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From "Thejas M Nair (JIRA)" <j...@apache.org>
Subject [jira] [Commented] (PIG-1846) optimize queries like - count distinct users for each gender
Date Fri, 10 Jun 2011 14:50:59 GMT

    [ https://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/PIG-1846?page=com.atlassian.jira.plugin.system.issuetabpanels:comment-tabpanel&focusedCommentId=13047231#comment-13047231
] 

Thejas M Nair commented on PIG-1846:
------------------------------------

bq. The DISTINCT optimization is often not applicable; consider, for example, a script that
takes all pages on a website and generates COUNT(impressions), COUNT(distinct users). Doing
the distinct operation first means we can no longer do COUNT(impressions). 
Yes, that optimization will not be applicable for this use case.

The translation you proposed helps to distribute the work of computing ALGFUNC(in.c4) across
multiple tasks (even when there is skew on c1,c2). But FUNC(res_dist.c3) will still get computed
in reduce side (ie, all records for a value of c1,c2 will go to one reduce), as combiner will
not get used. This is because  ALGFUNC$Final is not algebraic.

One cumbersome workaround for user is to write a new udf ALGFUNC_2 which is same as ALGFUNC,
except for having ALGFUNC_2$Initial same as ALGFUNC$Intermed . This ALGFUNC_2 then gets used
in the last foreach .
Pig can automate this logic, and use combiner for the last foreach in above examples translation.





> optimize queries like - count distinct users for each gender
> ------------------------------------------------------------
>
>                 Key: PIG-1846
>                 URL: https://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/PIG-1846
>             Project: Pig
>          Issue Type: Improvement
>    Affects Versions: 0.9.0
>            Reporter: Thejas M Nair
>             Fix For: 0.10
>
>
> The pig group operation does not usually have to deal with skew on the group-by keys
if the foreach statement that works on the results of group has only algebraic functions on
the bags. But for some queries like the following, skew can be a problem -
> {code}
> user_data = load 'file' as (user, gender, age);
> user_group_gender = group user_data by gender parallel 100;
> dist_users_per_gender = foreach user_group_gender 
>                         { 
>                              dist_user = distinct user_data.user; 
>                              generate group as gender, COUNT(dist_user) as user_count;
>                         }
> {code}
> Since there are only 2 distinct values of the group-by key, only 2 reducers will actually
get used in current implementation. ie, you can't get better performance by adding more reducers.
> Similar problem is there when the data is skewed on the group key. With current implementation,
another problem is that pig and MR has to deal with records with extremely large bags that
have the large number of distinct user names, which results in high memory utilization and
having to spill the bags to disk.
> The query plan should be modified to handle the skew in such cases and make use of more
reducers.

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