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From rob...@apache.org
Subject [44/51] [partial] qpid-site git commit: tidy out some site content for the oldest releases
Date Mon, 02 Jul 2018 14:28:13 GMT
http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/qpid-site/blob/fb1899b6/content/releases/qpid-cpp-0.34/cpp-broker/book/chapter-ha.html
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-
-        <div id="-middle-content">
-          <div class="docbook"><div class="navheader"><table summary="Navigation header" width="100%"><tr><th align="center" colspan="3">1.12.&#160;Active-Passive Messaging Clusters</th></tr><tr><td align="left" width="20%"><a accesskey="p" href="Using-message-groups.html">Prev</a>&#160;</td><th align="center" width="60%">Chapter&#160;1.&#160;
-      Running the AMQP Messaging Broker
-    </th><td align="right" width="20%">&#160;<a accesskey="n" href="ha-queue-replication.html">Next</a></td></tr></table><hr /></div><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title"><a id="chapter-ha"></a>1.12.&#160;Active-Passive Messaging Clusters</h2></div></div></div><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a id="ha-overview"></a>1.12.1.&#160;Overview</h3></div></div></div><p>
-
-      The High Availability (HA) module provides
-      <em class="firstterm">active-passive</em>, <em class="firstterm">hot-standby</em>
-      messaging clusters to provide fault tolerant message delivery.
-    </p><p>
-      In an active-passive cluster only one broker, known as the
-      <em class="firstterm">primary</em>, is active and serving clients at a time. The other
-      brokers are standing by as <em class="firstterm">backups</em>. Changes on the primary
-      are replicated to all the backups so they are always up-to-date or "hot". Backup
-      brokers reject client connection attempts, to enforce the requirement that clients
-      only connect to the primary.
-    </p><p>
-      If the primary fails, one of the backups is promoted to take over as the new
-      primary. Clients fail-over to the new primary automatically. If there are multiple
-      backups, the other backups also fail-over to become backups of the new primary.
-    </p><p>
-      This approach relies on an external <em class="firstterm">cluster resource manager</em>
-      to detect failures, choose the new primary and handle network partitions. <a class="ulink" href="https://fedorahosted.org/cluster/wiki/RGManager" target="_top">rgmanager</a> is supported
-      initially, but others may be supported in the future.
-    </p><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a id="ha-at-least-once"></a>1.12.1.1.&#160;Avoiding message loss</h4></div></div></div><p>
-	In order to avoid message loss, the primary broker <span class="emphasis"><em>delays
-	acknowledgement</em></span> of messages received from clients until the
-	message has been replicated and acknowledged by all of the back-up
-	brokers, or has been consumed from the primary queue.
-      </p><p>
-	This ensures that all acknowledged messages are safe: they have either
-	been consumed or backed up to all backup brokers.  Messages that are
-	consumed <span class="emphasis"><em>before</em></span> they are replicated do not need to
-	be replicated. This reduces the work load when replicating a queue with
-	active consumers.
-      </p><p>
-	Clients keep <span class="emphasis"><em>unacknowledged</em></span> messages in a buffer
-	<a class="footnote" href="#ftn.idm221065919424" id="idm221065919424"><sup class="footnote">[1]</sup></a>
-	until they are acknowledged by the primary. If the primary fails, clients will
-	fail-over to the new primary and <span class="emphasis"><em>re-send</em></span> all their
-	unacknowledged messages.
-	<a class="footnote" href="#ftn.idm221066427664" id="idm221066427664"><sup class="footnote">[2]</sup></a>
-      </p><p>
-	If the primary crashes, all the <span class="emphasis"><em>acknowledged</em></span>
-	messages will be available on the backup that takes over as the new
-	primary. The <span class="emphasis"><em>unacknowledged</em></span> messages will be
-	re-sent by the clients.  Thus no messages are lost.
-      </p><p>
-	Note that this means it is possible for messages to be
-	<span class="emphasis"><em>duplicated</em></span>. In the event of a failure it is possible for a
-	message to received by the backup that becomes the new primary
-	<span class="emphasis"><em>and</em></span> re-sent by the client.  The application must take steps
-	to identify and eliminate duplicates.
-      </p><p>
-	When a new primary is promoted after a fail-over it is initially in
-	"recovering" mode. In this mode, it delays acknowledgement of messages
-	on behalf of all the backups that were connected to the previous
-	primary. This protects those messages against a failure of the new
-	primary until the backups have a chance to connect and catch up.
-      </p><p>
-	Not all messages need to be replicated to the back-up brokers. If a
-	message is consumed and acknowledged by a regular client before it has
-	been replicated to a backup, then it doesn't need to be replicated.
-      </p><div class="variablelist"><a id="ha-broker-states"></a><p class="title"><strong>HA Broker States</strong></p><dl class="variablelist"><dt><span class="term">Stand-alone</span></dt><dd><p>
-	      Broker is not part of a HA cluster.
-	    </p></dd><dt><span class="term">Joining</span></dt><dd><p>
-	      Newly started broker, not yet connected to any existing primary.
-	    </p></dd><dt><span class="term">Catch-up</span></dt><dd><p>
-	      A backup broker that is connected to the primary and downloading
-	      existing state (queues, messages etc.)
-	    </p></dd><dt><span class="term">Ready</span></dt><dd><p>
-	      A backup broker that is fully caught-up and ready to take over as
-	      primary.
-	    </p></dd><dt><span class="term">Recovering</span></dt><dd><p>
-	      Newly-promoted primary, waiting for backups to connect and catch up.
-	      Clients can connect but they are stalled until the primary is active.
-	    </p></dd><dt><span class="term">Active</span></dt><dd><p>
-	      The active primary broker with all backups connected and caught-up.
-	    </p></dd></dl></div></div><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a id="limitations"></a>1.12.1.2.&#160;Limitations</h4></div></div></div><p>
-	There are a some known limitations in the current implementation. These
-	will be fixed in future versions.
-      </p><div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc"><li class="listitem"><p>
-	    Transactional changes to queue state are not replicated atomically. If
-	    the primary crashes during a transaction, it is possible that the
-	    backup could contain only part of the changes introduced by a
-	    transaction.
-	  </p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
-	    Configuration changes (creating or deleting queues, exchanges and
-	    bindings) are replicated asynchronously. Management tools used to
-	    make changes will consider the change complete when it is complete
-	    on the primary, it may not yet be replicated to all the backups.
-	  </p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
-	    Federation links <span class="emphasis"><em>to</em></span> the primary will fail over
-	    correctly.  Federated links <span class="emphasis"><em>from</em></span> the primary
-	    will be lost in fail over, they will not be re-connected to the new
-	    primary. It is possible to work around this by replacing the
-	    <code class="literal">qpidd-primary</code> start up script with a script that
-	    re-creates federation links when the primary is promoted.
-	  </p></li></ul></div></div></div><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a id="ha-virtual-ip"></a>1.12.2.&#160;Virtual IP Addresses</h3></div></div></div><p>
-      Some resource managers (including <span class="command"><strong>rgmanager</strong></span>) support
-      <em class="firstterm">virtual IP addresses</em>. A virtual IP address is an IP
-      address that can be relocated to any of the nodes in a cluster.  The
-      resource manager associates this address with the primary node in the
-      cluster, and relocates it to the new primary when there is a failure. This
-      simplifies configuration as you can publish a single IP address rather
-      than a list.
-    </p><p>
-      A virtual IP address can be used by clients to connect to the primary. The
-      following sections will explain how to configure virtual IP addresses for
-      clients or brokers.
-    </p></div><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a id="ha-broker-config"></a>1.12.3.&#160;Configuring the Brokers</h3></div></div></div><p>
-      The broker must load the <code class="filename">ha</code> module, it is loaded by
-      default. The following broker options are available for the HA module.
-    </p><div class="note" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;"><h3 class="title">Note</h3><p>
-	Broker management is required for HA to operate, it is enabled by
-	default. The option <code class="literal">mgmt-enable</code> must not be set to
-	"no"
-      </p></div><div class="note" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;"><h3 class="title">Note</h3><p>
-	Incorrect security settings are a common cause of problems when
-	getting started, see <a class="xref" href="chapter-ha.html#ha-security" title="1.12.9.&#160;Security and Access Control.">Section&#160;1.12.9, &#8220;Security and Access Control.&#8221;</a>.
-      </p></div><div class="table"><a id="ha-broker-options"></a><p class="title"><strong>Table&#160;1.28.&#160;Broker Options for High Availability Messaging Cluster</strong></p><div class="table-contents"><table border="1" summary="Broker Options for High Availability Messaging Cluster"><colgroup><col align="left" class="c1" /><col align="left" class="c2" /></colgroup><thead><tr><th align="center" colspan="2">
-	      Options for High Availability Messaging Cluster
-	    </th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td align="left">
-	      <code class="literal">ha-cluster <em class="replaceable"><code>yes|no</code></em></code>
-	    </td><td align="left">
-	      Set to "yes" to have the broker join a cluster.
-	    </td></tr><tr><td align="left">
-	      <code class="literal">ha-queue-replication <em class="replaceable"><code>yes|no</code></em></code>
-	    </td><td align="left">
-	      Enable replication of specific queues without joining a cluster, see <a class="xref" href="ha-queue-replication.html" title="1.13.&#160;Replicating Queues with the HA module">Section&#160;1.13, &#8220;Replicating Queues with the HA module&#8221;</a>.
-	    </td></tr><tr><td align="left">
-	      <code class="literal">ha-brokers-url <em class="replaceable"><code>URL</code></em></code>
-	    </td><td align="left">
-	      <p>
-		The URL
-		<a class="footnote" href="#ftn.ha-url-grammar" id="ha-url-grammar"><sup class="footnote">[a]</sup></a>
-		used by cluster brokers to connect to each other. The URL should
-		contain a comma separated list of the broker addresses, rather than a
-		virtual IP address.
-	      </p>
-	    </td></tr><tr><td align="left"><code class="literal">ha-public-url <em class="replaceable"><code>URL</code></em></code> </td><td align="left">
-	      <p>
-		This option is only needed for backwards compatibility if you
-		have been using the <code class="literal">amq.failover</code> exchange.
-		This exchange is now obsolete, it is recommended to use a
-		virtual IP address instead.
-	      </p>
-	      <p>
-		If set, this URL is advertised by the
-		<code class="literal">amq.failover</code> exchange and overrides the
-		broker option <code class="literal">known-hosts-url</code>
-	      </p>
-	    </td></tr><tr><td align="left"><code class="literal">ha-replicate </code><em class="replaceable"><code>VALUE</code></em></td><td align="left">
-	      <p>
-		Specifies whether queues and exchanges are replicated by default.
-		<em class="replaceable"><code>VALUE</code></em> is one of: <code class="literal">none</code>,
-		<code class="literal">configuration</code>, <code class="literal">all</code>.
-		For details see <a class="xref" href="chapter-ha.html#ha-replicate-values" title="1.12.7.&#160;Controlling replication of queues and exchanges">Section&#160;1.12.7, &#8220;Controlling replication of queues and exchanges&#8221;</a>.
-	      </p>
-	    </td></tr><tr><td align="left">
-	      <p><code class="literal">ha-username <em class="replaceable"><code>USER</code></em></code></p>
-	      <p><code class="literal">ha-password <em class="replaceable"><code>PASS</code></em></code></p>
-	      <p><code class="literal">ha-mechanism <em class="replaceable"><code>MECHANISM</code></em></code></p>
-	    </td><td align="left">
-	      Authentication settings used by HA brokers to connect to each other,
-	      see <a class="xref" href="chapter-ha.html#ha-security" title="1.12.9.&#160;Security and Access Control.">Section&#160;1.12.9, &#8220;Security and Access Control.&#8221;</a>
-	    </td></tr><tr><td align="left"><code class="literal">ha-backup-timeout<em class="replaceable"><code>SECONDS</code></em></code>
-	    <a class="footnote" href="#ftn.ha-seconds-spec" id="ha-seconds-spec"><sup class="footnote">[b]</sup></a>
-	    </td><td align="left">
-	      <p>
-		Maximum time that a recovering primary will wait for an expected
-		backup to connect and become ready.
-	      </p>
-	    </td></tr><tr><td align="left">
-	      <code class="literal">link-maintenance-interval <em class="replaceable"><code>SECONDS</code></em></code>
-	      <a class="footnoteref" href="chapter-ha.html#ftn.ha-seconds-spec"><sup class="footnoteref">[b]</sup></a>
-	    </td><td align="left">
-	      <p>
-		HA uses federation links to connect from backup to primary.
-		Backup brokers check the link to the primary on this interval
-		and re-connect if need be. Default 2 seconds. Set lower for
-		faster failover, e.g. 0.1 seconds.  Setting too low will result
-		in excessive link-checking on the backups.
-	      </p>
-	    </td></tr><tr><td align="left">
-	      <code class="literal">link-heartbeat-interval <em class="replaceable"><code>SECONDS</code></em></code>
-	      <a class="footnoteref" href="chapter-ha.html#ftn.ha-seconds-spec"><sup class="footnoteref">[b]</sup></a>
-	    </td><td align="left">
-	      <p>
-		HA uses federation links to connect from backup to primary.
-		If no heart-beat is received for twice this interval the primary will consider that
-		backup dead (e.g. if backup is hung or partitioned.)
-		This interval is also used to time-out for broker status checks,
-		it may take up to this interval for rgmanager to detect a hung or partitioned broker.
-		Clients sending messages may be held up during this time.
-		Default 120 seconds: you will probably want to set this to a lower value e.g. 10.
-		If set too low rgmanager may consider a slow broker to have failed and kill it.
-	      </p>
-	    </td></tr></tbody><tbody class="footnotes"><tr><td colspan="2"><div class="footnote" id="ftn.ha-url-grammar"><p><a class="para" href="#ha-url-grammar"><sup class="para">[a] </sup></a>
-		  The full format of the URL is given by this grammar:
-		  </p><pre class="programlisting">
-url = ["amqp:"][ user ["/" password] "@" ] addr ("," addr)*
-addr = tcp_addr / rmda_addr / ssl_addr / ...
-tcp_addr = ["tcp:"] host [":" port]
-rdma_addr = "rdma:" host [":" port]
-ssl_addr = "ssl:" host [":" port]'
-		  </pre><p>
-		  </p></div><div class="footnote" id="ftn.ha-seconds-spec"><p><a class="para" href="#ha-seconds-spec"><sup class="para">[b] </sup></a>
-		Values specified as <em class="replaceable"><code>SECONDS</code></em> can be a
-		fraction of a second, e.g. "0.1" for a tenth of a second.
-		They can also have an explicit unit,
-		e.g. 10s (seconds), 10ms (milliseconds), 10us (microseconds), 10ns (nanoseconds)
-	      </p></div></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><br class="table-break" /><p>
-      To configure a HA cluster you must set at least <code class="literal">ha-cluster</code> and
-      <code class="literal">ha-brokers-url</code>.
-    </p></div><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a id="ha-rm"></a>1.12.4.&#160;The Cluster Resource Manager</h3></div></div></div><p>
-      Broker fail-over is managed by a <em class="firstterm">cluster resource
-      manager</em>.  An integration with <a class="ulink" href="https://fedorahosted.org/cluster/wiki/RGManager" target="_top">rgmanager</a> is
-      provided, but it is possible to integrate with other resource managers.
-    </p><p>
-      The resource manager is responsible for starting the <span class="command"><strong>qpidd</strong></span> broker
-      on each node in the cluster. The resource manager then <em class="firstterm">promotes</em>
-      one of the brokers to be the primary. The other brokers connect to the primary as
-      backups, using the URL provided in the <code class="literal">ha-brokers-url</code> configuration
-      option.
-    </p><p>
-      Once connected, the backup brokers synchronize their state with the
-      primary.  When a backup is synchronized, or "hot", it is ready to take
-      over if the primary fails.  Backup brokers continually receive updates
-      from the primary in order to stay synchronized.
-    </p><p>
-      If the primary fails, backup brokers go into fail-over mode. The resource
-      manager must detect the failure and promote one of the backups to be the
-      new primary.  The other backups connect to the new primary and synchronize
-      their state with it.
-    </p><p>
-      The resource manager is also responsible for protecting the cluster from
-      <em class="firstterm">split-brain</em> conditions resulting from a network partition.  A
-      network partition divide a cluster into two sub-groups which cannot see each other.
-      Usually a <em class="firstterm">quorum</em> voting algorithm is used that disables nodes
-      in the inquorate sub-group.
-    </p></div><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a id="ha-rm-config"></a>1.12.5.&#160;Configuring with <span class="command"><strong>rgmanager</strong></span> as resource manager</h3></div></div></div><p>
-      This section assumes that you are already familiar with setting up and configuring
-      clustered services using <span class="command"><strong>cman</strong></span> and
-      <span class="command"><strong>rgmanager</strong></span>. It will show you how to configure an active-passive,
-      hot-standby <span class="command"><strong>qpidd</strong></span> HA cluster with <span class="command"><strong>rgmanager</strong></span>.
-    </p><div class="note" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;"><h3 class="title">Note</h3><p>
-	Once all components are installed it is important to take the following step:
-	</p><pre class="programlisting">
-chkconfig rgmanager on
-chkconfig cman on
-chkconfig qpidd <span class="emphasis"><em>off</em></span>
-	</pre><p>
-      </p><p>
-	The qpidd service must be <span class="emphasis"><em>off</em></span> in
-	<code class="literal">chkconfig</code> because <code class="literal">rgmanager</code> will
-	start and stop <code class="literal">qpidd</code>.  If the normal system init
-	process also attempts to start and stop qpidd it can cause rgmanager to
-	lose track of qpidd processes. The symptom when this happens is that
-	<code class="literal">clustat</code> shows a <code class="literal">qpidd</code> service to
-	be stopped when in fact there is a <code class="literal">qpidd</code> process
-	running. The <code class="literal">qpidd</code> log will show errors like this:
-	</p><pre class="programlisting">
-critical Unexpected error: Daemon startup failed: Cannot lock /var/lib/qpidd/lock: Resource temporarily unavailable
-	</pre><p>
-      </p></div><p>
-      You must provide a <code class="literal">cluster.conf</code> file to configure
-      <span class="command"><strong>cman</strong></span> and <span class="command"><strong>rgmanager</strong></span>.  Here is
-      an example <code class="literal">cluster.conf</code> file for a cluster of 3 nodes named
-      node1, node2 and node3. We will go through the configuration step-by-step.
-    </p><pre class="programlisting">
-      
-&lt;?xml version="1.0"?&gt;
-&lt;!--
-This is an example of a cluster.conf file to run qpidd HA under rgmanager.
-This example assumes a 3 node cluster, with nodes named node1, node2 and node3.
-
-NOTE: fencing is not shown, you must configure fencing appropriately for your cluster.
---&gt;
-
-&lt;cluster name="qpid-test" config_version="18"&gt;
-  &lt;!-- The cluster has 3 nodes. Each has a unique nodeid and one vote
-       for quorum. --&gt;
-  &lt;clusternodes&gt;
-    &lt;clusternode name="node1.example.com" nodeid="1"/&gt;
-    &lt;clusternode name="node2.example.com" nodeid="2"/&gt;
-    &lt;clusternode name="node3.example.com" nodeid="3"/&gt;
-  &lt;/clusternodes&gt;
-
-  &lt;!-- Resouce Manager configuration. --&gt;
-
-   status_poll_interval is the interval in seconds that the resource manager checks the status
-   of managed services. This affects how quickly the manager will detect failed services.
-   --&gt;
-  &lt;rm status_poll_interval="1"&gt;
-    &lt;!--
-	There is a failoverdomain for each node containing just that node.
-	This lets us stipulate that the qpidd service should always run on each node.
-    --&gt;
-    &lt;failoverdomains&gt;
-      &lt;failoverdomain name="node1-domain" restricted="1"&gt;
-	&lt;failoverdomainnode name="node1.example.com"/&gt;
-      &lt;/failoverdomain&gt;
-      &lt;failoverdomain name="node2-domain" restricted="1"&gt;
-	&lt;failoverdomainnode name="node2.example.com"/&gt;
-      &lt;/failoverdomain&gt;
-      &lt;failoverdomain name="node3-domain" restricted="1"&gt;
-	&lt;failoverdomainnode name="node3.example.com"/&gt;
-      &lt;/failoverdomain&gt;
-    &lt;/failoverdomains&gt;
-
-    &lt;resources&gt;
-      &lt;!-- This script starts a qpidd broker acting as a backup. --&gt;
-      &lt;script file="/etc/init.d/qpidd" name="qpidd"/&gt;
-
-      &lt;!-- This script promotes the qpidd broker on this node to primary. --&gt;
-      &lt;script file="/etc/init.d/qpidd-primary" name="qpidd-primary"/&gt;
-
-      &lt;!--
-          This is a virtual IP address for client traffic.
-	  monitor_link="yes" means monitor the health of the NIC used for the VIP.
-	  sleeptime="0" means don't delay when failing over the VIP to a new address.
-      --&gt;
-      &lt;ip address="20.0.20.200" monitor_link="yes" sleeptime="0"/&gt;
-    &lt;/resources&gt;
-
-    &lt;!-- There is a qpidd service on each node, it should be restarted if it fails. --&gt;
-    &lt;service name="node1-qpidd-service" domain="node1-domain" recovery="restart"&gt;
-      &lt;script ref="qpidd"/&gt;
-    &lt;/service&gt;
-    &lt;service name="node2-qpidd-service" domain="node2-domain" recovery="restart"&gt;
-      &lt;script ref="qpidd"/&gt;
-    &lt;/service&gt;
-    &lt;service name="node3-qpidd-service" domain="node3-domain"  recovery="restart"&gt;
-      &lt;script ref="qpidd"/&gt;
-    &lt;/service&gt;
-
-    &lt;!-- There should always be a single qpidd-primary service, it can run on any node. --&gt;
-    &lt;service name="qpidd-primary-service" autostart="1" exclusive="0" recovery="relocate"&gt;
-      &lt;script ref="qpidd-primary"/&gt;
-      &lt;!-- The primary has the IP addresses for brokers and clients to connect. --&gt;
-      &lt;ip ref="20.0.20.200"/&gt;
-    &lt;/service&gt;
-  &lt;/rm&gt;
-&lt;/cluster&gt;
-      
-    </pre><p>
-      There is a <code class="literal">failoverdomain</code> for each node containing just that
-      one node.  This lets us stipulate that the qpidd service should always run on all
-      nodes.
-    </p><p>
-      The <code class="literal">resources</code> section defines the <span class="command"><strong>qpidd</strong></span>
-      script used to start the <span class="command"><strong>qpidd</strong></span> service. It also defines the
-      <span class="command"><strong>qpid-primary</strong></span> script which does not
-      actually start a new service, rather it promotes the existing
-      <span class="command"><strong>qpidd</strong></span> broker to primary status.
-    </p><p>
-      The <code class="literal">resources</code> section also defines a virtual IP
-      address for clients: <code class="literal">20.0.20.200</code>.
-    </p><p>
-      <code class="filename">qpidd.conf</code> should contain these  lines:
-    </p><pre class="programlisting">
-ha-cluster=yes
-ha-brokers-url=20.0.20.1,20.0.20.2,20.0.20.3
-    </pre><p>
-      The brokers connect to each other directly via the addresses
-      listed in <span class="command"><strong>ha-brokers-url</strong></span>. Note the client and broker
-      addresses are on separate sub-nets, this is recommended but not required.
-    </p><p>
-      The <code class="literal">service</code> section defines 3 <code class="literal">qpidd</code>
-      services, one for each node. Each service is in a restricted fail-over
-      domain containing just that node, and has the <code class="literal">restart</code>
-      recovery policy. The effect of this is that rgmanager will run
-      <span class="command"><strong>qpidd</strong></span> on each node, restarting if it fails.
-    </p><p>
-      There is a single <code class="literal">qpidd-primary-service</code> using the
-      <span class="command"><strong>qpidd-primary</strong></span> script which is not restricted to a
-      domain and has the <code class="literal">relocate</code> recovery policy. This means
-      rgmanager will start <span class="command"><strong>qpidd-primary</strong></span> on one of the nodes
-      when the cluster starts and will relocate it to another node if the
-      original node fails. Running the <code class="literal">qpidd-primary</code> script
-      does not start a new broker process, it promotes the existing broker to
-      become the primary.
-    </p><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a id="ha-rm-shutdown-node"></a>1.12.5.1.&#160;Shutting down qpidd on a HA node</h4></div></div></div><p>
-        As explained above both the per-node <code class="literal">qpidd</code> service
-        and the re-locatable <code class="literal">qpidd-primary</code> service are
-        implemented by the same <code class="literal">qpidd</code> daemon.
-      </p><p>
-        As a result, stopping the <code class="literal">qpidd</code> service will not stop
-        a <code class="literal">qpidd</code> daemon that is acting as primary, and
-        stopping the <code class="literal">qpidd-primary</code> service will not stop a
-        <code class="literal">qpidd</code> process that is acting as backup.
-      </p><p>
-        To shut down a node that is acting as primary you need to shut down the
-        <code class="literal">qpidd</code> service <span class="emphasis"><em>and</em></span> relocate the
-        primary:
-      </p><p>
-	</p><pre class="programlisting">
-clusvcadm -d somenode-qpidd-service
-clusvcadm -r qpidd-primary-service
-        </pre><p>
-      </p><p>
-        This will shut down the <code class="literal">qpidd</code> daemon on that node and
-        prevent the primary service service from relocating back to the node
-        because the qpidd service is no longer running there.
-      </p></div></div><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a id="ha-broker-admin"></a>1.12.6.&#160;Broker Administration Tools</h3></div></div></div><p>
-      Normally, clients are not allowed to connect to a backup broker. However
-      management tools are allowed to connect to a backup brokers. If you use
-      these tools you <span class="emphasis"><em>must not</em></span> add or remove messages from
-      replicated queues, nor create or delete replicated queues or exchanges as
-      this will disrupt the replication process and may cause message loss.
-    </p><p>
-      <span class="command"><strong>qpid-ha</strong></span> allows you to view and change HA configuration settings.
-    </p><p>
-      The tools <span class="command"><strong>qpid-config</strong></span>, <span class="command"><strong>qpid-route</strong></span> and
-      <span class="command"><strong>qpid-stat</strong></span> will connect to a backup if you pass the flag <span class="command"><strong>ha-admin</strong></span> on the
-      command line.
-    </p></div><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a id="ha-replicate-values"></a>1.12.7.&#160;Controlling replication of queues and exchanges</h3></div></div></div><p>
-      By default, queues and exchanges are not replicated automatically. You can change
-      the default behaviour by setting the <code class="literal">ha-replicate</code> configuration
-      option. It has one of the following values:
-      </p><div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc"><li class="listitem"><p>
-	    <em class="firstterm">all</em>: Replicate everything automatically: queues,
-	    exchanges, bindings and messages.
-	  </p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
-	    <em class="firstterm">configuration</em>: Replicate the existence of queues,
-	    exchange and bindings but don't replicate messages.
-	  </p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
-	    <em class="firstterm">none</em>: Don't replicate anything, this is the default.
-	  </p></li></ul></div><p>
-    </p><p>
-      You can over-ride the default for a particular queue or exchange by passing the
-      argument <code class="literal">qpid.replicate</code> when creating the queue or exchange. It
-      takes the same values as <code class="literal">ha-replicate</code>
-    </p><p>
-      Bindings are automatically replicated if the queue and exchange being bound both
-      have replication <code class="literal">all</code> or <code class="literal">configuration</code>, they
-      are not replicated otherwise.
-    </p><p>
-      You can create replicated queues and exchanges with the
-      <span class="command"><strong>qpid-config</strong></span> management tool like this:
-    </p><pre class="programlisting">
-qpid-config add queue myqueue --replicate all
-    </pre><p>
-      To create replicated queues and exchanges via the client API, add a
-      <code class="literal">node</code> entry to the address like this:
-    </p><pre class="programlisting">
-"myqueue;{create:always,node:{x-declare:{arguments:{'qpid.replicate':all}}}}"
-    </pre><p>
-      There are some built-in exchanges created automatically by the broker, these
-      exchanges are never replicated. The built-in exchanges are the default (nameless)
-      exchange, the AMQP standard exchanges (<code class="literal">amq.direct, amq.topic, amq.fanout</code> and
-      <code class="literal">amq.match</code>) and the management exchanges (<code class="literal">qpid.management, qmf.default.direct</code> and
-      <code class="literal">qmf.default.topic</code>)
-    </p><p>
-      Note that if you bind a replicated queue to one of these exchanges, the
-      binding will <span class="emphasis"><em>not</em></span> be replicated, so the queue will not
-      have the binding after a fail-over.
-    </p></div><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a id="ha-failover"></a>1.12.8.&#160;Client Connection and Fail-over</h3></div></div></div><p>
-      Clients can only connect to the primary broker. Backup brokers reject any
-      connection attempt by a client. Clients rejected by a backup broker will
-      automatically fail-over until they connect to the primary.
-    </p><p>
-      Clients are configured with the URL for the cluster (details below for
-      each type of client). There are two possibilities
-      </p><div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc"><li class="listitem"><p>
-	    The URL contains multiple addresses, one for each broker in the cluster.
-	  </p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
-	    The URL contains a single <em class="firstterm">virtual IP address</em>
-	    that is assigned to the primary broker by the resource manager.
-	    This is the recommended configuration.
-	  </p></li></ul></div><p>
-      In the first case, clients will repeatedly re-try each address in the URL
-      until they successfully connect to the primary. In the second case the
-      resource manager will assign the virtual IP address to the primary broker,
-      so clients only need to re-try on a single address.
-    </p><p>
-      When the primary broker fails, clients re-try all known cluster addresses
-      until they connect to the new primary.  The client re-sends any messages
-      that were previously sent but not acknowledged by the broker at the time
-      of the failure.  Similarly messages that have been sent by the broker, but
-      not acknowledged by the client, are re-queued.
-    </p><p>
-      TCP can be slow to detect connection failures. A client can configure a
-      connection to use a <em class="firstterm">heartbeat</em> to detect connection
-      failure, and can specify a time interval for the heartbeat. If heartbeats
-      are in use, failures will be detected no later than twice the heartbeat
-      interval. The following sections explain how to enable heartbeat in each
-      client.
-    </p><p>
-      Note: the following sections explain how to configure clients with
-      multiple dresses, but if you are using a virtual IP address you only need
-      to configure that one address for clients, you don't need to list all the
-      addresses.
-    </p><p>
-      Suppose your cluster has 3 nodes: <code class="literal">node1</code>,
-      <code class="literal">node2</code> and <code class="literal">node3</code> all using the
-      default AMQP port, and you are not using a virtual IP address. To connect
-      a client you need to specify the address(es) and set the
-      <code class="literal">reconnect</code> property to <code class="literal">true</code>. The
-      following sub-sections show how to connect each type of client.
-    </p><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a id="ha-clients"></a>1.12.8.1.&#160;C++ clients</h4></div></div></div><p>
-	With the C++ client, you specify multiple cluster addresses in a single URL
-	<a class="footnote" href="#ftn.idm221065028880" id="idm221065028880"><sup class="footnote">[3]</sup></a>
-	You also need to specify the connection option
-	<code class="literal">reconnect</code> to be true.  For example:
-      </p><pre class="programlisting">
-qpid::messaging::Connection c("node1,node2,node3","{reconnect:true}");
-      </pre><p>
-	Heartbeats are disabled by default. You can enable them by specifying a
-	heartbeat interval (in seconds) for the connection via the
-	<code class="literal">heartbeat</code> option. For example:
-      </p><pre class="programlisting">
-qpid::messaging::Connection c("node1,node2,node3","{reconnect:true,heartbeat:10}");
-      </pre></div><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a id="ha-python-client"></a>1.12.8.2.&#160;Python clients</h4></div></div></div><p>
-	With the python client, you specify <code class="literal">reconnect=True</code>
-	and a list of <em class="replaceable"><code>host:port</code></em> addresses as
-	<code class="literal">reconnect_urls</code> when calling
-	<code class="literal">Connection.establish</code> or
-	<code class="literal">Connection.open</code>
-      </p><pre class="programlisting">
-connection = qpid.messaging.Connection.establish("node1", reconnect=True, reconnect_urls=["node1", "node2", "node3"])
-      </pre><p>
-	Heartbeats are disabled by default. You can
-	enable them by specifying a heartbeat interval (in seconds) for the
-	connection via the 'heartbeat' option. For example:
-      </p><pre class="programlisting">
-connection = qpid.messaging.Connection.establish("node1", reconnect=True, reconnect_urls=["node1", "node2", "node3"], heartbeat=10)
-      </pre></div><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a id="ha-jms-client"></a>1.12.8.3.&#160;Java JMS Clients</h4></div></div></div><p>
-	In Java JMS clients, client fail-over is handled automatically if it is
-	enabled in the connection.  You can configure a connection to use
-	fail-over using the <span class="command"><strong>failover</strong></span> property:
-      </p><pre class="screen">
-	connectionfactory.qpidConnectionfactory = amqp://guest:guest@clientid/test?brokerlist='tcp://localhost:5672'&amp;failover='failover_exchange'
-      </pre><p>
-	This property can take three values:
-      </p><div class="variablelist"><p class="title"><strong>Fail-over Modes</strong></p><dl class="variablelist"><dt><span class="term">failover_exchange</span></dt><dd><p>
-	      If the connection fails, fail over to any other broker in the cluster.
-	    </p></dd><dt><span class="term">roundrobin</span></dt><dd><p>
-	      If the connection fails, fail over to one of the brokers specified in the <span class="command"><strong>brokerlist</strong></span>.
-	    </p></dd><dt><span class="term">singlebroker</span></dt><dd><p>
-	      Fail-over is not supported; the connection is to a single broker only.
-	    </p></dd></dl></div><p>
-	In a Connection URL, heartbeat is set using the <span class="command"><strong>heartbeat</strong></span> property, which is an integer corresponding to the heartbeat period in seconds. For instance, the following line from a JNDI properties file sets the heartbeat time out to 3 seconds:
-      </p><pre class="screen">
-	connectionfactory.qpidConnectionfactory = amqp://guest:guest@clientid/test?brokerlist='tcp://localhost:5672'&amp;heartbeat='3'
-      </pre></div></div><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a id="ha-security"></a>1.12.9.&#160;Security and Access Control.</h3></div></div></div><p>
-      This section outlines the HA specific aspects of security configuration.
-      Please see <a class="xref" href="chap-Messaging_User_Guide-Security.html" title="1.5.&#160;Security">Section&#160;1.5, &#8220;Security&#8221;</a> for
-      more details on enabling authentication and setting up Access Control Lists.
-    </p><div class="note" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;"><h3 class="title">Note</h3><p>
-	Unless you disable authentication with <code class="literal">auth=no</code> in
-	your configuration, you <span class="emphasis"><em>must</em></span> set the options below
-	and you <span class="emphasis"><em>must</em></span> have an ACL file with at least the
-	entry described below.
-      </p><p>
-	Backups will be <span class="emphasis"><em>unable to connect to the primary</em></span> if
-	the security configuration is incorrect. See also <a class="xref" href="chapter-ha.html#ha-troubleshoot-security" title="1.12.12.2.&#160;Authentication and ACL failures">Section&#160;1.12.12.2, &#8220;Authentication and ACL failures&#8221;</a>
-      </p></div><p>
-      When authentication is enabled you must set the credentials used by HA
-      brokers with following options:
-    </p><div class="table"><a id="ha-security-options"></a><p class="title"><strong>Table&#160;1.29.&#160;HA Security Options</strong></p><div class="table-contents"><table border="1" summary="HA Security Options"><colgroup><col align="left" class="c1" /><col align="left" class="c2" /></colgroup><thead><tr><th align="center" colspan="2">
-	      HA Security Options
-	    </th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td align="left"><p><code class="literal">ha-username</code> <em class="replaceable"><code>USER</code></em></p></td><td align="left"><p>User name for HA brokers. Note this must <span class="emphasis"><em>not</em></span> include the <code class="literal">@QPID</code> suffix.</p></td></tr><tr><td align="left"><p><code class="literal">ha-password</code> <em class="replaceable"><code>PASS</code></em></p></td><td align="left"><p>Password for HA brokers.</p></td></tr><tr><td align="left"><p><code class="literal">ha-mechanism</code> <em class="replaceable"><code>MECHANISM</code></em></p></td><td align="left">
-	      <p>
-		Mechanism for HA brokers. Any mechanism you enable for
-		broker-to-broker communication can also be used by a client, so
-		do not use ha-mechanism=ANONYMOUS in a secure environment.
-	      </p>
-	    </td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><br class="table-break" /><p>
-      This identity is used to authorize federation links from backup to
-      primary.  It is also used to authorize actions on the backup to replicate
-      primary state, for example creating queues and exchanges.
-    </p><p>
-      When authorization is enabled you must have an Access Control List with the
-      following rule to allow HA replication to function. Suppose
-      <code class="literal">ha-username</code>=<em class="replaceable"><code>USER</code></em>
-    </p><pre class="programlisting">
-acl allow <em class="replaceable"><code>USER</code></em>@QPID all all
-    </pre></div><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a id="ha-other-rm"></a>1.12.10.&#160;Integrating with other Cluster Resource Managers</h3></div></div></div><p>
-      To integrate with a different resource manager you must configure it to:
-      </p><div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc"><li class="listitem"><p>Start a qpidd process on each node of the cluster.</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>Restart qpidd if it crashes.</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>Promote exactly one of the brokers to primary.</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>Detect a failure and promote a new primary.</p></li></ul></div><p>
-    </p><p>
-      The <span class="command"><strong>qpid-ha</strong></span> command allows you to check if a broker is
-      primary, and to promote a backup to primary.
-    </p><p>
-      To test if a broker is the primary:
-    </p><pre class="programlisting">qpid-ha -b <em class="replaceable"><code>broker-address</code></em> status --expect=primary</pre><p>
-      This will return 0 if the broker at <em class="replaceable"><code>broker-address</code></em> is the primary,
-      non-0 otherwise.
-    </p><p>
-      To promote a broker to primary:
-    </p><pre class="programlisting">qpid-ha --cluster-manager -b <em class="replaceable"><code>broker-address</code></em> promote</pre><p>
-    </p><p>
-      Note that <code class="literal">promote</code> is considered a "cluster manager
-      only" command. Incorrect use of <code class="literal">promote</code> outside of the
-      cluster manager could create a cluster with multiple primaries. Such a
-      cluster will malfunction and lose data.  "Cluster manager only" commands
-      are not accessible in <span class="command"><strong>qpid-ha</strong></span> without the
-      <code class="literal">--cluster-manager</code> option.
-    </p><p>
-      To list the full set of commands use:
-    </p><pre class="programlisting">
-qpid-ha --cluster-manager --help
-    </pre></div><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a id="ha-store"></a>1.12.11.&#160;Using a message store in a cluster</h3></div></div></div><p>
-      If you use a persistent store for your messages then each broker in a
-      cluster will have its own store. If the entire cluster fails and is
-      restarted, the *first* broker that becomes primary will recover from its
-      store. All the other brokers will clear their stores and get an update
-      from the primary to ensure consistency.
-    </p></div><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a id="ha-troubleshoot"></a>1.12.12.&#160;Troubleshooting a cluster</h3></div></div></div><p>
-      This section applies to clusters that are using rgmanager as the
-      cluster manager.
-    </p><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a id="ha-troubleshoot-no-primary"></a>1.12.12.1.&#160;No primary broker</h4></div></div></div><p>
-	When you initially start a HA cluster, all brokers are in
-	<code class="literal">joining</code> mode. The brokers do not automatically select
-	a primary, they rely on the cluster manager <code class="literal">rgmanager</code>
-	to do so. If <code class="literal">rgmanager</code> is not running or is not
-	configured correctly, brokers will remain in the
-	<code class="literal">joining</code> state. See <a class="xref" href="chapter-ha.html#ha-rm-config" title="1.12.5.&#160;Configuring with rgmanager as resource manager">Section&#160;1.12.5, &#8220;Configuring with <span class="command"><strong>rgmanager</strong></span> as resource manager&#8221;</a>
-      </p></div><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a id="ha-troubleshoot-security"></a>1.12.12.2.&#160;Authentication and ACL failures</h4></div></div></div><p>
-	If a broker is unable to establish a connection to another broker in the
-	cluster due to authentication or ACL problems the logs may contain
-	errors like the following:
-	</p><pre class="programlisting">
-info SASL: Authentication failed: SASL(-13): user not found: Password verification failed
-	</pre><p>
-	</p><pre class="programlisting">
-warning Client closed connection with 320: User anonymous@QPID federation connection denied. Systems with authentication enabled must specify ACL create link rules.
-	</pre><p>
-	</p><pre class="programlisting">
-warning Client closed connection with 320: ACL denied anonymous@QPID creating a federation link.
-	</pre><p>
-      </p><p>
-	Set the HA security configuration and ACL file as described in <a class="xref" href="chapter-ha.html#ha-security" title="1.12.9.&#160;Security and Access Control.">Section&#160;1.12.9, &#8220;Security and Access Control.&#8221;</a>.  Once the cluster is running and the primary is
-	promoted , run:
-	</p><pre class="programlisting">qpid-ha status --all</pre><p>
-	to make sure that the brokers are running as one cluster.
-      </p></div><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a id="ha-troubleshoot-slow-recovery"></a>1.12.12.3.&#160;Slow recovery times</h4></div></div></div><p>
-	The following configuration settings affect recovery time. The
-	values shown are examples that give fast recovery on a lightly
-	loaded system. You should run tests to determine if the values are
-	appropriate for your system and load conditions.
-      </p><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h5 class="title"><a id="ha-troubleshoot-cluster.conf"></a>cluster.conf:</h5></div></div></div><pre class="programlisting">
-&lt;rm status_poll_interval=1&gt;
-	</pre><p>
-	  status_poll_interval is the interval in seconds that the
-	  resource manager checks the status of managed services. This
-	  affects how quickly the manager will detect failed services.
-	</p><pre class="programlisting">
-&lt;ip address="20.0.20.200" monitor_link="yes" sleeptime="0"/&gt;
-	</pre><p>
-	  This is a virtual IP address for client traffic.
-	  monitor_link="yes" means monitor the health of the network interface
-	  used for the VIP. sleeptime="0" means don't delay when
-	  failing over the VIP to a new address.
-	</p></div><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h5 class="title"><a id="ha-troubleshoot-qpidd.conf"></a>qpidd.conf</h5></div></div></div><pre class="programlisting">
-link-maintenance-interval=0.1
-	</pre><p>
-	  Interval for backup brokers to check the link to the primary
-	  re-connect if need be. Default 2 seconds. Can be set lower for
-	  faster fail-over. Setting too low will result in excessive
-	  link-checking activity on the broker.
-	</p><pre class="programlisting">
-link-heartbeat-interval=5
-	</pre><p>
-	  Heartbeat interval for federation links. The HA cluster uses
-	  federation links between the primary and each backup. The
-	  primary can take up to twice the heartbeat interval to detect a
-	  failed backup. When a sender sends a message the primary waits
-	  for all backups to acknowledge before acknowledging to the
-	  sender. A disconnected backup may cause the primary to block
-	  senders until it is detected via heartbeat.
-	</p><p>
-	  This interval is also used as the timeout for broker status
-	  checks by rgmanager. It may take up to this interval for
-	  rgmanager to detect a hung broker.
-	</p><p>
-	  The default of 120 seconds is very high, you will probably want
-	  to set this to a lower value. If set too low, under network
-	  congestion or heavy load, a slow-to-respond broker may be
-	  re-started by rgmanager.
-	</p></div></div><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a id="ha-troubleshoot-total-cluster-failure"></a>1.12.12.4.&#160;Total cluster failure</h4></div></div></div><p>
-	Note: for definition of broker states <em class="firstterm">joining</em>,
-	<em class="firstterm">catch-up</em>, <em class="firstterm">ready</em>,
-	<em class="firstterm">recovering</em> and <em class="firstterm">active</em> see
-	<a class="xref" href="chapter-ha.html#ha-broker-states" title="HA Broker States">HA Broker States</a>
-      </p><p>
-	The cluster can only guarantee availability as long as there is at
-	least one active primary broker or ready backup broker left alive.
-	If all the brokers fail simultaneously, the cluster will fail and
-	non-persistent data will be lost.
-      </p><p>
-	While there is an active primary broker, clients can get service.
-	If the active primary fails, one of the "ready" backup
-	brokers will take over, recover and become active. Note a backup
-	can only be promoted to primary if it is in the "ready"
-	state (with the exception of the first primary in a new cluster
-	where all brokers are in the "joining" state)
-      </p><p>
-	Given a stable cluster of N brokers with one active primary and
-	N-1 ready backups, the system can sustain up to N-1 failures in
-	rapid succession. The surviving broker will be promoted to active
-	and continue to give service.
-      </p><p>
-	However at this point the system <span class="emphasis"><em>cannot</em></span>
-	sustain a failure of the surviving broker until at least one of
-	the other brokers recovers, catches up and becomes a ready backup.
-	If the surviving broker fails before that the cluster will fail in
-	one of two modes (depending on the exact timing of failures)
-      </p><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h5 class="title"><a id="ha-troubleshoot-the-cluster-hangs"></a>1. The cluster hangs</h5></div></div></div><p>
-	  All brokers are in joining or catch-up mode. rgmanager tries to
-	  promote a new primary but cannot find any candidates and so
-	  gives up. clustat will show that the qpidd services are running
-	  but the the qpidd-primary service has stopped, something like
-	  this:
-	</p><pre class="programlisting">
-Service Name                   Owner (Last)                   State
-------- ----                   ----- ------                   -----
-service:mrg33-qpidd-service    20.0.10.33                     started
-service:mrg34-qpidd-service    20.0.10.34                     started
-service:mrg35-qpidd-service    20.0.10.35                     started
-service:qpidd-primary-service  (20.0.10.33)                   stopped
-	</pre><p>
-	  Eventually all brokers become stuck in "joining" mode,
-	  as shown by: <code class="literal">qpid-ha status --all</code>
-	</p><p>
-	  At this point you need to restart the cluster in one of the
-	  following ways:
-	  </p><div class="orderedlist"><ol class="orderedlist" type="1"><li class="listitem"><p>
-	      Restart the entire cluster:
-	      In <code class="literal">luci:<em class="replaceable"><code>your-cluster</code></em>:Nodes</code>
-	      click reboot to restart the entire cluster
-	    </p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
-	      Stop and restart the cluster with
-	      <code class="literal">ccs --stopall; ccs --startall</code>
-	    </p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
-	      Restart just the Qpid services:In <code class="literal">luci:<em class="replaceable"><code>your-cluster</code></em>:Service Groups</code>
-	      </p><div class="orderedlist"><ol class="orderedlist" type="a"><li class="listitem"><p>Select all the qpidd (not qpidd-primary) services, click restart</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>Select the qpidd-primary service, click restart</p></li></ol></div><p>
-	    </p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
-	      Stop the <code class="literal">qpidd-primary</code> and
-	      <code class="literal">qpidd</code> services with <code class="literal">clusvcadm</code>,
-	      then restart (qpidd-primary last)
-	    </p></li></ol></div><p>
-	</p></div><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h5 class="title"><a id="ha-troubleshoot-the-cluster-reboots"></a>2. The cluster reboots</h5></div></div></div><p>
-	  A new primary is promoted and the cluster is functional but all
-	  non-persistent data from before the failure is lost.
-	</p></div></div><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a id="ha-troubleshoot-fencing-and-network-partitions"></a>1.12.12.5.&#160;Fencing and network partitions</h4></div></div></div><p>
-	A network partition is a a network failure that divides the
-	cluster into two or more sub-clusters, where each broker can
-	communicate with brokers in its own sub-cluster but not with
-	brokers in other sub-clusters. This condition is also referred to
-	as a "split brain".
-      </p><p>
-	Nodes in one sub-cluster can't tell whether nodes in other
-	sub-clusters are dead or are still running but disconnected. We
-	cannot allow each sub-cluster to independently declare its own
-	qpidd primary and start serving clients, as the cluster will
-	become inconsistent. We must ensure only one sub-cluster continues
-	to provide service.
-      </p><p>
-	A <span class="emphasis"><em>quorum</em></span> determines which sub-cluster
-	continues to operate, and <span class="emphasis"><em>power fencing</em></span>
-	ensures that nodes in non-quorate sub-clusters cannot attempt to
-	provide service inconsistently. For more information see:
-      </p><p>
-	https://access.redhat.com/site/documentation/en-US/Red_Hat_Enterprise_Linux/6/html-single/High_Availability_Add-On_Overview/index.html,
-	chapter 2. Quorum and 4. Fencing.
-      </p></div></div><div class="footnotes"><br /><hr align="left" width="100" /><div class="footnote" id="ftn.idm221065919424"><p><a class="para" href="#idm221065919424"><sup class="para">[1] </sup></a>
-	    You can control the maximum number of messages in the buffer by setting the
-	    client's <code class="literal">capacity</code>. For details of how to set the capacity
-	    in client code see "Using the Qpid Messaging API" in
-	    <em class="citetitle">Programming in Apache Qpid</em>.
-	  </p></div><div class="footnote" id="ftn.idm221066427664"><p><a class="para" href="#idm221066427664"><sup class="para">[2] </sup></a>
-	  Clients must use "at-least-once" reliability to enable re-send of unacknowledged
-	  messages. This is the default behaviour, no options need be set to enable it. For
-	  details of client addressing options see "Using the Qpid Messaging API"
-	  in <em class="citetitle">Programming in Apache Qpid</em>.
-	  </p></div><div class="footnote" id="ftn.idm221065028880"><p><a class="para" href="#idm221065028880"><sup class="para">[3] </sup></a>
-	    The full grammar for the URL is:
-	  </p><pre class="programlisting">
-url = ["amqp:"][ user ["/" password] "@" ] addr ("," addr)*
-addr = tcp_addr / rmda_addr / ssl_addr / ...
-tcp_addr = ["tcp:"] host [":" port]
-rdma_addr = "rdma:" host [":" port]
-ssl_addr = "ssl:" host [":" port]'
-	  </pre></div></div></div><div class="navfooter"><hr /><table summary="Navigation footer" width="100%"><tr><td align="left" width="40%"><a accesskey="p" href="Using-message-groups.html">Prev</a>&#160;</td><td align="center" width="20%"><a accesskey="u" href="ch01.html">Up</a></td><td align="right" width="40%">&#160;<a accesskey="n" href="ha-queue-replication.html">Next</a></td></tr><tr><td align="left" valign="top" width="40%">1.11.&#160;
-    Using Message Groups
-  &#160;</td><td align="center" width="20%"><a accesskey="h" href="index.html">Home</a></td><td align="right" valign="top" width="40%">&#160;1.13.&#160;Replicating Queues with the HA module</td></tr></table></div></div>
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-            <li><a href="http://www.apache.org/licenses/">License</a></li>
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-            The Apache Software Foundation; Licensed under
-            the <a href="http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0">Apache
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-
-        <div id="-middle-content">
-          <div class="docbook"><div class="navheader"><table summary="Navigation header" width="100%"><tr><th align="center" colspan="3">1.13.&#160;Replicating Queues with the HA module</th></tr><tr><td align="left" width="20%"><a accesskey="p" href="chapter-ha.html">Prev</a>&#160;</td><th align="center" width="60%">Chapter&#160;1.&#160;
-      Running the AMQP Messaging Broker
-    </th><td align="right" width="20%">&#160;<a accesskey="n" href="chapter-Managing-CPP-Broker.html">Next</a></td></tr></table><hr /></div><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title"><a id="ha-queue-replication"></a>1.13.&#160;Replicating Queues with the HA module</h2></div></div></div><p>
-    As well as support for an active-passive cluster, the
-    HA module allows you to replicate individual queues,
-    even if the brokers are not in a cluster. The <em class="firstterm">original</em>
-    queue is used as normal.  The <em class="firstterm">replica</em> queue is
-    updated automatically as messages are added to or removed from the original
-    queue.
-  </p><div class="warning" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;"><h3 class="title">Warning</h3><p>
-      It is not safe to modify the replica queue
-      other than via the automatic updates from the original. Adding or removing
-      messages on the replica queue will make replication inconsistent and may
-      cause message loss.
-      The HA module does <span class="emphasis"><em>not</em></span> enforce
-      restricted access to the replica queue (as it does in the case of a cluster)
-      so it is up to the application to ensure the replica is not used until it has
-      been disconnected from the original.
-    </p></div><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a id="idm221066074928"></a>1.13.1.&#160;Replicating queues</h3></div></div></div><p>
-      To create a replica queue, the HA module must be
-      loaded on both the original and replica brokers (it is loaded by default.)
-      You also need to set the configuration option:
-      </p><pre class="programlisting">
-	ha-queue-replication=yes
-      </pre><p>
-      to enable this feature on a stand-alone broker. It is automatically
-      enabled for brokers that are part of a cluster.
-    </p><p>
-      Suppose that <span class="command"><strong>myqueue</strong></span> is a queue on
-      <span class="command"><strong>node1</strong></span> and we want to create a replica of
-      <span class="command"><strong>myqueue</strong></span> on <span class="command"><strong>node2</strong></span> (where both brokers
-      are using the default AMQP port.) This is accomplished by the command:
-      </p><pre class="programlisting">
-	qpid-config --broker=node2 add queue --start-replica node1 myqueue
-      </pre><p>
-      If <span class="command"><strong>myqueue</strong></span> already exists on the replica
-      broker you can start replication from the original queue like this:
-      </p><pre class="programlisting">
-	qpid-ha replicate -b node2 node1 myqueue
-      </pre><p>
-    </p></div><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a id="idm221064396992"></a>1.13.2.&#160;Replicating queues between clusters</h3></div></div></div><p>
-      You can replicate queues between two standalone brokers, between a
-      standalone broker and a cluster, or between two clusters (see <a class="xref" href="chapter-ha.html" title="1.12.&#160;Active-Passive Messaging Clusters">Section&#160;1.12, &#8220;Active-Passive Messaging Clusters&#8221;</a>.) For failover in a cluster there are two cases to
-      consider.
-    </p><div class="orderedlist"><ol class="orderedlist" type="1"><li class="listitem"><p>
-	  When the <span class="emphasis"><em>original</em></span> queue is on the active node
-	  of a cluster, failover is automatic. If the active node
-	  fails, the replication link will automatically reconnect and the
-	  replica will continue to be updated from the new primary.
-	</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
-	  When the <span class="emphasis"><em>replica</em></span> queue is on the active node of a
-	  cluster, there is no automatic failover. However you can use the
-	  following workaround.
-	</p></li></ol></div><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a id="idm221064086896"></a>1.13.2.1.&#160;Work around for fail-over of replica queue in a cluster</h4></div></div></div><p>
-	When a primary broker fails the cluster resource manager calls a script
-	to promote a backup broker to be the new primary. By default this script
-	is <code class="filename">/etc/init.d/qpidd-primary</code> but you can modify
-	that in your <code class="filename">cluster.conf</code> file (see <a class="xref" href="chapter-ha.html#ha-rm-config" title="1.12.5.&#160;Configuring with rgmanager as resource manager">Section&#160;1.12.5, &#8220;Configuring with <span class="command"><strong>rgmanager</strong></span> as resource manager&#8221;</a>.)
-      </p><p>
-	You can modify this script (on each host in your cluster) by adding
-	commands to create your replica queues just before the broker is
-	promoted, as indicated in the following exceprt from the script:
-	</p><pre class="programlisting">
-start() {
-    service qpidd start
-    echo -n $"Promoting qpid daemon to cluster primary: "
-    ################################
-    #### Add your commands here ####
-    ################################
-    $QPID_HA -b localhost:$QPID_PORT promote
-    [ "$?" -eq 0 ] &amp;&amp; success || failure
-}
-	</pre><p>
-	Your commands will be run, and your replicas created, whenever 
-	the system fails over to a new primary.
-      </p></div></div></div><div class="navfooter"><hr /><table summary="Navigation footer" width="100%"><tr><td align="left" width="40%"><a accesskey="p" href="chapter-ha.html">Prev</a>&#160;</td><td align="center" width="20%"><a accesskey="u" href="ch01.html">Up</a></td><td align="right" width="40%">&#160;<a accesskey="n" href="chapter-Managing-CPP-Broker.html">Next</a></td></tr><tr><td align="left" valign="top" width="40%">1.12.&#160;Active-Passive Messaging Clusters&#160;</td><td align="center" width="20%"><a accesskey="h" href="index.html">Home</a></td><td align="right" valign="top" width="40%">&#160;Chapter&#160;2.&#160;
-      Managing the AMQP Messaging Broker
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