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From Peter Firmstone <j...@zeus.net.au>
Subject Re: Ease of use, development & deployment
Date Thu, 11 Aug 2011 08:35:33 GMT
Greg Trasuk wrote:
> I don't see separate releases solving anything. The security setup
> should just be a matter of selecting a different Configuration file,
> depending on what level and type of transport security and
> confidentiality you want.  I'd picture supplying a minimal-security
> configuration and a maximal-lockdown config for Kerberos and SSL.
>   

That makes perfect sense, the reason I was considering separation was 
more political than functional.  Different developers have different 
focus points.


>
>   
>> Does anyone have any suggestions for annotations?  So developers can weave in security
later, allowing them to get up and running with River in a local network first, then learn
security later?
>>
>>     
>
> Some random thoughts:
> - Security can be decomposed into
> 	- Authentication
> 	- Authorization
> 	- Integrity of communications
> 	- Confidentiality of communications
> - Jeri does a great job with Authentication (can use Kerberos or X509
> certs), Cinfidentiality and Integrity (through SSL, https, Kerberos
> endpoints).
> - The SecurityPolicy model was originally intended to support
> codebase-based security (i.e. permissions are applied to a
> ProtectionDomain associated with the source of the code).
> - JAAS extension glued on Subject-based decisions to the SecurityPolicy
> model after-the-fact.
>
> I've been gradually becoming convinced that the JAAS security model
> (i.e. SubjectDomainCombiner etc) is not very good for subject-based
> authorization.  The basic business need for a service is to answer the
> question "Is Bob allowed to place a purchase order?", where Bob's
> authorization might be subject to change over time, or might be subject
> to additional business rules.  Seems like in order to enforce that
> decision using the SecurityPolicy model, we end up needing elaborate
> constructs (e.g. revokable permissions, remote policy files,
> classloader/protection domain magic, dynamic policy lookup, etc).
>   
Sorry about the lengthy post:

Yes you're right, this is the motivation behind my work, what we need is 
something that runs on top of these constructs to make it easy for 
application developers.

OSGi has a different security model, that pre-dates the jre, using 
conditional permission's, if a condition isn't satisfied, then neither 
is the permission, it also delays some permission decisions.  Eg in an 
embedded device, there might not be a user to ask to grant a 
permission.  It supports permission addition and removal, it doesn't 
prevent security sensitive object references escaping further security 
checks, but it is more flexible.

http://www.osgi.org/javadoc/r4v43/org/osgi/service/condpermadmin/ConditionalPermissionAdmin.html

You have to remember that Netscape was competing to implement a browser 
based security model at the time, so thing's could have been worse.  Li 
didn't get to do all the things he wanted, it's still a testament to his 
efforts though.

I like to keep a simple picture in my mind when performing security checks.

The jvm maintains the context for each thread, a snapshot of the call 
stack, a Subject's principals are injected into the current call stack 
with SubjectDomainCombiner, so I like to think of a thread as 
representing a user (Subject) and a ProtectionDomain representing the code.

Java security historically had a unique focus on code based security.  
Other enterprise software at the time focused on the user.   The 
DomainCombiner concept is ok, but SubjectDomainCombiner is a bit clunky, 
it uses a separate cache for each object, it suffers from creating too 
many short lived ProtectionDomain objects (that don't implement equals 
or hashCode) causing garbage collection.  Different Subject's can often 
have identical Principal's, especially if you're a Server with many 
clients.  It would make sense to have a SubjectDomainCombiner with a 
static concurrent cache of ProtectionDomain's.  SubjectDomainCombiner is 
non final so it could be re implemented, but you couldn't use any of 
Subject's static methods.  But doing so is probably not worth the added 
complication of new api.

I want to close up the proxy unmarshalling DOS attack hole by granting 
DownloadPermission to specific Certificate signer's, this answers the 
question: "Do I trust the code to unmarshall?"  But I don't want to have 
to edit every node's policy files and I don't want the policy to be 
downloaded from a URL either.

Also I've added a tool com.sun.jini.tool.ProfilingSecurityManager, that 
prints out Permissions required for each CodeSource during execution.   
These permission's can be either granted to Principal's or CodeSource's.

So I'm now focusing on another tool that allows the developer to include 
a list of Permissions a proxy requires to execute locally, in the 
proxy's jar file.  These can be dynamically granted by the user if 
permitted by the administrator (using GrantPermission).

My use for RemotePolicy is; it allows an administrator to dynamically 
update permissions for an entire djinn group, where services joining the 
group decide if they want to subscribe to that group's policies.  Since 
the administrator of the group must authenticate, and runs with the 
administrator subject, foreign clients participating in the group can 
limit the permissions they're prepared to grant to that groups 
administrator Subject with GrantPermission.  You can't do this with 
existing URL based policy files.  The administrator is notified of 
rejected Policy updates with a SecurityException wrapped in a 
RemoteException.  The RemotePolicy update either succeeds or fails 
completely if a SecurityException occurs.  This allows the administrator 
to be informed of policy failures and address them.

In the environment I'm interested in deploying, I can't ignore the Code 
trust issue.

But concurrency is a problem with existing Policy implementations.

My recent development focus has been to improve the concurrency of 
security checks,  The concurrent DynamicPolicyProvider at present is 
running (20 hours) through all qa tests (recently merged with the 
current trunk), it has passed all policy and security tests.  The 
current focus is on correctness.  I've got a new SecurityManager that 
caches the results of Permission checks for AccessControlContext, so if 
a lot of threads have identical AccessControlContext and are executed 
concurrently, then the security check is only performed once.  Eg in an 
application with 16 threads, an Executor or something like that 
performing a computation task for a user, security checks won't be 
repeated for every thread, once a check has passed for the context, it 
first looks for a successful result from a previous call in the cache 
before performing the costly permission check.  I have two different 
implementations of the SecurityManager at present, this will be narrowed 
down to one later.  SubjectDomainCombiner is still a performance issue 
when the context changes though and you must ensure all threads share 
the same Subject and SubjectDomainCombiner, so they utilise identical == 
ProtectionDomains in their context.

All the other work is low level platform stuff.

Revocation and RemotePolicy won't be included in the net.jini namespace 
unless they become standardised.  I've created the namespace 
org.apache.river.api.* as a staging area for new api, to indicate that 
it may be moved to net.jini at some point in future.  We might decide to 
put some of the com.sun namespace there while trying to decide what 
should be standardised and whether any changes should be made before we do.

DelegateSecurityManager is an interface that allows a SecurityManager to 
provide support for delegate objects, which are designed to encapsulate 
existing object's like Socket's and Streams, to allow permission to be 
revoked, eg a Principal no longer has access to a resource or a 
CodeSource has been found to have a vulnerability.  (This isn't just 
about removing it from the policy, it's about stopping security 
sensitive object references escaping, avoiding further security 
checks).  Allowing references to escape by only checking guards in 
constructors was probably a performance compromise.  Delegates use Li 
Gong's method guard pattern.

Once a user has a  Socket reference (in the code he / she's using) they 
can continue using that Socket until they logout (because the security 
check is only performed when constructing the Socket).   But with a 
delegate, as soon as they no longer have the 
DelegatePermission(SocketPermission perm), they can no longer utilise 
the socket.  The delegate object creates a guard in it's constructor, 
which is checked on every method call, because the 
DelegateSecurityManager uses hash tables to cache permission check 
results, the performance impact isn't as great, so long as you have a 
sufficient buffer size (not checking every byte).  If you're after 
ultimate performance, don't use the delegate, if you want to trial trust 
and stop attacks in progress, use a delegate.  If a 
DelegateSecurityManager is not installed, then the delegates don't check 
the guard, instead the candidate Permission is checked during 
construction of the protected object without using doPrivileged.  As far 
as the client and user is concerned, it's just an ordinary Socket.  I'll 
be providing a SocketFactory and ServerSocketFactory, which accept any 
other type of SocketFactory's to enable the use of delegates with Sockets.

This allows you to use delegates in your code and decide whether they 
should be enabled or not at runtime.

You don't require a policy that supports revocation if you use principal 
based grants for DelegatePermissions.  Revocation policy support is only 
required for codesource based or dynamic grant's for DelegatePermission.

The candidate Permission is the Permission the DelegatePermission 
represents.  The delegate object's privileged domain must have the 
candidate permission, it uses doPrivileged to perform the action on the 
user's behalf, the user must have the DelegatePermission or it's 
candidate Permission.  A candidate Permission is any Permission that 
cannot be revoked because it lets a reference to a security sensitive 
object to escape.  Not all java Permission's let references escape, eg 
PropertyPermission's are revocable and don't need delegates.

Since existing Permission's can't be utilised (they let references 
escape) the DelegatePermission(Permission perm) constructor allow's it 
to represent another Permission, the DelegateSecurityManager when asked 
to check a DelegatePermission will also check if a ProtectionDomain has 
the candidate Permission.  For example this allows you to make a 
temporary permission grant like SocketPermission using a delegate 
permission, a delegate object checks it's DelegatePermission Guard 
object, and doesn't let the Socket escape after the permission check, 
instead it encapsulates the Socket and continues to check the 
DelegatePermission guard with method invocations.  This wouldn't be 
possible without a security manager that performs result caching.

Cheers,

Peter.


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