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From zhaoj...@apache.org
Subject [07/50] [abbrv] incubator-singa git commit: SINGA-171 - Create CppDevice and CudaDevice
Date Mon, 13 Jun 2016 13:20:00 GMT
SINGA-171 - Create CppDevice and CudaDevice

Implement CudaDevice.

(zhongle) Fix erorrs for cudnn and cuda by adding cuda & cudnn libs to singa_linker_libs.

NOTE: set cudnn include path before cuda include path, as some platforms may include cudnn.h
in cuda/include, but the cudnn.h is not the one users configured in CMAKE_XXX_PATH.

Pass test for cudnn dropout; NOTE: make sure all data in cudnn layers are allocated on device
(not on cpu). you can check mem erros by cuda-memcheck ./program

pass cpplint.


Project: http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-singa/repo
Commit: http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-singa/commit/0b4b2e20
Tree: http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-singa/tree/0b4b2e20
Diff: http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-singa/diff/0b4b2e20

Branch: refs/heads/master
Commit: 0b4b2e20f803d1b890f24e6047912282092c156f
Parents: 282712c
Author: Wei Wang <wangwei@comp.nus.edu.sg>
Authored: Wed May 18 20:10:45 2016 +0800
Committer: Wei Wang <wangwei@comp.nus.edu.sg>
Committed: Thu May 19 14:19:36 2016 +0800

----------------------------------------------------------------------
 CMakeLists.txt                   |   3 +-
 cmake/Cuda.cmake                 |   7 +-
 include/singa/core/tensor.h      |   5 +-
 include/singa/model/layer.h      |   7 +-
 src/core/device/cpp_device.cc    |   2 +-
 src/core/device/cuda_device.cc   |  15 ++--
 src/core/device/device.cc        |   8 ++-
 src/core/tensor/tensor.cc        |   8 +--
 src/model/layer/cudnn_dropout.cc |  30 +++++---
 src/model/layer/cudnn_dropout.h  |   8 ++-
 test/CMakeLists.txt              |   3 +-
 test/singa/test_cpp_device.cc    |   2 +-
 test/singa/test_cudnn_dropout.cc | 127 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 test/singa/test_dropout.cc       |  16 ++---
 test/singa/test_tensor_math.cc   |  12 ++--
 15 files changed, 201 insertions(+), 52 deletions(-)
----------------------------------------------------------------------


http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-singa/blob/0b4b2e20/CMakeLists.txt
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/CMakeLists.txt b/CMakeLists.txt
index 8457bf2..2d1a1e6 100644
--- a/CMakeLists.txt
+++ b/CMakeLists.txt
@@ -1,6 +1,7 @@
 CMAKE_MINIMUM_REQUIRED(VERSION 2.6)
 PROJECT(singa)
-SET(CMAKE_CXX_FLAGS "${CMAKE_CXX_FLAGS} -g -std=c++11 -DUSE_CUDA -DUSE_CUDNN")
+SET(CMAKE_CXX_FLAGS "${CMAKE_CXX_FLAGS} -g -std=c++11")
+#message(STATUS "${CMAKE_CXX_FLAGS}")
 
 list(APPEND CMAKE_MODULE_PATH ${PROJECT_SOURCE_DIR}/cmake/Thirdparty)
 #message(STATUS "module path: ${CMAKE_MODULE_PATH}")

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-singa/blob/0b4b2e20/cmake/Cuda.cmake
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/cmake/Cuda.cmake b/cmake/Cuda.cmake
index e3338af..8780fc6 100644
--- a/cmake/Cuda.cmake
+++ b/cmake/Cuda.cmake
@@ -7,8 +7,9 @@ endif()
 
 set(HAVE_CUDA TRUE)
 message(STATUS "Found cuda_v${CUDA_VERSION}")
-include_directories(SYSTEM ${CUDA_INCLUDE_DIRS})
-list(APPEND SINGA_LINKER_LIBS ${CUDA_CUDART_LIBRARY} ${CUDA_curand_LIBRARY} ${CUDA_CUBLAS_LIBRARIES})
+add_definitions(-DUSE_CUDA)
+#message(STATUS "linking: ${CUDA_CUDART_LIBRARY} ${CUDA_curand_LIBRARY} ${CUDA_CUBLAS_LIBRARIES}")
+
 
 #if(USE_CUDNN)
 #include(cmake/Modules/Cudnn.cmake)
@@ -18,3 +19,5 @@ list(APPEND SINGA_LINKER_LIBS ${CUDA_CUDART_LIBRARY} ${CUDA_curand_LIBRARY}
${CU
     add_definitions(-DUSE_CUDNN)
 #endif()
 
+include_directories(SYSTEM ${CUDA_INCLUDE_DIRS})
+list(APPEND SINGA_LINKER_LIBS ${CUDA_CUDART_LIBRARY} ${CUDA_curand_LIBRARY} ${CUDA_CUBLAS_LIBRARIES})

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-singa/blob/0b4b2e20/include/singa/core/tensor.h
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/include/singa/core/tensor.h b/include/singa/core/tensor.h
index 03bf443..359f1ee 100644
--- a/include/singa/core/tensor.h
+++ b/include/singa/core/tensor.h
@@ -88,8 +88,8 @@ class Tensor {
 
   /// Return immutable Tensor values with given type.
   template <typename DType>
-  const DType* data() const {
-    return static_cast<const DType*> (blob()->data());
+  DType data() const {
+    return static_cast<DType> (blob()->data());
   }
 
   /// data type, including kFloat16, kFloat32, kInt
@@ -111,6 +111,7 @@ class Tensor {
 
   /// Return number of total elements
   size_t Size() const {
+    CHECK_EQ(blob_->size() % SizeOf(data_type_), 0u);
     return blob_->size() / SizeOf(data_type_);
   }
 

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-singa/blob/0b4b2e20/include/singa/model/layer.h
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/include/singa/model/layer.h b/include/singa/model/layer.h
index a4c4630..050236a 100644
--- a/include/singa/model/layer.h
+++ b/include/singa/model/layer.h
@@ -16,12 +16,13 @@
  * limitations under the License.
  */
 
-#ifndef SINGA_LAYER_H_
-#define SINGA_LAYER_H_
+#ifndef SINGA_MODEL_LAYER_H_
+#define SINGA_MODEL_LAYER_H_
 
 #include <vector>
 #include <string>
 #include <stack>
+#include <utility>
 #include "singa/core/tensor.h"
 #include "singa/proto/layer.pb.h"
 
@@ -191,4 +192,4 @@ class Layer {
 };
 
 }  // namespace singa
-#endif  // SINGA_LAYER_H_
+#endif  // SINGA_MODEL_LAYER_H_

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-singa/blob/0b4b2e20/src/core/device/cpp_device.cc
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/src/core/device/cpp_device.cc b/src/core/device/cpp_device.cc
index d0e051e..763156c 100644
--- a/src/core/device/cpp_device.cc
+++ b/src/core/device/cpp_device.cc
@@ -44,4 +44,4 @@ void CppDevice::CopyToFrom(void* dst, const void* src, size_t nBytes,
                            CopyDirection direction, Context* ctx) {
   memcpy(dst, src, nBytes);
 }
-}
+}  // namespace singa

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-singa/blob/0b4b2e20/src/core/device/cuda_device.cc
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/src/core/device/cuda_device.cc b/src/core/device/cuda_device.cc
index 1f6de60..9be1a6e 100644
--- a/src/core/device/cuda_device.cc
+++ b/src/core/device/cuda_device.cc
@@ -16,11 +16,11 @@
  * limitations under the License.
  */
 #ifdef USE_CUDA
-#include <chrono>
 #include <cublas_v2.h>
 #include <cuda.h>
 #include <cuda_runtime.h>
 #include <curand.h>
+#include <chrono>
 
 #include "singa/core/device.h"
 #include "singa/utils/cuda.h"
@@ -47,10 +47,10 @@ CudaDevice::CudaDevice(int id, int num_executors,
                        string scheduler, string vm)
     : Device(id, num_executors, scheduler, vm) {
   device_type_ = kCuda;
-  host_ = nullptr; // TODO(wangwei) add host device
-  ctx_.stream = NULL; // use the default sync stream
+  host_ = nullptr;  // TODO(wangwei) add host device
+  ctx_.stream = NULL;  // use the default sync stream
   // TODO(wangwei) create one handle for each steam?
-  CUBLAS_CHECK(cublasCreate(&ctx_.cublas_handle));
+  CUDA_CHECK(cudaSetDevice(FindDevice(0)));
   // use curandCreateGeneratorHost for CudaHost device
   CURAND_CHECK(
       curandCreateGenerator(&ctx_.curand_generator, CURAND_RNG_PSEUDO_DEFAULT));
@@ -58,6 +58,7 @@ CudaDevice::CudaDevice(int id, int num_executors,
   SetRandSeed(seed);
   // TODO(wangwei) if one generator per stream, then need diff offset per gen?
   CURAND_CHECK(curandSetGeneratorOffset(ctx_.curand_generator, 0));
+  CUBLAS_CHECK(cublasCreate(&(ctx_.cublas_handle)));
 
 #ifdef USE_CUDNN
   // TODO(wangwei) create one handle for each stream?
@@ -86,14 +87,14 @@ void CudaDevice::CopyToFrom(void* dst, const void* src, size_t nBytes,
 /// Allocate cpu memory.
 void* CudaDevice::Malloc(int size) {
   void* ptr = nullptr;
-  cudaMalloc(&ptr, size);
+  CUDA_CHECK(cudaMalloc(&ptr, size));
   return ptr;
 }
 
   /// Free cpu memory.
 void CudaDevice::Free(void* ptr) {
   CHECK_NE(ptr, nullptr);
-  cudaFree(ptr);
+  CUDA_CHECK(cudaFree(ptr));
 }
 
 
@@ -152,5 +153,5 @@ int CudaDevice::FindDevice(const int start_id) {
 }
 
 
-}
+}  // namespace singa
 #endif  // USE_CUDA

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-singa/blob/0b4b2e20/src/core/device/device.cc
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/src/core/device/device.cc b/src/core/device/device.cc
index 153637c..73bb5c1 100644
--- a/src/core/device/device.cc
+++ b/src/core/device/device.cc
@@ -54,8 +54,10 @@ void Device::CopyDataToFrom(Blob* dst, Blob* src, size_t nBytes,
                             int src_offset) {
   this->Exec(
       [this, dst, src, nBytes, direct, dst_offset, src_offset](Context* ctx) {
-        this->CopyToFrom((Byte*)dst->mutable_data() + dst_offset,
-                         (Byte*)src->data() + src_offset, nBytes, direct, ctx);
+        this->CopyToFrom(
+            reinterpret_cast<char*>(dst->mutable_data()) + dst_offset,
+            reinterpret_cast<char*>(src->data()) + src_offset, nBytes,
+            direct, ctx);
       },
       {src}, {dst});
 }
@@ -63,7 +65,7 @@ void Device::CopyDataToFrom(Blob* dst, Blob* src, size_t nBytes,
 void Device::CopyDataFromHostPtr(Blob* dst, const void* src, size_t nBytes,
                                  size_t dst_offset) {
   auto direct = device_type_ == kCpp ? kHostToHost : kHostToDevice;
-  void* dstptr = (Byte*)dst->mutable_data() + dst_offset;
+  void* dstptr = reinterpret_cast<char*>(dst->mutable_data()) + dst_offset;
   Exec([this, dstptr, src, nBytes,
         direct](Context* ctx) { CopyToFrom(dstptr, src, nBytes, direct, ctx); },
        {}, {dst});

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-singa/blob/0b4b2e20/src/core/tensor/tensor.cc
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/src/core/tensor/tensor.cc b/src/core/tensor/tensor.cc
index 339262e..fac846c 100644
--- a/src/core/tensor/tensor.cc
+++ b/src/core/tensor/tensor.cc
@@ -71,12 +71,12 @@ Tensor::Tensor(Tensor&& t)
 }
 
 void Tensor::ResetLike(const Tensor& t) {
-  if (blob_ == nullptr || blob_->size() != t.MemSize()) {
+  if (blob_ == nullptr || device_ != t.device_ || MemSize() != t.MemSize()) {
     if (blob_ != nullptr && blob_->DecRefCount() == 0) device_->FreeBlob(blob_);
     shape_ = t.shape_;
     device_ = t.device_;
     data_type_ = t.data_type_;
-    blob_ = device_->NewBlob(Product(shape_) * SizeOf(data_type_));
+    blob_ = device_->NewBlob(t.MemSize());
   }
 }
 
@@ -121,8 +121,7 @@ void Tensor::CopyDataFromHostPtr(const DType* src, size_t num) {
       << "data_type is " << DataType_Name(data_type_)
       << " user given type is of size " << sizeof(DType);
   if (src != nullptr) {
-    auto direction = device_->type() == kCpp ? kHostToHost : kHostToDevice;
-    device_->CopyDataFromHostPtr(blob(), src, sizeof(DType) * num, direction);
+    device_->CopyDataFromHostPtr(blob(), src, sizeof(DType) * num, 0);
   } else {
     LOG(WARNING) << "Copy data from null host ptr";
   }
@@ -169,6 +168,7 @@ Tensor& Tensor::operator=(Tensor&& t) {
   if (blob_ != nullptr && blob_->DecRefCount() == 0)
     device_->FreeBlob(blob_);
   transpose_ = t.transpose_;
+  data_type_ = t.data_type_;
   shape_ = std::move(t.shape_);
   device_ = t.device_;
   blob_ = t.blob_;

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-singa/blob/0b4b2e20/src/model/layer/cudnn_dropout.cc
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/src/model/layer/cudnn_dropout.cc b/src/model/layer/cudnn_dropout.cc
index 4d5f5d5..e049ade 100644
--- a/src/model/layer/cudnn_dropout.cc
+++ b/src/model/layer/cudnn_dropout.cc
@@ -18,9 +18,14 @@
 #ifdef USE_CUDNN
 // cudnn dropout is added in cudnn 5
 #if CUDNN_MAJOR_VERSION >= 5
+
 #include "./cudnn_dropout.h"
+#include <cudnn.h>
+#include <chrono>
+
 #include "./cudnn_utils.h"
 #include "singa/utils/logging.h"
+
 namespace singa {
 CudnnDropout::~CudnnDropout() {
   if (drop_desc_ != nullptr)
@@ -29,7 +34,8 @@ CudnnDropout::~CudnnDropout() {
   if (y_desc_ != nullptr) CUDNN_CHECK(cudnnDestroyTensorDescriptor(y_desc_));
 }
 
-void CudnnDropout::InitCudnn(int size, DataType dtype, Context* ctx) {
+void CudnnDropout::InitCudnn(int size, DataType dtype, Device* dev,
+                             Context* ctx) {
   CHECK(!has_init_cudnn_);
   CUDNN_CHECK(cudnnCreateTensorDescriptor(&x_desc_));
   CUDNN_CHECK(cudnnCreateTensorDescriptor(&y_desc_));
@@ -41,10 +47,17 @@ void CudnnDropout::InitCudnn(int size, DataType dtype, Context* ctx) {
       y_desc_, CUDNN_TENSOR_NCHW, GetCudnnDataType(dtype), 1, 1, 1, size));
 
   cudnnDropoutGetStatesSize(ctx->cudnn_handle, &state_size_);
+  state_ = Tensor(Shape{state_size_}, dev, kChar);
   cudnnDropoutGetReserveSpaceSize(x_desc_, &reserve_size_);
+  mask_ = Tensor(Shape{reserve_size_}, dev, kChar);
+  // TODO(wangwei) update for async running,
+  // where reserve_size_ may not available
+  CHECK_EQ(reserve_size_, mask_.MemSize());
+
+  // TODO(wangwei) get seed from ctx or user config?
+  auto seed = std::chrono::system_clock::now().time_since_epoch().count();
   cudnnSetDropoutDescriptor(drop_desc_, ctx->cudnn_handle, 1 - dropout_ratio_,
-                            state_.blob()->mutable_data(), state_size_,
-                            ctx->seed);
+                            state_.blob()->mutable_data(), state_size_, seed);
   has_init_cudnn_ = true;
 }
 
@@ -52,16 +65,13 @@ const Tensor CudnnDropout::Forward(int flag, const Tensor& input)
{
   if (flag & kTrain) {
     auto size = input.Size();
     DataType dtype = input.data_type();
+    Device* dev = input.device();
     if (!has_init_cudnn_) {
       input.device()->Exec(
-          [size, dtype, this](Context* ctx) {
-            this->InitCudnn(size, dtype, ctx);
+          [size, dtype, this, dev](Context* ctx) {
+            this->InitCudnn(size, dtype, dev, ctx);
           },
           {}, {this->state_.blob()});
-      mask_.ResetLike(input);
-      // TODO(wangwei) update for async running,
-      // where reserve_size_ may not available
-      CHECK_EQ(reserve_size_, mask_.MemSize());
     }
     Tensor output;
     output.ResetLike(input);
@@ -71,7 +81,7 @@ const Tensor CudnnDropout::Forward(int flag, const Tensor& input) {
                *mblob = mask_.blob();
           cudnnDropoutForward(ctx->cudnn_handle, this->drop_desc_,
                               this->x_desc_, inblob->data(), this->y_desc_,
-                              outblob->mutable_data(), mblob,
+                              outblob->mutable_data(), mblob->mutable_data(),
                               this->reserve_size_);
         },
         {input.blob()}, {output.blob(), mask_.blob()});

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-singa/blob/0b4b2e20/src/model/layer/cudnn_dropout.h
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/src/model/layer/cudnn_dropout.h b/src/model/layer/cudnn_dropout.h
index db0aa15..647eed2 100644
--- a/src/model/layer/cudnn_dropout.h
+++ b/src/model/layer/cudnn_dropout.h
@@ -21,9 +21,11 @@
 #ifdef USE_CUDNN
 // cudnn dropout is added in cudnn 5
 #if CUDNN_MAJOR_VERSION >= 5
+#include <cudnn.h>
 #include <utility>
 #include <string>
 #include <vector>
+
 #include "./dropout.h"
 #include "singa/core/common.h"
 #include "singa/model/layer.h"
@@ -41,12 +43,12 @@ class CudnnDropout : public Dropout {
                                                    const Tensor& grad) override;
 
   /// Init cudnn related data structures.
-  void InitCudnn(int size, DataType dtype, Context* ctx);
+  void InitCudnn(int size, DataType dtype, Device* dev, Context* ctx);
 
  private:
   bool has_init_cudnn_ = false;
-  cudnnDropoutDescriptor_t drop_desc_;
-  cudnnTensorDescriptor_t x_desc_, y_desc_;
+  cudnnDropoutDescriptor_t drop_desc_ = nullptr;
+  cudnnTensorDescriptor_t x_desc_ = nullptr, y_desc_ = nullptr;
   size_t state_size_, reserve_size_;
   Tensor state_;
 };

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-singa/blob/0b4b2e20/test/CMakeLists.txt
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/test/CMakeLists.txt b/test/CMakeLists.txt
index f362968..de64abd 100644
--- a/test/CMakeLists.txt
+++ b/test/CMakeLists.txt
@@ -6,5 +6,6 @@ AUX_SOURCE_DIRECTORY(singa singa_test_source)
 ADD_EXECUTABLE(test_singa "gtest/gtest_main.cc" ${singa_test_source})
 ADD_DEPENDENCIES(test_singa singa_core singa_utils)
 MESSAGE(STATUS "link libs" ${singa_linker_libs})
-TARGET_LINK_LIBRARIES(test_singa gtest singa_core singa_utils proto protobuf)
+TARGET_LINK_LIBRARIES(test_singa gtest singa_core singa_utils proto protobuf
+    ${SINGA_LINKER_LIBS})
 SET_TARGET_PROPERTIES(test_singa PROPERTIES LINK_FLAGS "${LINK_FLAGS} -pthread")

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-singa/blob/0b4b2e20/test/singa/test_cpp_device.cc
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/test/singa/test_cpp_device.cc b/test/singa/test_cpp_device.cc
index d2c0149..c302206 100644
--- a/test/singa/test_cpp_device.cc
+++ b/test/singa/test_cpp_device.cc
@@ -34,7 +34,7 @@ TEST(CppDevice, MemoryMallocFree) {
   CppDevice dev(0, 1);
   Blob* b = dev.NewBlob(4);
   EXPECT_NE(nullptr, b);
-  EXPECT_EQ(4, b->size());
+  EXPECT_EQ(4u, b->size());
   dev.FreeBlob(b);
 }
 

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-singa/blob/0b4b2e20/test/singa/test_cudnn_dropout.cc
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/test/singa/test_cudnn_dropout.cc b/test/singa/test_cudnn_dropout.cc
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..9913074
--- /dev/null
+++ b/test/singa/test_cudnn_dropout.cc
@@ -0,0 +1,127 @@
+/************************************************************
+*
+* Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+* or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+* distributed with this work for additional information
+* regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+* to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+* "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+* with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+*
+*   http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+*
+* Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing,
+* software distributed under the License is distributed on an
+* "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY
+* KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the
+* specific language governing permissions and limitations
+* under the License.
+*
+*************************************************************/
+#ifdef USE_CUDNN
+// cudnn dropout is added in cudnn 5
+//#if CUDNN_MAJOR_VERSION >= 5
+
+#include "../src/model/layer/cudnn_dropout.h"
+#include "gtest/gtest.h"
+
+bool inline GetBitValue(const char* x, int pos) {
+  const unsigned char BitMask[] = {1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128};
+  int idx = pos / 8;
+  int offset = pos % 8;
+  return x[idx] & BitMask[offset];
+}
+
+using singa::CudnnDropout;
+TEST(CudnnDropout, Setup) {
+  CudnnDropout drop;
+  EXPECT_EQ("CudnnDropout", drop.layer_type());
+
+  singa::LayerConf conf;
+  singa::DropoutConf* dropconf = conf.mutable_dropout_conf();
+  dropconf->set_dropout_ratio(0.8);
+
+  drop.Setup(conf);
+  EXPECT_EQ(0.8f, drop.dropout_ratio());
+}
+
+TEST(CudnnDropout, Forward) {
+  const float x[] = {1.0f, 2.0f, 3.0f, 4.0f, 5.0f, 6.0f, 7.0f, 8.0f};
+  size_t n = sizeof(x) / sizeof(float);
+  singa::CudaDevice cuda(0, 1);
+  singa::Tensor in(singa::Shape{n}, &cuda);
+  in.CopyDataFromHostPtr(x, n);
+
+  float pdrop = 0.5;
+  CudnnDropout drop;
+  singa::LayerConf conf;
+  singa::DropoutConf* dropconf = conf.mutable_dropout_conf();
+  dropconf->set_dropout_ratio(pdrop);
+  drop.Setup(conf);
+
+  singa::Tensor out1 = drop.Forward(singa::kTrain, in);
+
+  singa::Tensor mask(drop.mask().shape(), drop.mask().data_type());
+  mask.CopyData(drop.mask());
+  const char* mptr = mask.data<const char*>();
+  for (size_t i = 0; i < n; i++)
+    EXPECT_FLOAT_EQ(0, GetBitValue(mptr, i) * (GetBitValue(mptr, i) - 1));
+
+  singa::CppDevice host(0, 1);
+  out1.ToDevice(&host);
+  const float* outptr1 = out1.data<const float*>();
+  EXPECT_EQ(n, out1.Size());
+  float scale = 1.0f / (1.0f - pdrop);
+  // the output value should be 0 or the same as the input
+  EXPECT_EQ(0.f, outptr1[0] * (outptr1[0] - scale * x[0]));
+  EXPECT_EQ(0.f, outptr1[1] * (outptr1[1] - scale * x[1]));
+  EXPECT_EQ(0.f, outptr1[7] * (outptr1[7] - scale * x[7]));
+
+  singa::Tensor out2 = drop.Forward(singa::kEval, in);
+  out2.ToDevice(&host);
+  EXPECT_EQ(n, out2.Size());
+  const float* outptr2 = out2.data<const float*>();
+  // the output value should be the same as the input
+  EXPECT_EQ(x[0], outptr2[0]);
+  EXPECT_EQ(x[1], outptr2[1]);
+  EXPECT_EQ(x[7], outptr2[7]);
+}
+
+TEST(CudnnDropout, Backward) {
+  const float x[] = {1.0f, 2.0f, 3.0f, 4.0f, 5.0f, 6.0f, 7.0f, 8.0f};
+  size_t n = sizeof(x) / sizeof(float);
+  singa::CudaDevice cuda(0, 1);
+  singa::Tensor in(singa::Shape{n}, &cuda);
+  in.CopyDataFromHostPtr(x, n);
+
+  float pdrop = 0.5;
+  float scale = 1.0f / (1.0f - pdrop);
+
+  CudnnDropout drop;
+  singa::LayerConf conf;
+  singa::DropoutConf* dropconf = conf.mutable_dropout_conf();
+  dropconf->set_dropout_ratio(pdrop);
+  drop.Setup(conf);
+  singa::Tensor out1 = drop.Forward(singa::kTrain, in);
+
+  const float dy[] = {4.0f, 5.0f, 6.0f, 7.0f, 8.0f, 1.0f, 2.0f, 3.0f};
+  singa::Tensor grad(singa::Shape{n}, &cuda);
+  grad.CopyDataFromHostPtr(dy, n);
+
+  const auto ret = drop.Backward(singa::kTrain, grad);
+  singa::CppDevice host(0, 1);
+  singa::Tensor in_grad = ret.first;
+  in_grad.ToDevice(&host);
+  const float* dx = in_grad.data<const float*>();
+
+  singa::Tensor mask(drop.mask().shape(), drop.mask().data_type());
+  mask.CopyData(drop.mask());
+  const char* mptr = mask.data<const char*>();
+
+
+  EXPECT_FLOAT_EQ(dx[0], dy[0] * GetBitValue(mptr, 0) * scale);
+  EXPECT_FLOAT_EQ(dx[1], dy[1] * GetBitValue(mptr, 1) * scale);
+  EXPECT_FLOAT_EQ(dx[7], dy[7] * GetBitValue(mptr, 7) * scale);
+}
+//#endif  // CUDNN_VERSION_MAJOR>=5
+#endif  // USE_CUDNN

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-singa/blob/0b4b2e20/test/singa/test_dropout.cc
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/test/singa/test_dropout.cc b/test/singa/test_dropout.cc
index 3190ecd..d648ff8 100644
--- a/test/singa/test_dropout.cc
+++ b/test/singa/test_dropout.cc
@@ -23,7 +23,7 @@
 #include "gtest/gtest.h"
 
 using singa::Dropout;
-TEST(DropoutLayer, Setup) {
+TEST(Dropout, Setup) {
   Dropout drop;
   EXPECT_EQ("Dropout", drop.layer_type());
 
@@ -35,7 +35,7 @@ TEST(DropoutLayer, Setup) {
   EXPECT_EQ(0.8f, drop.dropout_ratio());
 }
 
-TEST(DropoutLayer, Forward) {
+TEST(Dropout, Forward) {
   const float x[] = {1.0f, 2.0f, 3.0f, 4.0f, 5.0f, 6.0f, 7.0f, 8.0f};
   size_t n = sizeof(x) / sizeof(float);
   singa::Tensor in(singa::Shape{n});
@@ -51,11 +51,11 @@ TEST(DropoutLayer, Forward) {
 
   singa::Tensor out1 = drop.Forward(singa::kTrain, in);
 
-  const float* mptr = static_cast<const float*>(drop.mask().blob()->data());
+  const float* mptr = drop.mask().data<const float*>();
   for (size_t i = 0; i < n; i++)
     EXPECT_FLOAT_EQ(0, mptr[i] * (mptr[i] - scale));
 
-  const float* outptr1 = static_cast<const float*>(out1.blob()->data());
+  const float* outptr1 = out1.data<const float*>();
   EXPECT_EQ(n, out1.Size());
   // the output value should be 0 or the same as the input
   EXPECT_EQ(0.f, outptr1[0] * (outptr1[0] - scale * x[0]));
@@ -64,14 +64,14 @@ TEST(DropoutLayer, Forward) {
 
   singa::Tensor out2 = drop.Forward(singa::kEval, in);
   EXPECT_EQ(n, out2.Size());
-  const float* outptr2 = static_cast<const float*>(out2.blob()->data());
+  const float* outptr2 = out2.data<const float*>();
   // the output value should be the same as the input
   EXPECT_EQ(x[0], outptr2[0]);
   EXPECT_EQ(x[1], outptr2[1]);
   EXPECT_EQ(x[7], outptr2[7]);
 }
 
-TEST(DropoutLayer, Backward) {
+TEST(Dropout, Backward) {
   const float x[] = {1.0f, 2.0f, 3.0f, 4.0f, 5.0f, 6.0f, 7.0f, 8.0f};
   size_t n = sizeof(x) / sizeof(float);
   singa::Tensor in(singa::Shape{n});
@@ -91,9 +91,9 @@ TEST(DropoutLayer, Backward) {
   singa::Tensor grad(singa::Shape{n});
   grad.CopyDataFromHostPtr(dy, n);
 
-  const float* mptr = static_cast<const float*>(drop.mask().blob()->data());
+  const float* mptr = drop.mask().data<const float*>();
   const auto ret = drop.Backward(singa::kTrain, grad);
-  const float* dx = static_cast<const float*>(ret.first.blob()->data());
+  const float* dx = ret.first.data<const float*>();
   EXPECT_FLOAT_EQ(dx[0], dy[0] * (mptr[0] > 0 ? 1.0f : 0.0f) * scale);
   EXPECT_FLOAT_EQ(dx[1], dy[1] * (mptr[1] > 0) * scale);
   EXPECT_FLOAT_EQ(dx[7], dy[7] * (mptr[7] > 0) * scale);

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-singa/blob/0b4b2e20/test/singa/test_tensor_math.cc
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/test/singa/test_tensor_math.cc b/test/singa/test_tensor_math.cc
index ccd91a0..eee18ec 100644
--- a/test/singa/test_tensor_math.cc
+++ b/test/singa/test_tensor_math.cc
@@ -23,7 +23,7 @@ class TestTensorMath : public ::testing::Test {
 TEST_F(TestTensorMath, MemberAddTensor) {
   Tensor aa = a.Clone();
   aa += a;
-  const float* dptr = aa.data<float>();
+  const float* dptr = aa.data<const float*>();
   EXPECT_FLOAT_EQ(2.0f, dptr[0]);
   EXPECT_FLOAT_EQ(4.0f, dptr[1]);
   EXPECT_FLOAT_EQ(6.0f, dptr[2]);
@@ -31,13 +31,13 @@ TEST_F(TestTensorMath, MemberAddTensor) {
   // check p is initialized to 0
   Tensor p(Shape{6});
   p += aa;
-  const float* dptr1 = p.data<float>();
+  const float* dptr1 = p.data<const float*>();
   EXPECT_FLOAT_EQ(2.0f, dptr1[0]);
   EXPECT_FLOAT_EQ(4.0f, dptr1[1]);
   EXPECT_FLOAT_EQ(6.0f, dptr1[2]);
 
   a += b;
-  const float* dptr2 = a.data<float>();
+  const float* dptr2 = a.data<const float*>();
   EXPECT_FLOAT_EQ(2.1f, dptr2[0]);
   EXPECT_FLOAT_EQ(4.1f, dptr2[1]);
   EXPECT_FLOAT_EQ(6.1f, dptr2[2]);
@@ -48,21 +48,21 @@ TEST_F(TestTensorMath, MemberAddTensor) {
 TEST_F(TestTensorMath, AddTensors) {
   Tensor ret(a.shape(), a.device(), a.data_type());
   Add(a, b, &ret);
-  const float* dptr = ret.data<float>();
+  const float* dptr = ret.data<const float*>();
   EXPECT_FLOAT_EQ(2.1f, dptr[0]);
   EXPECT_FLOAT_EQ(4.1f, dptr[1]);
   EXPECT_FLOAT_EQ(6.1f, dptr[2]);
   EXPECT_FLOAT_EQ(12.1f, dptr[5]);
 
   const Tensor d = a + b;
-  const float* dptr2 = d.data<float>();
+  const float* dptr2 = d.data<const float*>();
   EXPECT_FLOAT_EQ(2.1f, dptr2[0]);
   EXPECT_FLOAT_EQ(4.1f, dptr2[1]);
   EXPECT_FLOAT_EQ(6.1f, dptr2[2]);
   EXPECT_FLOAT_EQ(12.1f, dptr2[5]);
 
   Add(a, b, &a);
-  const float* dptr1 = a.data<float>();
+  const float* dptr1 = a.data<const float*>();
   EXPECT_FLOAT_EQ(2.1f, dptr1[0]);
   EXPECT_FLOAT_EQ(4.1f, dptr1[1]);
   EXPECT_FLOAT_EQ(6.1f, dptr1[2]);


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