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From nic...@apache.org
Subject [25/28] zest-java git commit: ZEST-180, ZEST-186, ZEST-187, ZEST-188 Big Identity refactoring UnitOfWorkFactory is auto added to all modules that doesn't declare one IdentityGenerator is auto-added to all modules that deosn't declare one. Removed DCI/DDD
Date Sun, 23 Oct 2016 14:24:06 GMT
http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/zest-java/blob/103c59cb/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/service/ConfigurationTest.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/service/ConfigurationTest.java b/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/service/ConfigurationTest.java
index 68040d9..949bf4f 100644
--- a/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/service/ConfigurationTest.java
+++ b/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/service/ConfigurationTest.java
@@ -62,8 +62,7 @@ public class ConfigurationTest
         throws Exception
     {
         UnitOfWork unit = unitOfWorkFactory.newUnitOfWork();
-        EntityBuilder<HelloWorldConfiguration> entityBuilder = unit.newEntityBuilder( HelloWorldConfiguration.class, service
-            .identity() );
+        EntityBuilder<HelloWorldConfiguration> entityBuilder = unit.newEntityBuilder( HelloWorldConfiguration.class, service.identity() );
         HelloWorldConfiguration config = entityBuilder.instance();
         config.phrase().set( "Hey" );
         config.name().set( "Universe" );
@@ -88,8 +87,7 @@ public class ConfigurationTest
 
         {
             UnitOfWork unit = unitOfWorkFactory.newUnitOfWork();
-            EntityBuilder<HelloWorldConfiguration> entityBuilder = unit.newEntityBuilder( HelloWorldConfiguration.class, service
-                .identity() );
+            EntityBuilder<HelloWorldConfiguration> entityBuilder = unit.newEntityBuilder( HelloWorldConfiguration.class, service.identity() );
             config = entityBuilder.instance();
             config.phrase().set( "Hello" );
             config.name().set( "World" );

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/zest-java/blob/103c59cb/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/service/ServiceVisibilityTest.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/service/ServiceVisibilityTest.java b/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/service/ServiceVisibilityTest.java
index cb4d87b..b4559ba 100644
--- a/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/service/ServiceVisibilityTest.java
+++ b/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/service/ServiceVisibilityTest.java
@@ -20,6 +20,8 @@
 
 package org.apache.zest.runtime.service;
 
+import org.apache.zest.api.identity.Identity;
+import org.apache.zest.api.identity.StringIdentity;
 import org.apache.zest.api.unitofwork.UnitOfWorkFactory;
 import org.apache.zest.bootstrap.unitofwork.DefaultUnitOfWorkAssembler;
 import org.junit.After;
@@ -45,6 +47,8 @@ import org.apache.zest.test.EntityTestAssembler;
 
 public class ServiceVisibilityTest
 {
+    public static final Identity TEST_IDENTITY = new StringIdentity( "123" );
+
     private Energy4Java zest;
     private Module module;
     private Application app;
@@ -182,7 +186,7 @@ public class ServiceVisibilityTest
         UnitOfWork unitOfWork = uowf.newUnitOfWork();
         try
         {
-            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, "123" );
+            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, TEST_IDENTITY);
             entity.moduleApplicationVisible();
         }
         finally
@@ -200,7 +204,7 @@ public class ServiceVisibilityTest
         UnitOfWork unitOfWork = uowf.newUnitOfWork();
         try
         {
-            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, "123" );
+            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, TEST_IDENTITY);
             entity.moduleLayerVisible();
         }
         finally
@@ -218,7 +222,7 @@ public class ServiceVisibilityTest
         UnitOfWork unitOfWork = uowf.newUnitOfWork();
         try
         {
-            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, "123" );
+            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, TEST_IDENTITY);
             entity.moduleModuleVisible();
         }
         finally
@@ -236,7 +240,7 @@ public class ServiceVisibilityTest
         UnitOfWork unitOfWork = uowf.newUnitOfWork();
         try
         {
-            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, "123" );
+            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, TEST_IDENTITY);
             entity.besideApplicationVisible();
         }
         finally
@@ -254,7 +258,7 @@ public class ServiceVisibilityTest
         UnitOfWork unitOfWork = uowf.newUnitOfWork();
         try
         {
-            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, "123" );
+            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, TEST_IDENTITY);
             entity.besideLayerVisible();
         }
         finally
@@ -272,7 +276,7 @@ public class ServiceVisibilityTest
         UnitOfWork unitOfWork = uowf.newUnitOfWork();
         try
         {
-            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, "123" );
+            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, TEST_IDENTITY);
             entity.besideModuleVisible();
         }
         finally
@@ -290,7 +294,7 @@ public class ServiceVisibilityTest
         UnitOfWork unitOfWork = uowf.newUnitOfWork();
         try
         {
-            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, "123" );
+            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, TEST_IDENTITY);
             entity.belowApplicationVisible();
         }
         finally
@@ -308,7 +312,7 @@ public class ServiceVisibilityTest
         UnitOfWork unitOfWork = uowf.newUnitOfWork();
         try
         {
-            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, "123" );
+            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, TEST_IDENTITY);
             entity.belowLayerVisible();
         }
         finally
@@ -326,7 +330,7 @@ public class ServiceVisibilityTest
         UnitOfWork unitOfWork = uowf.newUnitOfWork();
         try
         {
-            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, "123" );
+            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, TEST_IDENTITY);
             entity.belowModuleVisible();
         }
         finally
@@ -344,7 +348,7 @@ public class ServiceVisibilityTest
         UnitOfWork unitOfWork = uowf.newUnitOfWork();
         try
         {
-            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, "123" );
+            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, TEST_IDENTITY);
             entity.aboveApplicationVisible();
         }
         finally
@@ -362,7 +366,7 @@ public class ServiceVisibilityTest
         UnitOfWork unitOfWork = uowf.newUnitOfWork();
         try
         {
-            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, "123" );
+            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, TEST_IDENTITY);
             entity.aboveLayerVisible();
         }
         finally
@@ -380,7 +384,7 @@ public class ServiceVisibilityTest
         UnitOfWork unitOfWork = uowf.newUnitOfWork();
         try
         {
-            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, "123" );
+            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, TEST_IDENTITY);
             entity.aboveModuleVisible();
         }
         finally

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/zest-java/blob/103c59cb/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/structure/TypeToCompositeLookupTest.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/structure/TypeToCompositeLookupTest.java b/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/structure/TypeToCompositeLookupTest.java
index 2ab5373..f7da054 100644
--- a/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/structure/TypeToCompositeLookupTest.java
+++ b/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/structure/TypeToCompositeLookupTest.java
@@ -20,12 +20,13 @@
 package org.apache.zest.runtime.structure;
 
 import java.util.Iterator;
+import org.apache.zest.api.identity.HasIdentity;
+import org.apache.zest.api.identity.Identity;
 import org.apache.zest.api.unitofwork.UnitOfWorkFactory;
 import org.apache.zest.bootstrap.unitofwork.DefaultUnitOfWorkAssembler;
 import org.junit.Test;
 import org.apache.zest.api.activation.ActivationException;
 import org.apache.zest.api.composite.AmbiguousTypeException;
-import org.apache.zest.api.entity.Identity;
 import org.apache.zest.api.mixin.Mixins;
 import org.apache.zest.api.service.ServiceReference;
 import org.apache.zest.api.structure.Module;
@@ -51,9 +52,7 @@ public class TypeToCompositeLookupTest
 
     public interface Foo
     {
-
         String bar();
-
     }
 
     public static class BasicFooImpl
@@ -276,17 +275,17 @@ public class TypeToCompositeLookupTest
         assertEquals( CATHEDRAL, basicFoo.bar() );
         assertEquals( CATHEDRAL, foo.bar() );
 
-        String someOtherFooIdentity = ( (Identity) someOtherFoo ).identity().get();
-        String basicFooIdentity = ( (Identity) basicFoo ).identity().get();
-        String fooIdentity = ( (Identity) foo ).identity().get();
+        Identity someOtherFooIdentity = ((HasIdentity) someOtherFoo).identity().get();
+        Identity basicFooIdentity = ((HasIdentity) basicFoo).identity().get();
+        Identity fooIdentity = ((HasIdentity) foo).identity().get();
 
         uow.complete();
 
         uow = uowf.newUnitOfWork();
 
-        uow.get( SomeOtherFoo.class, someOtherFooIdentity );
+        uow.get( SomeOtherFoo.class,  someOtherFooIdentity );
         uow.get( BasicFoo.class, basicFooIdentity );
-        uow.get( Foo.class, fooIdentity );
+        uow.get( Foo.class,  fooIdentity );
 
         uow.discard();
     }
@@ -328,8 +327,8 @@ public class TypeToCompositeLookupTest
         // Specific Type used
         assertEquals( BAZAR, uow.newEntityBuilder( BasicFoo.class ).newInstance().bar() );
 
-        String someOtherFooIdentity = ( (Identity) someOtherFoo ).identity().get();
-        String basicFooIdentity = ( (Identity) basicFoo ).identity().get();
+        Identity someOtherFooIdentity = ((HasIdentity) someOtherFoo).identity().get();
+        Identity basicFooIdentity = ((HasIdentity) basicFoo).identity().get();
 
         uow.complete();
 

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/zest-java/blob/103c59cb/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/transients/TransientVisibilityTest.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/transients/TransientVisibilityTest.java b/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/transients/TransientVisibilityTest.java
index 889d898..e07b8b2 100644
--- a/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/transients/TransientVisibilityTest.java
+++ b/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/transients/TransientVisibilityTest.java
@@ -25,6 +25,8 @@ import org.apache.zest.api.composite.NoSuchTransientException;
 import org.apache.zest.api.composite.TransientBuilder;
 import org.apache.zest.api.composite.TransientComposite;
 import org.apache.zest.api.entity.EntityComposite;
+import org.apache.zest.api.identity.Identity;
+import org.apache.zest.api.identity.StringIdentity;
 import org.apache.zest.api.injection.scope.Structure;
 import org.apache.zest.api.mixin.Mixins;
 import org.apache.zest.api.service.ServiceComposite;
@@ -46,6 +48,7 @@ import org.junit.Test;
 
 public class TransientVisibilityTest
 {
+    public static final Identity TEST_IDENTITY = new StringIdentity( "123" );
     private Energy4Java zest;
     private Module module;
     private Application app;
@@ -183,7 +186,7 @@ public class TransientVisibilityTest
         UnitOfWork unitOfWork = uowf.newUnitOfWork();
         try
         {
-            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, "123" );
+            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, TEST_IDENTITY);
             entity.moduleApplicationVisible();
         }
         finally
@@ -201,7 +204,7 @@ public class TransientVisibilityTest
         UnitOfWork unitOfWork = uowf.newUnitOfWork();
         try
         {
-            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, "123" );
+            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, TEST_IDENTITY);
             entity.moduleLayerVisible();
         }
         finally
@@ -219,7 +222,7 @@ public class TransientVisibilityTest
         UnitOfWork unitOfWork = uowf.newUnitOfWork();
         try
         {
-            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, "123" );
+            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, TEST_IDENTITY);
             entity.moduleModuleVisible();
         }
         finally
@@ -237,7 +240,7 @@ public class TransientVisibilityTest
         UnitOfWork unitOfWork = uowf.newUnitOfWork();
         try
         {
-            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, "123" );
+            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, TEST_IDENTITY);
             entity.besideApplicationVisible();
         }
         finally
@@ -255,7 +258,7 @@ public class TransientVisibilityTest
         UnitOfWork unitOfWork = uowf.newUnitOfWork();
         try
         {
-            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, "123" );
+            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, TEST_IDENTITY);
             entity.besideLayerVisible();
         }
         finally
@@ -273,7 +276,7 @@ public class TransientVisibilityTest
         UnitOfWork unitOfWork = uowf.newUnitOfWork();
         try
         {
-            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, "123" );
+            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, TEST_IDENTITY);
             entity.besideModuleVisible();
         }
         finally
@@ -291,7 +294,7 @@ public class TransientVisibilityTest
         UnitOfWork unitOfWork = uowf.newUnitOfWork();
         try
         {
-            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, "123" );
+            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, TEST_IDENTITY);
             entity.belowApplicationVisible();
         }
         finally
@@ -309,7 +312,7 @@ public class TransientVisibilityTest
         UnitOfWork unitOfWork = uowf.newUnitOfWork();
         try
         {
-            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, "123" );
+            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, TEST_IDENTITY);
             entity.belowLayerVisible();
         }
         finally
@@ -327,7 +330,7 @@ public class TransientVisibilityTest
         UnitOfWork unitOfWork = uowf.newUnitOfWork();
         try
         {
-            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, "123" );
+            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, TEST_IDENTITY);
             entity.belowModuleVisible();
         }
         finally
@@ -345,7 +348,7 @@ public class TransientVisibilityTest
         UnitOfWork unitOfWork = uowf.newUnitOfWork();
         try
         {
-            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, "123" );
+            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, TEST_IDENTITY);
             entity.aboveApplicationVisible();
         }
         finally
@@ -363,7 +366,7 @@ public class TransientVisibilityTest
         UnitOfWork unitOfWork = uowf.newUnitOfWork();
         try
         {
-            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, "123" );
+            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, TEST_IDENTITY);
             entity.aboveLayerVisible();
         }
         finally
@@ -381,7 +384,7 @@ public class TransientVisibilityTest
         UnitOfWork unitOfWork = uowf.newUnitOfWork();
         try
         {
-            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, "123" );
+            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, TEST_IDENTITY);
             entity.aboveModuleVisible();
         }
         finally

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/zest-java/blob/103c59cb/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/unitofwork/PrivateEntityUnitOfWorkTest.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/unitofwork/PrivateEntityUnitOfWorkTest.java b/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/unitofwork/PrivateEntityUnitOfWorkTest.java
index 816166b..7c223f8 100644
--- a/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/unitofwork/PrivateEntityUnitOfWorkTest.java
+++ b/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/unitofwork/PrivateEntityUnitOfWorkTest.java
@@ -24,7 +24,9 @@ import org.apache.zest.api.association.Association;
 import org.apache.zest.api.association.ManyAssociation;
 import org.apache.zest.api.entity.EntityBuilder;
 import org.apache.zest.api.entity.EntityComposite;
-import org.apache.zest.api.entity.Identity;
+import org.apache.zest.api.identity.HasIdentity;
+import org.apache.zest.api.identity.Identity;
+import org.apache.zest.api.identity.StringIdentity;
 import org.apache.zest.api.injection.scope.Structure;
 import org.apache.zest.api.mixin.Mixins;
 import org.apache.zest.api.property.Property;
@@ -50,6 +52,8 @@ import static org.junit.Assert.fail;
  */
 public class PrivateEntityUnitOfWorkTest
 {
+    private static final Identity TEST_IDENTITY = new StringIdentity( "1" );
+
     @Structure
     private UnitOfWorkFactory uowf;
 
@@ -98,16 +102,16 @@ public class PrivateEntityUnitOfWorkTest
         catch( NoSuchEntityTypeException e )
         {
             // Ok
-            ProductCatalog catalog = unitOfWork.newEntity( ProductCatalog.class, "1" );
+            ProductCatalog catalog = unitOfWork.newEntity( ProductCatalog.class, TEST_IDENTITY);
             unitOfWork.complete();
         }
         unitOfWork = uowf.newUnitOfWork();
 
-        String id;
+        Identity id;
         try
         {
-            ProductCatalog catalog = unitOfWork.get( ProductCatalog.class, "1" );
-            id = ( (Identity) catalog.newProduct() ).identity().get();
+            ProductCatalog catalog = unitOfWork.get( ProductCatalog.class, TEST_IDENTITY);
+            id = catalog.newProduct().identity().get();
             unitOfWork.complete();
         }
         finally
@@ -118,7 +122,7 @@ public class PrivateEntityUnitOfWorkTest
         unitOfWork = uowf.newUnitOfWork();
         try
         {
-            ProductCatalog catalog = unitOfWork.get( ProductCatalog.class, "1" );
+            ProductCatalog catalog = unitOfWork.get( ProductCatalog.class, TEST_IDENTITY);
             Product product = catalog.findProduct( id );
             product.price().set( 100 );
             unitOfWork.complete();
@@ -133,7 +137,7 @@ public class PrivateEntityUnitOfWorkTest
     {
         Product newProduct();
 
-        Product findProduct( String id );
+        Product findProduct( Identity id );
     }
 
     @Mixins( ProductCatalogEntity.ProductRepositoryMixin.class )
@@ -164,10 +168,10 @@ public class PrivateEntityUnitOfWorkTest
                 return eb.newInstance();
             }
 
-            public Product findProduct( String id )
+            public Product findProduct( Identity id )
             {
                 UnitOfWork uow = uowf.currentUnitOfWork();
-                return uow.get( Product.class, id );
+                return uow.get( Product.class,  id );
             }
         }
     }
@@ -243,7 +247,7 @@ public class PrivateEntityUnitOfWorkTest
         Property<Float> weight();
     }
 
-    public interface Product
+    public interface Product extends HasIdentity
     {
         Property<String> name();
 

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/zest-java/blob/103c59cb/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/unitofwork/RemovalTest.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/unitofwork/RemovalTest.java b/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/unitofwork/RemovalTest.java
index 485b185..394d4f4 100644
--- a/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/unitofwork/RemovalTest.java
+++ b/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/unitofwork/RemovalTest.java
@@ -20,6 +20,8 @@
 
 package org.apache.zest.runtime.unitofwork;
 
+import org.apache.zest.api.identity.Identity;
+import org.apache.zest.api.identity.StringIdentity;
 import org.junit.Test;
 import org.apache.zest.api.entity.EntityBuilder;
 import org.apache.zest.api.entity.EntityComposite;
@@ -37,7 +39,10 @@ import static org.junit.Assert.fail;
 public class RemovalTest
     extends AbstractZestTest
 {
-    public void assemble( ModuleAssembly module )
+
+    private static final Identity TEST_IDENTITY = new StringIdentity( "123" );
+
+    public void assemble(ModuleAssembly module )
         throws AssemblyException
     {
         new EntityTestAssembler().assemble( module );
@@ -51,12 +56,12 @@ public class RemovalTest
         UnitOfWork uow = unitOfWorkFactory.newUnitOfWork();
         try
         {
-            EntityBuilder<Abc> builder = uow.newEntityBuilder( Abc.class, "123" );
+            EntityBuilder<Abc> builder = uow.newEntityBuilder( Abc.class, TEST_IDENTITY);
             builder.instance().name().set( "Niclas" );
             builder.newInstance();
             uow.complete();
             uow = unitOfWorkFactory.newUnitOfWork();
-            Abc abc = uow.get( Abc.class, "123" );
+            Abc abc = uow.get( Abc.class, TEST_IDENTITY);
             assertEquals( "Niclas", abc.name().get() );
         }
         finally
@@ -72,17 +77,17 @@ public class RemovalTest
         UnitOfWork uow = unitOfWorkFactory.newUnitOfWork();
         try
         {
-            EntityBuilder<Abc> builder = uow.newEntityBuilder( Abc.class, "123" );
+            EntityBuilder<Abc> builder = uow.newEntityBuilder( Abc.class, TEST_IDENTITY);
             builder.instance().name().set( "Niclas" );
             builder.newInstance();
             uow.complete();
             uow = unitOfWorkFactory.newUnitOfWork();
-            Abc abc = uow.get( Abc.class, "123" );
+            Abc abc = uow.get( Abc.class, TEST_IDENTITY);
             assertEquals( "Niclas", abc.name().get() );
             uow.remove( abc );
             uow.complete();
             uow = unitOfWorkFactory.newUnitOfWork();
-            uow.get( Abc.class, "123" );
+            uow.get( Abc.class, TEST_IDENTITY);
             fail( "This '123' entity should not exist." );
         }
         catch( NoSuchEntityException e )
@@ -102,7 +107,7 @@ public class RemovalTest
         UnitOfWork uow = unitOfWorkFactory.newUnitOfWork();
         try
         {
-            EntityBuilder<Abc> builder = uow.newEntityBuilder( Abc.class, "123" );
+            EntityBuilder<Abc> builder = uow.newEntityBuilder( Abc.class, TEST_IDENTITY);
             builder.instance().name().set( "Niclas" );
             Abc abc = builder.newInstance();
             uow.complete();
@@ -111,7 +116,7 @@ public class RemovalTest
             uow.remove( abc );
             uow.complete();
             uow = unitOfWorkFactory.newUnitOfWork();
-            uow.get( Abc.class, "123" );
+            uow.get( Abc.class, TEST_IDENTITY);
             fail( "This '123' entity should not exist." );
         }
         catch( NoSuchEntityException e )
@@ -131,13 +136,13 @@ public class RemovalTest
         UnitOfWork uow = unitOfWorkFactory.newUnitOfWork();
         try
         {
-            EntityBuilder<Abc> builder = uow.newEntityBuilder( Abc.class, "123" );
+            EntityBuilder<Abc> builder = uow.newEntityBuilder( Abc.class, TEST_IDENTITY);
             builder.instance().name().set( "Niclas" );
             Abc abc = builder.newInstance();
             uow.remove( abc );
             uow.complete();
             uow = unitOfWorkFactory.newUnitOfWork();
-            uow.get( Abc.class, "123" );
+            uow.get( Abc.class, TEST_IDENTITY);
             fail( "This '123' entity should not exist." );
         }
         catch( NoSuchEntityException e )

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/zest-java/blob/103c59cb/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/value/AssociationToValueTest.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/value/AssociationToValueTest.java b/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/value/AssociationToValueTest.java
index e9dfdf3..8be089f 100644
--- a/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/value/AssociationToValueTest.java
+++ b/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/value/AssociationToValueTest.java
@@ -26,7 +26,8 @@ import java.util.Set;
 import java.util.function.BiFunction;
 import org.apache.zest.api.association.ManyAssociation;
 import org.apache.zest.api.association.NamedAssociation;
-import org.apache.zest.api.entity.Identity;
+import org.apache.zest.api.identity.HasIdentity;
+import org.apache.zest.api.identity.StringIdentity;
 import org.apache.zest.api.injection.scope.Service;
 import org.apache.zest.api.injection.scope.Structure;
 import org.apache.zest.api.mixin.Mixins;
@@ -120,7 +121,7 @@ public class AssociationToValueTest extends AbstractZestTest
         serviceFinder.findService( Runnable.class ).get().run();
     }
 
-    public interface Person extends Identity
+    public interface Person extends HasIdentity
     {
         ManyAssociation<Person> children();
 
@@ -154,7 +155,7 @@ public class AssociationToValueTest extends AbstractZestTest
         public Person findPersonByName( String name )
         {
             UnitOfWork uow = unitOfWorkFactory.currentUnitOfWork();
-            return uow.toValue( Person.class, uow.get( Person.class, name ) );
+            return uow.toValue( Person.class, uow.get( Person.class, new StringIdentity( name ) ) );
         }
     }
 
@@ -209,7 +210,7 @@ public class AssociationToValueTest extends AbstractZestTest
         private Person createPerson( String name )
         {
             UnitOfWork uow = uowf.currentUnitOfWork();
-            return uow.newEntity( Person.class, name );
+            return uow.newEntity( Person.class, new StringIdentity( name ) );
         }
     }
 }

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/zest-java/blob/103c59cb/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/value/ValueInjectionDeserializationTest.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/value/ValueInjectionDeserializationTest.java b/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/value/ValueInjectionDeserializationTest.java
index 2567f18..f05d0a1 100644
--- a/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/value/ValueInjectionDeserializationTest.java
+++ b/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/value/ValueInjectionDeserializationTest.java
@@ -20,6 +20,7 @@
 
 package org.apache.zest.runtime.value;
 
+import org.apache.zest.api.identity.Identity;
 import org.junit.Assert;
 import org.junit.Test;
 import org.apache.zest.api.entity.EntityBuilder;
@@ -66,7 +67,7 @@ public class ValueInjectionDeserializationTest
             EntityBuilder<Niclas> eb = uow.newEntityBuilder( Niclas.class );
             eb.instance().value().set( value );
             Niclas niclas1 = eb.newInstance();
-            String id = niclas1.identity().get();
+            Identity id = niclas1.identity().get();
             uow.complete();
 
             uow = unitOfWorkFactory.newUnitOfWork();

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/zest-java/blob/103c59cb/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/value/ValueSerializationRegressionTest.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/value/ValueSerializationRegressionTest.java b/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/value/ValueSerializationRegressionTest.java
index 5fe09b0..d581d5e 100644
--- a/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/value/ValueSerializationRegressionTest.java
+++ b/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/value/ValueSerializationRegressionTest.java
@@ -19,11 +19,12 @@
  */
 package org.apache.zest.runtime.value;
 
+import org.apache.zest.api.identity.HasIdentity;
+import org.apache.zest.api.identity.StringIdentity;
 import org.junit.Test;
 import org.apache.zest.api.association.Association;
 import org.apache.zest.api.association.ManyAssociation;
 import org.apache.zest.api.association.NamedAssociation;
-import org.apache.zest.api.entity.Identity;
 import org.apache.zest.api.property.Property;
 import org.apache.zest.api.unitofwork.UnitOfWorkCompletionException;
 import org.apache.zest.api.value.ValueBuilder;
@@ -54,17 +55,17 @@ public class ValueSerializationRegressionTest extends AbstractZestTest
         throws UnitOfWorkCompletionException
     {
         ValueBuilder<DualFaced> builder = valueBuilderFactory.newValueBuilder( DualFaced.class );
-        builder.prototype().identity().set( "1234" );
+        builder.prototype().identity().set( new StringIdentity( "1234" ) );
         builder.prototype().name().set( "Hedhman" );
         DualFaced value = builder.newInstance();
     }
 
-    public interface SimpleEntity extends Identity
+    public interface SimpleEntity extends HasIdentity
     {
         Property<String> name();
     }
 
-    public interface DualFaced extends Identity
+    public interface DualFaced extends HasIdentity
     {
         Property<String> name();
 

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/zest-java/blob/103c59cb/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/value/ValueVisibilityTest.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/value/ValueVisibilityTest.java b/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/value/ValueVisibilityTest.java
index e484eff..44e247c 100644
--- a/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/value/ValueVisibilityTest.java
+++ b/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/value/ValueVisibilityTest.java
@@ -20,20 +20,18 @@
 
 package org.apache.zest.runtime.value;
 
-import org.apache.zest.api.unitofwork.UnitOfWorkFactory;
-import org.apache.zest.bootstrap.unitofwork.DefaultUnitOfWorkAssembler;
-import org.junit.After;
-import org.junit.Before;
-import org.junit.Test;
 import org.apache.zest.api.common.Visibility;
 import org.apache.zest.api.composite.TransientComposite;
 import org.apache.zest.api.entity.EntityComposite;
+import org.apache.zest.api.identity.Identity;
+import org.apache.zest.api.identity.StringIdentity;
 import org.apache.zest.api.injection.scope.Structure;
 import org.apache.zest.api.mixin.Mixins;
 import org.apache.zest.api.service.ServiceComposite;
 import org.apache.zest.api.structure.Application;
 import org.apache.zest.api.structure.Module;
 import org.apache.zest.api.unitofwork.UnitOfWork;
+import org.apache.zest.api.unitofwork.UnitOfWorkFactory;
 import org.apache.zest.api.value.NoSuchValueException;
 import org.apache.zest.api.value.ValueBuilder;
 import org.apache.zest.api.value.ValueComposite;
@@ -42,11 +40,16 @@ import org.apache.zest.bootstrap.Assembler;
 import org.apache.zest.bootstrap.AssemblyException;
 import org.apache.zest.bootstrap.Energy4Java;
 import org.apache.zest.bootstrap.ModuleAssembly;
+import org.apache.zest.bootstrap.unitofwork.DefaultUnitOfWorkAssembler;
 import org.apache.zest.test.EntityTestAssembler;
+import org.junit.After;
+import org.junit.Before;
+import org.junit.Test;
 
 public class ValueVisibilityTest
 {
 
+    public static final Identity TEST_IDENTIY = new StringIdentity( "123" );
     private Energy4Java zest;
     private Module module;
     private Application app;
@@ -184,7 +187,7 @@ public class ValueVisibilityTest
         UnitOfWork unitOfWork = uowf.newUnitOfWork();
         try
         {
-            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, "123" );
+            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, TEST_IDENTIY);
             entity.moduleApplicationVisible();
         }
         finally
@@ -202,7 +205,7 @@ public class ValueVisibilityTest
         UnitOfWork unitOfWork = uowf.newUnitOfWork();
         try
         {
-            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, "123" );
+            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, TEST_IDENTIY);
             entity.moduleLayerVisible();
         }
         finally
@@ -220,7 +223,7 @@ public class ValueVisibilityTest
         UnitOfWork unitOfWork = uowf.newUnitOfWork();
         try
         {
-            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, "123" );
+            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, TEST_IDENTIY);
             entity.moduleModuleVisible();
         }
         finally
@@ -238,7 +241,7 @@ public class ValueVisibilityTest
         UnitOfWork unitOfWork = uowf.newUnitOfWork();
         try
         {
-            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, "123" );
+            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, TEST_IDENTIY);
             entity.besideApplicationVisible();
         }
         finally
@@ -256,7 +259,7 @@ public class ValueVisibilityTest
         UnitOfWork unitOfWork = uowf.newUnitOfWork();
         try
         {
-            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, "123" );
+            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, TEST_IDENTIY);
             entity.besideLayerVisible();
         }
         finally
@@ -274,7 +277,7 @@ public class ValueVisibilityTest
         UnitOfWork unitOfWork = uowf.newUnitOfWork();
         try
         {
-            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, "123" );
+            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, TEST_IDENTIY);
             entity.besideModuleVisible();
         }
         finally
@@ -292,7 +295,7 @@ public class ValueVisibilityTest
         UnitOfWork unitOfWork = uowf.newUnitOfWork();
         try
         {
-            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, "123" );
+            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, TEST_IDENTIY);
             entity.belowApplicationVisible();
         }
         finally
@@ -310,7 +313,7 @@ public class ValueVisibilityTest
         UnitOfWork unitOfWork = uowf.newUnitOfWork();
         try
         {
-            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, "123" );
+            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, TEST_IDENTIY);
             entity.belowLayerVisible();
         }
         finally
@@ -328,7 +331,7 @@ public class ValueVisibilityTest
         UnitOfWork unitOfWork = uowf.newUnitOfWork();
         try
         {
-            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, "123" );
+            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, TEST_IDENTIY);
             entity.belowModuleVisible();
         }
         finally
@@ -346,7 +349,7 @@ public class ValueVisibilityTest
         UnitOfWork unitOfWork = uowf.newUnitOfWork();
         try
         {
-            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, "123" );
+            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, TEST_IDENTIY);
             entity.aboveApplicationVisible();
         }
         finally
@@ -364,7 +367,7 @@ public class ValueVisibilityTest
         UnitOfWork unitOfWork = uowf.newUnitOfWork();
         try
         {
-            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, "123" );
+            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, TEST_IDENTIY);
             entity.aboveLayerVisible();
         }
         finally
@@ -382,7 +385,7 @@ public class ValueVisibilityTest
         UnitOfWork unitOfWork = uowf.newUnitOfWork();
         try
         {
-            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, "123" );
+            FromEntity entity = unitOfWork.newEntity( FromEntity.class, TEST_IDENTIY);
             entity.aboveModuleVisible();
         }
         finally

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/zest-java/blob/103c59cb/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/value/ValueWithAssociationTest.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/value/ValueWithAssociationTest.java b/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/value/ValueWithAssociationTest.java
index 1e3dcad..40ccef6 100644
--- a/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/value/ValueWithAssociationTest.java
+++ b/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/value/ValueWithAssociationTest.java
@@ -19,6 +19,9 @@
  */
 package org.apache.zest.runtime.value;
 
+import org.apache.zest.api.identity.HasIdentity;
+import org.apache.zest.api.identity.Identity;
+import org.apache.zest.api.identity.StringIdentity;
 import org.junit.Test;
 import org.apache.zest.api.association.Association;
 import org.apache.zest.api.association.AssociationStateHolder;
@@ -28,7 +31,6 @@ import org.apache.zest.api.common.Optional;
 import org.apache.zest.api.entity.EntityBuilder;
 import org.apache.zest.api.entity.EntityComposite;
 import org.apache.zest.api.entity.EntityReference;
-import org.apache.zest.api.entity.Identity;
 import org.apache.zest.api.property.Property;
 import org.apache.zest.api.unitofwork.UnitOfWork;
 import org.apache.zest.api.unitofwork.UnitOfWorkCompletionException;
@@ -63,8 +65,8 @@ public class ValueWithAssociationTest extends AbstractZestTest
     public void givenEntityInStoreWhenFetchEntityReferenceExpectSuccess()
         throws UnitOfWorkCompletionException
     {
-        String identity1;
-        String identity2;
+        Identity identity1;
+        Identity identity2;
         DualFaced value;
         try (UnitOfWork uow = unitOfWorkFactory.newUnitOfWork())
         {
@@ -94,14 +96,14 @@ public class ValueWithAssociationTest extends AbstractZestTest
             ManyAssociation<?> simples = holder.allManyAssociations().iterator().next();
             NamedAssociation<?> namedSimples = holder.allNamedAssociations().iterator().next();
 
-            assertThat( spi.entityReferenceOf( simple ), equalTo( EntityReference.parseEntityReference( identity1 ) ) );
+            assertThat( spi.entityReferenceOf( simple ), equalTo( EntityReference.create( identity1 ) ) );
             assertThat( spi.entityReferenceOf( simples )
                             .iterator()
-                            .next(), equalTo( EntityReference.parseEntityReference( identity1 ) ) );
+                            .next(), equalTo( EntityReference.create( identity1 ) ) );
             assertThat( spi.entityReferenceOf( namedSimples )
                             .iterator()
                             .next()
-                            .getValue(), equalTo( EntityReference.parseEntityReference( identity1 ) ) );
+                            .getValue(), equalTo( EntityReference.create( identity1 ) ) );
 
             DualFaced resurrected = uow.toEntity( DualFaced.class, value );
             assertThat( resurrected.simple(), equalTo( entity.simple() ) );
@@ -115,7 +117,7 @@ public class ValueWithAssociationTest extends AbstractZestTest
         throws UnitOfWorkCompletionException
     {
         ValueBuilder<DualFaced> builder = valueBuilderFactory.newValueBuilder( DualFaced.class );
-        builder.prototype().identity().set( "1234" );
+        builder.prototype().identity().set( new StringIdentity( "1234" ) );
         builder.prototype().name().set( "Hedhman" );
         DualFaced value = builder.newInstance();
 
@@ -127,8 +129,8 @@ public class ValueWithAssociationTest extends AbstractZestTest
 
         try (UnitOfWork uow = unitOfWorkFactory.newUnitOfWork())
         {
-            DualFaced entity = uow.get( DualFaced.class, "1234" );
-            assertThat( entity.identity().get(), equalTo( "1234" ) );
+            DualFaced entity = uow.get( DualFaced.class, new StringIdentity( "1234" ) );
+            assertThat( entity.identity().get(), equalTo( new StringIdentity( "1234" ) ) );
             assertThat( entity.name().get(), equalTo( "Hedhman" ) );
             uow.complete();
         }
@@ -138,8 +140,8 @@ public class ValueWithAssociationTest extends AbstractZestTest
     public void givenValueWithIdentityAlreadyInStoreWhenConvertingToEntityExpectExistingEntityToBeUpdated()
         throws UnitOfWorkCompletionException
     {
-        String identity1;
-        String identity2;
+        Identity identity1;
+        Identity identity2;
         try (UnitOfWork uow = unitOfWorkFactory.newUnitOfWork())
         {
             EntityBuilder<SimpleName> builder1 = uow.newEntityBuilder( SimpleName.class );
@@ -184,12 +186,12 @@ public class ValueWithAssociationTest extends AbstractZestTest
         }
     }
 
-    public interface SimpleName extends Identity
+    public interface SimpleName extends HasIdentity
     {
         Property<String> name();
     }
 
-    public interface DualFaced extends Identity
+    public interface DualFaced extends HasIdentity
     {
         Property<String> name();
 

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/zest-java/blob/103c59cb/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/visibility/VisibilityInUnitOfWorkTest.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/visibility/VisibilityInUnitOfWorkTest.java b/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/visibility/VisibilityInUnitOfWorkTest.java
index 55d03f8..3c574bd 100644
--- a/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/visibility/VisibilityInUnitOfWorkTest.java
+++ b/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/runtime/visibility/VisibilityInUnitOfWorkTest.java
@@ -20,6 +20,8 @@
 package org.apache.zest.runtime.visibility;
 
 import org.apache.zest.api.common.Visibility;
+import org.apache.zest.api.identity.Identity;
+import org.apache.zest.api.identity.StringIdentity;
 import org.apache.zest.api.injection.scope.Service;
 import org.apache.zest.api.injection.scope.Structure;
 import org.apache.zest.api.mixin.Mixins;
@@ -42,6 +44,10 @@ import org.junit.Test;
 
 public class VisibilityInUnitOfWorkTest
 {
+
+    public static final Identity TEST_IDENTITY1 = new StringIdentity( "123" );
+    public static final Identity TEST_IDENTITY2 = new StringIdentity( "345" );
+
     @Test
     public void givenTwoModulesWithServiceAndEntityInOneAndEntityInOtherWhenOtherEntityAccessServiceWhichUsesItsEntityExpectServiceToHaveVisibility()
         throws Exception
@@ -69,14 +75,14 @@ public class VisibilityInUnitOfWorkTest
             public void create()
             {
                 UnitOfWork uow = uowf.currentUnitOfWork();
-                YourEntity entity = uow.newEntity( YourEntity.class, "345" );
+                YourEntity entity = uow.newEntity( YourEntity.class, TEST_IDENTITY2);
             }
 
             @Override
             public YourEntity get()
             {
                 UnitOfWork uow = uowf.currentUnitOfWork();
-                return uow.get( YourEntity.class, "345" );
+                return uow.get( YourEntity.class, TEST_IDENTITY2);
             }
         }
     }
@@ -124,8 +130,8 @@ public class VisibilityInUnitOfWorkTest
             {
                 try (UnitOfWork uow = uowf.newUnitOfWork())
                 {
-                    uow.newEntity( MyEntity.class, "123" );
-                    MyEntity entity1 = uow.get( MyEntity.class, "123" );
+                    uow.newEntity( MyEntity.class, TEST_IDENTITY1 );
+                    MyEntity entity1 = uow.get( MyEntity.class, TEST_IDENTITY1 );
                     service.create();
                     YourEntity entity2 = service.get();
                 }

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/zest-java/blob/103c59cb/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/spi/service/importer/ServiceInstanceImporterTest.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/spi/service/importer/ServiceInstanceImporterTest.java b/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/spi/service/importer/ServiceInstanceImporterTest.java
index 8bb716c..f5a6290 100644
--- a/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/spi/service/importer/ServiceInstanceImporterTest.java
+++ b/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/spi/service/importer/ServiceInstanceImporterTest.java
@@ -20,6 +20,7 @@
 
 package org.apache.zest.spi.service.importer;
 
+import org.apache.zest.api.identity.StringIdentity;
 import org.hamcrest.CoreMatchers;
 import org.junit.Assert;
 import org.junit.Test;
@@ -45,7 +46,7 @@ public class ServiceInstanceImporterTest
     {
         module.importedServices( TestService.class ).
             identifiedBy( "test" ).
-            setMetaInfo( "testimporter" ).
+            setMetaInfo( new StringIdentity( "testimporter" ) ).
             importedBy( ImportedServiceDeclaration.SERVICE_IMPORTER );
         module.services( TestImporterService.class ).identifiedBy( "testimporter" );
 

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/zest-java/blob/103c59cb/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/test/performance/entitystore/memory/MemoryEntityStoreTest.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/test/performance/entitystore/memory/MemoryEntityStoreTest.java b/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/test/performance/entitystore/memory/MemoryEntityStoreTest.java
index 926587a..51cd822 100644
--- a/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/test/performance/entitystore/memory/MemoryEntityStoreTest.java
+++ b/core/runtime/src/test/java/org/apache/zest/test/performance/entitystore/memory/MemoryEntityStoreTest.java
@@ -57,7 +57,7 @@ public class MemoryEntityStoreTest
         {
             for( EntityState changedState : changedStates )
             {
-                System.out.println( changedState.status().name() + ":" + changedState.identity() );
+                System.out.println( changedState.status().name() + ":" + changedState.entityReference() );
             }
         }
     }

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/zest-java/blob/103c59cb/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/entitystore/memory/MemoryMapEntityStoreMixin.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/entitystore/memory/MemoryMapEntityStoreMixin.java b/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/entitystore/memory/MemoryMapEntityStoreMixin.java
index 0f298ae..893e17a 100644
--- a/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/entitystore/memory/MemoryMapEntityStoreMixin.java
+++ b/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/entitystore/memory/MemoryMapEntityStoreMixin.java
@@ -163,7 +163,7 @@ public class MemoryMapEntityStoreMixin
                                 JSONTokener tokener = new JSONTokener( item );
                                 JSONObject entity = (JSONObject) tokener.nextValue();
                                 String id = entity.getString( JSONKeys.IDENTITY );
-                                store.put( new EntityReference( id ), item );
+                                store.put( EntityReference.parseEntityReference( id ), item );
                             }
                             catch( JSONException e )
                             {

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/zest-java/blob/103c59cb/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/cache/Cache.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/cache/Cache.java b/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/cache/Cache.java
index 0df9292..80b0c43 100644
--- a/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/cache/Cache.java
+++ b/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/cache/Cache.java
@@ -22,7 +22,7 @@ package org.apache.zest.spi.cache;
 /**
  * Interface to interact with Cache implementations.
  * The Cache interface has the simple put/get/remove method to make implementations very easy and straight forward.
- * The key is always a String, since it is intended to be used for the EntityComposite's identity, and not totally
+ * The key is always a String, since it is intended to be used for the EntityComposite's reference, and not totally
  * generic.
  *
  * @param <T> The Value type to be stored in the cache.

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/zest-java/blob/103c59cb/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/cache/CachePool.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/cache/CachePool.java b/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/cache/CachePool.java
index c3f18f0..c4bf38d 100644
--- a/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/cache/CachePool.java
+++ b/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/cache/CachePool.java
@@ -43,7 +43,7 @@ public interface CachePool
      * If the cache does not exist already, then a new Cache should be created and returned. For each fetchCache()
      * call, a reference count on the Cache must be increased.
      *
-     * @param cacheId   The identity of the cache. If the same id is given as a previous fetch, the same cache will be
+     * @param cacheId   The reference of the cache. If the same id is given as a previous fetch, the same cache will be
      *                  returned.
      * @param valueType
      * @param <T>

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/zest-java/blob/103c59cb/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entity/EntityState.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entity/EntityState.java b/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entity/EntityState.java
index 734f5d5..2e26571 100644
--- a/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entity/EntityState.java
+++ b/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entity/EntityState.java
@@ -31,11 +31,11 @@ import org.apache.zest.api.time.SystemTime;
 public interface EntityState
 {
     /**
-     * Returns the identity of the entity that this EntityState represents.
+     * Returns the reference of the entity that this EntityState represents.
      *
-     * @return the identity of the entity that this EntityState represents.
+     * @return the reference of the entity that this EntityState represents.
      */
-    EntityReference identity();
+    EntityReference entityReference();
 
     /**
      * Version of the entity. This is managed by the EntityStore.

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/zest-java/blob/103c59cb/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entity/QualifiedIdentity.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entity/QualifiedIdentity.java b/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entity/QualifiedIdentity.java
deleted file mode 100644
index a4d9f9b..0000000
--- a/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entity/QualifiedIdentity.java
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,143 +0,0 @@
-/*
- *  Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
- *  or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
- *  distributed with this work for additional information
- *  regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
- *  to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
- *  "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
- *  with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
- *
- *       http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
- *
- *  Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
- *  distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
- *  WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
- *  See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
- *  limitations under the License.
- *
- *
- */
-
-package org.apache.zest.spi.entity;
-
-import java.io.Serializable;
-import org.apache.zest.api.ZestAPI;
-import org.apache.zest.api.entity.EntityComposite;
-import org.apache.zest.api.util.Classes;
-
-import static org.apache.zest.functional.Iterables.first;
-
-/**
- * A Qualified Identity is the combination of the Composite type name and the identity of a specific
- * Entity instance. When stringified, these two are separated by the ":" character. Example:
- * <pre>
- * com.mycompany.mydomain.SomeEntity:123456
- * </pre>
- * where "com.mycompany.mydomain.SomeEntity" is the Composite type, and "123456" is the identity.
- */
-public final class QualifiedIdentity
-    implements Serializable
-{
-    public static QualifiedIdentity parseURI( String uri )
-    {
-        String str = uri.substring( "urn:zest:entity:".length() );
-        int idx = str.indexOf( "/" );
-        String type = str.substring( 0, idx ).replace( "-", "$" );
-        String identity = str.substring( idx + 1 );
-        return new QualifiedIdentity( identity, type );
-    }
-
-    public static QualifiedIdentity parseQualifiedIdentity( String id )
-    {
-        return new QualifiedIdentity( id );
-    }
-
-    public static QualifiedIdentity qualifiedIdentityOf( Object o )
-    {
-        return new QualifiedIdentity( (EntityComposite) o );
-    }
-
-    private static final long serialVersionUID = 1L;
-
-    // Associations who have been set to "null" should use this as the representation in the EntityState
-    public static final QualifiedIdentity NULL = new QualifiedIdentity( "null", "none" );
-
-    private String identity;
-    private String compositeType;
-
-    public QualifiedIdentity( EntityComposite entityComposite )
-    {
-        this( entityComposite.identity().get(), ZestAPI.FUNCTION_DESCRIPTOR_FOR
-                                                           .apply( entityComposite )
-                                                           .types().findFirst().get().getName() );
-    }
-
-    public QualifiedIdentity( String identity, Class<?> clazz )
-    {
-        this.identity = identity;
-        this.compositeType = clazz.getName();
-    }
-
-    public QualifiedIdentity( String identity, String clazz )
-    {
-        this.identity = identity;
-        this.compositeType = clazz;
-    }
-
-    protected QualifiedIdentity( String qualifiedIdentity )
-    {
-        int separatorIndex = qualifiedIdentity.indexOf( ":" );
-        if( separatorIndex == -1 )
-        {
-            throw new IllegalArgumentException( "Supplied string is not a qualified identity: " + qualifiedIdentity );
-        }
-        this.compositeType = qualifiedIdentity.substring( 0, separatorIndex );
-        this.identity = qualifiedIdentity.substring( separatorIndex + 1 );
-    }
-
-    public final String identity()
-    {
-        return identity;
-    }
-
-    public final String type()
-    {
-        return compositeType;
-    }
-
-    public final String toURI()
-    {
-        return "urn:zest:entity:" + Classes.normalizeClassToURI( compositeType ) + "/" + identity;
-    }
-
-    @Override
-    @SuppressWarnings( "AccessingNonPublicFieldOfAnotherObject" )
-    public boolean equals( Object o )
-    {
-        if( this == o )
-        {
-            return true;
-        }
-        if( o == null || getClass() != o.getClass() )
-        {
-            return false;
-        }
-        QualifiedIdentity that = (QualifiedIdentity) o;
-        return compositeType.equals( that.compositeType ) && identity.equals( that.identity );
-    }
-
-    @Override
-    public int hashCode()
-    {
-        int result;
-        result = identity.hashCode();
-        result = 31 * result + compositeType.hashCode();
-        return result;
-    }
-
-    @Override
-    public String toString()
-    {
-        return compositeType + ":" + identity;
-    }
-}

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/zest-java/blob/103c59cb/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entitystore/ConcurrentModificationCheckConcern.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entitystore/ConcurrentModificationCheckConcern.java b/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entitystore/ConcurrentModificationCheckConcern.java
index 0729c68..0ecd598 100755
--- a/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entitystore/ConcurrentModificationCheckConcern.java
+++ b/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entitystore/ConcurrentModificationCheckConcern.java
@@ -27,6 +27,7 @@ import org.apache.zest.api.ZestAPI;
 import org.apache.zest.api.concern.ConcernOf;
 import org.apache.zest.api.entity.EntityDescriptor;
 import org.apache.zest.api.entity.EntityReference;
+import org.apache.zest.api.identity.Identity;
 import org.apache.zest.api.injection.scope.Structure;
 import org.apache.zest.api.injection.scope.This;
 import org.apache.zest.api.structure.ModuleDescriptor;
@@ -82,7 +83,7 @@ public abstract class ConcurrentModificationCheckConcern
         }
 
         @Override
-        public String identity()
+        public Identity identity()
         {
             return uow.identity();
         }
@@ -186,7 +187,7 @@ public abstract class ConcurrentModificationCheckConcern
             try
             {
                 EntityState entityState = uow.entityStateOf( module, anIdentity );
-                versions.rememberVersion( entityState.identity(), entityState.version() );
+                versions.rememberVersion( entityState.entityReference(), entityState.version() );
                 loaded.add( entityState );
                 return entityState;
             }

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/zest-java/blob/103c59cb/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entitystore/DefaultEntityStoreUnitOfWork.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entitystore/DefaultEntityStoreUnitOfWork.java b/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entitystore/DefaultEntityStoreUnitOfWork.java
index 96e4927..ee5d367 100755
--- a/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entitystore/DefaultEntityStoreUnitOfWork.java
+++ b/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entitystore/DefaultEntityStoreUnitOfWork.java
@@ -24,6 +24,7 @@ import java.time.Instant;
 import java.util.HashMap;
 import org.apache.zest.api.entity.EntityDescriptor;
 import org.apache.zest.api.entity.EntityReference;
+import org.apache.zest.api.identity.Identity;
 import org.apache.zest.api.structure.ModuleDescriptor;
 import org.apache.zest.api.usecase.Usecase;
 import org.apache.zest.spi.entity.EntityState;
@@ -36,14 +37,14 @@ public final class DefaultEntityStoreUnitOfWork
 {
     private final ModuleDescriptor module;
     private EntityStoreSPI entityStoreSPI;
-    private String identity;
+    private Identity identity;
     private HashMap<EntityReference, EntityState> states = new HashMap<>();
     private Usecase usecase;
     private Instant currentTime;
 
     public DefaultEntityStoreUnitOfWork( ModuleDescriptor module,
                                          EntityStoreSPI entityStoreSPI,
-                                         String identity,
+                                         Identity identity,
                                          Usecase usecase,
                                          Instant currentTime
     )
@@ -56,7 +57,7 @@ public final class DefaultEntityStoreUnitOfWork
     }
 
     @Override
-    public String identity()
+    public Identity identity()
     {
         return identity;
     }

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/zest-java/blob/103c59cb/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entitystore/EntityAlreadyExistsException.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entitystore/EntityAlreadyExistsException.java b/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entitystore/EntityAlreadyExistsException.java
index 7b450ab..dc36fec 100644
--- a/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entitystore/EntityAlreadyExistsException.java
+++ b/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entitystore/EntityAlreadyExistsException.java
@@ -27,17 +27,17 @@ import org.apache.zest.api.entity.EntityReference;
 public class EntityAlreadyExistsException
     extends EntityStoreException
 {
-    private EntityReference identity;
+    private EntityReference reference;
 
-    public EntityAlreadyExistsException( EntityReference identity )
+    public EntityAlreadyExistsException( EntityReference reference)
     {
-        super("Entity " + identity + " already exists.");
-        this.identity = identity;
+        super("Entity " + reference + " already exists.");
+        this.reference = reference;
     }
 
-    public EntityReference identity()
+    public EntityReference reference()
     {
-        return identity;
+        return reference;
     }
 
 }

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/zest-java/blob/103c59cb/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entitystore/EntityNotFoundException.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entitystore/EntityNotFoundException.java b/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entitystore/EntityNotFoundException.java
index 9fc3dee..0d50e38 100644
--- a/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entitystore/EntityNotFoundException.java
+++ b/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entitystore/EntityNotFoundException.java
@@ -27,16 +27,16 @@ import org.apache.zest.api.entity.EntityReference;
 public class EntityNotFoundException
     extends EntityStoreException
 {
-    private EntityReference identity;
+    private EntityReference reference;
 
-    public EntityNotFoundException( EntityReference identity )
+    public EntityNotFoundException( EntityReference reference)
     {
-        super("Entity " + identity + " not found");
-        this.identity = identity;
+        super("Entity " + reference + " not found");
+        this.reference = reference;
     }
 
-    public EntityReference identity()
+    public EntityReference reference()
     {
-        return identity;
+        return reference;
     }
 }

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/zest-java/blob/103c59cb/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entitystore/EntityStateVersions.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entitystore/EntityStateVersions.java b/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entitystore/EntityStateVersions.java
index d1913b7..19f5d7b 100755
--- a/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entitystore/EntityStateVersions.java
+++ b/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entitystore/EntityStateVersions.java
@@ -40,7 +40,7 @@ public interface EntityStateVersions
 {
     void forgetVersions( Iterable<EntityState> states );
 
-    void rememberVersion( EntityReference identity, String version );
+    void rememberVersion( EntityReference reference, String version );
 
     void checkForConcurrentModification( Iterable<EntityState> loaded, Instant currentTime )
         throws ConcurrentEntityStateModificationException;
@@ -61,14 +61,14 @@ public interface EntityStateVersions
         {
             for( EntityState state : states )
             {
-                versions.remove( state.identity() );
+                versions.remove( state.entityReference() );
             }
         }
 
         @Override
-        public synchronized void rememberVersion( EntityReference identity, String version )
+        public synchronized void rememberVersion( EntityReference reference, String version )
         {
-            versions.put( identity, version );
+            versions.put( reference, version );
         }
 
         @Override
@@ -85,11 +85,11 @@ public interface EntityStateVersions
                     continue;
                 }
 
-                String storeVersion = versions.get( entityState.identity() );
+                String storeVersion = versions.get( entityState.entityReference() );
                 if( storeVersion == null )
                 {
                     EntityStoreUnitOfWork unitOfWork = store.newUnitOfWork( entityState.entityDescriptor().module(), Usecase.DEFAULT, currentTime );
-                    storeVersion = unitOfWork.versionOf( entityState.identity() );
+                    storeVersion = unitOfWork.versionOf( entityState.entityReference() );
                     unitOfWork.discard();
                 }
 
@@ -99,7 +99,7 @@ public interface EntityStateVersions
                     {
                         changed = new ArrayList<>();
                     }
-                    changed.add( entityState.identity() );
+                    changed.add( entityState.entityReference() );
                 }
             }
 

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/zest-java/blob/103c59cb/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entitystore/EntityStoreSPI.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entitystore/EntityStoreSPI.java b/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entitystore/EntityStoreSPI.java
index ab45f9c..cce09f5 100755
--- a/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entitystore/EntityStoreSPI.java
+++ b/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entitystore/EntityStoreSPI.java
@@ -31,12 +31,12 @@ import org.apache.zest.spi.entity.EntityState;
 public interface EntityStoreSPI
 {
     EntityState newEntityState( EntityStoreUnitOfWork unitOfWork,
-                                EntityReference identity, EntityDescriptor entityDescriptor
+                                EntityReference reference, EntityDescriptor entityDescriptor
     );
 
-    EntityState entityStateOf( EntityStoreUnitOfWork unitOfWork, ModuleDescriptor module, EntityReference identity );
+    EntityState entityStateOf( EntityStoreUnitOfWork unitOfWork, ModuleDescriptor module, EntityReference reference );
 
-    String versionOf( EntityStoreUnitOfWork unitOfWork, EntityReference identity );
+    String versionOf( EntityStoreUnitOfWork unitOfWork, EntityReference reference );
 
     StateCommitter applyChanges( EntityStoreUnitOfWork unitOfWork, Iterable<EntityState> state );
 }

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/zest-java/blob/103c59cb/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entitystore/EntityStoreUnitOfWork.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entitystore/EntityStoreUnitOfWork.java b/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entitystore/EntityStoreUnitOfWork.java
index 5342327..b938937 100755
--- a/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entitystore/EntityStoreUnitOfWork.java
+++ b/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entitystore/EntityStoreUnitOfWork.java
@@ -23,6 +23,7 @@ package org.apache.zest.spi.entitystore;
 import java.time.Instant;
 import org.apache.zest.api.entity.EntityDescriptor;
 import org.apache.zest.api.entity.EntityReference;
+import org.apache.zest.api.identity.Identity;
 import org.apache.zest.api.structure.ModuleDescriptor;
 import org.apache.zest.api.usecase.Usecase;
 import org.apache.zest.spi.entity.EntityState;
@@ -32,17 +33,17 @@ import org.apache.zest.spi.entity.EntityState;
  */
 public interface EntityStoreUnitOfWork
 {
-    String identity();
+    Identity identity();
 
     Instant currentTime();
 
     /**
-     * Create new EntityState for a given identity.
+     * Create new EntityState for a given reference.
      * <p>
      * This should only create the EntityState and not insert it into any database, since that should occur during
      * the {@link EntityStoreUnitOfWork#applyChanges()} call.
      * </p>
-     * @param anIdentity       the identity of the entity
+     * @param anIdentity       the reference of the entity
      * @param entityDescriptor entity descriptor
      *
      * @return The new entity state.
@@ -53,14 +54,14 @@ public interface EntityStoreUnitOfWork
         throws EntityStoreException;
 
     /**
-     * Get the EntityState for a given identity. Throws {@link EntityNotFoundException}
+     * Get the EntityState for a given reference. Throws {@link EntityNotFoundException}
      * if the entity with given {@code anIdentity} is not found.
      *
      *
      * @param module
-     * @param anIdentity The entity identity. This argument must not be {@code null}.
+     * @param anIdentity The entity reference. This argument must not be {@code null}.
      *
-     * @return Entity state given the composite descriptor and identity.
+     * @return Entity state given the composite descriptor and reference.
      *
      * @throws EntityStoreException    thrown if retrieval failed.
      * @throws EntityNotFoundException if requested entity does not exist

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/zest-java/blob/103c59cb/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entitystore/helpers/DefaultEntityState.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entitystore/helpers/DefaultEntityState.java b/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entitystore/helpers/DefaultEntityState.java
index 2827a93..b6faa12 100644
--- a/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entitystore/helpers/DefaultEntityState.java
+++ b/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entitystore/helpers/DefaultEntityState.java
@@ -44,7 +44,7 @@ public final class DefaultEntityState
 
     private String version;
     private Instant lastModified;
-    private final EntityReference identity;
+    private final EntityReference reference;
     private final EntityDescriptor entityDescriptor;
 
     private final Map<QualifiedName, Object> properties;
@@ -53,13 +53,13 @@ public final class DefaultEntityState
     private final Map<QualifiedName, Map<String, EntityReference>> namedAssociations;
 
     public DefaultEntityState( Instant currentTime,
-                               EntityReference identity,
+                               EntityReference reference,
                                EntityDescriptor entityDescriptor
     )
     {
         this( "",
               currentTime,
-              identity,
+                reference,
               EntityStatus.NEW,
               entityDescriptor,
               new HashMap<>(),
@@ -70,7 +70,7 @@ public final class DefaultEntityState
 
     public DefaultEntityState( String version,
                                Instant lastModified,
-                               EntityReference identity,
+                               EntityReference reference,
                                EntityStatus status,
                                EntityDescriptor entityDescriptor,
                                Map<QualifiedName, Object> properties,
@@ -81,7 +81,7 @@ public final class DefaultEntityState
     {
         this.version = version;
         this.lastModified = lastModified;
-        this.identity = identity;
+        this.reference = reference;
         this.status = status;
         this.entityDescriptor = entityDescriptor;
         this.properties = properties;
@@ -104,9 +104,9 @@ public final class DefaultEntityState
     }
 
     @Override
-    public EntityReference identity()
+    public EntityReference entityReference()
     {
-        return identity;
+        return reference;
     }
 
     @Override
@@ -241,7 +241,7 @@ public final class DefaultEntityState
     @Override
     public String toString()
     {
-        return identity + "("
+        return reference + "("
                + properties.size() + " properties, "
                + associations.size() + " associations, "
                + manyAssociations.size() + " many-associations, "

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/zest-java/blob/103c59cb/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entitystore/helpers/JSONEntityState.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entitystore/helpers/JSONEntityState.java b/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entitystore/helpers/JSONEntityState.java
index 2878b76..9cf9e79 100644
--- a/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entitystore/helpers/JSONEntityState.java
+++ b/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entitystore/helpers/JSONEntityState.java
@@ -23,6 +23,7 @@ import java.time.Instant;
 import org.apache.zest.api.common.QualifiedName;
 import org.apache.zest.api.entity.EntityDescriptor;
 import org.apache.zest.api.entity.EntityReference;
+import org.apache.zest.api.identity.Identity;
 import org.apache.zest.api.property.PropertyDescriptor;
 import org.apache.zest.api.structure.ModuleDescriptor;
 import org.apache.zest.api.type.ValueType;
@@ -56,7 +57,7 @@ public final class JSONEntityState
     private final ModuleDescriptor module;
     private final ValueSerialization valueSerialization;
     private final String version;
-    private final EntityReference identity;
+    private final EntityReference reference;
     private final EntityDescriptor entityDescriptor;
 
     private EntityStatus status;
@@ -67,7 +68,7 @@ public final class JSONEntityState
                                    ValueSerialization valueSerialization,
                                    String version,
                                    Instant lastModified,
-                                   EntityReference identity,
+                                   EntityReference reference,
                                    EntityStatus status,
                                    EntityDescriptor entityDescriptor,
                                    JSONObject state
@@ -77,7 +78,7 @@ public final class JSONEntityState
         this.valueSerialization = valueSerialization;
         this.version = version;
         this.lastModified = lastModified;
-        this.identity = identity;
+        this.reference = reference;
         this.status = status;
         this.entityDescriptor = entityDescriptor;
         this.state = state;
@@ -97,9 +98,9 @@ public final class JSONEntityState
     }
 
     @Override
-    public EntityReference identity()
+    public EntityReference entityReference()
     {
-        return identity;
+        return reference;
     }
 
     @Override
@@ -138,6 +139,10 @@ public final class JSONEntityState
             {
                 jsonValue = newValue;
             }
+            else if( ValueType.isIdentity( newValue ) )
+            {
+                jsonValue = newValue.toString();
+            }
             else
             {
                 String serialized = valueSerialization.serialize( newValue );
@@ -205,7 +210,7 @@ public final class JSONEntityState
             cloneStateIfGlobalStateLoaded();
             state.getJSONObject( JSONKeys.ASSOCIATIONS ).put( stateName.name(), newEntity == null
                                                                                 ? null
-                                                                                : newEntity.identity() );
+                                                                                : newEntity.identity().toString() );
             markUpdated();
         }
         catch( JSONException e )
@@ -286,7 +291,7 @@ public final class JSONEntityState
     @Override
     public String toString()
     {
-        return identity + "(" + state + ")";
+        return reference + "(" + state + ")";
     }
 
     public void markUpdated()

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/zest-java/blob/103c59cb/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entitystore/helpers/JSONKeys.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entitystore/helpers/JSONKeys.java b/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entitystore/helpers/JSONKeys.java
index 6d3151a..f23a64c 100644
--- a/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entitystore/helpers/JSONKeys.java
+++ b/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entitystore/helpers/JSONKeys.java
@@ -29,7 +29,7 @@ public interface JSONKeys
     /**
      * Identity of the entity.
      */
-    String IDENTITY = "identity";
+    String IDENTITY = "reference";
     /**
      * Version of the application which last updated the entity.
      */

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/zest-java/blob/103c59cb/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entitystore/helpers/JSONManyAssociationState.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entitystore/helpers/JSONManyAssociationState.java b/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entitystore/helpers/JSONManyAssociationState.java
index 4233274..7e669f0 100644
--- a/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entitystore/helpers/JSONManyAssociationState.java
+++ b/core/spi/src/main/java/org/apache/zest/spi/entitystore/helpers/JSONManyAssociationState.java
@@ -53,7 +53,7 @@ public final class JSONManyAssociationState
     @Override
     public boolean contains( EntityReference entityReference )
     {
-        return indexOfReference( entityReference.identity() ) != -1;
+        return indexOfReference( entityReference.toString() ) != -1;
     }
 
     @Override
@@ -61,12 +61,12 @@ public final class JSONManyAssociationState
     {
         try
         {
-            if( indexOfReference( entityReference.identity() ) != -1 )
+            if( indexOfReference( entityReference.identity().toString() ) != -1 )
             {
                 return false;
             }
             entityState.cloneStateIfGlobalStateLoaded();
-            insertReference( idx, entityReference.identity() );
+            insertReference( idx, entityReference.identity().toString() );
             entityState.markUpdated();
             return true;
         }
@@ -79,7 +79,7 @@ public final class JSONManyAssociationState
     @Override
     public boolean remove( EntityReference entityReference )
     {
-        int refIndex = indexOfReference( entityReference.identity() );
+        int refIndex = indexOfReference( entityReference.identity().toString() );
         if( refIndex != -1 )
         {
             entityState.cloneStateIfGlobalStateLoaded();
@@ -95,7 +95,7 @@ public final class JSONManyAssociationState
     {
         try
         {
-            return new EntityReference( references.getString( i ) );
+            return EntityReference.parseEntityReference( references.getString( i ) );
         }
         catch( JSONException e )
         {
@@ -121,7 +121,7 @@ public final class JSONManyAssociationState
             {
                 try
                 {
-                    EntityReference ref = new EntityReference( references.getString( idx ) );
+                    EntityReference ref = EntityReference.parseEntityReference( references.getString( idx ) );
                     idx++;
                     return ref;
                 }
@@ -145,11 +145,11 @@ public final class JSONManyAssociationState
         return references.toString();
     }
 
-    private int indexOfReference( Object item )
+    private int indexOfReference( String enityIdentityAsString )
     {
         for( int idx = 0; idx < references.length(); idx++ )
         {
-            if( item.equals( references.opt( idx ) ) )
+            if( enityIdentityAsString.equals( references.opt( idx ) ) )
             {
                 return idx;
             }


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