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From nic...@apache.org
Subject [01/36] polygene-website git commit: Working on new website.
Date Mon, 17 Apr 2017 01:55:55 GMT
Repository: polygene-website
Updated Branches:
  refs/heads/asf-site 9a1a05624 -> bb9c9971b


http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/polygene-website/blob/bb9c9971/content/java/2017/tutorials.html
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diff --git a/content/java/2017/tutorials.html b/content/java/2017/tutorials.html
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+<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="no"?>
+<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"><html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"><head><meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /><title>Tutorials</title><meta name="generator" content="DocBook XSL Stylesheets V1.78.1" /><link rel="home" href="index.html" title="" /><link rel="up" href="index.html" title="" /><link rel="prev" href="related.html" title="Related publications &amp; projects" /><link rel="next" href="two-minutes-intro.html" title="Polygene™ in 2 minutes" />
+
+
+    <meta charset="utf-8">
+    <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge">
+    <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1">
+    <!-- The above 3 meta tags *must* come first in the head; any other head content must come *after* these tags -->
+    <meta name="description" content="">
+    <meta name="author" content="">
+    <link rel="icon" href="../../favicon.ico">
+
+    <title>Starter Template for Bootstrap</title>
+
+    <!-- Bootstrap core CSS -->
+    <link href="bootstrap-3.3.7/css/bootstrap.min.css" rel="stylesheet">
+
+    <!-- IE10 viewport hack for Surface/desktop Windows 8 bug -->
+    <link href="css/ie10-viewport-bug-workaround.css" rel="stylesheet">
+
+    <!-- Custom styles for this template -->
+    <link href="css/polygene-ng.css" rel="stylesheet">
+
+    <!-- Just for debugging purposes. Don't actually copy these 2 lines! -->
+    <!--[if lt IE 9]><script src="../../assets/js/ie8-responsive-file-warning.js"></script><![endif]-->
+    <script src="js/ie-emulation-modes-warning.js"></script>
+
+    <!-- HTML5 shim and Respond.js for IE8 support of HTML5 elements and media queries -->
+    <!--[if lt IE 9]>
+      <script src="https://oss.maxcdn.com/html5shiv/3.7.3/html5shiv.min.js"></script>
+      <script src="https://oss.maxcdn.com/respond/1.4.2/respond.min.js"></script>
+    <![endif]-->
+
+<!-- favicon -->
+
+<link rel="shortcut icon" href="http://polygene.apache.org/favicon.ico" type="image/vnd.microsoft.icon" />
+<link rel="icon" href="http://polygene.apache.org/favicon.ico" type="image/x-icon" />
+
+<!-- style -->
+
+<link href="css/shCore.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" />
+<link href="css/shCoreEclipse.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" />
+<link href="css/shThemeEclipse.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" />
+<!--<link href="css/polygene.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" />-->
+
+<!-- Syntax Highlighter -->
+
+<script type="text/javascript" src="js/shCore.js"></script>
+<script type="text/javascript" src="js/shBrushJava.js"></script>
+<script type="text/javascript" src="js/shBrushScala.js"></script>
+<script type="text/javascript" src="js/shBrushJScript.js"></script>
+<script type="text/javascript" src="js/shBrushBash.js"></script>
+<script type="text/javascript" src="js/shBrushPlain.js"></script>
+<script type="text/javascript" src="js/shBrushXml.js"></script>
+<script type="text/javascript" src="js/shBrushGroovy.js"></script>
+<script type="text/javascript" src="js/shBrushPython.js"></script>
+<script type="text/javascript" src="js/shBrushRuby.js"></script>
+<script type="text/javascript" src="js/shBrushCSharp.js"></script>
+
+<script type="text/javascript">
+  SyntaxHighlighter.defaults['tab-size'] = 4;
+  SyntaxHighlighter.defaults['gutter'] = false;
+  SyntaxHighlighter.defaults['toolbar'] = false;
+  SyntaxHighlighter.all()
+</script>
+
+<!-- JQuery -->
+
+<script type="text/javascript" src="js/jquery-1.6.4.min.js"></script>
+
+<!-- Image Scaler -->
+
+<script type="text/javascript" src="js/imagescaler.js"></script>
+
+<!-- Table Styler -->
+
+<script type="text/javascript" src="js/tablestyler.js"></script>
+
+<!-- Apache Polygene WebSite Progressive Enhancement -->
+
+<link href="css/progressive-enhancement.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" />
+<script type="text/javascript" src="js/jquery.scrollTo-1.4.2.js"></script>
+<script type="text/javascript" src="js/progressive-enhancement.js"></script>
+
+<!-- Analytics -->
+ <script type="text/javascript">
+  var _gaq = _gaq || [];
+  _gaq.push(['_setAccount', 'UA-62007352-1']);
+  _gaq.push(['_trackPageview']);
+
+  (function() {
+    var ga = document.createElement('script'); ga.type = 'text/javascript'; ga.async = true;
+    ga.src = ('https:' == document.location.protocol ? 'https://ssl' : 'http://www') + '.google-analytics.com/ga.js';
+    var s = document.getElementsByTagName('script')[0]; s.parentNode.insertBefore(ga, s);
+  })();
+ </script>
+
+  </head><body><div xmlns="" xmlns:exsl="http://exslt.org/common" class="logo"><a href="index.html"><img src="images/logo-standard.png" /></a></div><nav xmlns="" xmlns:exsl="http://exslt.org/common" class="navbar navbar-inverse navbar-fixed-top"><div class="container"><div class="navbar-header"><a class="navbar-brand" href="#">Apache<br />Polygene
+          </a></div><div id="navbar" class="collapse navbar-collapse"><span class="nav navbar-nav"><div xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" class="toc"><dl class="toc"><dt><span class="section"><a href="index.html#home">Polygene™</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="intro.html">Introduction</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><span xmlns="" href="tutorials.html">Tutorials</span></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="javadocs.html">Javadoc</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="samples.html">Samples</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="core.html">Core</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="libraries.html">Libraries</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="extensions.html">Extensions</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="tools.html">Tools</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="glossary.html">Glossary </a></span></dt></dl></div></span></div></div></nav><div xmlns="" xmlns:exsl="http://exslt
 .org/common" class="sidenav"><div xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" class="toc"><dl class="toc"><dt><span class="section"><span xmlns="" href="tutorials.html#_overview">Overview</span></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="two-minutes-intro.html">Polygene™ in 2 minutes</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="ten-minutes-intro.html">Polygene™ in 10 minutes</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="thirty-minutes-intro.html">Polygene™ in 30 minutes</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="howto-depend-on-polygene.html">Depend on Polygene™</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="howto-assemble-application.html">Assemble an Application</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="tut-composites.html">Transient Composites Tutorial</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="tut-services.html">Services Composites Tutorial</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="howto-contextual-fragments.html">Use contextual frag
 ments</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="howto-leverage-properties.html">Leverage Properties</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="howto-create-constraint.html">Create a Constraint</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="howto-create-concern.html">Create a Concern</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="howto-create-sideeffect.html">Create a SideEffect</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="howto-create-entity.html">Create an Entity</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="howto-configure-service.html">Configure a Service</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="howto-invocation-annotation.html">Use @Invocation</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="build-system.html">Polygene™ Build System</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="community-docs.html">Polygene™ Documentation</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="releasing-apache.html">Releasing Polygene™</a></span></dt><
 /dl></div></div><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title"><a id="tutorials"></a>Tutorials</h2></div></div></div><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a id="_overview"></a>Overview</h3></div></div></div><div class="tip" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;"><h3 class="title">Tip</h3><p>Theses tutorials are based on actual code found in the <code class="literal">tutorials/</code> directory of the
+<a class="ulink" href="https://polygene.apache.org/download.html" target="_top">Polygene™ SDK sources</a>. You should start your favorite editor and find the code related to
+this tutorial, run it and play with it.</p></div><p>In this section you will find a comprehensive set of tutorials about Composite Oriented Programming using Polygene™.</p><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a id="tutorials-intro"></a>Polygene™ in 42 minutes</h4></div></div></div><p>This quite long introduction to Polygene™ will start by brushing up an overview of the problems Polygene™ solve, teach you what
+Composite Oriented Programming is and guide you through the process of writing a complete Application around an adapted
+Hello World example.</p><div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc"><li class="listitem">
+<a class="xref" href="two-minutes-intro.html" title="Polygene™ in 2 minutes">Polygene™ in 2 minutes</a>
+</li><li class="listitem">
+<a class="xref" href="ten-minutes-intro.html" title="Polygene™ in 10 minutes">Polygene™ in 10 minutes</a>
+</li><li class="listitem">
+<a class="xref" href="thirty-minutes-intro.html" title="Polygene™ in 30 minutes">Polygene™ in 30 minutes</a>
+</li></ul></div></div><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a id="_getting_real_with_polygene"></a>Getting real with Polygene™</h4></div></div></div><p>Throughout this set of tutorials it will be shown how to depend on Polygene™ in your build, how to assemble a complete
+application, how to create and work with Composites and Services, how to use contextual fragments and leverage
+properties.</p><div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc"><li class="listitem">
+<a class="xref" href="howto-depend-on-polygene.html" title="Depend on Polygene™">Depend on Polygene™</a>
+</li><li class="listitem">
+<a class="xref" href="howto-assemble-application.html" title="Assemble an Application">Assemble an Application</a>
+</li><li class="listitem">
+<a class="xref" href="tut-composites.html" title="Transient Composites Tutorial">Transient Composites Tutorial</a>
+</li><li class="listitem">
+<a class="xref" href="tut-services.html" title="Services Composites Tutorial">Services Composites Tutorial</a>
+</li><li class="listitem">
+<a class="xref" href="howto-contextual-fragments.html" title="Use contextual fragments">Use Contextual Fragments</a>
+</li><li class="listitem">
+<a class="xref" href="howto-leverage-properties.html" title="Leverage Properties">Leverage Properties</a>
+</li></ul></div></div><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a id="_more_tutorials"></a>More tutorials</h4></div></div></div><p>In this other set of tutorials it will be shown how to achieve tasks that frequently arise during the development of a
+typical application.</p><div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc"><li class="listitem">
+<a class="xref" href="howto-create-constraint.html" title="Create a Constraint">Create a Constraint</a>
+</li><li class="listitem">
+<a class="xref" href="howto-create-concern.html" title="Create a Concern">Create a Concern</a>
+</li><li class="listitem">
+<a class="xref" href="howto-create-sideeffect.html" title="Create a SideEffect">Create a SideEffect</a>
+</li><li class="listitem">
+<a class="xref" href="howto-create-entity.html" title="Create an Entity">Create an Entity</a>
+</li><li class="listitem">
+<a class="xref" href="howto-configure-service.html" title="Configure a Service">Configure a Service</a>
+</li></ul></div></div><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a id="_polygene_development"></a>Polygene™ Development</h4></div></div></div><p>This last set of tutorials you’ll learn how to build the Polygene™ SDK from sources including this very documentation website
+, the Polygene™ manual, binaries and sources distributions.</p><div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc"><li class="listitem">
+<a class="xref" href="build-system.html" title="Polygene™ Build System">Build System</a>
+</li><li class="listitem">
+<a class="xref" href="community-docs.html" title="Polygene™ Documentation">Writing Documentation</a>
+</li><li class="listitem">
+<a class="xref" href="releasing-apache.html" title="Releasing Polygene™">Releasing Polygene</a>
+</li></ul></div></div></div></div><footer xmlns="" xmlns:exsl="http://exslt.org/common" class="footer"><div class="container"><p class="text-muted">Copyright © 2017 The Apache Software Foundation, Licensed under the <a href="http://www.apache.org/licenses/" target="_blank">Apache License, Version 2.0</a>.
+          Apache Polygene, Polygene, Apache, the Apache feather logo, and the Apache Polygene project logo are
+          trademarks of The Apache Software Foundation.
+          All other marks mentioned may be trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners.
+        </p></div></footer><script xmlns="" xmlns:exsl="http://exslt.org/common" src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/1.12.4/jquery.min.js"></script><script xmlns="" xmlns:exsl="http://exslt.org/common">window.jQuery || document.write('&lt;script src="js/jquery-1.6.4.min.js"&gt;&lt;/script&gt;')</script><script xmlns="" xmlns:exsl="http://exslt.org/common" src="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/tether/1.4.0/js/tether.min.js" integrity="sha384-DztdAPBWPRXSA/3eYEEUWrWCy7G5KFbe8fFjk5JAIxUYHKkDx6Qin1DkWx51bBrb" crossorigin="anonymous"></script><script xmlns="" xmlns:exsl="http://exslt.org/common" src="bootstrap-3.3.7/js/bootstrap.min.js"></script><script xmlns="" xmlns:exsl="http://exslt.org/common" src="js/ie10-viewport-bug-workaround.js"></script></body></html>
\ No newline at end of file

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/polygene-website/blob/bb9c9971/content/java/2017/two-minutes-intro.html
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diff --git a/content/java/2017/two-minutes-intro.html b/content/java/2017/two-minutes-intro.html
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+<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="no"?>
+<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"><html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"><head><meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /><title>Polygene™ in 2 minutes</title><meta name="generator" content="DocBook XSL Stylesheets V1.78.1" /><link rel="home" href="index.html" title="" /><link rel="up" href="tutorials.html" title="Tutorials" /><link rel="prev" href="tutorials.html" title="Tutorials" /><link rel="next" href="ten-minutes-intro.html" title="Polygene™ in 10 minutes" />
+
+
+    <meta charset="utf-8">
+    <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge">
+    <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1">
+    <!-- The above 3 meta tags *must* come first in the head; any other head content must come *after* these tags -->
+    <meta name="description" content="">
+    <meta name="author" content="">
+    <link rel="icon" href="../../favicon.ico">
+
+    <title>Starter Template for Bootstrap</title>
+
+    <!-- Bootstrap core CSS -->
+    <link href="bootstrap-3.3.7/css/bootstrap.min.css" rel="stylesheet">
+
+    <!-- IE10 viewport hack for Surface/desktop Windows 8 bug -->
+    <link href="css/ie10-viewport-bug-workaround.css" rel="stylesheet">
+
+    <!-- Custom styles for this template -->
+    <link href="css/polygene-ng.css" rel="stylesheet">
+
+    <!-- Just for debugging purposes. Don't actually copy these 2 lines! -->
+    <!--[if lt IE 9]><script src="../../assets/js/ie8-responsive-file-warning.js"></script><![endif]-->
+    <script src="js/ie-emulation-modes-warning.js"></script>
+
+    <!-- HTML5 shim and Respond.js for IE8 support of HTML5 elements and media queries -->
+    <!--[if lt IE 9]>
+      <script src="https://oss.maxcdn.com/html5shiv/3.7.3/html5shiv.min.js"></script>
+      <script src="https://oss.maxcdn.com/respond/1.4.2/respond.min.js"></script>
+    <![endif]-->
+
+<!-- favicon -->
+
+<link rel="shortcut icon" href="http://polygene.apache.org/favicon.ico" type="image/vnd.microsoft.icon" />
+<link rel="icon" href="http://polygene.apache.org/favicon.ico" type="image/x-icon" />
+
+<!-- style -->
+
+<link href="css/shCore.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" />
+<link href="css/shCoreEclipse.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" />
+<link href="css/shThemeEclipse.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" />
+<!--<link href="css/polygene.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" />-->
+
+<!-- Syntax Highlighter -->
+
+<script type="text/javascript" src="js/shCore.js"></script>
+<script type="text/javascript" src="js/shBrushJava.js"></script>
+<script type="text/javascript" src="js/shBrushScala.js"></script>
+<script type="text/javascript" src="js/shBrushJScript.js"></script>
+<script type="text/javascript" src="js/shBrushBash.js"></script>
+<script type="text/javascript" src="js/shBrushPlain.js"></script>
+<script type="text/javascript" src="js/shBrushXml.js"></script>
+<script type="text/javascript" src="js/shBrushGroovy.js"></script>
+<script type="text/javascript" src="js/shBrushPython.js"></script>
+<script type="text/javascript" src="js/shBrushRuby.js"></script>
+<script type="text/javascript" src="js/shBrushCSharp.js"></script>
+
+<script type="text/javascript">
+  SyntaxHighlighter.defaults['tab-size'] = 4;
+  SyntaxHighlighter.defaults['gutter'] = false;
+  SyntaxHighlighter.defaults['toolbar'] = false;
+  SyntaxHighlighter.all()
+</script>
+
+<!-- JQuery -->
+
+<script type="text/javascript" src="js/jquery-1.6.4.min.js"></script>
+
+<!-- Image Scaler -->
+
+<script type="text/javascript" src="js/imagescaler.js"></script>
+
+<!-- Table Styler -->
+
+<script type="text/javascript" src="js/tablestyler.js"></script>
+
+<!-- Apache Polygene WebSite Progressive Enhancement -->
+
+<link href="css/progressive-enhancement.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" />
+<script type="text/javascript" src="js/jquery.scrollTo-1.4.2.js"></script>
+<script type="text/javascript" src="js/progressive-enhancement.js"></script>
+
+<!-- Analytics -->
+ <script type="text/javascript">
+  var _gaq = _gaq || [];
+  _gaq.push(['_setAccount', 'UA-62007352-1']);
+  _gaq.push(['_trackPageview']);
+
+  (function() {
+    var ga = document.createElement('script'); ga.type = 'text/javascript'; ga.async = true;
+    ga.src = ('https:' == document.location.protocol ? 'https://ssl' : 'http://www') + '.google-analytics.com/ga.js';
+    var s = document.getElementsByTagName('script')[0]; s.parentNode.insertBefore(ga, s);
+  })();
+ </script>
+
+  </head><body><div xmlns="" xmlns:exsl="http://exslt.org/common" class="logo"><a href="index.html"><img src="images/logo-standard.png" /></a></div><nav xmlns="" xmlns:exsl="http://exslt.org/common" class="navbar navbar-inverse navbar-fixed-top"><div class="container"><div class="navbar-header"><a class="navbar-brand" href="#">Apache<br />Polygene
+          </a></div><div id="navbar" class="collapse navbar-collapse"><span class="nav navbar-nav"><div xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" class="toc"><dl class="toc"><dt><span class="section"><a href="index.html#home">Polygene™</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="intro.html">Introduction</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><span xmlns="" href="tutorials.html">Tutorials</span></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="javadocs.html">Javadoc</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="samples.html">Samples</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="core.html">Core</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="libraries.html">Libraries</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="extensions.html">Extensions</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="tools.html">Tools</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="glossary.html">Glossary </a></span></dt></dl></div></span></div></div></nav><div xmlns="" xmlns:exsl="http://exslt
 .org/common" class="sidenav"><div xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" class="toc"><dl class="toc"><dt><span class="section"><a href="tutorials.html#_overview">Overview</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><span xmlns="" href="two-minutes-intro.html">Polygene™ in 2 minutes</span></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="ten-minutes-intro.html">Polygene™ in 10 minutes</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="thirty-minutes-intro.html">Polygene™ in 30 minutes</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="howto-depend-on-polygene.html">Depend on Polygene™</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="howto-assemble-application.html">Assemble an Application</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="tut-composites.html">Transient Composites Tutorial</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="tut-services.html">Services Composites Tutorial</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="howto-contextual-fragments.html">Use contextual frag
 ments</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="howto-leverage-properties.html">Leverage Properties</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="howto-create-constraint.html">Create a Constraint</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="howto-create-concern.html">Create a Concern</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="howto-create-sideeffect.html">Create a SideEffect</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="howto-create-entity.html">Create an Entity</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="howto-configure-service.html">Configure a Service</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="howto-invocation-annotation.html">Use @Invocation</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="build-system.html">Polygene™ Build System</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="community-docs.html">Polygene™ Documentation</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="releasing-apache.html">Releasing Polygene™</a></span></dt><
 /dl></div></div><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a id="two-minutes-intro"></a>Polygene™ in 2 minutes</h3></div></div></div><div class="tip" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;"><h3 class="title">Tip</h3><p>Theses tutorials are based on actual code found in the <code class="literal">tutorials/</code> directory of the
+<a class="ulink" href="https://polygene.apache.org/download.html" target="_top">Polygene™ SDK sources</a>. You should start your favorite editor and find the code related to
+this tutorial, run it and play with it.</p></div><p>To show that Polygene™ is not necessarily complex, not hard to get going with and easy to deploy, we are first showing the
+classic HelloWorld, as small as it can get and still be Composite Oriented Programming and not only standard OOP.</p><p>If you want to reproduce what’s explained in this tutorial, remember to depend on the Core Runtime artifact that depends
+on Core API, Core SPI, and Core Bootstrap:</p><div class="table"><a id="idm684"></a><p class="title"><strong>Table 1. Artifact</strong></p><div class="table-contents"><table summary="Artifact" border="1"><colgroup><col class="col_1" /><col class="col_2" /><col class="col_3" /></colgroup><thead><tr><th align="left" valign="top">Group ID</th><th align="left" valign="top">Artifact ID</th><th align="left" valign="top">Version</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td align="left" valign="top"><p>org.apache.polygene.core</p></td><td align="left" valign="top"><p>org.apache.polygene.core.runtime</p></td><td align="left" valign="top"><p>0</p></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><br class="table-break" /><p>See the <a class="xref" href="howto-depend-on-polygene.html" title="Depend on Polygene™">Depend on Polygene™</a> tutorial for details.</p><p>Ready, Set, Go!</p><p>Let’s say we want to do the common HelloWorld example, but with a more domain-oriented setting.
+We have a Speaker interface that does the talking.
+But we also need an implementation for Speaker, which we declare here via the <code class="literal">@Mixins( SpeakerMixin.class )</code>.</p><pre class="programlisting brush: java">@Mixins( SpeakerMixin.class )
+public interface Speaker
+{
+    String sayHello();
+}
+</pre><p>And of course, the simple implementation of the Speaker interface.
+In this case, return a String with the content "Hello, World!".</p><pre class="programlisting brush: java">public class SpeakerMixin
+    implements Speaker
+{
+    @Override
+    public String sayHello()
+    {
+        return "Hello, World!";
+    }
+}
+</pre><p>So far so good. We now need to make this into something that can run. This can be done like this;</p><pre class="programlisting brush: java">public class Main
+{
+    public static void main( String[] args )
+        throws Exception
+    {
+        SingletonAssembler assembler = new SingletonAssembler() // &lt;1&gt;
+        {
+            @Override
+            public void assemble( ModuleAssembly assembly )
+                throws AssemblyException
+            {
+                assembly.transients( Speaker.class );           // &lt;2&gt;
+            }
+        };
+        Speaker speaker = assembler.module().newTransient( Speaker.class ); // &lt;3&gt;
+        System.out.println( speaker.sayHello() );
+    }
+}
+</pre><div class="orderedlist"><ol class="orderedlist" type="1"><li class="listitem">
+The SingletonAssembler is a convenience class that creates a Polygene™ Runtime instance and an application with one layer
+  and one module in it.
+</li><li class="listitem">
+We declare a TransientComposite of type <code class="literal">Speaker</code>.
+</li><li class="listitem">
+We create the Composite instance from the Module.
+</li></ol></div><p><span class="strong"><strong>Done!</strong></span></p><p>Next step, <a class="xref" href="ten-minutes-intro.html" title="Polygene™ in 10 minutes">Polygene™ in 10 minutes</a>.</p></div><footer xmlns="" xmlns:exsl="http://exslt.org/common" class="footer"><div class="container"><p class="text-muted">Copyright © 2017 The Apache Software Foundation, Licensed under the <a href="http://www.apache.org/licenses/" target="_blank">Apache License, Version 2.0</a>.
+          Apache Polygene, Polygene, Apache, the Apache feather logo, and the Apache Polygene project logo are
+          trademarks of The Apache Software Foundation.
+          All other marks mentioned may be trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners.
+        </p></div></footer><script xmlns="" xmlns:exsl="http://exslt.org/common" src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/1.12.4/jquery.min.js"></script><script xmlns="" xmlns:exsl="http://exslt.org/common">window.jQuery || document.write('&lt;script src="js/jquery-1.6.4.min.js"&gt;&lt;/script&gt;')</script><script xmlns="" xmlns:exsl="http://exslt.org/common" src="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/tether/1.4.0/js/tether.min.js" integrity="sha384-DztdAPBWPRXSA/3eYEEUWrWCy7G5KFbe8fFjk5JAIxUYHKkDx6Qin1DkWx51bBrb" crossorigin="anonymous"></script><script xmlns="" xmlns:exsl="http://exslt.org/common" src="bootstrap-3.3.7/js/bootstrap.min.js"></script><script xmlns="" xmlns:exsl="http://exslt.org/common" src="js/ie10-viewport-bug-workaround.js"></script></body></html>
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+<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="no"?>
+<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"><html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"><head><meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /><title>What is COP?</title><meta name="generator" content="DocBook XSL Stylesheets V1.78.1" /><link rel="home" href="index.html" title="" /><link rel="up" href="intro.html" title="Introduction" /><link rel="prev" href="introduction-background.html" title="Background" /><link rel="next" href="what-s-an-object-anyway.html" title="What’s an Object anyway?" />
+
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+    <meta name="description" content="">
+    <meta name="author" content="">
+    <link rel="icon" href="../../favicon.ico">
+
+    <title>Starter Template for Bootstrap</title>
+
+    <!-- Bootstrap core CSS -->
+    <link href="bootstrap-3.3.7/css/bootstrap.min.css" rel="stylesheet">
+
+    <!-- IE10 viewport hack for Surface/desktop Windows 8 bug -->
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+
+    <!-- Custom styles for this template -->
+    <link href="css/polygene-ng.css" rel="stylesheet">
+
+    <!-- Just for debugging purposes. Don't actually copy these 2 lines! -->
+    <!--[if lt IE 9]><script src="../../assets/js/ie8-responsive-file-warning.js"></script><![endif]-->
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+
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+
+<!-- style -->
+
+<link href="css/shCore.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" />
+<link href="css/shCoreEclipse.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" />
+<link href="css/shThemeEclipse.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" />
+<!--<link href="css/polygene.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" />-->
+
+<!-- Syntax Highlighter -->
+
+<script type="text/javascript" src="js/shCore.js"></script>
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+<script type="text/javascript" src="js/shBrushScala.js"></script>
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+<script type="text/javascript" src="js/shBrushRuby.js"></script>
+<script type="text/javascript" src="js/shBrushCSharp.js"></script>
+
+<script type="text/javascript">
+  SyntaxHighlighter.defaults['tab-size'] = 4;
+  SyntaxHighlighter.defaults['gutter'] = false;
+  SyntaxHighlighter.defaults['toolbar'] = false;
+  SyntaxHighlighter.all()
+</script>
+
+<!-- JQuery -->
+
+<script type="text/javascript" src="js/jquery-1.6.4.min.js"></script>
+
+<!-- Image Scaler -->
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+
+<!-- Table Styler -->
+
+<script type="text/javascript" src="js/tablestyler.js"></script>
+
+<!-- Apache Polygene WebSite Progressive Enhancement -->
+
+<link href="css/progressive-enhancement.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" />
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+
+<!-- Analytics -->
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+
+  </head><body><div xmlns="" xmlns:exsl="http://exslt.org/common" class="logo"><a href="index.html"><img src="images/logo-standard.png" /></a></div><nav xmlns="" xmlns:exsl="http://exslt.org/common" class="navbar navbar-inverse navbar-fixed-top"><div class="container"><div class="navbar-header"><a class="navbar-brand" href="#">Apache<br />Polygene
+          </a></div><div id="navbar" class="collapse navbar-collapse"><span class="nav navbar-nav"><div xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" class="toc"><dl class="toc"><dt><span class="section"><a href="index.html#home">Polygene™</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><span xmlns="" href="intro.html">Introduction</span></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="tutorials.html">Tutorials</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="javadocs.html">Javadoc</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="samples.html">Samples</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="core.html">Core</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="libraries.html">Libraries</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="extensions.html">Extensions</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="tools.html">Tools</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="glossary.html">Glossary </a></span></dt></dl></div></span></div></div></nav><div xmlns="" xmlns:exsl="http://exslt
 .org/common" class="sidenav"><div xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" class="toc"><dl class="toc"><dt><span class="section"><a href="intro.html#highlights">Highlights</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="tools-shell.html">Polygene Generator</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="introduction-background.html">Background</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><span xmlns="" href="what-is-cop.html">What is COP?</span></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="what-s-an-object-anyway.html">What’s an Object anyway?</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="state-modeling.html">Polygene™ and state modeling</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="related.html">Related publications &amp; projects</a></span></dt></dl></div></div><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a id="what-is-cop"></a>What is COP?</h3></div></div></div><p>We found this very well written blog entry on the Internet, which very well desc
 ribes what Composite Oriented
+Programming really is.</p><p>The article uses C# and a "show by example" approach to explaining COP, and this shows clearly that COP is not
+Java specific, and although Polygene™ was (to our knowledge) first to introduce the name, it applies across languages and
+potentially deserves one or more languages on its own.</p><p>The article is re-published here, as allowed by the
+<a class="ulink" href="http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/windowsmobile/bb264332.aspx" target="_top">Microsoft Permissive License</a>
+, more recently known as
+<a class="ulink" href="http://www.opensource.org/licenses/MS-PL" target="_top">Microsoft Public License</a>. The content below
+is NOT under the usual <a class="ulink" href="http://www.opensource.org/licenses/Apache-2.0" target="_top">Apache License</a>.</p><p>We would like to thank Fredrik Kalseth for his explicit approval as well.</p><p>Since then, this article went offline but can be found on the
+<a class="ulink" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20130414005509/http://iridescence.no/post/composite-oriented-programming.aspx" target="_top">Internet Archive</a>.</p><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a id="_ulink_url_http_iridescence_no_post_composite_oriented_programming_aspx_composite_oriented_programming_ulink"></a><a class="ulink" href="http://iridescence.no/post/composite-oriented-programming.aspx" target="_top">Composite Oriented Programming</a></h4></div></div></div><p>I’ve written a series of post on AOP lately
+(<a class="ulink" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20090417052136/http://www.iridescence.no/post/Aspect-Oriented-Programming---A-Primer.aspx" target="_top">here</a>,
+<a class="ulink" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20091222150653/http://www.iridescence.no/post/Implementing-an-AOP-Framework-Part-1.aspx" target="_top">here</a>
+and <a class="ulink" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20130417090819/http://www.iridescence.no/post/Implementing-an-AOP-Framework-Part-2.aspx" target="_top">here</a>),
+and in the last part I promised to tackle mixins and introductions in a future post.
+When I was doing my research for just that, I came cross a Java framework (just
+humor me :p) called Apache Polygene™, written by Swedish Richard Öberg, pioneering the idea of Composite
+Oriented Programming, which instantly put a spell on me. Essentially, it takes the concepts from Aspect Oriented
+Programming to the extreme, and for the past week I’ve dug into it with a passion. This post is the first fruits of
+my labor.</p><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h5 class="title"><a id="_oop_is_not_object_oriented"></a>OOP is Not Object Oriented!</h5></div></div></div><p>One of the things that Richard Öberg argues, is that OOP is not really object oriented at all, but rather class
+oriented. As the Polygene™ website proclaims, "class is the first class citizen that objects are derived from. Not objects
+being the first-class citizen to which one or many classes are assigned". Composite oriented programming (COP) then,
+tries to work around this limitation by building on a set of core principles; that behavior depends on context, that
+decoupling is a virtue, and that business rules matter more. For a short and abstract explanation of COP,
+<a class="link" href="introduction-background.html" title="Background">see this page</a>. In the rest of this post I’ll try and explain some of its easily graspable
+benefits through a set of code examples, and then in a future post we’ll look at how I’ve morphed the AOP framework
+I started developing in the previous posts in this series into a lightweight COP framework that can actually make
+it compile and run.</p></div><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h5 class="title"><a id="_lead_by_example"></a>Lead by Example</h5></div></div></div><p><span class="emphasis"><em>Lets pause for a short aside: obviously the examples presented here are going to be architectured beyond any rational
+sense, but the interesting part lies in seeing the bigger picture; imagine the principles presented here applied on a
+much larger scale and I’m sure you can see the benefits quite clearly when we reach the end.</em></span></p><p>Imagine that we have a class Division, which knows how to divide one number by another:</p><pre class="programlisting brush: c#">public class Division
+{
+    public Int64 Dividend { get; set; }
+    private long _divisor = 1;
+
+    public Int64 Divisor
+    {
+        get { return _divisor; }
+        set
+        {
+            if(value == 0)
+            {
+                throw new ArgumentException("Cannot set the divisor to 0; division by 0 is not allowed.");
+            }
+            _divisor = value;
+        }
+    }
+
+    public Int64 Calculate()
+    {
+        Trace.WriteLine("Calculating the division of " + this.Dividend + " by " + this.Divisor);
+        Int64 result = this.Dividend/this.Divisor;
+        Trace.WriteLine("Returning result: " + result);
+        return result;
+    }
+}</pre><p>Consider the code presented above. Do you like it? If you’ve followed the discussion on AOP in the previous posts,
+then you should immediately be able to identify that there are several aspects tangled together in the above class.
+We’ve got data storage (the Dividend and Divisor properties), data validation (the argument check on the Divisor
+setter), business logic (the actual calculation in the Calculate method) and diagnostics (the Trace calls), all
+intertwined. To what extent is this class reusable if I wanted to implement addition, subtraction or multiplication
+calculations? Not very, at least not unless we refactored it. We could make the Calculate method and the properties
+virtual, and thus use inheritance to modify the logic of the calculation - and since this is a tiny example, it would
+probably look OK. But again, think bigger - how would this apply to a huge API? It would easily become quite difficult
+to manage as things got more and more complex.</p></div><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h5 class="title"><a id="_design_by_composition"></a>Design by Composition</h5></div></div></div><p>With a COP framework, we can implement each aspect as a separate object and then treat them as <span class="emphasis"><em>mixins</em></span> which blend
+together into a meaningful <span class="emphasis"><em>composite</em></span>. Sounds confusing? Lets refactor the above example using an as of yet imaginary
+COP framework for .NET (which I’m currently developing and will post the source code for in a follow-up post), and
+it’ll all make sense (hopefully!).</p><p>Above, we identified the four different aspects in the Division class - so let’s implement each of them. First, we
+have the data storage:</p><pre class="programlisting brush: c#">public interface ICalculationDataAspect // aspect contract
+{
+    long Number1 { get; set; }
+    long Number2 { get; set; }
+}
+
+public class CalculationDataAspect : ICalculationDataAspect // aspect implementation
+{
+    public long Number1 { get; set; }
+    public long Number2 { get; set; }
+}</pre><p>In this example, the data storage is super easy – we just provide a set of properties (using the C# 3.0 automatic
+properties notation) that can hold the values in-memory. The second aspect we found, was the business logic – the
+actual calculation:</p><pre class="programlisting brush: c#">public interface ICalculationLogicAspect
+{
+    long Calculate();
+}
+
+public class DivisionLogicAspect : ICalculationLogicAspect
+{
+    [AspectRef] ICalculationDataAspect _data;
+
+    public long Calculate()
+    {
+        return _data.Number1 / _data.Number2;
+    }
+}</pre><p>Here we follow the same structure again, by defining the aspect as an interface and providing an implementation of it.
+In order to perform the calculation however, we need access to the data storage aspect so that we can read out the
+numbers we should perform the calculation on. Using attributes, we can tell the COP framework that we require this
+reference, and it will provide it for us at runtime using some dependency injection trickery behind the scenes. It is
+important to notice that we’ve now placed a <span class="emphasis"><em>constraint</em></span> on any possible composition of these aspects – the
+DivisionLogicAspect now requires an ICalculationDataAspect to be present in any composition it is part of (our COP
+framework will be able to validate such constraints, and tell us up front should we break any). It is still loosely
+coupled however, because we only hold a constraint on the <span class="emphasis"><em>contract</em></span> of that aspect, not any specific implementation of
+it. We’ll see the benefit of that distinction later.</p><p>The third aspect we have, is validation. We want to ensure that the divisor is never set to 0, because trying to divide
+by zero is not a pleasant experience. Validation is a type of advice, which was introduced at length earlier in my AOP
+series. We’ve seen it implemented using the IAdvice interface of my AOP framework, allowing us to dynamically hook up
+to a method invocation. However, the advice we’re implementing here is specific to the data aspect, so with our COP
+framework we can define it as <span class="emphasis"><em>concern</em></span> for that particular aspect, which gives us a much nicer implementation than an
+AOP framework could - in particular because of its type safety. Just look at this:</p><pre class="programlisting brush: c#">public abstract class DivisionValidationConcern : ICalculationDataAspect
+{
+    [ConcernFor] protected ICalculationDataAspect _proceed;
+
+    public abstract long Number1 { get; set; }
+
+    public long Number2
+    {
+        get { return _proceed.Number2; }
+        set
+        {
+            if (value == 0)
+            {
+                throw new ArgumentException("Cannot set the Divisor to 0 - division by zero not allowed.");
+            }
+            _proceed.Number2 = value; // here, we tell the framework to proceed with the call to the *real* Number2 property
+        }
+    }
+}</pre><p>I just love that, it’s so friggin' elegant ;). Remember that an advice is allowed to control the actual method
+invocation by telling the target when to proceed – we’re doing the exact same thing above, only instead of dealing with
+a generic method invocation we’re actually using the interface of the aspect we’re advising to control the specific
+invocation directly. In our validation, we validate the value passed into the Divisor setter, and if we find it valid
+then we tell the target (represented by a field annotated with an attribute which tells the COP framework to inject the
+reference into it for us, much like we did with aspects earlier) to proceed with the invocation; otherwise we throw an
+exception. This particular concern is abstract, because we only wanted to advise a subset of the methods in the
+interface. That’s merely a convenience offered us by the framework - under the covers it will automatically complete
+our implementation of the members we left abstract.</p><p>Only one aspect remains now, and that is the logging:</p><pre class="programlisting brush: c#">public class LoggingAdvice : IAdvice
+{
+    public object Execute(AdviceTarget target)
+    {
+        Trace.WriteLine("Invoking method " + target.TargetInfo.Name + " on " + target.TargetInfo.DeclaringType.FullName);
+
+        object retValue;
+
+        try
+        {
+            retValue = target.Proceed();
+        }
+        catch(Exception ex)
+        {
+            Trace.WriteLine("Method threw exception: " + ex.Message);
+            throw;
+        }
+        Trace.WriteLine("Method returned " + retValue);
+        return retValue;
+    }
+}</pre><p>We’ve implement it as a regular advice, like we’ve seen earlier in AOP, because it lends itself to much wider reuse
+than the validation concern did.</p><p>Having defined all our aspects separately, it is now time to put them back together again into something that can
+actually do something. We call this the composite, and it is defined as follows:</p><pre class="programlisting brush: c#">[Mixin(typeof(ICalculationDataAspect), typeof(CalculationDataAspect))]
+[Mixin(typeof(ICalculationLogicAspect), typeof(DivisionLogicAspect))]
+[Concern(typeof(DivisionValidationConcern))]
+[Concern(typeof(LoggingAdvice))]
+public interface IDivision : ICalculationDataAspect, ICalculationLogicAspect
+{ }</pre><p>Basically, we’ve just defined the implementation of an interface IDivision as a composition of the data and logic
+aspects, and sprinkled it with the two concerns (the validation concern and the logging advice). We can now use it to
+perform divisions:</p><pre class="programlisting brush: c#">IDivision division = Composer.Compose&lt;IDivision&gt;().Instantiate();
+division.Number1 = 10;
+division.Number2 = 2;
+
+Int64 sum = division.Calculate();</pre><p>That’s pretty cool, no? Take a moment to just think about what doors this opens. To what extent do you think our code
+is reusable <span class="emphasis"><em>now</em></span>, if we wanted to implement addition, subtraction and so forth? That’s right – all we’d need to do is
+substitute the implementation of the calculation aspect with one that performs the required calculation instead of
+division, and we’re done. Let’s do subtraction, for example:</p><pre class="programlisting brush: c#">public class SubtractionLogicAspect : ICalculationLogicAspect
+{
+    [AspectRef] ICalculationDataAspect _data;
+
+    public long Calculate()
+    {
+        return _data.Number1 - _data.Number2;
+    }
+}</pre><p>That’s it! The rest we can reuse as is, building a new composite:</p><pre class="programlisting brush: c#">[Mixin(typeof(ICalculationDataAspect), typeof(CalculationDataAspect))]
+[Mixin(typeof(ICalculationLogicAspect), typeof(SubtractionLogicAspect))]
+[Pointcut(typeof(LoggingAdvice))]
+public interface ISubtraction : ICalculationDataAspect, ICalculationLogicAspect
+{ }</pre><p>Notice that we just left out the validation concern in this composite, as it is no longer needed. What if we wanted
+our subtraction to only ever return positive numbers? Easy! We’ll just implement an absolute number concern:</p><pre class="programlisting brush: c#">public class AbsoluteNumberConcern : ICalculationLogicAspect
+{
+    [ConcernFor] protected ICalculationLogicAspect _proceed;
+
+    public long Calculate()
+    {
+        long result = _proceed.Calculate();
+
+        return Math.Abs(result);
+    }
+}</pre><p>And then update the composition to include it:</p><pre class="programlisting brush: c#">[Mixin(typeof(ICalculationDataAspect), typeof(CalculationDataAspect))]
+[Mixin(typeof(ICalculationLogicAspect), typeof(SubtractionLogicAspect))]
+[Concern(typeof(AbsoluteNumberConcern))]
+[Pointcut(typeof(LoggingAdvice))]
+public interface ISubtraction : ICalculationDataAspect, ICalculationLogicAspect
+{ }</pre><p>To Be Continued…</p><p>I hope this post has whet your appetite for more on this subject, as I will certainly pursue it further in future
+posts. I’ve already implemented a prototype framework that supports the above examples, which builds on my
+<a class="ulink" href="http://www.iridescence.no/Posts/Implementing-an-AOP-Framework-Part-2.aspx" target="_top">previously posted AOP framework</a>, and I’ll
+post the source code for that soon. If you want to dig deeper right now (and don’t mind
+a bit of Java), then I suggest you head over to the Polygene™ website and poke about there.
+<a class="ulink" href="http://rickardoberg.wordpress.com/" target="_top">Richard Öbergs blog</a> also provides great insight.</p></div></div></div><footer xmlns="" xmlns:exsl="http://exslt.org/common" class="footer"><div class="container"><p class="text-muted">Copyright © 2017 The Apache Software Foundation, Licensed under the <a href="http://www.apache.org/licenses/" target="_blank">Apache License, Version 2.0</a>.
+          Apache Polygene, Polygene, Apache, the Apache feather logo, and the Apache Polygene project logo are
+          trademarks of The Apache Software Foundation.
+          All other marks mentioned may be trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners.
+        </p></div></footer><script xmlns="" xmlns:exsl="http://exslt.org/common" src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/1.12.4/jquery.min.js"></script><script xmlns="" xmlns:exsl="http://exslt.org/common">window.jQuery || document.write('&lt;script src="js/jquery-1.6.4.min.js"&gt;&lt;/script&gt;')</script><script xmlns="" xmlns:exsl="http://exslt.org/common" src="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/tether/1.4.0/js/tether.min.js" integrity="sha384-DztdAPBWPRXSA/3eYEEUWrWCy7G5KFbe8fFjk5JAIxUYHKkDx6Qin1DkWx51bBrb" crossorigin="anonymous"></script><script xmlns="" xmlns:exsl="http://exslt.org/common" src="bootstrap-3.3.7/js/bootstrap.min.js"></script><script xmlns="" xmlns:exsl="http://exslt.org/common" src="js/ie10-viewport-bug-workaround.js"></script></body></html>
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+  </head><body><div xmlns="" xmlns:exsl="http://exslt.org/common" class="logo"><a href="index.html"><img src="images/logo-standard.png" /></a></div><nav xmlns="" xmlns:exsl="http://exslt.org/common" class="navbar navbar-inverse navbar-fixed-top"><div class="container"><div class="navbar-header"><a class="navbar-brand" href="#">Apache<br />Polygene
+          </a></div><div id="navbar" class="collapse navbar-collapse"><span class="nav navbar-nav"><div xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" class="toc"><dl class="toc"><dt><span class="section"><a href="index.html#home">Polygene™</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><span xmlns="" href="intro.html">Introduction</span></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="tutorials.html">Tutorials</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="javadocs.html">Javadoc</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="samples.html">Samples</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="core.html">Core</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="libraries.html">Libraries</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="extensions.html">Extensions</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="tools.html">Tools</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="glossary.html">Glossary </a></span></dt></dl></div></span></div></div></nav><div xmlns="" xmlns:exsl="http://exslt
 .org/common" class="sidenav"><div xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" class="toc"><dl class="toc"><dt><span class="section"><a href="intro.html#highlights">Highlights</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="tools-shell.html">Polygene Generator</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="introduction-background.html">Background</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="what-is-cop.html">What is COP?</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><span xmlns="" href="what-s-an-object-anyway.html">What’s an Object anyway?</span></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="state-modeling.html">Polygene™ and state modeling</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="related.html">Related publications &amp; projects</a></span></dt></dl></div></div><div class="section"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a id="what-s-an-object-anyway"></a>What’s an Object anyway?</h3></div></div></div><p>In OOP the main idea is that we should model our reali
 ty by creating Objects. Objects have state, and they have methods.
+Methods in an object are used to operate on the internal state and understands the domain that is being modeled.</p><p>By contrast, in procedural programming the focus is on algorithms, which can use several data structures to perform some
+task. The focus is on what is going on, rather than the "objects" involved.</p><p>With OOP it becomes more difficult to "read" algorithms, as they are spread out in many objects that interact. With
+procedural programming it becomes difficult to encapsulate and reuse functionality. Both represent extremes, neither of
+which is "correct". The tendency to create anemic domain models is an indication that we have lost the algorithmic view
+in OOP, and there is a need for it.</p><p>The main flaw of OOP, which COP addresses, is the answer to the fundamental question "What methods should an object
+have?". In traditional OOP, which really should be called "class oriented programming", the classes tend to have a
+rather narcissistic point of view. Classes are allowed to dictate what methods are in there - regardless of the
+algorithms which they are part of - and algorithms then need to be aware of these classes when object instances
+collaborate in an algorithm. Why? This seems like complete madness to me!! Keep in mind that if there were no
+algorithms, there would be no need for methods at all!! Algorithms, then, are primary, and objects are what we use as
+helper structures. In philosophical terms, if there is noone around to observe the universe, there would be no need for
+the universe itself!</p><p>In COP the responsibility for defining the methods is reversed: algorithms which implement interactions between objects
+get to declare what roles it needs the objects to implement, and the composites can then implement these. For each role
+there will be an interface, and for each composite wanting to implement a role there will be a mixin in that composite.
+This mixin can be specific for that composite implementation, or it can be generic and reused. The key point is that it
+is the OBSERVER of the object, meaning, the algorithm, that gets to decide what the object should be able to do.</p><p>This is the same in real life. I don’t get to decide how I communicate with you. I have to use english, and I have to
+use email, and I have to send it to a specific mailing list. It is the algorithm of the interaction between us, the
+Polygene™ dev mailing list, that has set these rules, not <span class="strong"><strong>I</strong></span> as a participant in this interaction. The same should,
+obviously, be the case for objects.</p><p>So, with the understanding that algorithms should define roles for collaborating objects, and objects should then
+implement these in order to participate in these algorithms, it should be trivial to realize that what has passed for
+OOP so far, in terms of "class oriented programming", where this role-focus of objects is difficult to achieve, if not
+even impossible, is just plain wrong. I mean seriously, catastrophically, terminally wrong.</p><p><span class="strong"><strong>Let that sink in.</strong></span></p><p>The method that has been used so far to get around this has been the composite pattern, where one object has been
+designated as "coordinator", which then delegates to a number of other objects in order to implement the various roles.
+This "solution", which is caused by this fundamental flaw in "class oriented programming", is essentially a hack, and
+causes a number of other problems, such as the "self schizophrenia" problem, whereby there is no way to tell where the
+object really is. There is no "this" pointer that has any relevant meaning.</p><p>The Composite pattern, as implemented in COP and Polygene™, gets around this by simply saying that the composite, as a
+whole, is an object. Tada, we now have a "this" pointer, and a coherent way to deal with the object graph as though it
+was a single object. We are now able to get back to the strengths of the procedural approach, which allows the
+implementer of the algorithm to define the roles needed for the algorithm. The roles can either be specific to an
+algorithm, or they can be shared between a number of algorithms if there is a generic way for them to be expressed.</p><p><span class="strong"><strong>Goodness!</strong></span></p><p>The question now becomes: how can we use this insight to structure our composites, so that what is part of the
+algorithm is not too tightly encoded in the composites, thereby making the algorithms more reusable, and making it less
+necessary to read composite code when trying to understand algorithms. The assumption here is that we are going to write
+more algorithms than composites, therefore it has to be easy to ready algorithms, and only when necessary dive down into
+composite code.</p><p>When talking about Composites as Objects in Polygene™ it is most relevant to look at Entities, since these represent physical
+objects in a model, rather than algorithms or services, or other non-instance-oriented things.</p><p>If Entities should implement roles, via mixins, in order to interact with each other through algorithms, then the
+majority of their behaviour should be put into those role-mixins. These are exposed publically for clients to use.
+However, the state that is required to implement these roles should not be exposed publically, as they represent
+implementation details that may change over time, may be different depending on role implementation, and usually has a
+lot of rules regarding how it may be changed. In short, the state needs to be private to the composite.</p><p>This leads us to this typical implementation of an Entity</p><pre class="programlisting brush: java">@Mixins(SomeMixin.class)
+interface MyEntity
+        extends Some, Other, EntityComposite
+{}
+</pre><p>where Some and Other are role interfaces defined by one or more algorithms. SomeMixin is the implementation of the Some
+interface. There is NO interface that is defined by the author of MyEntity. Algorithms first, objects second!</p><p>The state needed for these mixins would then be put into separate interfaces, referred to by using the @This injection
+in the mixins.</p><pre class="programlisting brush: java">interface SomeState
+{
+    Property&lt;String&gt; someProperty();
+}
+</pre><p>These interfaces will pretty much ONLY contain state declarations. There might be some methods in there, but I can’t
+see right now what they would be.</p><p>In order to be able to get an overview of all the state being implemented by the Entity we introduce a "superstate"
+interface:</p><pre class="programlisting brush: java">interface MyState
+        extends SomeState, OtherState //, ...
+{}
+</pre><p>This lets us see the totality of all the state that the Entity has, and can be used in the builder phase:</p><pre class="programlisting brush: java">        EntityBuilder&lt;MyEntity&gt; builder = uow.newEntityBuilder(MyEntity.class);
+        MyState state = builder.instanceFor(MyState.class);
+
+        //... init state ...
+
+        MyEntity instance = builder.newInstance();
+
+
+    }
+
+}
+</pre><p>This lets us divide our Entity into two parts: the internal state and the external roles of the domain that the object
+takes part in. Due to the support for private mixins the state is not unnecessarily exposed, and the mixin support in
+general allow our role-oriented approach to modeling. The role interfaces are strongly reusable, the mixins are
+generally reusable, and the state interfaces are usually reusable. This minimizes the need for us to go into the mixin
+code and read it. If we have read the mixin code once, and the same mixin is reused between objects, then this makes
+it easier for us to understand it the next time we see it being used in another algorithm.</p><p>To summarize thus far, we have looked at why OOP so far has not worked out, why this is the case, and how COP deals
+with it, and how we can implement a better solution of Entities using Polygene™. All is well!</p><p>The next step is to start using these Entities in algorithms. Algorithms are usually stateless, or at least they don’t
+have any state that survives the execution of the algorithm. There is input, some calculation, and then output. In
+other words, our notion of services fit perfectly here!</p><p>Algorithms, then, should(/could?) be modeled using services. If an algorithm needs other algorithms to compute
+something, that is, if a service needs another service to do something, we can accomplish this using dependency
+injection, so that the user of the initial algorithm does not have to know about this implementation detail.</p><p>In a "Getting Things Done" domain model, with Projects and Actions, you might then have an algorithm like so for task
+delegation:</p><pre class="programlisting brush: java">void delegate(TaskExecutor from, Completable completable, TaskExecutor to)
+{
+   to.inbox().createTask( createDelegatedTask( completable ) );
+
+   completable.complete(); // Delegated task is considered done
+
+   from.inbox().createTask( createWaitingTask( completable ) );
+}</pre><p>In the above I don’t know if "from" and "to" are human users or systems that automatically execute tasks. I also don’t
+know if Completable is an entire Project or a single Action. From the point of view of the algorithm I don’t need to
+know! All the algorithm cares about is that the roles it needs are fulfilled somehow. This means that I will be able to
+extend my domain model later on, and have it be a part of these kinds of algorithms, without having to change my
+algorithms. And as long as my composites implement the role interfaces, such as TaskExecutor and Completable, they can
+participate in many different algorithms that use these as a way to interact with the domain objects.</p><p>This shows the place of services, as points of contact between objects in a domain model, or more generally,
+"interactions". These will change often, and will increase in number as the system grows, so it is important that they
+are easy to read, and that they are easy to participate in. With a focus on roles, rather than classes, this becomes
+much easier to accomplish!</p><p>With the responsibilities of entities, as objects, and services, as algorithms, more clearly defined, the last part to
+deal with is how these are put together. The services, with the methods now being role-oriented, can obviously be
+applied to a wide variety of entities, but we now go from general to specific. In our software each general algorithm
+is typically applied to specific objects in specific use-cases.</p><p><span class="strong"><strong>How is this done?</strong></span></p><p>This is done by implementing context objects, which pick specific objects and pass them into algorithms. This is
+typically a UI-centric thing, and as such is difficult to encapsulate into a single method. With the previous example we
+would need to get the three objects involved, and cast them to the specific roles we are interested in. The
+"TaskExecutor from" could be the user running the application, the "Completable completable" could be the currently
+selected item in a list, and "TaskExecutor to" could be a user designated from a popup dialog. These three are then
+taken by the context and used to execute the "delegate" interaction, which performs all the steps necessary.</p><p>The interaction method "delegate" is testable, both with mocks of the input, and with specific instances of the various
+roles. The implementations are also testable, and if the same mixin is used over and over for the implementation, then
+only one set of tests is needed for each role interface.</p><p>To summarize we have in COP/Polygene™ a way to get the best from procedural and object-oriented programming. As we have seen
+the functionality falls into three categories, the entities implementing objects, the services implementing
+interactions, and the user interface implementing the context. This also maps well to the ideas of ModelViewController,
+which in turn maps well to the new ideas from Mr Reenskaug (inventor of MVC) called DCI: Data-Context-Interaction. As a
+side-effect of this discussion we have therefore also seen how COP/Polygene™ can be used to implement DCI, which is an
+important next step in understanding objects and their interactions, the fundamentals of which (I believe) are captured
+on this page.</p><p>That’s it. Well done if you’ve read this far :-)</p><p>Comments and thoughts to <a class="ulink" href="mailto:dev@polygene.apache.org" target="_top">dev@polygene.apache.org</a> mailing list on this are highly appreciated. This is very very important
+topics, and crucial to understanding/explaining why COP/Polygene™ is so great! :-)</p></div><footer xmlns="" xmlns:exsl="http://exslt.org/common" class="footer"><div class="container"><p class="text-muted">Copyright © 2017 The Apache Software Foundation, Licensed under the <a href="http://www.apache.org/licenses/" target="_blank">Apache License, Version 2.0</a>.
+          Apache Polygene, Polygene, Apache, the Apache feather logo, and the Apache Polygene project logo are
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+          All other marks mentioned may be trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners.
+        </p></div></footer><script xmlns="" xmlns:exsl="http://exslt.org/common" src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/1.12.4/jquery.min.js"></script><script xmlns="" xmlns:exsl="http://exslt.org/common">window.jQuery || document.write('&lt;script src="js/jquery-1.6.4.min.js"&gt;&lt;/script&gt;')</script><script xmlns="" xmlns:exsl="http://exslt.org/common" src="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/tether/1.4.0/js/tether.min.js" integrity="sha384-DztdAPBWPRXSA/3eYEEUWrWCy7G5KFbe8fFjk5JAIxUYHKkDx6Qin1DkWx51bBrb" crossorigin="anonymous"></script><script xmlns="" xmlns:exsl="http://exslt.org/common" src="bootstrap-3.3.7/js/bootstrap.min.js"></script><script xmlns="" xmlns:exsl="http://exslt.org/common" src="js/ie10-viewport-bug-workaround.js"></script></body></html>
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