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From Peter Firmstone <j...@zeus.net.au>
Subject Evolving Interfaces & classes, Static bytecode analysis, ClassLoader isolation and Codebase services.
Date Fri, 02 Oct 2009 04:08:17 GMT
I've broken this out as it deserves it's own thread, now that I've 
mentioned it:

> I've been thinking about applications written for a future 
> hypothetical version of River, with code base services that utilise 
> Package based bytecode dependency analysis with Public Package API 
> evolution mapping and ClassLoader Package Isolation and Compatible 
> Package Substitution.  I've been thinking about a simple way to allow 
> interface evolution.
>
> I'm thinking of a djinn that's runs indefinitely, individual services 
> and clients can be shut down on a regular basis, however the djinn 
> itself doesn't.  When a client or service needs to refresh or upgrade 
> class files it can do so by persisting and restarting.
>
> Runtime linking must be honoured, if older bytecode exists in a djinn, 
> provided that new separately compiled byte code that it depends upon 
> honours the required methods etc, then it is safe to co exist, even 
> though it was not compiled at the same time and the sources for both 
> would not compile.  API compatibility would be determine prior by 
> static bytecode analysis by the codebase service prior to making the 
> bytecode available.
>
> Currently a public interface cannot be changed once implemented due to 
> compile time compatibility constraints, old methods must continue to 
> be implemented and new methods can only be created by creating new 
> interfaces extending the old interface . However Binary runtime 
> compatibility permits additional methods in interfaces.
>
> What if we declare an interface or annotation that allowed a method to 
> be discarded and allowed new methods to be implemented without 
> requiring the compile time constraints?
>
> This interface might be called Evolve, or perhaps an annotation called 
> @EvolvingInterface
>
> All Interfaces that extend Evolve or have the @EvolvingInterface 
> annotation must also declare two exceptions for every interface method:
> throws ExtinctMethodException (new)
> throws NotImplementedException
>
> To retain run time backward compatibility a method is never removed 
> from a class implementing an interface, an interface method could be 
> marked @Depreciated however.  Then programmers implementing this 
> interface could choose at their convenience to change their 
> implementation for any interface methods marked as such to throw an 
> ExtinctMethodException.  They should only do this however after 
> implementing the new functionality if it exists, unless the method has 
> been abandoned altogether, the functionality might have been 
> refactored and moved elsewhere.
>
> When a new method is added to an interface, for compile time 
> compatibility, a programmer can add the method to all classes 
> implementing the interface, initially throwing 
> NotImplementedExceptions until they have the resources / time 
> available to implement the new methods, this would reduce the burden 
> on programmers to preserve compile time compatibility.
>
> Thus when a runtime object receives an ExtinctMethodException it can 
> choose how to handle it, perhaps by calling a Singleton Static class 
> to request the JVM persist its current state and restart, thus loading 
> later compatible code from the codebase service that implements the 
> functionality in a compatible way on restarting.
> Serialization can be used for persistence, the replacement bytecode 
> would have already been checked by the codebase service for 
> serialVersionUID compatibility.
>
> The persistence framework might be dynamically updated with handling 
> code from the codebase service to create a totally different object 
> graph from the persisted data.  I haven't given this further thought 
> at this stage, this would be a later project if the Static bytecode 
> Analysis and codebase service is successful.
>
> Any long lived Objects with Xuid Object identities that other objects 
> refer to must however remain runtime compatible.
>
> Incompatible evolution / branches of Packages, could co exist in the 
> same JVM, in separate Classloaders.  It would not be permissible 
> however to implement incompatible evolutions of services.
Hypothetically:

A ClassLoader Hierarchy or Implementation might also include an option 
to throw exception to throw such as an ExtinctClassDefinitionException 
when an earlier class version that contains a subset of the API of the 
required class version is found for maximum runtime compatibility.  
Requiring a JVM restart.  In this case the class file version required 
is a later evolution of the loaded class file. 

Think of this scenario:

A service is exported, the class files for one Package currently loaded 
in the services JVM have become extinct.

A client looks up the service, the client downloads a later class file 
version for a service proxy that is compatible from a codebase server.

When the client receives the service proxy, it will receive the latest 
version from the codebase service.

The client passes in a local object to one of the Services methods, upon 
receiving the marshalled object, the Service's ClassLoader system 
identifies that the class file for that object belongs to a package 
which is a later version with an extended API, if the API for the class 
in question hasn't changed the Service continues to function.  If 
however the marshalled class has an extended API then the earlier 
version cannot be substituted for it.  The ClassLoader in the Service 
throws an ExtinctClassDefinitionException, notifying the service 
implementation to commence a restart. The service should now also throw 
a RemoteException.

If however the downloaded proxy is of a later package version than the 
service's interface and contains an additional method, then that proxy 
needs to be able to identify any methods that don't exist in the Service 
and throw a NotImplementedException for any non existent methods.  A 
class file version check method needs to be identified based on the 
bytecode API static analysis.



The reverse scenario could also occur:

A service is restarted and contains the latest class files.

A client looks up the service, the client already contains earlier 
versions of the the required class files, upon attempting to load any of 
these classes, the ClassLoader system will throw an 
ExtinctClassDefinitionException.

While potentially incompatible interfaces could exist in a djinn, the 
proxy hides the incompatibilities.  Locally within a JVM, incompatible 
Package implementations are identified and obscured from each other 
using ClassLoader isolation, while packages that have evolved in a 
binary compatible manner should cause the JVM to request a restart once 
later class versions are required.  Dependencies are declared based on 
API identified using Static Bytecode Analysis - by the codebase service.



What about embedded devices with high availability requirements / 
constraints?

I'm sure the jini surrogate architecture can help here.

So as you can see, I've changed my mind about the VersionedClasses 
interfaces I was working on earlier, delegates are too much compromise.  
Besides Package upgrades will probably not occur often enough to require 
high uptime and availability, which can instead be achieved with 
redundant services rather than uptime.

Cheers,

Peter.



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