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From lukaszlen...@apache.org
Subject [struts-site] branch master updated: Cleans up file upload documentation
Date Wed, 14 Nov 2018 06:53:22 GMT
This is an automated email from the ASF dual-hosted git repository.

lukaszlenart pushed a commit to branch master
in repository https://gitbox.apache.org/repos/asf/struts-site.git


The following commit(s) were added to refs/heads/master by this push:
     new e59291b  Cleans up file upload documentation
e59291b is described below

commit e59291b0ff69cf96f57f04918284cb931753d8da
Author: Lukasz Lenart <lukaszlenart@apache.org>
AuthorDate: Wed Nov 14 07:52:56 2018 +0100

    Cleans up file upload documentation
---
 source/core-developers/file-upload.md | 203 +++++++++++++++++-----------------
 1 file changed, 104 insertions(+), 99 deletions(-)

diff --git a/source/core-developers/file-upload.md b/source/core-developers/file-upload.md
index c6ae227..fddca06 100644
--- a/source/core-developers/file-upload.md
+++ b/source/core-developers/file-upload.md
@@ -4,23 +4,32 @@ title: File Upload
 ---
 
 # File Upload
+{:.no_toc}
 
-The Struts 2 framework provides built\-in support for processing file uploads that conform
to [RFC 1867](http://www\.ietf\.org/rfc/rfc1867\.txt)^[http://www\.ietf\.org/rfc/rfc1867\.txt],
"Form\-based File Upload in HTML"\. When correctly configured the framework will pass uploaded
file(s) into your Action class\. Support for individual and multiple file uploads are provided\.
When a file is uploaded it will typically be stored in a temporary directory\. Uploaded files
should be processed [...]
+* Will be replaced with the ToC, excluding a header
+{:toc}
+
+The Struts 2 framework provides built-in support for processing file uploads that conform
to [RFC 1867](http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1867.txt), 
+"Form-based File Upload in HTML". When correctly configured the framework will pass uploaded
file(s) into your Action class. 
+Support for individual and multiple file uploads are provided. When a file is uploaded it
will typically be stored in a temporary directory. 
+Uploaded files should be processed or moved by your Action class to ensure the data is not
lost. Be aware that servers may have a security 
+policy in place that prohibits you from writing to directories other than the temporary directory
and the directories that belong to your 
+web application.
 
 
 ## Dependencies
 
-The Struts 2 framework leverages add\-on libraries to handle the parsing of uploaded files\.
These libraries are not included in the Struts distribution, you must add them into your project\.
The libraries needed are:
+The Struts 2 framework leverages add-on libraries to handle the parsing of uploaded files.
These libraries are not included in the Struts 
+distribution, you must add them into your project. The libraries needed are:
 
-|Library|URL|Struts 2\.0\.x|Struts 2\.1\.x|Struts 2\.5\.x|
+|Library|URL|Struts 2.0.x|Struts 2.1.x|Struts 2.5.x|
 |-------|---|--------------|--------------|--------------|
-|Commons\-FileUpload|[http://commons\.apache\.org/fileupload/](http://commons\.apache\.org/fileupload/)|1\.1\.1|1\.2\.1|1\.3\.2|
-|Commons\-IO|[http://commons\.apache\.org/io/](http://commons\.apache\.org/io/)|1\.0|1\.3\.2|2\.4|
-
-If you are using Maven then you can add these libraries as dependencies in your project's
pom\.xml\.
+|Commons-FileUpload|[http://commons.apache.org/fileupload/](http://commons.apache.org/fileupload/)|1.1.1|1.2.1|1.3.2|
+|Commons-IO|[http://commons.apache.org/io/](http://commons.apache.org/io/)|1.0|1.3.2|2.4|
 
-**Struts 2\.0\.x File Upload Dependencies**
+If you are using Maven then you can add these libraries as dependencies in your project's
pom.xml.
 
+### Struts 2.0.x File Upload Dependencies
 
 ```xml
 <dependency>
@@ -33,11 +42,9 @@ If you are using Maven then you can add these libraries as dependencies
in your
     <artifactId>commons-io</artifactId>
     <version>1.0</version>
 </dependency>
-
 ```
 
-**Struts 2\.1\.x File Upload Dependencies**
-
+### Struts 2.1.x File Upload Dependencies
 
 ```xml
 <dependency>
@@ -50,15 +57,15 @@ If you are using Maven then you can add these libraries as dependencies
in your
     <artifactId>commons-io</artifactId>
     <version>1.3.2</version>
 </dependency>
-
 ```
 
 ## Basic Usage
 
-The `org.apache.struts2.interceptor.FileUploadInterceptor` class is included as part of the
`defaultStack`\. As long as the required libraries are added to your project you will be able
to take advantage of of the Struts 2 fileUpload capability\. Configure an Action mapping for
your Action class as you typically would\.
-
-**Example action mapping:**
+The `org.apache.struts2.interceptor.FileUploadInterceptor` class is included as part of the
`defaultStack`. As long as the required libraries 
+are added to your project you will be able to take advantage of of the Struts 2 fileUpload
capability. Configure an Action mapping for your 
+Action class as you typically would.
 
+### Example action mapping:
 
 ```xml
 <action name="doUpload" class="com.example.UploadAction">
@@ -67,26 +74,23 @@ The `org.apache.struts2.interceptor.FileUploadInterceptor` class is included
as
 
 ```
 
-A form must be create with a form field of type file, `<INPUT type="file" name="upload">`\.
The form used to upload the file must have its encoding type set to multipart/form\-data,

-`<FORM action="doUpload" enctype="multipart/form-data" method="post">`\. The standard
procedure for adding these elements is by using the Struts 2 tag libraries as shown in the
following example:
-
-**Example JSP form tags:**
+A form must be create with a form field of type file, `<INPUT type="file" name="upload">`.
The form used to upload the file must have its 
+encoding type set to `multipart/form-data`, `<form action="doUpload" enctype="multipart/form-data"
method="post">`. The standard procedure 
+for adding these elements is by using the Struts 2 tag libraries as shown in the following
example:
 
-{% comment %}start snippet id=example-form|lang=xml|javadoc=true|url=org.apache.struts2.interceptor.FileUploadInterceptor
{% endcomment %}
+### Example JSP form tags:
 
 ```xml
    <s:form action="doUpload" method="post" enctype="multipart/form-data">
        <s:file name="upload" label="File"/>
        <s:submit/>
    </s:form>
-
 ```
 
-{% comment %}end snippet id=example-form|lang=xml|javadoc=true|url=org.apache.struts2.interceptor.FileUploadInterceptor
{% endcomment %}
-The fileUpload interceptor will use setter injection to insert the uploaded file and related
data into your Action class\. For a form field named **upload** you would provide the three
setter methods shown in the following example:
-
-**Example Action class:**
+The fileUpload interceptor will use setter injection to insert the uploaded file and related
data into your Action class. For a form field 
+named `upload` you would provide the three setter methods shown in the following example:
 
+### Example Action class:
 
 ```java
 package com.example;
@@ -119,22 +123,26 @@ package com.example;
 
 ```
 
-The purpose of each one of these methods is described in the table below\. Notice that if
you have multiple file form elements with different names you would be required to have another
corresponding set of these methods for each file uploaded\.
+The purpose of each one of these methods is described in the table below. Notice that if
you have multiple file form elements with different 
+names you would be required to have another corresponding set of these methods for each file
uploaded.
 
 |Method Signature|Description|
 |----------------|-----------|
-|setX(File file)|The file that contains the content of the uploaded file\. This is a temporary
file and file\.getName() will not return the original name of the file|
-|setXContentType(String contentType)|The mime type of the uploaded file|
-|setXFileName(String fileName)|The actual file name of the uploaded file (not the HTML name)|
+|`setX(File file)`|The file that contains the content of the uploaded file. This is a temporary
file and file.getName() will not return the original name of the file|
+|`setXContentType(String contentType)`|The mime type of the uploaded file|
+|`setXFileName(String fileName)`|The actual file name of the uploaded file (not the HTML
name)|
 
 ## Uploading Multiple Files
 
-As mentioned in the previous section one technique for uploading multiple files would be
to simply have multiple form input elements of type file all with different names\. This would
require a number of setter methods that was equal to 3 times the number of files being uploaded\.
Another option is to use Arrays or java\.util\.Lists\. The following examples are taken from
the Showcase example application that is part sample applications you can download at [http://struts\.apache\.org/dow
[...]
-
-__Uploading Multiple Files using Arrays__
+As mentioned in the previous section one technique for uploading multiple files would be
to simply have multiple form input elements of type 
+file all with different names. This would require a number of setter methods that was equal
to 3 times the number of files being uploaded. 
+Another option is to use Arrays or java.util.Lists. The following examples are taken from
the Showcase example application that is part 
+sample applications you can download at [http://struts.apache.org/download.cgi](http://struts.apache.org/download.cgi).
For the Action mapping 
+details see `struts-fileupload.xml` in the sample application download.
 
-**multipleUploadUsingArray\.jsp** Notice all file input types have the same name\.
+### Uploading Multiple Files using Arrays
 
+`multipleUploadUsingArray.jsp` Notice all file input types have the same name.
 
 ```jsp
 <s:form action="doMultipleUploadUsingArray" method="POST" enctype="multipart/form-data">
@@ -145,13 +153,7 @@ __Uploading Multiple Files using Arrays__
 </s:form>
 ```
 
-**MultipleFileUploadUsingArrayAction\.java**
-
- 
-
-**
-**
-
+`MultipleFileUploadUsingArrayAction.java`
 
 ```java
 public class MultipleFileUploadUsingArrayAction extends ActionSupport {
@@ -197,12 +199,9 @@ public class MultipleFileUploadUsingArrayAction extends ActionSupport
{
 }
 ```
 
- 
-
-__Uploading Multiple Files using Lists__
-
-**multipleUploadUsingList\.jsp** Notice all file input types have the same name\.
+### Uploading Multiple Files using Lists
 
+`multipleUploadUsingList.jsp` Notice all file input types have the same name.
 
 ```jsp
 <s:form action="doMultipleUploadUsingList" method="POST" enctype="multipart/form-data">
@@ -213,8 +212,7 @@ __Uploading Multiple Files using Lists__
 </s:form>
 ```
 
-**MultipleFileUploadUsingListAction\.java**
-
+`MultipleFileUploadUsingListAction.java`
 
 ```java
 public class MultipleFileUploadUsingListAction extends ActionSupport {
@@ -262,25 +260,20 @@ public class MultipleFileUploadUsingListAction extends ActionSupport
{
 
 ## Advanced Configuration
 
-The Struts 2 `default.properties` file defines several settings that affect the behavior
of file uploading\. You may find in necessary to change these values\. The names and default
values are:
-
+The Struts 2 `default.properties` file defines several settings that affect the behavior
of file uploading. You may find in necessary 
+to change these values. The names and default values are:
 
-~~~~~~~
+```
 struts.multipart.parser=jakarta
 struts.multipart.saveDir=
 struts.multipart.maxSize=2097152
+```
 
-~~~~~~~
-
-
-
-| Please remember that the **struts\.multipart\.maxSize** is the size limit of the whole
request, which means when you uploading multiple files, the sum of their size must be below
the **struts\.multipart\.maxSize**\!
-
-| 
+> Please remember that the `struts.multipart.maxSize` is the size limit of the whole request,
which means when you uploading multiple files, 
+> the sum of their size must be below the `struts.multipart.maxSize`!
 
 In order to change theses settings you define a constant in your applications `struts.xml`
file like so:
 
-
 ```xml
 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
 <!DOCTYPE struts PUBLIC 
@@ -290,11 +283,9 @@ In order to change theses settings you define a constant in your applications
`s
     <constant name="struts.multipart.maxSize" value="1000000" />
     ...
 </struts>
-
 ```
 
-Additionally the `fileUpload` interceptor has settings that can be put in place for individual
action mappings by customizing your interceptor stack\.
-
+Additionally the `fileUpload` interceptor has settings that can be put in place for individual
action mappings by customizing your interceptor stack.
 
 ```xml
 <action name="doUpload" class="com.example.UploadAction">
@@ -307,14 +298,16 @@ Additionally the `fileUpload` interceptor has settings that can be put
in place
 
     <result name="success">good_result.jsp</result>
 </action>
-
 ```
 
-__File Size Limits__
-
-There are two separate file size limits\. First is `struts.multipart.maxSize` which comes
from the Struts 2 `default.properties` file\. This setting exists for security reasons to
prohibit a malicious user from uploading extremely large files to file up your servers disk
space\. This setting defaults to approximately 2 megabytes and should be adjusted to the maximum
size file (2 gigs max) that your will need the framework to receive\. If you are uploading
more than one file on a form the [...]
-`maximumSize`, is an interceptor setting that is used to ensure a particular Action does
not receive a file that is too large\. Notice the locations of both settings in the following
example:
+### File Size Limits
 
+There are two separate file size limits. First is `struts.multipart.maxSize` which comes
from the Struts 2 `default.properties` file. 
+This setting exists for security reasons to prohibit a malicious user from uploading extremely
large files to file up your servers disk space. 
+This setting defaults to approximately 2 megabytes and should be adjusted to the maximum
size file (2 gigs max) that your will need the framework 
+to receive. If you are uploading more than one file on a form the `struts.multipart.maxSize`
applies to the combined total, not the individual 
+file sizes. The other setting, `maximumSize`, is an interceptor setting that is used to ensure
a particular Action does not receive a file 
+that is too large. Notice the locations of both settings in the following example:
 
 ```xml
 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
@@ -338,10 +331,10 @@ There are two separate file size limits\. First is `struts.multipart.maxSize`
wh
 
 ```
 
-__File Types__
-
-There are two ways to limit the uploaded file type, declaratively and programmatically\.
To declaratively limit the file type a comma separated list of allowedTypes can be specified
as a fileUpload interceptor param as shown in the following example:
+### File Types
 
+There are two ways to limit the uploaded file type, decoratively and programmatically. To
decoratively limit the file type a comma separated 
+list of allowedTypes can be specified as a fileUpload interceptor param as shown in the following
example:
 
 ```xml
 <action name="doUpload" class="com.example.UploadAction">
@@ -354,60 +347,72 @@ There are two ways to limit the uploaded file type, declaratively and
programmat
 
     <result name="success">good_result.jsp</result>
 </action>
-
 ```
 
-When the uploaded file type does not match one of the MIME types specified a field error
will be created as described in the next section entitled Error Messages\. Programmatically
limiting the file type means using the information passed in to your Action class via the
`setXContentType(String contentType)` method\. The benefit to this type of approach would
be that it's more flexible and no interceptor configuration would be needed if file sizes
are keep under 2 megs\.
+When the uploaded file type does not match one of the MIME types specified a field error
will be created as described in the next section 
+entitled Error Messages. Programmatically limiting the file type means using the information
passed in to your Action class via 
+the `setXContentType(String contentType)` method. The benefit to this type of approach would
be that it's more flexible and no interceptor 
+configuration would be needed if file sizes are keep under 2 megs.
 
-__Error Messages__
+### Error Messages
 
-If an error occurs several field errors will be added assuming that the action implements
`com.opensymphony.xwork2.ValidationAware` or extends `com.opensymphony.xwork2.ActionSupport`\.
These error messages are based on several i18n values stored in struts\-messages\.properties,
a default i18n file processed for all i18n requests\. You can override the text of these messages
by providing text for the following keys:
+If an error occurs several field errors will be added assuming that the action implements
`com.opensymphony.xwork2.ValidationAware` 
+or extends `com.opensymphony.xwork2.ActionSupport`. These error messages are based on several
i18n values stored in struts-messages.properties, 
+a default i18n file processed for all i18n requests. You can override the text of these messages
by providing text for the following keys:
 
 |Error Key|Description|
 |---------|-----------|
-|struts\.messages\.error\.uploading|A general error that occurs when the file could not be
uploaded|
-|struts\.messages\.error\.file\.too\.large|Occurs when the uploaded file is too large as
specified by maximumSize\.|
-|struts\.messages\.error\.content\.type\.not\.allowed|Occurs when the uploaded file does
not match the expected content types specified|
-|struts\.messages\.error\.file\.extension\.not\.allowed|Occurs when uploaded file has disallowed
extension|
-|struts\.messages\.upload\.error\.SizeLimitExceededException|Occurs when the upload request
(as a whole) exceed configured **struts\.multipart\.maxSize**|
-|struts\.messages\.upload\.error\.\<Exception class SimpleName\>|Occurs when any other
exception took place during file upload process|
+|`struts.messages.error.uploading`|A general error that occurs when the file could not be
uploaded|
+|`struts.messages.error.file.too.large`|Occurs when the uploaded file is too large as specified
by maximumSize.|
+|`struts.messages.error.content.type.not.allowed`|Occurs when the uploaded file does not
match the expected content types specified|
+|`struts.messages.error.file.extension.not.allowed`|Occurs when uploaded file has disallowed
extension|
+|`struts.messages.upload.error.SizeLimitExceededException`|Occurs when the upload request
(as a whole) exceed configured **struts.multipart.maxSize**|
+|`struts.messages.upload.error.<Exception class SimpleName>`|Occurs when any other
exception took place during file upload process|
 
-__Temporary Directories__
+### Temporary Directories
 
-All uploaded files are saved to a temporary directory by the framework before being passed
in to an Action\. Depending on the allowed file sizes it may be necessary to have the framework
store these temporary files in an alternate location\. To do this change `struts.multipart.saveDir`
to the directory where the uploaded files will be placed\. If this property is not set it
defaults to `javax.servlet.context.tempdir`\. Keep in mind that on some operating systems,
like Solaris, `/tmp` is  [...]
+All uploaded files are saved to a temporary directory by the framework before being passed
in to an Action. Depending on the allowed file 
+sizes it may be necessary to have the framework store these temporary files in an alternate
location. To do this change `struts.multipart.saveDir` 
+to the directory where the uploaded files will be placed. If this property is not set it
defaults to `javax.servlet.context.tempdir`. 
+Keep in mind that on some operating systems, like Solaris, `/tmp` is memory based and files
stored in that directory would consume 
+an amount of RAM approximately equal to the size of the uploaded file.
 
-__Alternate Libraries__
+### Alternate Libraries
 
-The `struts.multipart.parser` used by the fileUpload interceptor to handle HTTP POST requests,
encoded using the MIME\-type multipart/form\-data, can be changed out\. Currently there are
two choices, jakarta and pell\. The jakarta parser is a standard part of the Struts 2 framework
needing only its required libraries added to a project\. The pell parser uses Jason Pell's
multipart parser instead of the Commons\-FileUpload library\. The pell parser is a Struts
2 plugin, for more details s [...]
+The `struts.multipart.parser` used by the fileUpload interceptor to handle HTTP POST requests,
encoded using the MIME-type `multipart/form-data`, 
+can be changed out. Currently there are two choices, jakarta and pell. The jakarta parser
is a standard part of the Struts 2 framework needing 
+only its required libraries added to a project. The pell parser uses Jason Pell's multipart
parser instead of the Commons-FileUpload library. 
+The pell parser is a Struts 2 plugin, for more details see: [Pell multipart plugin](../plugins/pell/).
There was a third alternative, cos, but it was removed 
+due to licensing incompatibilities.
 
-As from Struts version 2\.3\.18 a new implementation of `MultiPartRequest` was added \- `JakartaStreamMultiPartRequest`\.
It can be used to handle large files, see [WW\-3025](https://issues\.apache\.org/jira/browse/WW\-3025)^[https://issues\.apache\.org/jira/browse/WW\-3025]
for more details, but you can simple set
+As from Struts version 2.3.18 a new implementation of `MultiPartRequest` was added - `JakartaStreamMultiPartRequest`.
It can be used to handle 
+large files, see [WW-3025](https://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/WW-3025) for more details,
but you can simple set
 
+```
+<constant name="struts.multipart.parser" value="jakarta-stream" />
+```
 
+in struts.xml to start using it.
 
-> \<constant name="struts\.multipart\.parser" value="jakarta\-stream" /\>
-
-in struts\.xml to start using it\.
-
-__Request validation__
-
-The `struts.multipart.validationRegex` is used to define a RegEx to be used to validate if
the incoming request is a multipart request\. The request must use the `POST` method and
match the RegEx, by default the RegEx is defined as follow:
+### Request validation
 
+The `struts.multipart.validationRegex` is used to define a RegEx to be used to validate if
the incoming request is a multipart request. 
+The request must use the `POST` method and match the RegEx, by default the RegEx is defined
as follow:
 
-~~~~~~~
+```
 ^multipart\\/form-data(; boundary=[a-zA-Z0-9]{1,70})?
-~~~~~~~
+```
 
-Please read [RFC1341](https://www\.w3\.org/Protocols/rfc1341/7\_2\_Multipart\.html)^[https://www\.w3\.org/Protocols/rfc1341/7\_2\_Multipart\.html]
the **Multipart section** for more details, existing Struts `Multipart` parsers support only
`multipart/form-data` content type\. This option is available since Struts 2\.3\.11\.
+Please read [RFC1341](https://www.w3.org/Protocols/rfc1341/7\_2\_Multipart.html) the **Multipart
section** for more details, existing 
+Struts `Multipart` parsers support only `multipart/form-data` content type. This option
is available since Struts 2.3.11.
 
-__Disabling file upload support__
+### Disabling file upload support
 
 You can alternatively disable the whole file upload mechanism defining a constant in `struts.xml`:
 
-
 ```xml
 <constant name="struts.multipart.enabled" value="false"/>
 ```
 
-With this constant in place, Struts will ignore a `Content-Type` header and will treat each
request as an ordinary http request\. This option is available since Struts 2\.3\.11\.
-
- 
+With this constant in place, Struts will ignore a `Content-Type` header and will treat each
request as an ordinary http request. 
+This option is available since Struts 2.3.11. 


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