema().contains(grpKeyEvalNode.getColumnRef())) {
+              throwCannotEvaluateException(projectable, grpKeyEvalNode.getName());
+            }
+          }
+        }
+      }
+
+      if (groupbyNode.hasAggFunctions()) {
+        verifyIfEvalNodesCanBeEvaluated(projectable, groupbyNode.getAggFunctions());
+      }
+
+    } else if (projectable instanceof WindowAggNode) {
+      WindowAggNode windowAggNode = (WindowAggNode) projectable;
+
+      if (windowAggNode.hasPartitionKeys()) {
+        verifyIfColumnCanBeEvaluated(projectable.getInSchema(), projectable, windowAggNode.getPartitionKeys());
+      }
+
+      if (windowAggNode.hasAggFunctions()) {
+        verifyIfEvalNodesCanBeEvaluated(projectable, windowAggNode.getWindowFunctions());
+      }
+
+      if (windowAggNode.hasSortSpecs()) {
+        Column [] sortKeys = PlannerUtil.sortSpecsToSchema(windowAggNode.getSortSpecs()).toArray();
+        verifyIfColumnCanBeEvaluated(projectable.getInSchema(), projectable, sortKeys);
+      }
+
+      // verify targets except for function slots
+      for (int i = 0; i < windowAggNode.getTargets().length - windowAggNode.getWindowFunctions().length; i++) {
+        Target target = windowAggNode.getTargets()[i];
+        Set<Column> columns = EvalTreeUtil.findUniqueColumns(target.getEvalTree());
+        for (Column c : columns) {
+          if (!windowAggNode.getInSchema().contains(c)) {
+            throwCannotEvaluateException(projectable, c.getQualifiedName());
+          }
+        }
+      }
+
+    } else if (projectable instanceof RelationNode) {
+      RelationNode relationNode = (RelationNode) projectable;
+      verifyIfTargetsCanBeEvaluated(relationNode.getTableSchema(), (Projectable) relationNode);
+
+    } else {
+      verifyIfTargetsCanBeEvaluated(projectable.getInSchema(), projectable);
+    }
+  }
+
+  public static void verifyIfEvalNodesCanBeEvaluated(Projectable projectable, EvalNode[] evalNodes)
+      throws PlanningException {
+    for (EvalNode e : evalNodes) {
+      Set<Column> columns = EvalTreeUtil.findUniqueColumns(e);
+      for (Column c : columns) {
+        if (!projectable.getInSchema().contains(c)) {
+          throwCannotEvaluateException(projectable, c.getQualifiedName());
+        }
+      }
+    }
+  }
+
+  public static void verifyIfTargetsCanBeEvaluated(Schema baseSchema, Projectable projectable)
+      throws PlanningException {
+    for (Target target : projectable.getTargets()) {
+      Set<Column> columns = EvalTreeUtil.findUniqueColumns(target.getEvalTree());
+      for (Column c : columns) {
+        if (!baseSchema.contains(c)) {
+          throwCannotEvaluateException(projectable, c.getQualifiedName());
+        }
+      }
+    }
+  }
+
+  public static void verifyIfColumnCanBeEvaluated(Schema baseSchema, Projectable projectable, Column [] columns)
+      throws PlanningException {
+    for (Column c : columns) {
+      if (!baseSchema.contains(c)) {
+        throwCannotEvaluateException(projectable, c.getQualifiedName());
+      }
+    }
+  }
+
+  public static void throwCannotEvaluateException(Projectable projectable, String columnName) throws PlanningException {
+    if (projectable instanceof UnaryNode && ((UnaryNode) projectable).getChild().getType() == NodeType.GROUP_BY) {
+      throw new PlanningException(columnName
+          + " must appear in the GROUP BY clause or be used in an aggregate function at node ("
+          + projectable.getPID() + ")");
+    } else {
+      throw new PlanningException(String.format("Cannot evaluate the field \"%s\" at node (%d)",
+          columnName, projectable.getPID()));
+    }
+  }
+
+  private LogicalNode insertWindowAggNode(PlanContext context, LogicalNode child, Stack<Expr> stack,
+                                          String [] referenceNames,
+                                          ExprNormalizer.WindowSpecReferences [] windowSpecReferenceses)
+      throws PlanningException {
+    LogicalPlan plan = context.plan;
+    QueryBlock block = context.queryBlock;
+    WindowAggNode windowAggNode = context.plan.createNode(WindowAggNode.class);
+    if (child.getType() == NodeType.LIMIT) {
+      LimitNode limitNode = (LimitNode) child;
+      windowAggNode.setChild(limitNode.getChild());
+      windowAggNode.setInSchema(limitNode.getChild().getOutSchema());
+      limitNode.setChild(windowAggNode);
+    } else if (child.getType() == NodeType.SORT) {
+      SortNode sortNode = (SortNode) child;
+      windowAggNode.setChild(sortNode.getChild());
+      windowAggNode.setInSchema(sortNode.getChild().getOutSchema());
+      sortNode.setChild(windowAggNode);
+    } else {
+      windowAggNode.setChild(child);
+      windowAggNode.setInSchema(child.getOutSchema());
+    }
+
+    List<String> winFuncRefs = new ArrayList<String>();
+    List<WindowFunctionEval> winFuncs = new ArrayList<WindowFunctionEval>();
+    List<WindowSpec> rawWindowSpecs = Lists.newArrayList();
+    for (Iterator<NamedExpr> it = block.namedExprsMgr.getIteratorForUnevaluatedExprs(); it.hasNext();) {
+      NamedExpr rawTarget = it.next();
+      try {
+        EvalNode evalNode = exprAnnotator.createEvalNode(context, rawTarget.getExpr(),
+            NameResolvingMode.SUBEXPRS_AND_RELS);
+        if (evalNode.getType() == EvalType.WINDOW_FUNCTION) {
+          winFuncRefs.add(rawTarget.getAlias());
+          winFuncs.add((WindowFunctionEval) evalNode);
+          block.namedExprsMgr.markAsEvaluated(rawTarget.getAlias(), evalNode);
+
+          // TODO - Later, we also consider the possibility that a window function contains only a window name.
+          rawWindowSpecs.add(((WindowFunctionExpr) (rawTarget.getExpr())).getWindowSpec());
+        }
+      } catch (VerifyException ve) {
+      }
+    }
+
+    // we only consider one window definition.
+    if (windowSpecReferenceses[0].hasPartitionKeys()) {
+      Column [] partitionKeyColumns = new Column[windowSpecReferenceses[0].getPartitionKeys().length];
+      int i = 0;
+      for (String partitionKey : windowSpecReferenceses[0].getPartitionKeys()) {
+        if (block.namedExprsMgr.isEvaluated(partitionKey)) {
+          partitionKeyColumns[i++] = block.namedExprsMgr.getTarget(partitionKey).getNamedColumn();
+        } else {
+          throw new PlanningException("Each grouping column expression must be a scalar expression.");
+        }
+      }
+      windowAggNode.setPartitionKeys(partitionKeyColumns);
+    }
+
+    SortSpec [][] sortGroups = new SortSpec[rawWindowSpecs.size()][];
+
+    for (int winSpecIdx = 0; winSpecIdx < rawWindowSpecs.size(); winSpecIdx++) {
+      WindowSpec spec = rawWindowSpecs.get(winSpecIdx);
+      if (spec.hasOrderBy()) {
+        Sort.SortSpec [] sortSpecs = spec.getSortSpecs();
+        int sortNum = sortSpecs.length;
+        String [] sortKeyRefNames = windowSpecReferenceses[winSpecIdx].getOrderKeys();
+        SortSpec [] annotatedSortSpecs = new SortSpec[sortNum];
+
+        Column column;
+        for (int i = 0; i < sortNum; i++) {
+          if (block.namedExprsMgr.isEvaluated(sortKeyRefNames[i])) {
+            column = block.namedExprsMgr.getTarget(sortKeyRefNames[i]).getNamedColumn();
+          } else {
+            throw new IllegalStateException("Unexpected State: " + TUtil.arrayToString(sortSpecs));
+          }
+          annotatedSortSpecs[i] = new SortSpec(column, sortSpecs[i].isAscending(), sortSpecs[i].isNullFirst());
+        }
+
+        sortGroups[winSpecIdx] = annotatedSortSpecs;
+      } else {
+        sortGroups[winSpecIdx] = null;
+      }
+    }
+
+    for (int i = 0; i < winFuncRefs.size(); i++) {
+      WindowFunctionEval winFunc = winFuncs.get(i);
+      if (sortGroups[i] != null) {
+        winFunc.setSortSpecs(sortGroups[i]);
+      }
+    }
+
+    Target [] targets = new Target[referenceNames.length];
+    List<Integer> windowFuncIndices = Lists.newArrayList();
+    Projection projection = (Projection) stack.peek();
+    int windowFuncIdx = 0;
+    for (NamedExpr expr : projection.getNamedExprs()) {
+      if (expr.getExpr().getType() == OpType.WindowFunction) {
+        windowFuncIndices.add(windowFuncIdx);
+      }
+      windowFuncIdx++;
+    }
+    windowAggNode.setWindowFunctions(winFuncs.toArray(new WindowFunctionEval[winFuncs.size()]));
+
+    int targetIdx = 0;
+    for (int i = 0; i < referenceNames.length ; i++) {
+      if (!windowFuncIndices.contains(i)) {
+        if (block.isConstReference(referenceNames[i])) {
+          targets[targetIdx++] = new Target(block.getConstByReference(referenceNames[i]), referenceNames[i]);
+        } else {
+          targets[targetIdx++] = block.namedExprsMgr.getTarget(referenceNames[i]);
+        }
+      }
+    }
+    for (int i = 0; i < winFuncRefs.size(); i++) {
+      targets[targetIdx++] = block.namedExprsMgr.getTarget(winFuncRefs.get(i));
+    }
+    windowAggNode.setTargets(targets);
+    verifyProjectedFields(block, windowAggNode);
+
+    block.registerNode(windowAggNode);
+    postHook(context, stack, null, windowAggNode);
+
+    if (child.getType() == NodeType.LIMIT) {
+      LimitNode limitNode = (LimitNode) child;
+      limitNode.setInSchema(windowAggNode.getOutSchema());
+      limitNode.setOutSchema(windowAggNode.getOutSchema());
+      return null;
+    } else if (child.getType() == NodeType.SORT) {
+      SortNode sortNode = (SortNode) child;
+      sortNode.setInSchema(windowAggNode.getOutSchema());
+      sortNode.setOutSchema(windowAggNode.getOutSchema());
+      return null;
+    } else {
+      return windowAggNode;
+    }
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Insert a group-by operator before a sort or a projection operator.
+   * It is used only when a group-by clause is not given.
+   */
+  private LogicalNode insertGroupbyNode(PlanContext context, LogicalNode child, Stack<Expr> stack)
+      throws PlanningException {
+
+    LogicalPlan plan = context.plan;
+    QueryBlock block = context.queryBlock;
+    GroupbyNode groupbyNode = context.plan.createNode(GroupbyNode.class);
+    groupbyNode.setChild(child);
+    groupbyNode.setInSchema(child.getOutSchema());
+
+    groupbyNode.setGroupingColumns(new Column[] {});
+
+    Set<String> aggEvalNames = new LinkedHashSet<String>();
+    Set<AggregationFunctionCallEval> aggEvals = new LinkedHashSet<AggregationFunctionCallEval>();
+    boolean includeDistinctFunction = false;
+    for (Iterator<NamedExpr> it = block.namedExprsMgr.getIteratorForUnevaluatedExprs(); it.hasNext();) {
+      NamedExpr rawTarget = it.next();
+      try {
+        // check if at least distinct aggregation function
+        includeDistinctFunction |= PlannerUtil.existsDistinctAggregationFunction(rawTarget.getExpr());
+        EvalNode evalNode = exprAnnotator.createEvalNode(context, rawTarget.getExpr(),
+            NameResolvingMode.SUBEXPRS_AND_RELS);
+        if (evalNode.getType() == EvalType.AGG_FUNCTION) {
+          aggEvalNames.add(rawTarget.getAlias());
+          aggEvals.add((AggregationFunctionCallEval) evalNode);
+          block.namedExprsMgr.markAsEvaluated(rawTarget.getAlias(), evalNode);
+        }
+      } catch (VerifyException ve) {
+      }
+    }
+
+    groupbyNode.setDistinct(includeDistinctFunction);
+    groupbyNode.setAggFunctions(aggEvals.toArray(new AggregationFunctionCallEval[aggEvals.size()]));
+    Target [] targets = ProjectionPushDownRule.buildGroupByTarget(groupbyNode, null,
+        aggEvalNames.toArray(new String[aggEvalNames.size()]));
+    groupbyNode.setTargets(targets);
+
+    // this inserted group-by node doesn't pass through preprocessor. So manually added.
+    block.registerNode(groupbyNode);
+    postHook(context, stack, null, groupbyNode);
+
+    verifyProjectedFields(block, groupbyNode);
+    return groupbyNode;
+  }
+
+  /*===============================================================================================
+    SORT SECTION
+  ===============================================================================================*/
+  @Override
+  public LimitNode visitLimit(PlanContext context, Stack<Expr> stack, Limit limit) throws PlanningException {
+    QueryBlock block = context.queryBlock;
+
+    EvalNode firstFetNum;
+    LogicalNode child;
+    if (limit.getFetchFirstNum().getType() == OpType.Literal) {
+      firstFetNum = exprAnnotator.createEvalNode(context, limit.getFetchFirstNum(),
+          NameResolvingMode.RELS_ONLY);
+
+      ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
+      // Visit and Build Child Plan
+      ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
+      stack.push(limit);
+      child = visit(context, stack, limit.getChild());
+      stack.pop();
+      ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
+    } else {
+      ExprNormalizedResult normalizedResult = normalizer.normalize(context, limit.getFetchFirstNum());
+      String referName = block.namedExprsMgr.addExpr(normalizedResult.baseExpr);
+      block.namedExprsMgr.addNamedExprArray(normalizedResult.aggExprs);
+      block.namedExprsMgr.addNamedExprArray(normalizedResult.scalarExprs);
+
+      ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
+      // Visit and Build Child Plan
+      ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
+      stack.push(limit);
+      child = visit(context, stack, limit.getChild());
+      stack.pop();
+      ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
+
+      if (block.namedExprsMgr.isEvaluated(referName)) {
+        firstFetNum = block.namedExprsMgr.getTarget(referName).getEvalTree();
+      } else {
+        NamedExpr namedExpr = block.namedExprsMgr.getNamedExpr(referName);
+        firstFetNum = exprAnnotator.createEvalNode(context, namedExpr.getExpr(), NameResolvingMode.SUBEXPRS_AND_RELS);
+        block.namedExprsMgr.markAsEvaluated(referName, firstFetNum);
+      }
+    }
+    LimitNode limitNode = block.getNodeFromExpr(limit);
+    limitNode.setChild(child);
+    limitNode.setInSchema(child.getOutSchema());
+    limitNode.setOutSchema(child.getOutSchema());
+
+    limitNode.setFetchFirst(firstFetNum.eval(null, null).asInt8());
+
+    return limitNode;
+  }
+
+  @Override
+  public LogicalNode visitSort(PlanContext context, Stack<Expr> stack, Sort sort) throws PlanningException {
+    QueryBlock block = context.queryBlock;
+
+    int sortKeyNum = sort.getSortSpecs().length;
+    Sort.SortSpec[] sortSpecs = sort.getSortSpecs();
+    String [] referNames = new String[sortKeyNum];
+
+    ExprNormalizedResult [] normalizedExprList = new ExprNormalizedResult[sortKeyNum];
+    for (int i = 0; i < sortKeyNum; i++) {
+      normalizedExprList[i] = normalizer.normalize(context, sortSpecs[i].getKey());
+    }
+    for (int i = 0; i < sortKeyNum; i++) {
+      referNames[i] = block.namedExprsMgr.addExpr(normalizedExprList[i].baseExpr);
+      block.namedExprsMgr.addNamedExprArray(normalizedExprList[i].aggExprs);
+      block.namedExprsMgr.addNamedExprArray(normalizedExprList[i].scalarExprs);
+    }
+
+    ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
+    // Visit and Build Child Plan
+    ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
+    stack.push(sort);
+    LogicalNode child = visit(context, stack, sort.getChild());
+    if (block.isAggregationRequired()) {
+      child = insertGroupbyNode(context, child, stack);
+    }
+    stack.pop();
+    ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
+
+    SortNode sortNode = block.getNodeFromExpr(sort);
+    sortNode.setChild(child);
+    sortNode.setInSchema(child.getOutSchema());
+    sortNode.setOutSchema(child.getOutSchema());
+
+
+    // Building sort keys
+    Column column;
+    List<SortSpec> annotatedSortSpecs = Lists.newArrayList();
+    for (int i = 0; i < sortKeyNum; i++) {
+      String refName = referNames[i];
+      if (block.isConstReference(refName)) {
+        continue;
+      } else if (block.namedExprsMgr.isEvaluated(refName)) {
+        column = block.namedExprsMgr.getTarget(refName).getNamedColumn();
+      } else {
+        throw new IllegalStateException("Unexpected State: " + TUtil.arrayToString(sortSpecs));
+      }
+      annotatedSortSpecs.add(new SortSpec(column, sortSpecs[i].isAscending(), sortSpecs[i].isNullFirst()));
+    }
+
+    if (annotatedSortSpecs.size() == 0) {
+      return child;
+    } else {
+      sortNode.setSortSpecs(annotatedSortSpecs.toArray(new SortSpec[annotatedSortSpecs.size()]));
+      return sortNode;
+    }
+  }
+
+  /*===============================================================================================
+    GROUP BY SECTION
+   ===============================================================================================*/
+
+  @Override
+  public LogicalNode visitHaving(PlanContext context, Stack<Expr> stack, Having expr) throws PlanningException {
+    QueryBlock block = context.queryBlock;
+
+    ExprNormalizedResult normalizedResult = normalizer.normalize(context, expr.getQual());
+    String referName = block.namedExprsMgr.addExpr(normalizedResult.baseExpr);
+    block.namedExprsMgr.addNamedExprArray(normalizedResult.aggExprs);
+    block.namedExprsMgr.addNamedExprArray(normalizedResult.scalarExprs);
+
+    ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
+    // Visit and Build Child Plan
+    ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
+    stack.push(expr);
+    LogicalNode child = visit(context, stack, expr.getChild());
+    stack.pop();
+    ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
+
+    HavingNode having = context.queryBlock.getNodeFromExpr(expr);
+    having.setChild(child);
+    having.setInSchema(child.getOutSchema());
+    having.setOutSchema(child.getOutSchema());
+
+    EvalNode havingCondition;
+    if (block.namedExprsMgr.isEvaluated(referName)) {
+      havingCondition = block.namedExprsMgr.getTarget(referName).getEvalTree();
+    } else {
+      NamedExpr namedExpr = block.namedExprsMgr.getNamedExpr(referName);
+      havingCondition = exprAnnotator.createEvalNode(context, namedExpr.getExpr(),
+          NameResolvingMode.SUBEXPRS_AND_RELS);
+      block.namedExprsMgr.markAsEvaluated(referName, havingCondition);
+    }
+
+    // set having condition
+    having.setQual(havingCondition);
+
+    return having;
+  }
+
+  @Override
+  public LogicalNode visitGroupBy(PlanContext context, Stack<Expr> stack, Aggregation aggregation)
+      throws PlanningException {
+
+    // Initialization Phase:
+    LogicalPlan plan = context.plan;
+    QueryBlock block = context.queryBlock;
+
+    // Normalize grouping keys and add normalized grouping keys to NamedExprManager
+    int groupingKeyNum = aggregation.getGroupSet()[0].getGroupingSets().length;
+    ExprNormalizedResult [] normalizedResults = new ExprNormalizedResult[groupingKeyNum];
+    for (int i = 0; i < groupingKeyNum; i++) {
+      Expr groupingKey = aggregation.getGroupSet()[0].getGroupingSets()[i];
+      normalizedResults[i] = normalizer.normalize(context, groupingKey);
+    }
+
+    String [] groupingKeyRefNames = new String[groupingKeyNum];
+    for (int i = 0; i < groupingKeyNum; i++) {
+      groupingKeyRefNames[i] = block.namedExprsMgr.addExpr(normalizedResults[i].baseExpr);
+      block.namedExprsMgr.addNamedExprArray(normalizedResults[i].aggExprs);
+      block.namedExprsMgr.addNamedExprArray(normalizedResults[i].scalarExprs);
+    }
+
+    ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
+    // Visit and Build Child Plan
+    ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
+    stack.push(aggregation);
+    LogicalNode child = visit(context, stack, aggregation.getChild());
+    stack.pop();
+    ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
+    GroupbyNode groupingNode = context.queryBlock.getNodeFromExpr(aggregation);
+    groupingNode.setChild(child);
+    groupingNode.setInSchema(child.getOutSchema());
+
+    // Set grouping sets
+    List<Column> groupingColumns = Lists.newArrayList();
+    for (int i = 0; i < groupingKeyRefNames.length; i++) {
+      String refName = groupingKeyRefNames[i];
+      if (context.getQueryBlock().isConstReference(refName)) {
+        continue;
+      } else if (block.namedExprsMgr.isEvaluated(groupingKeyRefNames[i])) {
+        groupingColumns.add(block.namedExprsMgr.getTarget(groupingKeyRefNames[i]).getNamedColumn());
+      } else {
+        throw new PlanningException("Each grouping column expression must be a scalar expression.");
+      }
+    }
+
+    int effectiveGroupingKeyNum = groupingColumns.size();
+    groupingNode.setGroupingColumns(groupingColumns.toArray(new Column[effectiveGroupingKeyNum]));
+
+    ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
+    // Visit and Build Child Plan
+    ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
+
+    // create EvalNodes and check if each EvalNode can be evaluated here.
+    List<String> aggEvalNames = TUtil.newList();
+    List<AggregationFunctionCallEval> aggEvalNodes = TUtil.newList();
+    boolean includeDistinctFunction = false;
+    for (Iterator<NamedExpr> iterator = block.namedExprsMgr.getIteratorForUnevaluatedExprs(); iterator.hasNext();) {
+      NamedExpr namedExpr = iterator.next();
+      try {
+        includeDistinctFunction |= PlannerUtil.existsDistinctAggregationFunction(namedExpr.getExpr());
+        EvalNode evalNode = exprAnnotator.createEvalNode(context, namedExpr.getExpr(),
+            NameResolvingMode.SUBEXPRS_AND_RELS);
+        if (evalNode.getType() == EvalType.AGG_FUNCTION) {
+          block.namedExprsMgr.markAsEvaluated(namedExpr.getAlias(), evalNode);
+          aggEvalNames.add(namedExpr.getAlias());
+          aggEvalNodes.add((AggregationFunctionCallEval) evalNode);
+        }
+      } catch (VerifyException ve) {
+      }
+    }
+    // if there is at least one distinct aggregation function
+    groupingNode.setDistinct(includeDistinctFunction);
+    groupingNode.setAggFunctions(aggEvalNodes.toArray(new AggregationFunctionCallEval[aggEvalNodes.size()]));
+
+    Target [] targets = new Target[effectiveGroupingKeyNum + aggEvalNames.size()];
+
+    // In target, grouping columns will be followed by aggregation evals.
+    //
+    // col1, col2, col3,   sum(..),  agv(..)
+    // ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^    ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+    //  grouping keys      aggregation evals
+
+    // Build grouping keys
+    for (int i = 0; i < effectiveGroupingKeyNum; i++) {
+      Target target = block.namedExprsMgr.getTarget(groupingNode.getGroupingColumns()[i].getQualifiedName());
+      targets[i] = target;
+    }
+
+    for (int i = 0, targetIdx = effectiveGroupingKeyNum; i < aggEvalNodes.size(); i++, targetIdx++) {
+      targets[targetIdx] = block.namedExprsMgr.getTarget(aggEvalNames.get(i));
+    }
+
+    groupingNode.setTargets(targets);
+    block.unsetAggregationRequire();
+
+    verifyProjectedFields(block, groupingNode);
+    return groupingNode;
+  }
+
+  private static final Column[] ALL= Lists.newArrayList().toArray(new Column[0]);
+
+  public static List<Column[]> generateCuboids(Column[] columns) {
+    int numCuboids = (int) Math.pow(2, columns.length);
+    int maxBits = columns.length;
+
+    List<Column[]> cube = Lists.newArrayList();
+    List<Column> cuboidCols;
+
+    cube.add(ALL);
+    for (int cuboidId = 1; cuboidId < numCuboids; cuboidId++) {
+      cuboidCols = Lists.newArrayList();
+      for (int j = 0; j < maxBits; j++) {
+        int bit = 1 << j;
+        if ((cuboidId & bit) == bit) {
+          cuboidCols.add(columns[j]);
+        }
+      }
+      cube.add(cuboidCols.toArray(new Column[cuboidCols.size()]));
+    }
+    return cube;
+  }
+
+  @Override
+  public SelectionNode visitFilter(PlanContext context, Stack<Expr> stack, Selection selection)
+      throws PlanningException {
+    QueryBlock block = context.queryBlock;
+
+    ExprNormalizedResult normalizedResult = normalizer.normalize(context, selection.getQual());
+    block.namedExprsMgr.addExpr(normalizedResult.baseExpr);
+    if (normalizedResult.aggExprs.size() > 0 || normalizedResult.scalarExprs.size() > 0) {
+      throw new VerifyException("Filter condition cannot include aggregation function");
+    }
+
+    ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
+    // Visit and Build Child Plan
+    ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
+    stack.push(selection);
+    LogicalNode child = visit(context, stack, selection.getChild());
+    stack.pop();
+    ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
+
+    SelectionNode selectionNode = context.queryBlock.getNodeFromExpr(selection);
+    selectionNode.setChild(child);
+    selectionNode.setInSchema(child.getOutSchema());
+    selectionNode.setOutSchema(child.getOutSchema());
+
+    // Create EvalNode for a search condition.
+    EvalNode searchCondition = exprAnnotator.createEvalNode(context, selection.getQual(),
+        NameResolvingMode.RELS_AND_SUBEXPRS);
+    EvalNode simplified = context.evalOptimizer.optimize(context, searchCondition);
+    // set selection condition
+    selectionNode.setQual(simplified);
+
+    return selectionNode;
+  }
+
+  /*===============================================================================================
+    JOIN SECTION
+   ===============================================================================================*/
+
+  @Override
+  public LogicalNode visitJoin(PlanContext context, Stack<Expr> stack, Join join)
+      throws PlanningException {
+    // Phase 1: Init
+    LogicalPlan plan = context.plan;
+    QueryBlock block = context.queryBlock;
+
+    if (join.hasQual()) {
+      ExprNormalizedResult normalizedResult = normalizer.normalize(context, join.getQual(), true);
+      block.namedExprsMgr.addExpr(normalizedResult.baseExpr);
+      if (normalizedResult.aggExprs.size() > 0 || normalizedResult.scalarExprs.size() > 0) {
+        throw new VerifyException("Filter condition cannot include aggregation function");
+      }
+    }
+
+    ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
+    // Visit and Build Child Plan
+    ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
+    stack.push(join);
+    LogicalNode left = visit(context, stack, join.getLeft());
+    LogicalNode right = visit(context, stack, join.getRight());
+    stack.pop();
+    ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
+
+    JoinNode joinNode = context.queryBlock.getNodeFromExpr(join);
+    joinNode.setJoinType(join.getJoinType());
+    joinNode.setLeftChild(left);
+    joinNode.setRightChild(right);
+
+    // Set A merged input schema
+    Schema merged;
+    if (join.isNatural()) {
+      merged = getNaturalJoinSchema(left, right);
+    } else {
+      merged = SchemaUtil.merge(left.getOutSchema(), right.getOutSchema());
+    }
+    joinNode.setInSchema(merged);
+
+    // Create EvalNode for a search condition.
+    EvalNode joinCondition = null;
+    if (join.hasQual()) {
+      EvalNode evalNode = exprAnnotator.createEvalNode(context, join.getQual(), NameResolvingMode.LEGACY);
+      joinCondition = context.evalOptimizer.optimize(context, evalNode);
+    }
+
+    List<String> newlyEvaluatedExprs = getNewlyEvaluatedExprsForJoin(context, joinNode, stack);
+    List<Target> targets = TUtil.newList(PlannerUtil.schemaToTargets(merged));
+
+    for (String newAddedExpr : newlyEvaluatedExprs) {
+      targets.add(block.namedExprsMgr.getTarget(newAddedExpr, true));
+    }
+    joinNode.setTargets(targets.toArray(new Target[targets.size()]));
+
+    // Determine join conditions
+    if (join.isNatural()) { // if natural join, it should have the equi-join conditions by common column names
+      EvalNode njCond = getNaturalJoinCondition(joinNode);
+      joinNode.setJoinQual(njCond);
+    } else if (join.hasQual()) { // otherwise, the given join conditions are set
+      joinNode.setJoinQual(joinCondition);
+    }
+
+    return joinNode;
+  }
+
+  private List<String> getNewlyEvaluatedExprsForJoin(PlanContext context, JoinNode joinNode, Stack<Expr> stack) {
+    QueryBlock block = context.queryBlock;
+
+    EvalNode evalNode;
+    List<String> newlyEvaluatedExprs = TUtil.newList();
+    for (Iterator<NamedExpr> it = block.namedExprsMgr.getIteratorForUnevaluatedExprs(); it.hasNext();) {
+      NamedExpr namedExpr = it.next();
+      try {
+        evalNode = exprAnnotator.createEvalNode(context, namedExpr.getExpr(), NameResolvingMode.LEGACY);
+        if (LogicalPlanner.checkIfBeEvaluatedAtJoin(block, evalNode, joinNode, stack.peek().getType() != OpType.Join)) {
+          block.namedExprsMgr.markAsEvaluated(namedExpr.getAlias(), evalNode);
+          newlyEvaluatedExprs.add(namedExpr.getAlias());
+        }
+      } catch (VerifyException ve) {
+      } catch (PlanningException e) {
+      }
+    }
+    return newlyEvaluatedExprs;
+  }
+
+  private static Schema getNaturalJoinSchema(LogicalNode left, LogicalNode right) {
+    Schema joinSchema = new Schema();
+    Schema commons = SchemaUtil.getNaturalJoinColumns(left.getOutSchema(), right.getOutSchema());
+    joinSchema.addColumns(commons);
+    for (Column c : left.getOutSchema().getColumns()) {
+      if (!joinSchema.contains(c.getQualifiedName())) {
+        joinSchema.addColumn(c);
+      }
+    }
+
+    for (Column c : right.getOutSchema().getColumns()) {
+      if (!joinSchema.contains(c.getQualifiedName())) {
+        joinSchema.addColumn(c);
+      }
+    }
+    return joinSchema;
+  }
+
+  private static EvalNode getNaturalJoinCondition(JoinNode joinNode) {
+    Schema leftSchema = joinNode.getLeftChild().getInSchema();
+    Schema rightSchema = joinNode.getRightChild().getInSchema();
+    Schema commons = SchemaUtil.getNaturalJoinColumns(leftSchema, rightSchema);
+
+    EvalNode njQual = null;
+    EvalNode equiQual;
+    Column leftJoinKey;
+    Column rightJoinKey;
+
+    for (Column common : commons.getColumns()) {
+      leftJoinKey = leftSchema.getColumn(common.getQualifiedName());
+      rightJoinKey = rightSchema.getColumn(common.getQualifiedName());
+      equiQual = new BinaryEval(EvalType.EQUAL,
+          new FieldEval(leftJoinKey), new FieldEval(rightJoinKey));
+      if (njQual == null) {
+        njQual = equiQual;
+      } else {
+        njQual = new BinaryEval(EvalType.AND, njQual, equiQual);
+      }
+    }
+
+    return njQual;
+  }
+
+  private LogicalNode createCartesianProduct(PlanContext context, LogicalNode left, LogicalNode right)
+      throws PlanningException {
+    LogicalPlan plan = context.plan;
+    QueryBlock block = context.queryBlock;
+
+    Schema merged = SchemaUtil.merge(left.getOutSchema(), right.getOutSchema());
+    JoinNode join = plan.createNode(JoinNode.class);
+    join.init(JoinType.CROSS, left, right);
+    join.setInSchema(merged);
+
+    EvalNode evalNode;
+    List<String> newlyEvaluatedExprs = TUtil.newList();
+    for (Iterator<NamedExpr> it = block.namedExprsMgr.getIteratorForUnevaluatedExprs(); it.hasNext();) {
+      NamedExpr namedExpr = it.next();
+      try {
+        evalNode = exprAnnotator.createEvalNode(context, namedExpr.getExpr(), NameResolvingMode.LEGACY);
+        if (EvalTreeUtil.findDistinctAggFunction(evalNode).size() == 0) {
+          block.namedExprsMgr.markAsEvaluated(namedExpr.getAlias(), evalNode);
+          newlyEvaluatedExprs.add(namedExpr.getAlias());
+        }
+      } catch (VerifyException ve) {}
+    }
+
+    List<Target> targets = TUtil.newList(PlannerUtil.schemaToTargets(merged));
+    for (String newAddedExpr : newlyEvaluatedExprs) {
+      targets.add(block.namedExprsMgr.getTarget(newAddedExpr, true));
+    }
+    join.setTargets(targets.toArray(new Target[targets.size()]));
+    return join;
+  }
+
+  @Override
+  public LogicalNode visitRelationList(PlanContext context, Stack<Expr> stack, RelationList relations)
+      throws PlanningException {
+
+    LogicalNode current = visit(context, stack, relations.getRelations()[0]);
+
+    LogicalNode left;
+    LogicalNode right;
+    if (relations.size() > 1) {
+
+      for (int i = 1; i < relations.size(); i++) {
+        left = current;
+        right = visit(context, stack, relations.getRelations()[i]);
+        current = createCartesianProduct(context, left, right);
+      }
+    }
+    context.queryBlock.registerNode(current);
+
+    return current;
+  }
+
+  @Override
+  public ScanNode visitRelation(PlanContext context, Stack<Expr> stack, Relation expr)
+      throws PlanningException {
+    QueryBlock block = context.queryBlock;
+
+    ScanNode scanNode = block.getNodeFromExpr(expr);
+    updatePhysicalInfo(scanNode.getTableDesc());
+
+    // Find expression which can be evaluated at this relation node.
+    // Except for column references, additional expressions used in select list, where clause, order-by clauses
+    // can be evaluated here. Their reference names are kept in newlyEvaluatedExprsRef.
+    Set<String> newlyEvaluatedExprsReferences = new LinkedHashSet<String>();
+    for (Iterator<NamedExpr> iterator = block.namedExprsMgr.getIteratorForUnevaluatedExprs(); iterator.hasNext();) {
+      NamedExpr rawTarget = iterator.next();
+      try {
+        EvalNode evalNode = exprAnnotator.createEvalNode(context, rawTarget.getExpr(),
+            NameResolvingMode.RELS_ONLY);
+        if (checkIfBeEvaluatedAtRelation(block, evalNode, scanNode)) {
+          block.namedExprsMgr.markAsEvaluated(rawTarget.getAlias(), evalNode);
+          newlyEvaluatedExprsReferences.add(rawTarget.getAlias()); // newly added exr
+        }
+      } catch (VerifyException ve) {
+      }
+    }
+
+    // Assume that each unique expr is evaluated once.
+    LinkedHashSet<Target> targets = createFieldTargetsFromRelation(block, scanNode, newlyEvaluatedExprsReferences);
+
+    // The fact the some expr is included in newlyEvaluatedExprsReferences means that it is already evaluated.
+    // So, we get a raw expression and then creates a target.
+    for (String reference : newlyEvaluatedExprsReferences) {
+      NamedExpr refrer = block.namedExprsMgr.getNamedExpr(reference);
+      EvalNode evalNode = exprAnnotator.createEvalNode(context, refrer.getExpr(), NameResolvingMode.RELS_ONLY);
+      targets.add(new Target(evalNode, reference));
+    }
+
+    scanNode.setTargets(targets.toArray(new Target[targets.size()]));
+
+    verifyProjectedFields(block, scanNode);
+    return scanNode;
+  }
+
+  private static LinkedHashSet<Target> createFieldTargetsFromRelation(QueryBlock block, RelationNode relationNode,
+                                                      Set<String> newlyEvaluatedRefNames) {
+    LinkedHashSet<Target> targets = Sets.newLinkedHashSet();
+    for (Column column : relationNode.getTableSchema().getColumns()) {
+      String aliasName = block.namedExprsMgr.checkAndGetIfAliasedColumn(column.getQualifiedName());
+      if (aliasName != null) {
+        targets.add(new Target(new FieldEval(column), aliasName));
+        newlyEvaluatedRefNames.remove(aliasName);
+      } else {
+        targets.add(new Target(new FieldEval(column)));
+      }
+    }
+    return targets;
+  }
+
+  private void updatePhysicalInfo(TableDesc desc) {
+    if (desc.getPath() != null) {
+      try {
+        FileSystem fs = desc.getPath().getFileSystem(new Configuration());
+        FileStatus status = fs.getFileStatus(desc.getPath());
+        if (desc.getStats() != null && (status.isDirectory() || status.isFile())) {
+          ContentSummary summary = fs.getContentSummary(desc.getPath());
+          if (summary != null) {
+            long volume = summary.getLength();
+            desc.getStats().setNumBytes(volume);
+          }
+        }
+      } catch (Throwable t) {
+        LOG.warn(t);
+      }
+    }
+  }
+
+  public TableSubQueryNode visitTableSubQuery(PlanContext context, Stack<Expr> stack, TablePrimarySubQuery expr)
+      throws PlanningException {
+    QueryBlock block = context.queryBlock;
+
+    QueryBlock childBlock = context.plan.getBlock(context.plan.getBlockNameByExpr(expr.getSubQuery()));
+    PlanContext newContext = new PlanContext(context, childBlock);
+    LogicalNode child = visit(newContext, new Stack<Expr>(), expr.getSubQuery());
+    TableSubQueryNode subQueryNode = context.queryBlock.getNodeFromExpr(expr);
+    context.plan.connectBlocks(childBlock, context.queryBlock, BlockType.TableSubQuery);
+    subQueryNode.setSubQuery(child);
+
+    // Add additional expressions required in upper nodes.
+    Set<String> newlyEvaluatedExprs = TUtil.newHashSet();
+    for (NamedExpr rawTarget : block.namedExprsMgr.getAllNamedExprs()) {
+      try {
+        EvalNode evalNode = exprAnnotator.createEvalNode(context, rawTarget.getExpr(),
+            NameResolvingMode.RELS_ONLY);
+        if (checkIfBeEvaluatedAtRelation(block, evalNode, subQueryNode)) {
+          block.namedExprsMgr.markAsEvaluated(rawTarget.getAlias(), evalNode);
+          newlyEvaluatedExprs.add(rawTarget.getAlias()); // newly added exr
+        }
+      } catch (VerifyException ve) {
+      }
+    }
+
+    // Assume that each unique expr is evaluated once.
+    LinkedHashSet<Target> targets = createFieldTargetsFromRelation(block, subQueryNode, newlyEvaluatedExprs);
+
+    for (String newAddedExpr : newlyEvaluatedExprs) {
+      targets.add(block.namedExprsMgr.getTarget(newAddedExpr, true));
+    }
+
+    subQueryNode.setTargets(targets.toArray(new Target[targets.size()]));
+
+    return subQueryNode;
+  }
+
+    /*===============================================================================================
+    SET OPERATION SECTION
+   ===============================================================================================*/
+
+  @Override
+  public LogicalNode visitUnion(PlanContext context, Stack<Expr> stack, SetOperation setOperation)
+      throws PlanningException {
+    return buildSetPlan(context, stack, setOperation);
+  }
+
+  @Override
+  public LogicalNode visitExcept(PlanContext context, Stack<Expr> stack, SetOperation setOperation)
+      throws PlanningException {
+    return buildSetPlan(context, stack, setOperation);
+  }
+
+  @Override
+  public LogicalNode visitIntersect(PlanContext context, Stack<Expr> stack, SetOperation setOperation)
+      throws PlanningException {
+    return buildSetPlan(context, stack, setOperation);
+  }
+
+  private LogicalNode buildSetPlan(PlanContext context, Stack<Expr> stack, SetOperation setOperation)
+      throws PlanningException {
+
+    // 1. Init Phase
+    LogicalPlan plan = context.plan;
+    QueryBlock block = context.queryBlock;
+
+    ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
+    // Visit and Build Left Child Plan
+    ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
+    QueryBlock leftBlock = context.plan.getBlockByExpr(setOperation.getLeft());
+    PlanContext leftContext = new PlanContext(context, leftBlock);
+    stack.push(setOperation);
+    LogicalNode leftChild = visit(leftContext, new Stack<Expr>(), setOperation.getLeft());
+    stack.pop();
+    // Connect left child and current blocks
+    context.plan.connectBlocks(leftContext.queryBlock, context.queryBlock, BlockType.TableSubQuery);
+
+    ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
+    // Visit and Build Right Child Plan
+    ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
+    QueryBlock rightBlock = context.plan.getBlockByExpr(setOperation.getRight());
+    PlanContext rightContext = new PlanContext(context, rightBlock);
+    stack.push(setOperation);
+    LogicalNode rightChild = visit(rightContext, new Stack<Expr>(), setOperation.getRight());
+    stack.pop();
+    // Connect right child and current blocks
+    context.plan.connectBlocks(rightContext.queryBlock, context.queryBlock, BlockType.TableSubQuery);
+
+    BinaryNode setOp;
+    if (setOperation.getType() == OpType.Union) {
+      setOp = block.getNodeFromExpr(setOperation);
+    } else if (setOperation.getType() == OpType.Except) {
+      setOp = block.getNodeFromExpr(setOperation);
+    } else if (setOperation.getType() == OpType.Intersect) {
+      setOp = block.getNodeFromExpr(setOperation);
+    } else {
+      throw new VerifyException("Invalid Type: " + setOperation.getType());
+    }
+    setOp.setLeftChild(leftChild);
+    setOp.setRightChild(rightChild);
+
+    // An union statement can be derived from two query blocks.
+    // For one union statement between both relations, we can ensure that each corresponding data domain of both
+    // relations are the same. However, if necessary, the schema of left query block will be used as a base schema.
+    Target [] leftStrippedTargets = PlannerUtil.stripTarget(
+        PlannerUtil.schemaToTargets(leftBlock.getRoot().getOutSchema()));
+
+    setOp.setInSchema(leftChild.getOutSchema());
+    Schema outSchema = PlannerUtil.targetToSchema(leftStrippedTargets);
+    setOp.setOutSchema(outSchema);
+
+    return setOp;
+  }
+
+  /*===============================================================================================
+    INSERT SECTION
+   ===============================================================================================*/
+
+  public LogicalNode visitInsert(PlanContext context, Stack<Expr> stack, Insert expr) throws PlanningException {
+    stack.push(expr);
+    LogicalNode subQuery = super.visitInsert(context, stack, expr);
+    stack.pop();
+
+    InsertNode insertNode = context.queryBlock.getNodeFromExpr(expr);
+    insertNode.setOverwrite(expr.isOverwrite());
+    insertNode.setSubQuery(subQuery);
+
+    if (expr.hasTableName()) { // INSERT (OVERWRITE) INTO TABLE ...
+      return buildInsertIntoTablePlan(context, insertNode, expr);
+    } else if (expr.hasLocation()) { // INSERT (OVERWRITE) INTO LOCATION ...
+      return buildInsertIntoLocationPlan(context, insertNode, expr);
+    } else {
+      throw new IllegalStateException("Invalid Query");
+    }
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Builds a InsertNode with a target table.
+   *
+   * ex) INSERT OVERWRITE INTO TABLE ...
+   * <br />
+   *
+   * We use the following terms, such target table, target column
+   * <pre>
+   * INSERT INTO    [DATABASE_NAME.]TB_NAME        (col1, col2)          SELECT    c1,   c2        FROM ...
+   *                 ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^        ^^^^^^^^^^^^                  ^^^^^^^^^^^^
+   *               target database target table  target columns (or schema)     projected columns (or schema)
+   * </pre>
+   */
+  private InsertNode buildInsertIntoTablePlan(PlanContext context, InsertNode insertNode, Insert expr)
+      throws PlanningException {
+    // Get and set a target table
+    String databaseName;
+    String tableName;
+    if (CatalogUtil.isFQTableName(expr.getTableName())) {
+      databaseName = CatalogUtil.extractQualifier(expr.getTableName());
+      tableName = CatalogUtil.extractSimpleName(expr.getTableName());
+    } else {
+      databaseName = context.queryContext.get(SessionVars.CURRENT_DATABASE);
+      tableName = expr.getTableName();
+    }
+    TableDesc desc = catalog.getTableDesc(databaseName, tableName);
+    insertNode.setTargetTable(desc);
+
+    //
+    // When we use 'INSERT (OVERWIRTE) INTO TABLE statements, there are two cases.
+    //
+    // First, when a user specified target columns
+    // INSERT (OVERWRITE)? INTO table_name (col1 type, col2 type) SELECT ...
+    //
+    // Second, when a user do not specified target columns
+    // INSERT (OVERWRITE)? INTO table_name SELECT ...
+    //
+    // In the former case is, target columns' schema and corresponding projected columns' schema
+    // must be equivalent or be available to cast implicitly.
+    //
+    // In the later case, the target table's schema and projected column's
+    // schema of select clause can be different to each other. In this case,
+    // we use only a sequence of preceding columns of target table's schema
+    // as target columns.
+    //
+    // For example, consider a target table and an 'insert into' query are give as follows:
+    //
+    // CREATE TABLE TB1                  (col1 int,  col2 int, col3 long);
+    //                                      ||          ||
+    // INSERT OVERWRITE INTO TB1 SELECT  order_key,  part_num               FROM ...
+    //
+    // In this example, only col1 and col2 are used as target columns.
+
+    if (expr.hasTargetColumns()) { // when a user specified target columns
+
+      if (expr.getTargetColumns().length > insertNode.getChild().getOutSchema().size()) {
+        throw new PlanningException("Target columns and projected columns are mismatched to each other");
+      }
+
+      // See PreLogicalPlanVerifier.visitInsert.
+      // It guarantees that the equivalence between the numbers of target and projected columns.
+      String [] targets = expr.getTargetColumns();
+      Schema targetColumns = new Schema();
+      for (int i = 0; i < targets.length; i++) {
+        Column targetColumn = desc.getLogicalSchema().getColumn(targets[i]);
+        targetColumns.addColumn(targetColumn);
+      }
+      insertNode.setTargetSchema(targetColumns);
+      insertNode.setOutSchema(targetColumns);
+      buildProjectedInsert(context, insertNode);
+
+    } else { // when a user do not specified target columns
+
+      // The output schema of select clause determines the target columns.
+      Schema tableSchema = desc.getLogicalSchema();
+      Schema projectedSchema = insertNode.getChild().getOutSchema();
+
+      Schema targetColumns = new Schema();
+      for (int i = 0; i < projectedSchema.size(); i++) {
+        targetColumns.addColumn(tableSchema.getColumn(i));
+      }
+      insertNode.setTargetSchema(targetColumns);
+      buildProjectedInsert(context, insertNode);
+    }
+
+    if (desc.hasPartition()) {
+      insertNode.setPartitionMethod(desc.getPartitionMethod());
+    }
+    return insertNode;
+  }
+
+  private void buildProjectedInsert(PlanContext context, InsertNode insertNode) {
+    Schema tableSchema = insertNode.getTableSchema();
+    Schema targetColumns = insertNode.getTargetSchema();
+
+    LogicalNode child = insertNode.getChild();
+
+    if (child.getType() == NodeType.UNION) {
+      child = makeProjectionForInsertUnion(context, insertNode);
+    }
+
+    if (child instanceof Projectable) {
+      Projectable projectionNode = (Projectable) insertNode.getChild();
+
+      // Modifying projected columns by adding NULL constants
+      // It is because that table appender does not support target columns to be written.
+      List<Target> targets = TUtil.newList();
+      for (int i = 0, j = 0; i < tableSchema.size(); i++) {
+        Column column = tableSchema.getColumn(i);
+
+        if(targetColumns.contains(column) && j < projectionNode.getTargets().length) {
+          targets.add(projectionNode.getTargets()[j++]);
+        } else {
+          targets.add(new Target(new ConstEval(NullDatum.get()), column.getSimpleName()));
+        }
+      }
+      projectionNode.setTargets(targets.toArray(new Target[targets.size()]));
+
+      insertNode.setInSchema(projectionNode.getOutSchema());
+      insertNode.setOutSchema(projectionNode.getOutSchema());
+      insertNode.setProjectedSchema(PlannerUtil.targetToSchema(targets));
+    } else {
+      throw new RuntimeException("Wrong child node type: " +  child.getType() + " for insert");
+    }
+  }
+
+  private ProjectionNode makeProjectionForInsertUnion(PlanContext context, InsertNode insertNode) {
+    LogicalNode child = insertNode.getChild();
+    // add (projection - subquery) to RootBlock and create new QueryBlock for UnionNode
+    TableSubQueryNode subQueryNode = context.plan.createNode(TableSubQueryNode.class);
+    subQueryNode.init(context.queryBlock.getName(), child);
+    subQueryNode.setTargets(PlannerUtil.schemaToTargets(subQueryNode.getOutSchema()));
+
+    ProjectionNode projectionNode = context.plan.createNode(ProjectionNode.class);
+    projectionNode.setChild(subQueryNode);
+    projectionNode.setInSchema(subQueryNode.getInSchema());
+    projectionNode.setTargets(subQueryNode.getTargets());
+
+    context.queryBlock.registerNode(projectionNode);
+    context.queryBlock.registerNode(subQueryNode);
+
+    // add child QueryBlock to the UnionNode's QueryBlock
+    UnionNode unionNode = (UnionNode)child;
+    context.queryBlock.unregisterNode(unionNode);
+
+    QueryBlock unionBlock = context.plan.newQueryBlock();
+    unionBlock.registerNode(unionNode);
+    unionBlock.setRoot(unionNode);
+
+    QueryBlock leftBlock = context.plan.getBlock(unionNode.getLeftChild());
+    QueryBlock rightBlock = context.plan.getBlock(unionNode.getRightChild());
+
+    context.plan.disconnectBlocks(leftBlock, context.queryBlock);
+    context.plan.disconnectBlocks(rightBlock, context.queryBlock);
+
+    context.plan.connectBlocks(unionBlock, context.queryBlock, BlockType.TableSubQuery);
+    context.plan.connectBlocks(leftBlock, unionBlock, BlockType.TableSubQuery);
+    context.plan.connectBlocks(rightBlock, unionBlock, BlockType.TableSubQuery);
+
+    // set InsertNode's child with ProjectionNode which is created.
+    insertNode.setChild(projectionNode);
+
+    return projectionNode;
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Build a InsertNode with a location.
+   *
+   * ex) INSERT OVERWRITE INTO LOCATION 'hdfs://....' ..
+   */
+  private InsertNode buildInsertIntoLocationPlan(PlanContext context, InsertNode insertNode, Insert expr) {
+    // INSERT (OVERWRITE)? INTO LOCATION path (USING file_type (param_clause)?)? query_expression
+
+    LogicalNode child = insertNode.getChild();
+
+    if (child.getType() == NodeType.UNION) {
+      child = makeProjectionForInsertUnion(context, insertNode);
+    }
+
+    Schema childSchema = child.getOutSchema();
+    insertNode.setInSchema(childSchema);
+    insertNode.setOutSchema(childSchema);
+    insertNode.setTableSchema(childSchema);
+    insertNode.setTargetLocation(new Path(expr.getLocation()));
+
+    if (expr.hasStorageType()) {
+      insertNode.setStorageType(CatalogUtil.getStoreType(expr.getStorageType()));
+    }
+    if (expr.hasParams()) {
+      KeyValueSet options = new KeyValueSet();
+      options.putAll(expr.getParams());
+      insertNode.setOptions(options);
+    }
+    return insertNode;
+  }
+
+  /*===============================================================================================
+    Data Definition Language (DDL) SECTION
+   ===============================================================================================*/
+
+  @Override
+  public LogicalNode visitCreateDatabase(PlanContext context, Stack<Expr> stack, CreateDatabase expr)
+      throws PlanningException {
+    CreateDatabaseNode createDatabaseNode = context.queryBlock.getNodeFromExpr(expr);
+    createDatabaseNode.init(expr.getDatabaseName(), expr.isIfNotExists());
+    return createDatabaseNode;
+  }
+
+  @Override
+  public LogicalNode visitDropDatabase(PlanContext context, Stack<Expr> stack, DropDatabase expr)
+      throws PlanningException {
+    DropDatabaseNode dropDatabaseNode = context.queryBlock.getNodeFromExpr(expr);
+    dropDatabaseNode.init(expr.getDatabaseName(), expr.isIfExists());
+    return dropDatabaseNode;
+  }
+
+  public LogicalNode handleCreateTableLike(PlanContext context, CreateTable expr, CreateTableNode createTableNode)
+    throws PlanningException {
+    String parentTableName = expr.getLikeParentTableName();
+
+    if (CatalogUtil.isFQTableName(parentTableName) == false) {
+      parentTableName = CatalogUtil.buildFQName(context.queryContext.get(SessionVars.CURRENT_DATABASE),
+          parentTableName);
+    }
+    TableDesc parentTableDesc = catalog.getTableDesc(parentTableName);
+    if(parentTableDesc == null)
+      throw new PlanningException("Table '"+parentTableName+"' does not exist");
+    PartitionMethodDesc partitionDesc = parentTableDesc.getPartitionMethod();
+    createTableNode.setTableSchema(parentTableDesc.getSchema());
+    createTableNode.setPartitionMethod(partitionDesc);
+
+    createTableNode.setStorageType(parentTableDesc.getMeta().getStoreType());
+    createTableNode.setOptions(parentTableDesc.getMeta().getOptions());
+
+    createTableNode.setExternal(parentTableDesc.isExternal());
+    if(parentTableDesc.isExternal()) {
+      createTableNode.setPath(parentTableDesc.getPath());
+    }
+    return createTableNode;
+  }
+
+  @Override
+  public LogicalNode visitCreateTable(PlanContext context, Stack<Expr> stack, CreateTable expr)
+      throws PlanningException {
+
+    CreateTableNode createTableNode = context.queryBlock.getNodeFromExpr(expr);
+    createTableNode.setIfNotExists(expr.isIfNotExists());
+
+    // Set a table name to be created.
+    if (CatalogUtil.isFQTableName(expr.getTableName())) {
+      createTableNode.setTableName(expr.getTableName());
+    } else {
+      createTableNode.setTableName(
+          CatalogUtil.buildFQName(context.queryContext.get(SessionVars.CURRENT_DATABASE), expr.getTableName()));
+    }
+    // This is CREATE TABLE <tablename> LIKE <parentTable>
+    if(expr.getLikeParentTableName() != null)
+      return handleCreateTableLike(context, expr, createTableNode);
+
+    if (expr.hasStorageType()) { // If storage type (using clause) is specified
+      createTableNode.setStorageType(CatalogUtil.getStoreType(expr.getStorageType()));
+    } else { // otherwise, default type
+      createTableNode.setStorageType(CatalogProtos.StoreType.CSV);
+    }
+
+    // Set default storage properties to be created.
+    KeyValueSet keyValueSet = CatalogUtil.newPhysicalProperties(createTableNode.getStorageType());
+    if (expr.hasParams()) {
+      keyValueSet.putAll(expr.getParams());
+    }
+
+    createTableNode.setOptions(keyValueSet);
+
+    if (expr.hasPartition()) {
+      if (expr.getPartitionMethod().getPartitionType().equals(PartitionType.COLUMN)) {
+        createTableNode.setPartitionMethod(getPartitionMethod(context, expr.getTableName(), expr.getPartitionMethod()));
+      } else {
+        throw new PlanningException(String.format("Not supported PartitonType: %s",
+            expr.getPartitionMethod().getPartitionType()));
+      }
+    }
+
+    if (expr.hasSubQuery()) { // CREATE TABLE .. AS SELECT
+      stack.add(expr);
+      LogicalNode subQuery = visit(context, stack, expr.getSubQuery());
+      stack.pop();
+      createTableNode.setChild(subQuery);
+      createTableNode.setInSchema(subQuery.getOutSchema());
+
+      // If the table schema is defined
+      // ex) CREATE TABLE tbl(col1 type, col2 type) AS SELECT ...
+      if (expr.hasTableElements()) {
+        createTableNode.setOutSchema(convertTableElementsSchema(expr.getTableElements()));
+        createTableNode.setTableSchema(convertTableElementsSchema(expr.getTableElements()));
+      } else {
+        // if no table definition, the select clause's output schema will be used.
+        // ex) CREATE TABLE tbl AS SELECT ...
+
+        if (expr.hasPartition()) {
+          PartitionMethodDesc partitionMethod = createTableNode.getPartitionMethod();
+
+          Schema queryOutputSchema = subQuery.getOutSchema();
+          Schema partitionExpressionSchema = partitionMethod.getExpressionSchema();
+          if (partitionMethod.getPartitionType() == CatalogProtos.PartitionType.COLUMN &&
+              queryOutputSchema.size() < partitionExpressionSchema.size()) {
+            throw new VerifyException("Partition columns cannot be more than table columns.");
+          }
+          Schema tableSchema = new Schema();
+          for (int i = 0; i < queryOutputSchema.size() - partitionExpressionSchema.size(); i++) {
+            tableSchema.addColumn(queryOutputSchema.getColumn(i));
+          }
+          createTableNode.setOutSchema(tableSchema);
+          createTableNode.setTableSchema(tableSchema);
+        } else {
+          // Convert the schema of subquery into the target table's one.
+          Schema schema = new Schema(subQuery.getOutSchema());
+          schema.setQualifier(createTableNode.getTableName());
+          createTableNode.setOutSchema(schema);
+          createTableNode.setTableSchema(schema);
+        }
+      }
+
+      return createTableNode;
+
+    } else { // if CREATE AN EMPTY TABLE
+      Schema tableSchema = convertColumnsToSchema(expr.getTableElements());
+      createTableNode.setTableSchema(tableSchema);
+
+      if (expr.isExternal()) {
+        createTableNode.setExternal(true);
+      }
+
+      if (expr.hasLocation()) {
+        createTableNode.setPath(new Path(expr.getLocation()));
+      }
+
+      return createTableNode;
+    }
+  }
+
+  private PartitionMethodDesc getPartitionMethod(PlanContext context,
+                                                 String tableName,
+                                                 CreateTable.PartitionMethodDescExpr expr) throws PlanningException {
+    PartitionMethodDesc partitionMethodDesc;
+
+    if(expr.getPartitionType() == PartitionType.COLUMN) {
+      CreateTable.ColumnPartition partition = (CreateTable.ColumnPartition) expr;
+      String partitionExpression = Joiner.on(',').join(partition.getColumns());
+
+      partitionMethodDesc = new PartitionMethodDesc(context.queryContext.get(SessionVars.CURRENT_DATABASE), tableName,
+          CatalogProtos.PartitionType.COLUMN, partitionExpression, convertColumnsToSchema(partition.getColumns()));
+    } else {
+      throw new PlanningException(String.format("Not supported PartitonType: %s", expr.getPartitionType()));
+    }
+    return partitionMethodDesc;
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * It transforms table definition elements to schema.
+   *
+   * @param elements to be transformed
+   * @return schema transformed from table definition elements
+   */
+  private Schema convertColumnsToSchema(ColumnDefinition[] elements) {
+    Schema schema = new Schema();
+
+    for (ColumnDefinition columnDefinition: elements) {
+      schema.addColumn(convertColumn(columnDefinition));
+    }
+
+    return schema;
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * It transforms table definition elements to schema.
+   *
+   * @param elements to be transformed
+   * @return schema transformed from table definition elements
+   */
+  private Schema convertTableElementsSchema(ColumnDefinition[] elements) {
+    Schema schema = new Schema();
+
+    for (ColumnDefinition columnDefinition: elements) {
+      schema.addColumn(convertColumn(columnDefinition));
+    }
+
+    return schema;
+  }
+
+  private Column convertColumn(ColumnDefinition columnDefinition) {
+    return new Column(columnDefinition.getColumnName(), convertDataType(columnDefinition));
+  }
+
+  public static TajoDataTypes.DataType convertDataType(DataTypeExpr dataType) {
+    TajoDataTypes.Type type = TajoDataTypes.Type.valueOf(dataType.getTypeName());
+
+    TajoDataTypes.DataType.Builder builder = TajoDataTypes.DataType.newBuilder();
+    builder.setType(type);
+    if (dataType.hasLengthOrPrecision()) {
+      builder.setLength(dataType.getLengthOrPrecision());
+    }
+    return builder.build();
+  }
+
+
+  @Override
+  public LogicalNode visitDropTable(PlanContext context, Stack<Expr> stack, DropTable dropTable) {
+    DropTableNode dropTableNode = context.queryBlock.getNodeFromExpr(dropTable);
+    String qualified;
+    if (CatalogUtil.isFQTableName(dropTable.getTableName())) {
+      qualified = dropTable.getTableName();
+    } else {
+      qualified = CatalogUtil.buildFQName(
+          context.queryContext.get(SessionVars.CURRENT_DATABASE), dropTable.getTableName());
+    }
+    dropTableNode.init(qualified, dropTable.isIfExists(), dropTable.isPurge());
+    return dropTableNode;
+  }
+
+  public LogicalNode visitAlterTablespace(PlanContext context, Stack<Expr> stack, AlterTablespace alterTablespace) {
+    AlterTablespaceNode alter = context.queryBlock.getNodeFromExpr(alterTablespace);
+    alter.setTablespaceName(alterTablespace.getTablespaceName());
+    alter.setLocation(alterTablespace.getLocation());
+    return alter;
+  }
+
+  @Override
+  public LogicalNode visitAlterTable(PlanContext context, Stack<Expr> stack, AlterTable alterTable) {
+    AlterTableNode alterTableNode = context.queryBlock.getNodeFromExpr(alterTable);
+    alterTableNode.setTableName(alterTable.getTableName());
+    alterTableNode.setNewTableName(alterTable.getNewTableName());
+    alterTableNode.setColumnName(alterTable.getColumnName());
+    alterTableNode.setNewColumnName(alterTable.getNewColumnName());
+
+    if (null != alterTable.getAddNewColumn()) {
+      alterTableNode.setAddNewColumn(convertColumn(alterTable.getAddNewColumn()));
+    }
+    alterTableNode.setAlterTableOpType(alterTable.getAlterTableOpType());
+    return alterTableNode;
+  }
+
+  @Override
+  public LogicalNode visitTruncateTable(PlanContext context, Stack<Expr> stack, TruncateTable truncateTable)
+      throws PlanningException {
+    TruncateTableNode truncateTableNode = context.queryBlock.getNodeFromExpr(truncateTable);
+    truncateTableNode.setTableNames(truncateTable.getTableNames());
+    return truncateTableNode;
+  }
+
+  /*===============================================================================================
+    Util SECTION
+  ===============================================================================================*/
+
+  public static boolean checkIfBeEvaluatedAtWindowAgg(EvalNode evalNode, WindowAggNode node) {
+    Set<Column> columnRefs = EvalTreeUtil.findUniqueColumns(evalNode);
+
+    if (columnRefs.size() > 0 && !node.getInSchema().containsAll(columnRefs)) {
+      return false;
+    }
+
+    if (EvalTreeUtil.findDistinctAggFunction(evalNode).size() > 0) {
+      return false;
+    }
+
+    return true;
+  }
+
+  public static boolean checkIfBeEvaluatedAtGroupBy(EvalNode evalNode, GroupbyNode node) {
+    Set<Column> columnRefs = EvalTreeUtil.findUniqueColumns(evalNode);
+
+    if (columnRefs.size() > 0 && !node.getInSchema().containsAll(columnRefs)) {
+      return false;
+    }
+
+    if (EvalTreeUtil.findEvalsByType(evalNode, EvalType.WINDOW_FUNCTION).size() > 0) {
+      return false;
+    }
+
+    return true;
+  }
+
+  public static boolean checkIfBeEvaluatedAtJoin(QueryBlock block, EvalNode evalNode, JoinNode node,
+                                                 boolean isTopMostJoin) {
+    Set<Column> columnRefs = EvalTreeUtil.findUniqueColumns(evalNode);
+
+    if (EvalTreeUtil.findDistinctAggFunction(evalNode).size() > 0) {
+      return false;
+    }
+
+    if (EvalTreeUtil.findEvalsByType(evalNode, EvalType.WINDOW_FUNCTION).size() > 0) {
+      return false;
+    }
+
+    if (columnRefs.size() > 0 && !node.getInSchema().containsAll(columnRefs)) {
+      return false;
+    }
+
+    // When a 'case-when' is used with outer join, the case-when expression must be evaluated
+    // at the topmost join operator.
+    // TODO - It's also valid that case-when is evalauted at the topmost outer operator.
+    //        But, how can we know there is no further outer join operator after this node?
+    if (containsOuterJoin(block)) {
+      if (!isTopMostJoin) {
+        Collection<EvalNode> found = EvalTreeUtil.findOuterJoinSensitiveEvals(evalNode);
+        if (found.size() > 0) {
+          return false;
+        }
+      }
+    }
+
+    return true;
+  }
+
+  public static boolean isOuterJoin(JoinType joinType) {
+    return joinType == JoinType.LEFT_OUTER || joinType == JoinType.RIGHT_OUTER || joinType==JoinType.FULL_OUTER;
+  }
+
+  public static boolean containsOuterJoin(QueryBlock block) {
+    return block.containsJoinType(JoinType.LEFT_OUTER) || block.containsJoinType(JoinType.RIGHT_OUTER) ||
+        block.containsJoinType(JoinType.FULL_OUTER);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * It checks if evalNode can be evaluated at this @{link RelationNode}.
+   */
+  public static boolean checkIfBeEvaluatedAtRelation(QueryBlock block, EvalNode evalNode, RelationNode node) {
+    Set<Column> columnRefs = EvalTreeUtil.findUniqueColumns(evalNode);
+
+    // aggregation functions cannot be evaluated in scan node
+    if (EvalTreeUtil.findDistinctAggFunction(evalNode).size() > 0) {
+      return false;
+    }
+
+    // aggregation functions cannot be evaluated in scan node
+    if (EvalTreeUtil.findEvalsByType(evalNode, EvalType.WINDOW_FUNCTION).size() > 0) {
+      return false;
+    }
+
+    if (columnRefs.size() > 0 && !node.getTableSchema().containsAll(columnRefs)) {
+      return false;
+    }
+
+    // Why? - When a {case when} is used with outer join, case when must be evaluated at topmost outer join.
+    if (containsOuterJoin(block)) {
+      Collection<EvalNode> found = EvalTreeUtil.findOuterJoinSensitiveEvals(evalNode);
+      if (found.size() > 0) {
+        return false;
+      }
+    }
+
+    return true;
+  }
+
+  public static boolean checkIfBeEvaluatedAtThis(EvalNode evalNode, LogicalNode node) {
+    Set<Column> columnRefs = EvalTreeUtil.findUniqueColumns(evalNode);
+    if (columnRefs.size() > 0 && !node.getInSchema().containsAll(columnRefs)) {
+      return false;
+    }
+
+    return true;
+  }
+}


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