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From "Andrej Sobkowski" <>
Subject Validator design considerations
Date Thu, 01 Jan 1970 00:00:00 GMT
Hello All,

I have a set of design considerations/suggestions for the Validation 
Framework in Struts. Let me know if I'm totally missing the point.

I like the whole Validator approach, in particular the XML configuration. I 
believe that's the way to go, but I'd like to discuss a few points.

DISCUSSION: The Validator is quite "linked" to Servlet's stuff 
(HttpServletRequest) and to FormBean. If I got it right, currently the 
Validator needs a set of parameters to be passed to the ValidatorAction, 
including the bean to validate, the Field and some Servlet parameters.

In a similar way, the validation process is linked to the FormBean 
(validate() in FormBean class).

Shouldn't they be separate?
- The Action should take care of the HTTP stuff while the Validator should 
only have knowledge of the bean and the corresponding fields to be 
- The form bean itself is a "special data holder" and shouldn't be aware of 
how its data is validated. Do you agree?

I was thinking at something like the following (pseudo-code):

* CONFIGURATION file (new DTD for struts-config.xml or separate file)
  <action    path="/login"
    <!-- add validation on myForm's property 'lastName' that will check via 
a SizeValidator
         that the size of the field is between 1 and 15 chars. If not, the 
message will be
         returned in the ValidationException (I18N can be added easily) -->
    <validation property="lastName"
                message="Last Name is mandatory and can't be longer than 15 
chars" />

public interface IValidator(Object bean) {
  +validate() throws ValidationException;

public class Action {
  +addValidator(IValidator val)
  +validators(): Iterator // returns an Iterator on all validators for the 

// Validator that checks if text size is >min and < max (for example).
// It can be easily extended to check int min/max and so on.
public class SizeValidator {
  ... // min/max

  public void validate(Object bean) throws ValidationException {
    Object value = getPropertyValue(bean);
    if (value instanceof String) {
      // Check String size
      String check = (String)value;
      if ((check.length() > maxSize) ||
          (check.length() < minSize)) {
          // Validation failed: throw exception
          // with corresponding error message (defined in conf)
    } else {
      // Error, wrong class type...

// Minor changes to ActionServlet
public class ActionServlet {
  public void processInitValidatorsForAction(..) {
  // By reading the XML configuration file, the ActionServlet will execute a 
set of addValidator(..)
  // For example, consider the following XML struts-config.xml (DTD to be 
  // <action
  curAction.addValidator(new SizeValidator("lastName", "1", "15");
  curAction.addValidator(new RegExpValidator("phone", "(999)999-9999");

  // Executes all validators on FormBean(s) for action executed
  public ActionErrors processValidate(...) {
    Iterator it = action.validators();
    try {
      ((Validator); // the validator validates 
the form bean only
    } catch (ValidationException e) {
      Log.debug("Validation failed!", e);
      errors.addError(e.getMessage()); // Add multilanguage

Useless to say, this is only a high-level point of view. It does work on my 
prototype (no XML config), but it can be enhanced and optimized in many 
ways. I think it's also conceptually pretty close to what is currently done 
in the Validator.

The Validators can be designed as desired. To compare two values, simply 
define a validator like CompareValidator(property1, property2, compareRule) 
with compareRule = "<", ">",...

What do you think?



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