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From hyun...@apache.org
Subject [37/51] [partial] TAJO-22: The package prefix should be org.apache.tajo. (DaeMyung Kang via hyunsik)
Date Tue, 02 Jul 2013 14:16:31 GMT
http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-tajo/blob/bc6359b8/tajo-common/src/main/java/tajo/util/Bytes.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/tajo-common/src/main/java/tajo/util/Bytes.java b/tajo-common/src/main/java/tajo/util/Bytes.java
deleted file mode 100644
index e21cf31..0000000
--- a/tajo-common/src/main/java/tajo/util/Bytes.java
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,1624 +0,0 @@
-/**
- * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
- * or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
- * distributed with this work for additional information
- * regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
- * to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
- * "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
- * with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
- *
- *     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
- *
- * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
- * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
- * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
- * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
- * limitations under the License.
- */
-
-package tajo.util;
-
-import com.google.common.annotations.VisibleForTesting;
-import org.apache.commons.logging.Log;
-import org.apache.commons.logging.LogFactory;
-import org.apache.hadoop.io.RawComparator;
-import org.apache.hadoop.io.WritableComparator;
-import org.apache.hadoop.io.WritableUtils;
-import sun.misc.Unsafe;
-
-import java.io.DataInput;
-import java.io.DataOutput;
-import java.io.IOException;
-import java.io.UnsupportedEncodingException;
-import java.lang.reflect.Field;
-import java.math.BigDecimal;
-import java.math.BigInteger;
-import java.nio.ByteBuffer;
-import java.nio.ByteOrder;
-import java.security.AccessController;
-import java.security.PrivilegedAction;
-import java.util.Comparator;
-import java.util.Iterator;
-
-/**
- * Utility class that handles byte arrays, conversions to/from other types,
- * comparisons, hash code generation, manufacturing keys for HashMaps or
- * HashSets, etc.
- */
-public class Bytes {
-
-  private static final Log LOG = LogFactory.getLog(Bytes.class);
-
-  /**
-   * Size of boolean in bytes
-   */
-  public static final int SIZEOF_BOOLEAN = Byte.SIZE / Byte.SIZE;
-
-  /**
-   * Size of byte in bytes
-   */
-  public static final int SIZEOF_BYTE = SIZEOF_BOOLEAN;
-
-  /**
-   * Size of char in bytes
-   */
-  public static final int SIZEOF_CHAR = Character.SIZE / Byte.SIZE;
-
-  /**
-   * Size of double in bytes
-   */
-  public static final int SIZEOF_DOUBLE = Double.SIZE / Byte.SIZE;
-
-  /**
-   * Size of float in bytes
-   */
-  public static final int SIZEOF_FLOAT = Float.SIZE / Byte.SIZE;
-
-  /**
-   * Size of int in bytes
-   */
-  public static final int SIZEOF_INT = Integer.SIZE / Byte.SIZE;
-
-  /**
-   * Size of long in bytes
-   */
-  public static final int SIZEOF_LONG = Long.SIZE / Byte.SIZE;
-
-  /**
-   * Size of short in bytes
-   */
-  public static final int SIZEOF_SHORT = Short.SIZE / Byte.SIZE;
-
-
-  /**
-   * Estimate of size cost to pay beyond payload in jvm for instance of byte [].
-   * Estimate based on study of jhat and jprofiler numbers.
-   */
-  // JHat says BU is 56 bytes.
-  // SizeOf which uses java.lang.instrument says 24 bytes. (3 longs?)
-  public static final int ESTIMATED_HEAP_TAX = 16;
-
-  /**
-   * Byte array comparator class.
-   */
-  public static class ByteArrayComparator implements RawComparator<byte []> {
-    /**
-     * Constructor
-     */
-    public ByteArrayComparator() {
-      super();
-    }
-    public int compare(byte [] left, byte [] right) {
-      return compareTo(left, right);
-    }
-    public int compare(byte [] b1, int s1, int l1, byte [] b2, int s2, int l2) {
-      return LexicographicalComparerHolder.BEST_COMPARER.
-        compareTo(b1, s1, l1, b2, s2, l2);
-    }
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * Pass this to TreeMaps where byte [] are keys.
-   */
-  public static Comparator<byte []> BYTES_COMPARATOR =
-    new ByteArrayComparator();
-
-  /**
-   * Use comparing byte arrays, byte-by-byte
-   */
-  public static RawComparator<byte []> BYTES_RAWCOMPARATOR =
-    new ByteArrayComparator();
-
-  /**
-   * Read byte-array written with a WritableableUtils.vint prefix.
-   * @param in Input to read from.
-   * @return byte array read off <code>in</code>
-   * @throws IOException e
-   */
-  public static byte [] readByteArray(final DataInput in)
-  throws IOException {
-    int len = WritableUtils.readVInt(in);
-    if (len < 0) {
-      throw new NegativeArraySizeException(Integer.toString(len));
-    }
-    byte [] result = new byte[len];
-    in.readFully(result, 0, len);
-    return result;
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * Read byte-array written with a WritableableUtils.vint prefix.
-   * IOException is converted to a RuntimeException.
-   * @param in Input to read from.
-   * @return byte array read off <code>in</code>
-   */
-  public static byte [] readByteArrayThrowsRuntime(final DataInput in) {
-    try {
-      return readByteArray(in);
-    } catch (Exception e) {
-      throw new RuntimeException(e);
-    }
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * Write byte-array with a WritableableUtils.vint prefix.
-   * @param out output stream to be written to
-   * @param b array to write
-   * @throws IOException e
-   */
-  public static void writeByteArray(final DataOutput out, final byte [] b)
-  throws IOException {
-    if(b == null) {
-      WritableUtils.writeVInt(out, 0);
-    } else {
-      writeByteArray(out, b, 0, b.length);
-    }
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * Write byte-array to out with a vint length prefix.
-   * @param out output stream
-   * @param b array
-   * @param offset offset into array
-   * @param length length past offset
-   * @throws IOException e
-   */
-  public static void writeByteArray(final DataOutput out, final byte [] b,
-      final int offset, final int length)
-  throws IOException {
-    WritableUtils.writeVInt(out, length);
-    out.write(b, offset, length);
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * Write byte-array from src to tgt with a vint length prefix.
-   * @param tgt target array
-   * @param tgtOffset offset into target array
-   * @param src source array
-   * @param srcOffset source offset
-   * @param srcLength source length
-   * @return New offset in src array.
-   */
-  public static int writeByteArray(final byte [] tgt, final int tgtOffset,
-      final byte [] src, final int srcOffset, final int srcLength) {
-    byte [] vint = vintToBytes(srcLength);
-    System.arraycopy(vint, 0, tgt, tgtOffset, vint.length);
-    int offset = tgtOffset + vint.length;
-    System.arraycopy(src, srcOffset, tgt, offset, srcLength);
-    return offset + srcLength;
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * Put bytes at the specified byte array position.
-   * @param tgtBytes the byte array
-   * @param tgtOffset position in the array
-   * @param srcBytes array to write out
-   * @param srcOffset source offset
-   * @param srcLength source length
-   * @return incremented offset
-   */
-  public static int putBytes(byte[] tgtBytes, int tgtOffset, byte[] srcBytes,
-      int srcOffset, int srcLength) {
-    System.arraycopy(srcBytes, srcOffset, tgtBytes, tgtOffset, srcLength);
-    return tgtOffset + srcLength;
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * Write a single byte out to the specified byte array position.
-   * @param bytes the byte array
-   * @param offset position in the array
-   * @param b byte to write out
-   * @return incremented offset
-   */
-  public static int putByte(byte[] bytes, int offset, byte b) {
-    bytes[offset] = b;
-    return offset + 1;
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * Returns a new byte array, copied from the passed ByteBuffer.
-   * @param bb A ByteBuffer
-   * @return the byte array
-   */
-  public static byte[] toBytes(ByteBuffer bb) {
-    int length = bb.limit();
-    byte [] result = new byte[length];
-    System.arraycopy(bb.array(), bb.arrayOffset(), result, 0, length);
-    return result;
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * @param b Presumed UTF-8 encoded byte array.
-   * @return String made from <code>b</code>
-   */
-  public static String toString(final byte [] b) {
-    if (b == null) {
-      return null;
-    }
-    return toString(b, 0, b.length);
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * Joins two byte arrays together using a separator.
-   * @param b1 The first byte array.
-   * @param sep The separator to use.
-   * @param b2 The second byte array.
-   */
-  public static String toString(final byte [] b1,
-                                String sep,
-                                final byte [] b2) {
-    return toString(b1, 0, b1.length) + sep + toString(b2, 0, b2.length);
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * This method will convert utf8 encoded bytes into a string. If
-   * an UnsupportedEncodingException occurs, this method will eat it
-   * and return null instead.
-   *
-   * @param b Presumed UTF-8 encoded byte array.
-   * @param off offset into array
-   * @param len length of utf-8 sequence
-   * @return String made from <code>b</code> or null
-   */
-  public static String toString(final byte [] b, int off, int len) {
-    if (b == null) {
-      return null;
-    }
-    if (len == 0) {
-      return "";
-    }
-    try {
-      return new String(b, off, len, "UTF-8");
-    } catch (UnsupportedEncodingException e) {
-      LOG.error("UTF-8 not supported?", e);
-      return null;
-    }
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * Write a printable representation of a byte array.
-   *
-   * @param b byte array
-   * @return string
-   * @see #toStringBinary(byte[], int, int)
-   */
-  public static String toStringBinary(final byte [] b) {
-    if (b == null)
-      return "null";
-    return toStringBinary(b, 0, b.length);
-  }
-  
-  /**
-   * Converts the given byte buffer, from its array offset to its limit, to
-   * a string. The position and the mark are ignored.
-   *
-   * @param buf a byte buffer
-   * @return a string representation of the buffer's binary contents
-   */
-  public static String toStringBinary(ByteBuffer buf) {
-    if (buf == null)
-      return "null";
-    return toStringBinary(buf.array(), buf.arrayOffset(), buf.limit());
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * Write a printable representation of a byte array. Non-printable
-   * characters are hex escaped in the format \\x%02X, eg:
-   * \x00 \x05 etc
-   *
-   * @param b array to write out
-   * @param off offset to start at
-   * @param len length to write
-   * @return string output
-   */
-  public static String toStringBinary(final byte [] b, int off, int len) {
-    StringBuilder result = new StringBuilder();
-    try {
-      String first = new String(b, off, len, "ISO-8859-1");
-      for (int i = 0; i < first.length() ; ++i ) {
-        int ch = first.charAt(i) & 0xFF;
-        if ( (ch >= '0' && ch <= '9')
-            || (ch >= 'A' && ch <= 'Z')
-            || (ch >= 'a' && ch <= 'z')
-            || " `~!@#$%^&*()-_=+[]{}\\|;:'\",.<>/?".indexOf(ch) >= 0 ) {
-          result.append(first.charAt(i));
-        } else {
-          result.append(String.format("\\x%02X", ch));
-        }
-      }
-    } catch (UnsupportedEncodingException e) {
-      LOG.error("ISO-8859-1 not supported?", e);
-    }
-    return result.toString();
-  }
-
-  private static boolean isHexDigit(char c) {
-    return
-        (c >= 'A' && c <= 'F') ||
-        (c >= '0' && c <= '9');
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * Takes a ASCII digit in the range A-F0-9 and returns
-   * the corresponding integer/ordinal value.
-   * @param ch  The hex digit.
-   * @return The converted hex value as a byte.
-   */
-  public static byte toBinaryFromHex(byte ch) {
-    if ( ch >= 'A' && ch <= 'F' )
-      return (byte) ((byte)10 + (byte) (ch - 'A'));
-    // else
-    return (byte) (ch - '0');
-  }
-
-  public static byte [] toBytesBinary(String in) {
-    // this may be bigger than we need, but lets be safe.
-    byte [] b = new byte[in.length()];
-    int size = 0;
-    for (int i = 0; i < in.length(); ++i) {
-      char ch = in.charAt(i);
-      if (ch == '\\') {
-        // begin hex escape:
-        char next = in.charAt(i+1);
-        if (next != 'x') {
-          // invalid escape sequence, ignore this one.
-          b[size++] = (byte)ch;
-          continue;
-        }
-        // ok, take next 2 hex digits.
-        char hd1 = in.charAt(i+2);
-        char hd2 = in.charAt(i+3);
-
-        // they need to be A-F0-9:
-        if (!isHexDigit(hd1) ||
-            !isHexDigit(hd2)) {
-          // bogus escape code, ignore:
-          continue;
-        }
-        // turn hex ASCII digit -> number
-        byte d = (byte) ((toBinaryFromHex((byte)hd1) << 4) + toBinaryFromHex((byte)hd2));
-
-        b[size++] = d;
-        i += 3; // skip 3
-      } else {
-        b[size++] = (byte) ch;
-      }
-    }
-    // resize:
-    byte [] b2 = new byte[size];
-    System.arraycopy(b, 0, b2, 0, size);
-    return b2;
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * Converts a string to a UTF-8 byte array.
-   * @param s string
-   * @return the byte array
-   */
-  public static byte[] toBytes(String s) {
-    try {
-      return s.getBytes("UTF-8");
-    } catch (UnsupportedEncodingException e) {
-      LOG.error("UTF-8 not supported?", e);
-      return null;
-    }
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * Convert a boolean to a byte array. True becomes -1
-   * and false becomes 0.
-   *
-   * @param b value
-   * @return <code>b</code> encoded in a byte array.
-   */
-  public static byte [] toBytes(final boolean b) {
-    return new byte[] { b ? (byte) -1 : (byte) 0 };
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * Reverses {@link #toBytes(boolean)}
-   * @param b array
-   * @return True or false.
-   */
-  public static boolean toBoolean(final byte [] b) {
-    if (b.length != 1) {
-      throw new IllegalArgumentException("Array has wrong size: " + b.length);
-    }
-    return b[0] != (byte) 0;
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * Convert a long value to a byte array using big-endian.
-   *
-   * @param val value to convert
-   * @return the byte array
-   */
-  public static byte[] toBytes(long val) {
-    byte [] b = new byte[8];
-    for (int i = 7; i > 0; i--) {
-      b[i] = (byte) val;
-      val >>>= 8;
-    }
-    b[0] = (byte) val;
-    return b;
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * Converts a byte array to a long value. Reverses
-   * {@link #toBytes(long)}
-   * @param bytes array
-   * @return the long value
-   */
-  public static long toLong(byte[] bytes) {
-    return toLong(bytes, 0, SIZEOF_LONG);
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * Converts a byte array to a long value. Assumes there will be
-   * {@link #SIZEOF_LONG} bytes available.
-   *
-   * @param bytes bytes
-   * @param offset offset
-   * @return the long value
-   */
-  public static long toLong(byte[] bytes, int offset) {
-    return toLong(bytes, offset, SIZEOF_LONG);
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * Converts a byte array to a long value.
-   *
-   * @param bytes array of bytes
-   * @param offset offset into array
-   * @param length length of data (must be {@link #SIZEOF_LONG})
-   * @return the long value
-   * @throws IllegalArgumentException if length is not {@link #SIZEOF_LONG} or
-   * if there's not enough room in the array at the offset indicated.
-   */
-  public static long toLong(byte[] bytes, int offset, final int length) {
-    if (length != SIZEOF_LONG || offset + length > bytes.length) {
-      throw explainWrongLengthOrOffset(bytes, offset, length, SIZEOF_LONG);
-    }
-    long l = 0;
-    for(int i = offset; i < offset + length; i++) {
-      l <<= 8;
-      l ^= bytes[i] & 0xFF;
-    }
-    return l;
-  }
-
-  private static IllegalArgumentException
-    explainWrongLengthOrOffset(final byte[] bytes,
-                               final int offset,
-                               final int length,
-                               final int expectedLength) {
-    String reason;
-    if (length != expectedLength) {
-      reason = "Wrong length: " + length + ", expected " + expectedLength;
-    } else {
-     reason = "offset (" + offset + ") + length (" + length + ") exceed the"
-        + " capacity of the array: " + bytes.length;
-    }
-    return new IllegalArgumentException(reason);
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * Put a long value out to the specified byte array position.
-   * @param bytes the byte array
-   * @param offset position in the array
-   * @param val long to write out
-   * @return incremented offset
-   * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the byte array given doesn't have
-   * enough room at the offset specified.
-   */
-  public static int putLong(byte[] bytes, int offset, long val) {
-    if (bytes.length - offset < SIZEOF_LONG) {
-      throw new IllegalArgumentException("Not enough room to put a long at"
-          + " offset " + offset + " in a " + bytes.length + " byte array");
-    }
-    for(int i = offset + 7; i > offset; i--) {
-      bytes[i] = (byte) val;
-      val >>>= 8;
-    }
-    bytes[offset] = (byte) val;
-    return offset + SIZEOF_LONG;
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * Presumes float encoded as IEEE 754 floating-point "single format"
-   * @param bytes byte array
-   * @return Float made from passed byte array.
-   */
-  public static float toFloat(byte [] bytes) {
-    return toFloat(bytes, 0);
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * Presumes float encoded as IEEE 754 floating-point "single format"
-   * @param bytes array to convert
-   * @param offset offset into array
-   * @return Float made from passed byte array.
-   */
-  public static float toFloat(byte [] bytes, int offset) {
-    return Float.intBitsToFloat(toInt(bytes, offset, SIZEOF_INT));
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * @param bytes byte array
-   * @param offset offset to write to
-   * @param f float value
-   * @return New offset in <code>bytes</code>
-   */
-  public static int putFloat(byte [] bytes, int offset, float f) {
-    return putInt(bytes, offset, Float.floatToRawIntBits(f));
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * @param f float value
-   * @return the float represented as byte []
-   */
-  public static byte [] toBytes(final float f) {
-    // Encode it as int
-    return Bytes.toBytes(Float.floatToRawIntBits(f));
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * @param bytes byte array
-   * @return Return double made from passed bytes.
-   */
-  public static double toDouble(final byte [] bytes) {
-    return toDouble(bytes, 0);
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * @param bytes byte array
-   * @param offset offset where double is
-   * @return Return double made from passed bytes.
-   */
-  public static double toDouble(final byte [] bytes, final int offset) {
-    return Double.longBitsToDouble(toLong(bytes, offset, SIZEOF_LONG));
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * @param bytes byte array
-   * @param offset offset to write to
-   * @param d value
-   * @return New offset into array <code>bytes</code>
-   */
-  public static int putDouble(byte [] bytes, int offset, double d) {
-    return putLong(bytes, offset, Double.doubleToLongBits(d));
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * Serialize a double as the IEEE 754 double format output. The resultant
-   * array will be 8 bytes long.
-   *
-   * @param d value
-   * @return the double represented as byte []
-   */
-  public static byte [] toBytes(final double d) {
-    // Encode it as a long
-    return Bytes.toBytes(Double.doubleToRawLongBits(d));
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * Convert an int value to a byte array
-   * @param val value
-   * @return the byte array
-   */
-  public static byte[] toBytes(int val) {
-    byte [] b = new byte[4];
-    for(int i = 3; i > 0; i--) {
-      b[i] = (byte) val;
-      val >>>= 8;
-    }
-    b[0] = (byte) val;
-    return b;
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * Converts a byte array to an int value
-   * @param bytes byte array
-   * @return the int value
-   */
-  public static int toInt(byte[] bytes) {
-    return toInt(bytes, 0, SIZEOF_INT);
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * Converts a byte array to an int value
-   * @param bytes byte array
-   * @param offset offset into array
-   * @return the int value
-   */
-  public static int toInt(byte[] bytes, int offset) {
-    return toInt(bytes, offset, SIZEOF_INT);
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * Converts a byte array to an int value
-   * @param bytes byte array
-   * @param offset offset into array
-   * @param length length of int (has to be {@link #SIZEOF_INT})
-   * @return the int value
-   * @throws IllegalArgumentException if length is not {@link #SIZEOF_INT} or
-   * if there's not enough room in the array at the offset indicated.
-   */
-  public static int toInt(byte[] bytes, int offset, final int length) {
-    if (length != SIZEOF_INT || offset + length > bytes.length) {
-      throw explainWrongLengthOrOffset(bytes, offset, length, SIZEOF_INT);
-    }
-    int n = 0;
-    for(int i = offset; i < (offset + length); i++) {
-      n <<= 8;
-      n ^= bytes[i] & 0xFF;
-    }
-    return n;
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * Put an int value out to the specified byte array position.
-   * @param bytes the byte array
-   * @param offset position in the array
-   * @param val int to write out
-   * @return incremented offset
-   * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the byte array given doesn't have
-   * enough room at the offset specified.
-   */
-  public static int putInt(byte[] bytes, int offset, int val) {
-    if (bytes.length - offset < SIZEOF_INT) {
-      throw new IllegalArgumentException("Not enough room to put an int at"
-          + " offset " + offset + " in a " + bytes.length + " byte array");
-    }
-    for(int i= offset + 3; i > offset; i--) {
-      bytes[i] = (byte) val;
-      val >>>= 8;
-    }
-    bytes[offset] = (byte) val;
-    return offset + SIZEOF_INT;
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * Convert a short value to a byte array of {@link #SIZEOF_SHORT} bytes long.
-   * @param val value
-   * @return the byte array
-   */
-  public static byte[] toBytes(short val) {
-    byte[] b = new byte[SIZEOF_SHORT];
-    b[1] = (byte) val;
-    val >>= 8;
-    b[0] = (byte) val;
-    return b;
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * Converts a byte array to a short value
-   * @param bytes byte array
-   * @return the short value
-   */
-  public static short toShort(byte[] bytes) {
-    return toShort(bytes, 0, SIZEOF_SHORT);
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * Converts a byte array to a short value
-   * @param bytes byte array
-   * @param offset offset into array
-   * @return the short value
-   */
-  public static short toShort(byte[] bytes, int offset) {
-    return toShort(bytes, offset, SIZEOF_SHORT);
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * Converts a byte array to a short value
-   * @param bytes byte array
-   * @param offset offset into array
-   * @param length length, has to be {@link #SIZEOF_SHORT}
-   * @return the short value
-   * @throws IllegalArgumentException if length is not {@link #SIZEOF_SHORT}
-   * or if there's not enough room in the array at the offset indicated.
-   */
-  public static short toShort(byte[] bytes, int offset, final int length) {
-    if (length != SIZEOF_SHORT || offset + length > bytes.length) {
-      throw explainWrongLengthOrOffset(bytes, offset, length, SIZEOF_SHORT);
-    }
-    short n = 0;
-    n ^= bytes[offset] & 0xFF;
-    n <<= 8;
-    n ^= bytes[offset+1] & 0xFF;
-    return n;
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * This method will get a sequence of bytes from pos -> limit,
-   * but will restore pos after.
-   * @param buf
-   * @return
-   */
-  public static byte[] getBytes(ByteBuffer buf) {
-    int savedPos = buf.position();
-    byte [] newBytes = new byte[buf.remaining()];
-    buf.get(newBytes);
-    buf.position(savedPos);
-    return newBytes;
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * Put a short value out to the specified byte array position.
-   * @param bytes the byte array
-   * @param offset position in the array
-   * @param val short to write out
-   * @return incremented offset
-   * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the byte array given doesn't have
-   * enough room at the offset specified.
-   */
-  public static int putShort(byte[] bytes, int offset, short val) {
-    if (bytes.length - offset < SIZEOF_SHORT) {
-      throw new IllegalArgumentException("Not enough room to put a short at"
-          + " offset " + offset + " in a " + bytes.length + " byte array");
-    }
-    bytes[offset+1] = (byte) val;
-    val >>= 8;
-    bytes[offset] = (byte) val;
-    return offset + SIZEOF_SHORT;
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * Convert a BigDecimal value to a byte array
-   *
-   * @param val
-   * @return the byte array
-   */
-  public static byte[] toBytes(BigDecimal val) {
-    byte[] valueBytes = val.unscaledValue().toByteArray();
-    byte[] result = new byte[valueBytes.length + SIZEOF_INT];
-    int offset = putInt(result, 0, val.scale());
-    putBytes(result, offset, valueBytes, 0, valueBytes.length);
-    return result;
-  }
-
-
-  /**
-   * Converts a byte array to a BigDecimal
-   *
-   * @param bytes
-   * @return the char value
-   */
-  public static BigDecimal toBigDecimal(byte[] bytes) {
-    return toBigDecimal(bytes, 0, bytes.length);
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * Converts a byte array to a BigDecimal value
-   *
-   * @param bytes
-   * @param offset
-   * @return the char value
-   */
-  public static BigDecimal toBigDecimal(byte[] bytes, int offset) {
-    return toBigDecimal(bytes, offset, bytes.length);
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * Converts a byte array to a BigDecimal value
-   *
-   * @param bytes
-   * @param offset
-   * @param length
-   * @return the char value
-   */
-  public static BigDecimal toBigDecimal(byte[] bytes, int offset, final int length) {
-    if (bytes == null || length < SIZEOF_INT + 1 ||
-      (offset + length > bytes.length)) {
-      return null;
-    }
-
-    int scale = toInt(bytes, 0);
-    byte[] tcBytes = new byte[length - SIZEOF_INT];
-    System.arraycopy(bytes, SIZEOF_INT, tcBytes, 0, length - SIZEOF_INT);
-    return new BigDecimal(new BigInteger(tcBytes), scale);
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * Put a BigDecimal value out to the specified byte array position.
-   *
-   * @param bytes  the byte array
-   * @param offset position in the array
-   * @param val    BigDecimal to write out
-   * @return incremented offset
-   */
-  public static int putBigDecimal(byte[] bytes, int offset, BigDecimal val) {
-    if (bytes == null) {
-      return offset;
-    }
-
-    byte[] valueBytes = val.unscaledValue().toByteArray();
-    byte[] result = new byte[valueBytes.length + SIZEOF_INT];
-    offset = putInt(result, offset, val.scale());
-    return putBytes(result, offset, valueBytes, 0, valueBytes.length);
-  }
-  
-  /**
-   * @param vint Integer to make a vint of.
-   * @return Vint as bytes array.
-   */
-  public static byte [] vintToBytes(final long vint) {
-    long i = vint;
-    int size = WritableUtils.getVIntSize(i);
-    byte [] result = new byte[size];
-    int offset = 0;
-    if (i >= -112 && i <= 127) {
-      result[offset] = (byte) i;
-      return result;
-    }
-
-    int len = -112;
-    if (i < 0) {
-      i ^= -1L; // take one's complement'
-      len = -120;
-    }
-
-    long tmp = i;
-    while (tmp != 0) {
-      tmp = tmp >> 8;
-      len--;
-    }
-
-    result[offset++] = (byte) len;
-
-    len = (len < -120) ? -(len + 120) : -(len + 112);
-
-    for (int idx = len; idx != 0; idx--) {
-      int shiftbits = (idx - 1) * 8;
-      long mask = 0xFFL << shiftbits;
-      result[offset++] = (byte)((i & mask) >> shiftbits);
-    }
-    return result;
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * @param buffer buffer to convert
-   * @return vint bytes as an integer.
-   */
-  public static long bytesToVint(final byte [] buffer) {
-    int offset = 0;
-    byte firstByte = buffer[offset++];
-    int len = WritableUtils.decodeVIntSize(firstByte);
-    if (len == 1) {
-      return firstByte;
-    }
-    long i = 0;
-    for (int idx = 0; idx < len-1; idx++) {
-      byte b = buffer[offset++];
-      i = i << 8;
-      i = i | (b & 0xFF);
-    }
-    return (WritableUtils.isNegativeVInt(firstByte) ? ~i : i);
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * Reads a zero-compressed encoded long from input stream and returns it.
-   * @param buffer Binary array
-   * @param offset Offset into array at which vint begins.
-   * @throws java.io.IOException e
-   * @return deserialized long from stream.
-   */
-  public static long readVLong(final byte [] buffer, final int offset)
-  throws IOException {
-    byte firstByte = buffer[offset];
-    int len = WritableUtils.decodeVIntSize(firstByte);
-    if (len == 1) {
-      return firstByte;
-    }
-    long i = 0;
-    for (int idx = 0; idx < len-1; idx++) {
-      byte b = buffer[offset + 1 + idx];
-      i = i << 8;
-      i = i | (b & 0xFF);
-    }
-    return (WritableUtils.isNegativeVInt(firstByte) ? ~i : i);
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * @param left left operand
-   * @param right right operand
-   * @return 0 if equal, < 0 if left is less than right, etc.
-   */
-  public static int compareTo(final byte [] left, final byte [] right) {
-    return LexicographicalComparerHolder.BEST_COMPARER.
-      compareTo(left, 0, left.length, right, 0, right.length);
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * Lexicographically compare two arrays.
-   *
-   * @param buffer1 left operand
-   * @param buffer2 right operand
-   * @param offset1 Where to start comparing in the left buffer
-   * @param offset2 Where to start comparing in the right buffer
-   * @param length1 How much to compare from the left buffer
-   * @param length2 How much to compare from the right buffer
-   * @return 0 if equal, < 0 if left is less than right, etc.
-   */
-  public static int compareTo(byte[] buffer1, int offset1, int length1,
-      byte[] buffer2, int offset2, int length2) {
-    return LexicographicalComparerHolder.BEST_COMPARER.
-      compareTo(buffer1, offset1, length1, buffer2, offset2, length2);
-  }
-  
-  /**
-   * The number of bytes required to represent a primitive {@code long}
-   * value.
-   */
-  public static final int LONG_BYTES = Long.SIZE / Byte.SIZE;
- 
-  interface Comparer<T> {
-    abstract public int compareTo(T buffer1, int offset1, int length1,
-        T buffer2, int offset2, int length2);
-  }
-
-  @VisibleForTesting
-  static Comparer<byte[]> lexicographicalComparerJavaImpl() {
-    return LexicographicalComparerHolder.PureJavaComparer.INSTANCE;
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * Provides a lexicographical comparer implementation; either a Java
-   * implementation or a faster implementation based on {@link Unsafe}.
-   *
-   * <p>Uses reflection to gracefully fall back to the Java implementation if
-   * {@code Unsafe} isn't available.
-   */
-  @VisibleForTesting
-  static class LexicographicalComparerHolder {
-    static final String UNSAFE_COMPARER_NAME =
-        LexicographicalComparerHolder.class.getName() + "$UnsafeComparer";
-    
-    static final Comparer<byte[]> BEST_COMPARER = getBestComparer();
-    /**
-     * Returns the Unsafe-using Comparer, or falls back to the pure-Java
-     * implementation if unable to do so.
-     */
-    static Comparer<byte[]> getBestComparer() {
-      try {
-        Class<?> theClass = Class.forName(UNSAFE_COMPARER_NAME);
-
-        // yes, UnsafeComparer does implement Comparer<byte[]>
-        @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
-        Comparer<byte[]> comparer =
-          (Comparer<byte[]>) theClass.getEnumConstants()[0];
-        return comparer;
-      } catch (Throwable t) { // ensure we really catch *everything*
-        return lexicographicalComparerJavaImpl();
-      }
-    }
-    
-    enum PureJavaComparer implements Comparer<byte[]> {
-      INSTANCE;
-
-      @Override
-      public int compareTo(byte[] buffer1, int offset1, int length1,
-          byte[] buffer2, int offset2, int length2) {
-        // Short circuit equal case
-        if (buffer1 == buffer2 &&
-            offset1 == offset2 &&
-            length1 == length2) {
-          return 0;
-        }
-        // Bring WritableComparator code local
-        int end1 = offset1 + length1;
-        int end2 = offset2 + length2;
-        for (int i = offset1, j = offset2; i < end1 && j < end2; i++, j++) {
-          int a = (buffer1[i] & 0xff);
-          int b = (buffer2[j] & 0xff);
-          if (a != b) {
-            return a - b;
-          }
-        }
-        return length1 - length2;
-      }
-    }
-
-    @VisibleForTesting
-    enum UnsafeComparer implements Comparer<byte[]> {
-      INSTANCE;
-
-      static final Unsafe theUnsafe;
-
-      /** The offset to the first element in a byte array. */
-      static final int BYTE_ARRAY_BASE_OFFSET;
-
-      static {
-        theUnsafe = (Unsafe) AccessController.doPrivileged(
-            new PrivilegedAction<Object>() {
-              @Override
-              public Object run() {
-                try {
-                  Field f = Unsafe.class.getDeclaredField("theUnsafe");
-                  f.setAccessible(true);
-                  return f.get(null);
-                } catch (NoSuchFieldException e) {
-                  // It doesn't matter what we throw;
-                  // it's swallowed in getBestComparer().
-                  throw new Error();
-                } catch (IllegalAccessException e) {
-                  throw new Error();
-                }
-              }
-            });
-
-        BYTE_ARRAY_BASE_OFFSET = theUnsafe.arrayBaseOffset(byte[].class);
-
-        // sanity check - this should never fail
-        if (theUnsafe.arrayIndexScale(byte[].class) != 1) {
-          throw new AssertionError();
-        }
-      }
-
-      static final boolean littleEndian =
-        ByteOrder.nativeOrder().equals(ByteOrder.LITTLE_ENDIAN);
-
-      /**
-       * Returns true if x1 is less than x2, when both values are treated as
-       * unsigned.
-       */
-      static boolean lessThanUnsigned(long x1, long x2) {
-        return (x1 + Long.MIN_VALUE) < (x2 + Long.MIN_VALUE);
-      }
-
-      /**
-       * Lexicographically compare two arrays.
-       *
-       * @param buffer1 left operand
-       * @param buffer2 right operand
-       * @param offset1 Where to start comparing in the left buffer
-       * @param offset2 Where to start comparing in the right buffer
-       * @param length1 How much to compare from the left buffer
-       * @param length2 How much to compare from the right buffer
-       * @return 0 if equal, < 0 if left is less than right, etc.
-       */
-      @Override
-      public int compareTo(byte[] buffer1, int offset1, int length1,
-          byte[] buffer2, int offset2, int length2) {
-        // Short circuit equal case
-        if (buffer1 == buffer2 &&
-            offset1 == offset2 &&
-            length1 == length2) {
-          return 0;
-        }
-        int minLength = Math.min(length1, length2);
-        int minWords = minLength / LONG_BYTES;
-        int offset1Adj = offset1 + BYTE_ARRAY_BASE_OFFSET;
-        int offset2Adj = offset2 + BYTE_ARRAY_BASE_OFFSET;
-
-        /*
-         * Compare 8 bytes at a time. Benchmarking shows comparing 8 bytes at a
-         * time is no slower than comparing 4 bytes at a time even on 32-bit.
-         * On the other hand, it is substantially faster on 64-bit.
-         */
-        for (int i = 0; i < minWords * LONG_BYTES; i += LONG_BYTES) {
-          long lw = theUnsafe.getLong(buffer1, offset1Adj + (long) i);
-          long rw = theUnsafe.getLong(buffer2, offset2Adj + (long) i);
-          long diff = lw ^ rw;
-
-          if (diff != 0) {
-            if (!littleEndian) {
-              return lessThanUnsigned(lw, rw) ? -1 : 1;
-            }
-
-            // Use binary search
-            int n = 0;
-            int y;
-            int x = (int) diff;
-            if (x == 0) {
-              x = (int) (diff >>> 32);
-              n = 32;
-            }
-
-            y = x << 16;
-            if (y == 0) {
-              n += 16;
-            } else {
-              x = y;
-            }
-
-            y = x << 8;
-            if (y == 0) {
-              n += 8;
-            }
-            return (int) (((lw >>> n) & 0xFFL) - ((rw >>> n) & 0xFFL));
-          }
-        }
-
-        // The epilogue to cover the last (minLength % 8) elements.
-        for (int i = minWords * LONG_BYTES; i < minLength; i++) {
-          int a = (buffer1[offset1 + i] & 0xff);
-          int b = (buffer2[offset2 + i] & 0xff);
-          if (a != b) {
-            return a - b;
-          }
-        }
-        return length1 - length2;
-      }
-    }
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * @param left left operand
-   * @param right right operand
-   * @return True if equal
-   */
-  public static boolean equals(final byte [] left, final byte [] right) {
-    // Could use Arrays.equals?
-    //noinspection SimplifiableConditionalExpression
-    if (left == right) return true;
-    if (left == null || right == null) return false;
-    if (left.length != right.length) return false;
-    if (left.length == 0) return true;
-    
-    // Since we're often comparing adjacent sorted data,
-    // it's usual to have equal arrays except for the very last byte
-    // so check that first
-    if (left[left.length - 1] != right[right.length - 1]) return false;
-
-    return compareTo(left, right) == 0;
-  }
-  
-  public static boolean equals(final byte[] left, int leftOffset, int leftLen,
-                               final byte[] right, int rightOffset, int rightLen) {
-    // short circuit case
-    if (left == right &&
-        leftOffset == rightOffset &&
-        leftLen == rightLen) {
-      return true;
-    }
-    // different lengths fast check
-    if (leftLen != rightLen) {
-      return false;
-    }
-    if (leftLen == 0) {
-      return true;
-    }
-    
-    // Since we're often comparing adjacent sorted data,
-    // it's usual to have equal arrays except for the very last byte
-    // so check that first
-    if (left[leftOffset + leftLen - 1] != right[rightOffset + rightLen - 1]) return false;
-
-    return LexicographicalComparerHolder.BEST_COMPARER.
-      compareTo(left, leftOffset, leftLen, right, rightOffset, rightLen) == 0;
-  }
-  
-
-  /**
-   * Return true if the byte array on the right is a prefix of the byte
-   * array on the left.
-   */
-  public static boolean startsWith(byte[] bytes, byte[] prefix) {
-    return bytes != null && prefix != null &&
-      bytes.length >= prefix.length &&
-      LexicographicalComparerHolder.BEST_COMPARER.
-        compareTo(bytes, 0, prefix.length, prefix, 0, prefix.length) == 0;      
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * @param b bytes to hash
-   * @return Runs {@link WritableComparator#hashBytes(byte[], int)} on the
-   * passed in array.  This method is what {@link org.apache.hadoop.io.Text} and
-   * {@link ImmutableBytesWritable} use calculating hash code.
-   */
-  public static int hashCode(final byte [] b) {
-    return hashCode(b, b.length);
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * @param b value
-   * @param length length of the value
-   * @return Runs {@link WritableComparator#hashBytes(byte[], int)} on the
-   * passed in array.  This method is what {@link org.apache.hadoop.io.Text} and
-   * {@link ImmutableBytesWritable} use calculating hash code.
-   */
-  public static int hashCode(final byte [] b, final int length) {
-    return WritableComparator.hashBytes(b, length);
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * @param b bytes to hash
-   * @return A hash of <code>b</code> as an Integer that can be used as key in
-   * Maps.
-   */
-  public static Integer mapKey(final byte [] b) {
-    return hashCode(b);
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * @param b bytes to hash
-   * @param length length to hash
-   * @return A hash of <code>b</code> as an Integer that can be used as key in
-   * Maps.
-   */
-  public static Integer mapKey(final byte [] b, final int length) {
-    return hashCode(b, length);
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * @param a lower half
-   * @param b upper half
-   * @return New array that has a in lower half and b in upper half.
-   */
-  public static byte [] add(final byte [] a, final byte [] b) {
-    return add(a, b, new byte [0]);
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * @param a first third
-   * @param b second third
-   * @param c third third
-   * @return New array made from a, b and c
-   */
-  public static byte [] add(final byte [] a, final byte [] b, final byte [] c) {
-    byte [] result = new byte[a.length + b.length + c.length];
-    System.arraycopy(a, 0, result, 0, a.length);
-    System.arraycopy(b, 0, result, a.length, b.length);
-    System.arraycopy(c, 0, result, a.length + b.length, c.length);
-    return result;
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * @param a array
-   * @param length amount of bytes to grab
-   * @return First <code>length</code> bytes from <code>a</code>
-   */
-  public static byte [] head(final byte [] a, final int length) {
-    if (a.length < length) {
-      return null;
-    }
-    byte [] result = new byte[length];
-    System.arraycopy(a, 0, result, 0, length);
-    return result;
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * @param a array
-   * @param length amount of bytes to snarf
-   * @return Last <code>length</code> bytes from <code>a</code>
-   */
-  public static byte [] tail(final byte [] a, final int length) {
-    if (a.length < length) {
-      return null;
-    }
-    byte [] result = new byte[length];
-    System.arraycopy(a, a.length - length, result, 0, length);
-    return result;
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * @param a array
-   * @param length new array size
-   * @return Value in <code>a</code> plus <code>length</code> prepended 0 bytes
-   */
-  public static byte [] padHead(final byte [] a, final int length) {
-    byte [] padding = new byte[length];
-    for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
-      padding[i] = 0;
-    }
-    return add(padding,a);
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * @param a array
-   * @param length new array size
-   * @return Value in <code>a</code> plus <code>length</code> appended 0 bytes
-   */
-  public static byte [] padTail(final byte [] a, final int length) {
-    byte [] padding = new byte[length];
-    for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
-      padding[i] = 0;
-    }
-    return add(a,padding);
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * Split passed range.  Expensive operation relatively.  Uses BigInteger math.
-   * Useful splitting ranges for MapReduce jobs.
-   * @param a Beginning of range
-   * @param b End of range
-   * @param num Number of times to split range.  Pass 1 if you want to split
-   * the range in two; i.e. one split.
-   * @return Array of dividing values
-   */
-  public static byte [][] split(final byte [] a, final byte [] b, final int num) {
-    byte[][] ret = new byte[num+2][];
-    int i = 0;
-    Iterable<byte[]> iter = iterateOnSplits(a, b, num);
-    if (iter == null) return null;
-    for (byte[] elem : iter) {
-      ret[i++] = elem;
-    }
-    return ret;
-  }
-  
-  /**
-   * Iterate over keys within the passed inclusive range.
-   */
-  public static Iterable<byte[]> iterateOnSplits(
-      final byte[] a, final byte[]b, final int num)
-  {  
-    byte [] aPadded;
-    byte [] bPadded;
-    if (a.length < b.length) {
-      aPadded = padTail(a, b.length - a.length);
-      bPadded = b;
-    } else if (b.length < a.length) {
-      aPadded = a;
-      bPadded = padTail(b, a.length - b.length);
-    } else {
-      aPadded = a;
-      bPadded = b;
-    }
-    if (compareTo(aPadded,bPadded) >= 0) {
-      throw new IllegalArgumentException("b <= a");
-    }
-    if (num <= 0) {
-      throw new IllegalArgumentException("num cannot be < 0");
-    }
-    byte [] prependHeader = {1, 0};
-    final BigInteger startBI = new BigInteger(add(prependHeader, aPadded));
-    final BigInteger stopBI = new BigInteger(add(prependHeader, bPadded));
-    final BigInteger diffBI = stopBI.subtract(startBI);
-    final BigInteger splitsBI = BigInteger.valueOf(num + 1);
-    if(diffBI.compareTo(splitsBI) < 0) {
-      return null;
-    }
-    final BigInteger intervalBI;
-    try {
-      intervalBI = diffBI.divide(splitsBI);
-    } catch(Exception e) {
-      LOG.error("Exception caught during division", e);
-      return null;
-    }
-
-    final Iterator<byte[]> iterator = new Iterator<byte[]>() {
-      private int i = -1;
-      
-      @Override
-      public boolean hasNext() {
-        return i < num+1;
-      }
-
-      @Override
-      public byte[] next() {
-        i++;
-        if (i == 0) return a;
-        if (i == num + 1) return b;
-        
-        BigInteger curBI = startBI.add(intervalBI.multiply(BigInteger.valueOf(i)));
-        byte [] padded = curBI.toByteArray();
-        if (padded[1] == 0)
-          padded = tail(padded, padded.length - 2);
-        else
-          padded = tail(padded, padded.length - 1);
-        return padded;
-      }
-
-      @Override
-      public void remove() {
-        throw new UnsupportedOperationException();
-      }
-      
-    };
-    
-    return new Iterable<byte[]>() {
-      @Override
-      public Iterator<byte[]> iterator() {
-        return iterator;
-      }
-    };
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * @param t operands
-   * @return Array of byte arrays made from passed array of Text
-   */
-  public static byte [][] toByteArrays(final String [] t) {
-    byte [][] result = new byte[t.length][];
-    for (int i = 0; i < t.length; i++) {
-      result[i] = Bytes.toBytes(t[i]);
-    }
-    return result;
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * @param column operand
-   * @return A byte array of a byte array where first and only entry is
-   * <code>column</code>
-   */
-  public static byte [][] toByteArrays(final String column) {
-    return toByteArrays(toBytes(column));
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * @param column operand
-   * @return A byte array of a byte array where first and only entry is
-   * <code>column</code>
-   */
-  public static byte [][] toByteArrays(final byte [] column) {
-    byte [][] result = new byte[1][];
-    result[0] = column;
-    return result;
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * Binary search for keys in indexes.
-   *
-   * @param arr array of byte arrays to search for
-   * @param key the key you want to find
-   * @param offset the offset in the key you want to find
-   * @param length the length of the key
-   * @param comparator a comparator to compare.
-   * @return zero-based index of the key, if the key is present in the array.
-   *         Otherwise, a value -(i + 1) such that the key is between arr[i -
-   *         1] and arr[i] non-inclusively, where i is in [0, i], if we define
-   *         arr[-1] = -Inf and arr[N] = Inf for an N-element array. The above
-   *         means that this function can return 2N + 1 different values
-   *         ranging from -(N + 1) to N - 1.
-   */
-  public static int binarySearch(byte [][]arr, byte []key, int offset,
-      int length, RawComparator<byte []> comparator) {
-    int low = 0;
-    int high = arr.length - 1;
-
-    while (low <= high) {
-      int mid = (low+high) >>> 1;
-      // we have to compare in this order, because the comparator order
-      // has special logic when the 'left side' is a special key.
-      int cmp = comparator.compare(key, offset, length,
-          arr[mid], 0, arr[mid].length);
-      // key lives above the midpoint
-      if (cmp > 0)
-        low = mid + 1;
-      // key lives below the midpoint
-      else if (cmp < 0)
-        high = mid - 1;
-      // BAM. how often does this really happen?
-      else
-        return mid;
-    }
-    return - (low+1);
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * Bytewise binary increment/deincrement of long contained in byte array
-   * on given amount.
-   *
-   * @param value - array of bytes containing long (length <= SIZEOF_LONG)
-   * @param amount value will be incremented on (deincremented if negative)
-   * @return array of bytes containing incremented long (length == SIZEOF_LONG)
-   */
-  public static byte [] incrementBytes(byte[] value, long amount)
-  {
-    byte[] val = value;
-    if (val.length < SIZEOF_LONG) {
-      // Hopefully this doesn't happen too often.
-      byte [] newvalue;
-      if (val[0] < 0) {
-        newvalue = new byte[]{-1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1};
-      } else {
-        newvalue = new byte[SIZEOF_LONG];
-      }
-      System.arraycopy(val, 0, newvalue, newvalue.length - val.length,
-        val.length);
-      val = newvalue;
-    } else if (val.length > SIZEOF_LONG) {
-      throw new IllegalArgumentException("Increment Bytes - value too big: " +
-        val.length);
-    }
-    if(amount == 0) return val;
-    if(val[0] < 0){
-      return binaryIncrementNeg(val, amount);
-    }
-    return binaryIncrementPos(val, amount);
-  }
-
-  /* increment/deincrement for positive value */
-  private static byte [] binaryIncrementPos(byte [] value, long amount) {
-    long amo = amount;
-    int sign = 1;
-    if (amount < 0) {
-      amo = -amount;
-      sign = -1;
-    }
-    for(int i=0;i<value.length;i++) {
-      int cur = ((int)amo % 256) * sign;
-      amo = (amo >> 8);
-      int val = value[value.length-i-1] & 0x0ff;
-      int total = val + cur;
-      if(total > 255) {
-        amo += sign;
-        total %= 256;
-      } else if (total < 0) {
-        amo -= sign;
-      }
-      value[value.length-i-1] = (byte)total;
-      if (amo == 0) return value;
-    }
-    return value;
-  }
-
-  /* increment/deincrement for negative value */
-  private static byte [] binaryIncrementNeg(byte [] value, long amount) {
-    long amo = amount;
-    int sign = 1;
-    if (amount < 0) {
-      amo = -amount;
-      sign = -1;
-    }
-    for(int i=0;i<value.length;i++) {
-      int cur = ((int)amo % 256) * sign;
-      amo = (amo >> 8);
-      int val = ((~value[value.length-i-1]) & 0x0ff) + 1;
-      int total = cur - val;
-      if(total >= 0) {
-        amo += sign;
-      } else if (total < -256) {
-        amo -= sign;
-        total %= 256;
-      }
-      value[value.length-i-1] = (byte)total;
-      if (amo == 0) return value;
-    }
-    return value;
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * Writes a string as a fixed-size field, padded with zeros.
-   */
-  public static void writeStringFixedSize(final DataOutput out, String s,
-      int size) throws IOException {
-    byte[] b = toBytes(s);
-    if (b.length > size) {
-      throw new IOException("Trying to write " + b.length + " bytes (" +
-          toStringBinary(b) + ") into a field of length " + size);
-    }
-
-    out.writeBytes(s);
-    for (int i = 0; i < size - s.length(); ++i)
-      out.writeByte(0);
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * Reads a fixed-size field and interprets it as a string padded with zeros.
-   */
-  public static String readStringFixedSize(final DataInput in, int size) 
-      throws IOException {
-    byte[] b = new byte[size];
-    in.readFully(b);
-    int n = b.length;
-    while (n > 0 && b[n - 1] == 0)
-      --n;
-
-    return toString(b, 0, n);
-  }
-
-}

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-tajo/blob/bc6359b8/tajo-common/src/main/java/tajo/util/CommonTestingUtil.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/tajo-common/src/main/java/tajo/util/CommonTestingUtil.java b/tajo-common/src/main/java/tajo/util/CommonTestingUtil.java
deleted file mode 100644
index ab573a5..0000000
--- a/tajo-common/src/main/java/tajo/util/CommonTestingUtil.java
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,57 +0,0 @@
-/**
- * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
- * or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
- * distributed with this work for additional information
- * regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
- * to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
- * "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
- * with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
- *
- *     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
- *
- * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
- * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
- * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
- * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
- * limitations under the License.
- */
-
-package tajo.util;
-
-import org.apache.hadoop.conf.Configuration;
-import org.apache.hadoop.fs.FileSystem;
-import org.apache.hadoop.fs.Path;
-
-import java.io.IOException;
-import java.util.UUID;
-
-public class CommonTestingUtil {
-  /**
-   *
-   * @param dir a local directory to be created
-   * @return  the created path
-   * @throws IOException
-   */
-  public static Path getTestDir(String dir) throws IOException {
-    Path path = new Path(dir);
-    FileSystem fs = FileSystem.getLocal(new Configuration());
-    if(fs.exists(path))
-      fs.delete(path, true);
-
-    fs.mkdirs(path);
-
-    return fs.makeQualified(path);
-  }
-
-  public static Path getTestDir() throws IOException {
-    String randomStr = UUID.randomUUID().toString();
-    Path path = new Path("target/test-data", randomStr);
-    FileSystem fs = FileSystem.getLocal(new Configuration());
-    if(fs.exists(path))
-      fs.delete(path, true);
-
-    fs.mkdirs(path);
-
-    return fs.makeQualified(path);
-  }
-}

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-tajo/blob/bc6359b8/tajo-common/src/main/java/tajo/util/FileUtil.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/tajo-common/src/main/java/tajo/util/FileUtil.java b/tajo-common/src/main/java/tajo/util/FileUtil.java
deleted file mode 100644
index 199c266..0000000
--- a/tajo-common/src/main/java/tajo/util/FileUtil.java
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,93 +0,0 @@
-/**
- * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
- * or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
- * distributed with this work for additional information
- * regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
- * to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
- * "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
- * with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
- *
- *     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
- *
- * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
- * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
- * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
- * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
- * limitations under the License.
- */
-
-package tajo.util;
-
-import com.google.protobuf.Message;
-import org.apache.hadoop.fs.FSDataInputStream;
-import org.apache.hadoop.fs.FSDataOutputStream;
-import org.apache.hadoop.fs.FileSystem;
-import org.apache.hadoop.fs.Path;
-
-import java.io.*;
-
-public class FileUtil {
-	public static void writeProto(File file, Message proto) throws IOException {
-		FileOutputStream stream = new FileOutputStream(file);
-		stream.write(proto.toByteArray());
-		stream.close();		
-	}
-	public static void writeProto(OutputStream out, Message proto) throws IOException {
-		out.write(proto.toByteArray());
-	}
-	
-	public static void writeProto(FileSystem fs, Path path, Message proto) throws IOException {
-		FSDataOutputStream stream = fs.create(path);
-		stream.write(proto.toByteArray());
-		stream.close();
-	}
-	
-	public static Message loadProto(File file, Message proto) throws IOException {
-		FileInputStream in = new FileInputStream(file);
-		Message.Builder builder = proto.newBuilderForType().mergeFrom(in);		
-		return builder.build();
-	}
-	
-	public static Message loadProto(InputStream in, Message proto) throws IOException {
-		Message.Builder builder = proto.newBuilderForType().mergeFrom(in);
-		return builder.build();
-	}
-	
-	public static Message loadProto(FileSystem fs,
-                                  Path path, Message proto) throws IOException {
-		FSDataInputStream in = new FSDataInputStream(fs.open(path));
-		Message.Builder builder = proto.newBuilderForType().mergeFrom(in);
-		return builder.build();
-	}
-	
-	public static File getFile(String path) {
-		return new File(path);
-	}
-	
-	public static String readTextFile(File file) throws IOException {
-    StringBuilder fileData = new StringBuilder(1000);
-    BufferedReader reader = new BufferedReader(
-            new FileReader(file));
-    char[] buf = new char[1024];
-    int numRead;
-    while((numRead=reader.read(buf)) != -1){
-        String readData = String.valueOf(buf, 0, numRead);
-        fileData.append(readData);
-        buf = new char[1024];
-    }
-    reader.close();
-    return fileData.toString();
-  }
-
-  public static String humanReadableByteCount(long bytes, boolean si) {
-    int unit = si ? 1000 : 1024;
-    if (bytes < unit) return bytes + " B";
-    int exp = (int) (Math.log(bytes) / Math.log(unit));
-    String pre = (si ? "kMGTPE" : "KMGTPE").charAt(exp-1) + (si ? "" : "i");
-    return String.format("%.1f %sB", bytes / Math.pow(unit, exp), pre);
-  }
-
-  public static boolean isLocalPath(Path path) {
-    return path.toUri().getScheme().equals("file");
-  }
-}

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-tajo/blob/bc6359b8/tajo-common/src/main/java/tajo/util/JarUtil.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/tajo-common/src/main/java/tajo/util/JarUtil.java b/tajo-common/src/main/java/tajo/util/JarUtil.java
deleted file mode 100644
index 7ae7b2d..0000000
--- a/tajo-common/src/main/java/tajo/util/JarUtil.java
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,64 +0,0 @@
-/**
- * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
- * or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
- * distributed with this work for additional information
- * regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
- * to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
- * "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
- * with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
- *
- *     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
- *
- * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
- * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
- * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
- * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
- * limitations under the License.
- */
-
-package tajo.util;
-
-import java.io.IOException;
-import java.net.URL;
-import java.net.URLDecoder;
-import java.util.Enumeration;
-
-public class JarUtil {
-  /**
-   * Find a jar that contains a class of the same name, if any.
-   * It will return a jar file, even if that is not the first thing
-   * on the class path that has a class with the same name.
-   *
-   * @param my_class the class to find.
-   * @return a jar file that contains the class, or null.
-   * @throws java.io.IOException
-   */
-  public static String findContainingJar(Class my_class) {
-    ClassLoader loader = my_class.getClassLoader();
-    String class_file = my_class.getName().replaceAll("\\.", "/") + ".class";
-    try {
-      for(Enumeration itr = loader.getResources(class_file);
-          itr.hasMoreElements();) {
-        URL url = (URL) itr.nextElement();
-        if ("jar".equals(url.getProtocol())) {
-          String toReturn = url.getPath();
-          if (toReturn.startsWith("file:")) {
-            toReturn = toReturn.substring("file:".length());
-          }
-          // URLDecoder is a misnamed class, since it actually decodes
-          // x-www-form-urlencoded MIME type rather than actual
-          // URL encoding (which the file path has). Therefore it would
-          // decode +s to ' 's which is incorrect (spaces are actually
-          // either unencoded or encoded as "%20"). Replace +s first, so
-          // that they are kept sacred during the decoding process.
-          toReturn = toReturn.replaceAll("\\+", "%2B");
-          toReturn = URLDecoder.decode(toReturn, "UTF-8");
-          return toReturn.replaceAll("!.*$", "");
-        }
-      }
-    } catch (IOException e) {
-      throw new RuntimeException(e);
-    }
-    return null;
-  }
-}

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-tajo/blob/bc6359b8/tajo-common/src/main/java/tajo/util/NumberUtil.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/tajo-common/src/main/java/tajo/util/NumberUtil.java b/tajo-common/src/main/java/tajo/util/NumberUtil.java
deleted file mode 100644
index 600d8bc..0000000
--- a/tajo-common/src/main/java/tajo/util/NumberUtil.java
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,30 +0,0 @@
-/**
- * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
- * or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
- * distributed with this work for additional information
- * regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
- * to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
- * "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
- * with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
- *
- *     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
- *
- * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
- * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
- * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
- * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
- * limitations under the License.
- */
-
-package tajo.util;
-
-public class NumberUtil {
-
-	public static long unsigned32(int n) {
-		return n & 0xFFFFFFFFL;
-	}
-	
-	public static int unsigned16(short n) {
-		return n & 0xFFFF;
-	}
-}

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-tajo/blob/bc6359b8/tajo-common/src/main/java/tajo/util/ReflectionUtil.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/tajo-common/src/main/java/tajo/util/ReflectionUtil.java b/tajo-common/src/main/java/tajo/util/ReflectionUtil.java
deleted file mode 100644
index 563035b..0000000
--- a/tajo-common/src/main/java/tajo/util/ReflectionUtil.java
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,39 +0,0 @@
-/**
- * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
- * or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
- * distributed with this work for additional information
- * regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
- * to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
- * "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
- * with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
- *
- *     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
- *
- * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
- * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
- * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
- * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
- * limitations under the License.
- */
-
-package tajo.util;
-
-import java.lang.reflect.Constructor;
-import java.util.Map;
-import java.util.concurrent.ConcurrentHashMap;
-
-public class ReflectionUtil {
-  private static final Class<?>[] EMPTY_ARRAY = new Class[]{};
-
-  /**
-   * Cache of constructors for each class. Pins the classes so they
-   * can't be garbage collected until ReflectionUtils can be collected.
-   */
-  private static final Map<Class<?>, Constructor<?>> CONSTRUCTOR_CACHE =
-      new ConcurrentHashMap<Class<?>, Constructor<?>>();
-
-	public static Object newInstance(Class<?> clazz) 
-			throws InstantiationException, IllegalAccessException {         
-		return clazz.newInstance();
-	}
-}

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-tajo/blob/bc6359b8/tajo-common/src/main/java/tajo/util/TUtil.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/tajo-common/src/main/java/tajo/util/TUtil.java b/tajo-common/src/main/java/tajo/util/TUtil.java
deleted file mode 100644
index c028244..0000000
--- a/tajo-common/src/main/java/tajo/util/TUtil.java
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,104 +0,0 @@
-/**
- * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
- * or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
- * distributed with this work for additional information
- * regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
- * to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
- * "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
- * with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
- *
- *     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
- *
- * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
- * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
- * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
- * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
- * limitations under the License.
- */
-
-package tajo.util;
-
-import tajo.QueryIdFactory;
-import tajo.QueryUnitAttemptId;
-
-import java.util.*;
-
-/**
- * It provides miscellaneous and useful util methods.
- */
-public class TUtil {
-  /**
-   * check two objects as equals. 
-   * It will return true even if they are all null.
-   * 
-   * @param s1
-   * @param s2
-   * @return true if they are equal or all null
-   */
-  public static boolean checkEquals(Object s1, Object s2) {
-    if (s1 == null ^ s2 == null) {
-      return false;
-    } else if (s1 == null && s2 == null) {
-      return true;
-    } else {
-      return s1.equals(s2);
-    }
-  }
-
-  /**
-   * check two arrays as equals. 
-   * It will return true even if they are all null.
-   * 
-   * @param s1
-   * @param s2
-   * @return true if they are equal or all null
-   */
-  public static boolean checkEquals(Object [] s1, Object [] s2) {
-    if (s1 == null ^ s2 == null) {
-      return false;
-    } else if (s1 == null && s2 == null) {
-      return true;
-    } else {
-      return Arrays.equals(s1, s2);
-    }
-  }
-  
-  public static <T> T[] concat(T[] first, T[] second) {
-    T[] result = Arrays.copyOf(first, first.length + second.length);
-    System.arraycopy(second, 0, result, first.length, second.length);
-    return result;
-  }
-
-  public static <T> Set<T> newHashSet() {
-    return new HashSet<T>();
-  }
-
-  public static <T> List<T> newList() {
-    return new ArrayList<T>();
-  }
-
-  public static <T> List<T> newList(T...items) {
-    List<T> list = new ArrayList<T>();
-    for (T t : items) {
-      list.add(t);
-    }
-
-    return list;
-  }
-
-  public static <T> List<T> newList(Collection<T> items) {
-    List<T> list = new ArrayList<T>();
-    for (T t : items) {
-      list.add(t);
-    }
-
-    return list;
-  }
-
-  public  static QueryUnitAttemptId newQueryUnitAttemptId() {
-    return QueryIdFactory.newQueryUnitAttemptId(
-        QueryIdFactory.newQueryUnitId(
-                QueryIdFactory.newSubQueryId(
-                    QueryIdFactory.newQueryId())), 0);
-  }
-}

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-tajo/blob/bc6359b8/tajo-common/src/main/java/tajo/util/TajoIdUtils.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/tajo-common/src/main/java/tajo/util/TajoIdUtils.java b/tajo-common/src/main/java/tajo/util/TajoIdUtils.java
deleted file mode 100644
index 5fd5a18..0000000
--- a/tajo-common/src/main/java/tajo/util/TajoIdUtils.java
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,83 +0,0 @@
-/**
- * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
- * or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
- * distributed with this work for additional information
- * regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
- * to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
- * "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
- * with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
- *
- *     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
- *
- * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
- * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
- * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
- * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
- * limitations under the License.
- */
-
-package tajo.util;
-
-import org.apache.hadoop.yarn.api.records.ApplicationAttemptId;
-import org.apache.hadoop.yarn.api.records.ApplicationId;
-import org.apache.hadoop.yarn.util.BuilderUtils;
-import tajo.QueryId;
-import tajo.SubQueryId;
-import tajo.TajoIdProtos.SubQueryIdProto;
-
-public class TajoIdUtils {
-  /** It is mainly for DDL statements which don's have any query id. */
-  public static final QueryId NullQueryId =
-      TajoIdUtils.createQueryId(BuilderUtils.newApplicationId(0, 0), 0);
-
-  public static QueryId createQueryId(ApplicationId appId, int attemptId) {
-    return newQueryId(appId, attemptId);
-  }
-
-  public static QueryId createQueryId(ApplicationAttemptId appAttemptId) {
-    QueryId queryId = new QueryId();
-    queryId.setApplicationId(appAttemptId.getApplicationId());
-    queryId.setAttemptId(appAttemptId.getAttemptId());
-    return queryId;
-  }
-
-  public static QueryId createQueryId(String queryId) {
-    String[] split = queryId.split(QueryId.SEPARATOR);
-    ApplicationId appId = BuilderUtils.newApplicationId(Long.valueOf(split[1]),
-        Integer.parseInt(split[2]));
-    int idInt = Integer.parseInt(split[2]);
-    return newQueryId(appId, idInt);
-  }
-
-  public static SubQueryId createSubQueryId(QueryId queryId,
-                                            int subQueryIdInt) {
-    return newSubQueryId(queryId, subQueryIdInt);
-  }
-
-  public static QueryId newQueryId(ApplicationId appId, int id) {
-    QueryId queryId = new QueryId();
-    queryId.setApplicationId(appId);
-    queryId.setAttemptId(id);
-    return queryId;
-  }
-
-  public static SubQueryId newSubQueryId(QueryId jobId, int id) {
-    SubQueryId taskId = new SubQueryId();
-    taskId.setQueryId(jobId);
-    taskId.setId(id);
-    return taskId;
-  }
-
-  public static SubQueryId newSubQueryId(String subQueryId) {
-    String [] split = subQueryId.split(QueryId.SEPARATOR);
-    ApplicationId appId = BuilderUtils.newApplicationId(Long.valueOf(split[1]),
-        Integer.valueOf(split[2]));
-    QueryId queryId = TajoIdUtils.createQueryId(appId, Integer.valueOf(split[3]));
-    return createSubQueryId(queryId, Integer.parseInt(split[4]));
-  }
-
-  public static SubQueryId newSubQueryId(SubQueryIdProto proto) {
-    SubQueryId subId = new SubQueryId(proto);
-    return subId;
-  }
-}

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-tajo/blob/bc6359b8/tajo-common/src/main/proto/DataTypes.proto
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/tajo-common/src/main/proto/DataTypes.proto b/tajo-common/src/main/proto/DataTypes.proto
index c8b18cb..5fef1ad 100644
--- a/tajo-common/src/main/proto/DataTypes.proto
+++ b/tajo-common/src/main/proto/DataTypes.proto
@@ -16,7 +16,7 @@
  * limitations under the License.
  */
 
-option java_package = "tajo.common";
+option java_package = "org.apache.tajo.common";
 option java_outer_classname = "TajoDataTypes";
 option optimize_for = SPEED;
 option java_generic_services = false;

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-tajo/blob/bc6359b8/tajo-common/src/main/proto/TajoIdProtos.proto
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/tajo-common/src/main/proto/TajoIdProtos.proto b/tajo-common/src/main/proto/TajoIdProtos.proto
index abd47c0..04c67f2 100644
--- a/tajo-common/src/main/proto/TajoIdProtos.proto
+++ b/tajo-common/src/main/proto/TajoIdProtos.proto
@@ -16,7 +16,7 @@
  * limitations under the License.
  */
 
-option java_package = "tajo";
+option java_package = "org.apache.tajo";
 option java_outer_classname = "TajoIdProtos";
 option java_generic_services = false;
 option java_generate_equals_and_hash = true;

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-tajo/blob/bc6359b8/tajo-common/src/main/proto/TestProtos.proto
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/tajo-common/src/main/proto/TestProtos.proto b/tajo-common/src/main/proto/TestProtos.proto
index 868b6f1..85957b6 100644
--- a/tajo-common/src/main/proto/TestProtos.proto
+++ b/tajo-common/src/main/proto/TestProtos.proto
@@ -16,7 +16,7 @@
  * limitations under the License.
  */
 
-option java_package = "tajo.util";
+option java_package = "org.apache.tajo.util";
 option java_outer_classname = "TestProtos";
 option java_generic_services = true;
 option java_generate_equals_and_hash = true;

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-tajo/blob/bc6359b8/tajo-common/src/test/java/org/apache/tajo/common/type/TestIPv4.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/tajo-common/src/test/java/org/apache/tajo/common/type/TestIPv4.java b/tajo-common/src/test/java/org/apache/tajo/common/type/TestIPv4.java
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..2f11f8a
--- /dev/null
+++ b/tajo-common/src/test/java/org/apache/tajo/common/type/TestIPv4.java
@@ -0,0 +1,84 @@
+/**
+ * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+ * or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+ * distributed with this work for additional information
+ * regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+ * to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+ * "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+ * with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+ *
+ *     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+ *
+ * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
+ * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
+ * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
+ * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
+ * limitations under the License.
+ */
+
+package org.apache.tajo.common.type;
+
+import org.junit.Test;
+import org.apache.tajo.common.exception.InvalidAddressException;
+
+import static org.junit.Assert.*;
+
+public class TestIPv4 {
+
+	@Test
+	public final void testSet() {
+		IPv4 ip = null;
+		try {
+			ip = new IPv4("255.255.255.255");
+		} catch (InvalidAddressException e) {
+			System.out.println("InvalidAddressException is catched");
+		}
+		byte[] b = new byte[4];
+		for (int i = 0; i < 4; i++) {
+			b[i] = (byte)0xFF;
+		}
+		IPv4 ip2 = new IPv4(b);
+		assertEquals(ip, ip2);
+	}
+	
+	@Test
+	public final void testEqual() throws InvalidAddressException {
+		IPv4 ip1 = new IPv4("163.152.23.1");
+		IPv4 ip2 = new IPv4("163.152.23.2");
+		IPv4 ip3 = new IPv4("163.152.23.1");
+		assertTrue(ip1.equals(ip3));
+		assertFalse(ip1.equals(ip2));
+		IPv4 ip4 = new IPv4("255.255.0.0");
+		assertFalse(ip1.equals(ip4));
+	}
+	
+	@Test
+	public final void testAnd() throws InvalidAddressException {
+		IPv4 ip1 = new IPv4("163.152.23.223");
+		IPv4 ip2 = new IPv4("255.255.255.0");
+		IPv4 ip3 = new IPv4("255.0.0.0");
+		assertEquals(new IPv4("163.152.23.0"), ip1.and(ip2));
+		assertFalse(ip1.and(ip2).equals(new IPv4("163.152.0.0")));
+		assertTrue(ip1.and(ip3).equals(new IPv4("163.0.0.0")));
+	}
+	
+	@Test
+	public final void testMatchSubnet() throws InvalidAddressException {
+		IPv4 ip1 = new IPv4("163.152.23.223");
+		assertTrue(ip1.matchSubnet("163.152.23.0/1"));
+		assertFalse(ip1.matchSubnet("163.152.23.0/28"));
+	}
+	
+	@Test
+	public final void testCompareTo() throws InvalidAddressException {
+		IPv4 ip1 = new IPv4("163.152.23.1");
+		IPv4 ip2 = new IPv4("163.152.23.2");
+		IPv4 ip3 = new IPv4("177.234.123.12");
+		IPv4 ip4 = new IPv4("177.234.123.12");
+		assertTrue(ip1.compareTo(ip2) == -1);
+		assertTrue(ip2.compareTo(ip1) == 1);
+		assertTrue(ip3.compareTo(ip1) == 1);
+		assertFalse(ip3.compareTo(ip2) != 1);
+		assertTrue(ip4.compareTo(ip3) == 0);
+	}
+}

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-tajo/blob/bc6359b8/tajo-common/src/test/java/org/apache/tajo/common/type/TestTimeRange.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/tajo-common/src/test/java/org/apache/tajo/common/type/TestTimeRange.java b/tajo-common/src/test/java/org/apache/tajo/common/type/TestTimeRange.java
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..181e313
--- /dev/null
+++ b/tajo-common/src/test/java/org/apache/tajo/common/type/TestTimeRange.java
@@ -0,0 +1,57 @@
+/**
+ * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+ * or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+ * distributed with this work for additional information
+ * regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+ * to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+ * "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+ * with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+ *
+ *     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+ *
+ * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
+ * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
+ * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
+ * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
+ * limitations under the License.
+ */
+
+package org.apache.tajo.common.type;
+
+import org.junit.Before;
+import org.junit.Test;
+
+import static org.junit.Assert.*;
+
+public class TestTimeRange {
+	TimeRange test1;
+	TimeRange test2;
+	
+	@Before
+	public void testSet() {
+		test1 = new TimeRange(1321421413036l, 1321421442057l);
+		test2 = new TimeRange(1321421580408l, 1321421592193l);
+	}
+	
+	@Test
+	public void testGet() {
+		assertEquals(test1.getBegin(), 1321421413036l);
+		assertEquals(test2.getEnd(), 1321421592193l);
+	}
+
+	@Test
+	public void testCompare() {
+		assertEquals(test2.compareTo(test1), 1321421580408l-1321421413036l);
+	}
+	
+	@Test
+	public void testEquals() {
+		assertTrue(test1.equals(test1));
+		assertFalse(test1.equals(100));
+	}
+	
+//	@Test
+//	public void testToString() {
+//		assertEquals(test1.toString(), "(1321421413036l, 1321421442057l)");
+//	}
+}
\ No newline at end of file

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-tajo/blob/bc6359b8/tajo-common/src/test/java/org/apache/tajo/datum/TestBitDatum.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/tajo-common/src/test/java/org/apache/tajo/datum/TestBitDatum.java b/tajo-common/src/test/java/org/apache/tajo/datum/TestBitDatum.java
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..cbcaaf9
--- /dev/null
+++ b/tajo-common/src/test/java/org/apache/tajo/datum/TestBitDatum.java
@@ -0,0 +1,76 @@
+/**
+ * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+ * or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+ * distributed with this work for additional information
+ * regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+ * to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+ * "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+ * with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+ *
+ *     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+ *
+ * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
+ * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
+ * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
+ * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
+ * limitations under the License.
+ */
+
+package org.apache.tajo.datum;
+
+import org.junit.Test;
+import org.apache.tajo.common.TajoDataTypes.Type;
+
+import static org.junit.Assert.assertEquals;
+import static org.junit.Assert.assertTrue;
+
+public class TestBitDatum {
+
+	@Test
+	public final void testType() {
+		Datum d = DatumFactory.createBit((byte) 1);
+		assertEquals(Type.BIT, d.type());
+	}
+
+	@Test
+	public final void testAsInt() {
+		Datum d = DatumFactory.createBit((byte) 5);
+		assertEquals(5,d.asInt4());
+	}
+	
+	@Test
+	public final void testAsLong() {
+		Datum d = DatumFactory.createBit((byte) 5);
+		assertEquals(5l,d.asInt8());
+	}
+	
+	@Test
+	public final void testAsByte() {
+		Datum d = DatumFactory.createBit((byte) 5);
+		assertEquals(5,d.asInt8());
+	}
+
+	@Test
+	public final void testAsFloat() {
+		Datum d = DatumFactory.createBit((byte) 5);
+		assertTrue(5.0f == d.asFloat4());
+	}
+
+	@Test
+	public final void testAsDouble() {
+		Datum d = DatumFactory.createBit((byte) 5);
+		assertTrue(5.0d == d.asFloat8());
+	}
+	
+	@Test
+	public final void testAsChars() {
+		Datum d = DatumFactory.createBit((byte) 5);
+		System.out.println(d.asChars());
+	}
+	
+	@Test
+  public final void testSize() {
+    Datum d = DatumFactory.createBit((byte) 1);
+    assertEquals(1, d.size());
+  }
+}

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-tajo/blob/bc6359b8/tajo-common/src/test/java/org/apache/tajo/datum/TestBoolDatum.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/tajo-common/src/test/java/org/apache/tajo/datum/TestBoolDatum.java b/tajo-common/src/test/java/org/apache/tajo/datum/TestBoolDatum.java
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..399f615
--- /dev/null
+++ b/tajo-common/src/test/java/org/apache/tajo/datum/TestBoolDatum.java
@@ -0,0 +1,75 @@
+/**
+ * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+ * or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+ * distributed with this work for additional information
+ * regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+ * to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+ * "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+ * with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+ *
+ *     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+ *
+ * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
+ * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
+ * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
+ * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
+ * limitations under the License.
+ */
+
+package org.apache.tajo.datum;
+
+import org.junit.Test;
+import org.apache.tajo.common.TajoDataTypes.Type;
+
+import static org.junit.Assert.assertEquals;
+
+public class TestBoolDatum {
+	
+	@Test
+	public final void testType() {
+		Datum d = DatumFactory.createBool(true);
+		assertEquals(Type.BOOLEAN, d.type());
+	}
+	
+	@Test
+	public final void testAsBool() {
+		Datum d = DatumFactory.createBool(false);
+		assertEquals(false, d.asBool());
+	}
+	
+	@Test
+	public final void testAsShort() {
+		Datum d = DatumFactory.createBool(true);
+		assertEquals(1, d.asInt2());
+	}
+	
+	@Test
+	public final void testAsInt() {
+		Datum d = DatumFactory.createBool(true);
+		assertEquals(1, d.asInt4());
+	}
+	
+	@Test
+	public final void testAsLong() {
+		Datum d = DatumFactory.createBool(false);
+		assertEquals(0, d.asInt8());
+	}
+	
+	@Test
+	public final void testAsByte() {
+		Datum d = DatumFactory.createBool(true);
+		assertEquals(0x01, d.asByte());
+	}
+	
+	@Test
+	public final void testAsChars() {
+		Datum d = DatumFactory.createBool(true);
+		assertEquals("true", d.asChars());
+	}
+	
+	@Test
+  public final void testSize() {
+    Datum d = DatumFactory.createBool(true);
+    assertEquals(1, d.size());
+  }
+}
\ No newline at end of file

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-tajo/blob/bc6359b8/tajo-common/src/test/java/org/apache/tajo/datum/TestBytesDatum.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/tajo-common/src/test/java/org/apache/tajo/datum/TestBytesDatum.java b/tajo-common/src/test/java/org/apache/tajo/datum/TestBytesDatum.java
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..fa4d4d6
--- /dev/null
+++ b/tajo-common/src/test/java/org/apache/tajo/datum/TestBytesDatum.java
@@ -0,0 +1,55 @@
+/**
+ * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+ * or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+ * distributed with this work for additional information
+ * regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+ * to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+ * "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+ * with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+ *
+ *     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+ *
+ * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
+ * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
+ * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
+ * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
+ * limitations under the License.
+ */
+
+package org.apache.tajo.datum;
+
+import org.junit.Test;
+import org.apache.tajo.common.TajoDataTypes.Type;
+import org.apache.tajo.datum.json.GsonCreator;
+
+import static org.junit.Assert.assertEquals;
+import static org.junit.Assert.assertTrue;
+
+public class TestBytesDatum {
+
+  @Test
+  public final void testType() {
+    Datum d = DatumFactory.createBlob("12345".getBytes());
+    assertEquals(Type.BLOB, d.type());
+  }
+  
+  @Test
+  public final void testAsChars() {
+    Datum d = DatumFactory.createBlob("12345".getBytes());
+    assertEquals("12345", d.asChars());
+  }
+  
+  @Test
+  public final void testSize() {
+    Datum d = DatumFactory.createBlob("12345".getBytes());
+    assertEquals(5, d.size());
+  }
+  
+  @Test
+  public final void testJson() {
+	  Datum d = DatumFactory.createBlob("12345".getBytes());
+	  String json = d.toJSON();
+	  Datum fromJson = GsonCreator.getInstance().fromJson(json, Datum.class);
+	  assertTrue(d.equalsTo(fromJson).asBool());
+  }
+}

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-tajo/blob/bc6359b8/tajo-common/src/test/java/org/apache/tajo/datum/TestCharDatum.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/tajo-common/src/test/java/org/apache/tajo/datum/TestCharDatum.java b/tajo-common/src/test/java/org/apache/tajo/datum/TestCharDatum.java
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..3e6ed10
--- /dev/null
+++ b/tajo-common/src/test/java/org/apache/tajo/datum/TestCharDatum.java
@@ -0,0 +1,87 @@
+/**
+ * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+ * or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+ * distributed with this work for additional information
+ * regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+ * to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+ * "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+ * with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+ *
+ *     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+ *
+ * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
+ * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
+ * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
+ * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
+ * limitations under the License.
+ */
+
+package org.apache.tajo.datum;
+
+import org.junit.Test;
+
+import static org.junit.Assert.assertEquals;
+import static org.junit.Assert.assertTrue;
+import static org.apache.tajo.common.TajoDataTypes.Type;
+
+public class TestCharDatum {
+
+	@Test
+	public final void testType() {
+		Datum d = DatumFactory.createChar((char) 1);
+		assertEquals(Type.CHAR, d.type());
+	}
+
+	@Test
+	public final void testAsInt() {
+		Datum d = DatumFactory.createChar((char)5);
+		assertEquals(5,d.asInt4());
+	}
+	
+	@Test
+	public final void testAsLong() {
+		Datum d = DatumFactory.createChar((char)5);
+		assertEquals(5l,d.asInt8());
+	}
+	
+	@Test
+	public final void testAsByte() {
+		Datum d = DatumFactory.createChar((char)5);
+		assertEquals(5,d.asInt8());
+	}
+
+	@Test
+	public final void testAsFloat() {
+		Datum d = DatumFactory.createChar((char)5);
+		assertTrue(5.0f == d.asFloat4());
+	}
+
+	@Test
+	public final void testAsDouble() {
+		Datum d = DatumFactory.createChar((char)5);
+		assertTrue(5.0d == d.asFloat8());
+	}
+	
+	@Test
+	public final void testAsChars() {
+		Datum d = DatumFactory.createChar((char)5);
+		System.out.println(d.asChars());
+	}
+	
+	@Test
+  public final void testSize() {
+    Datum d = DatumFactory.createChar((char) 1);
+    assertEquals(1, d.size());
+  }
+
+  @Test
+  public final void testCompare() {
+    Datum a = DatumFactory.createChar('a');
+    Datum b = DatumFactory.createChar('b');
+    Datum c = DatumFactory.createChar('c');
+
+    assertTrue(a.compareTo(b) < 0);
+    assertTrue(b.compareTo(a) > 0);
+    assertTrue(c.compareTo(c) == 0);
+  }
+}
\ No newline at end of file


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