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Subject [incubator-openwhisk] branch master updated: changes to include golang 1.11 runtime (#4093)
Date Fri, 02 Nov 2018 20:34:53 GMT
This is an automated email from the ASF dual-hosted git repository.

csantanapr pushed a commit to branch master
in repository

The following commit(s) were added to refs/heads/master by this push:
     new d0ba0cb  changes to include golang 1.11 runtime (#4093)
d0ba0cb is described below

commit d0ba0cb3ef86bf1a9cfb4af643c513806180ef18
Author: ltd <>
AuthorDate: Fri Nov 2 21:34:44 2018 +0100

    changes to include golang 1.11 runtime (#4093)
 ansible/files/runtimes.json                        |  16 ++
 .../src/main/resources/apiv1swagger.json           |   1 +
 docs/                                 | 214 ++++++++++++++++-----
 tests/dat/actions/unicode.tests/go-1.11.txt        |  12 ++
 4 files changed, 196 insertions(+), 47 deletions(-)

diff --git a/ansible/files/runtimes.json b/ansible/files/runtimes.json
index 13583d2..9c6a29f 100644
--- a/ansible/files/runtimes.json
+++ b/ansible/files/runtimes.json
@@ -208,6 +208,22 @@
+    "go": [
+        {
+            "kind": "go:1.11",
+            "default": true,
+            "deprecated": false,
+            "attached": {
+                "attachmentName": "codefile",
+                "attachmentType": "text/plain"
+            },
+            "image": {
+                "prefix": "openwhisk",
+                "name": "actionloop-golang-v1.11",
+                "tag": "latest"
+            }
+        }
+    ],
     "blackboxes": [
             "prefix": "openwhisk",
diff --git a/core/controller/src/main/resources/apiv1swagger.json b/core/controller/src/main/resources/apiv1swagger.json
index 8f3c332..e6ace29 100644
--- a/core/controller/src/main/resources/apiv1swagger.json
+++ b/core/controller/src/main/resources/apiv1swagger.json
@@ -1892,6 +1892,7 @@
+                        "go:1.11",
diff --git a/docs/ b/docs/
index 4e79821..7f6a4da 100644
--- a/docs/
+++ b/docs/
@@ -17,67 +17,187 @@
-## Creating and invoking Go actions
-Using OpenWhisk [native actions](,
-you can package any executable as an action. This works for Go as an example.
-As with [Docker actions](, the Go executable receives a single argument
-from the command line.
-It is a string serialization of the JSON object representing the arguments to the action.
-The program may log to `stdout` or `stderr`.
-By convention, the last line of output _must_ be a stringified JSON object which represents
-the result of the action.
-Here is an example Go action.
+<a name="golang"/>
+# Creating and Invoking Go Actions
+The `actionloop-golang-v1.11` runtime can execute actions written in the Go programming language
in OpenWhisk, either as precompiled binary or compiling sources on the fly.
+## Entry Point
+The source code of an action is one or more Go source files. The entry point of the action
is a function, placed in the `main` package. The default name for the main function is `Main`,
but you can change it to any name you want using the `--main` switch in `wsk`. The name is
however always capitalized. The function must have a specific signature, as described next.
+*NOTE* The runtime does *not* support different packages from `main` for the entry point.
If you specify `hello.main` the runtime will try to use `Hello.main`, that will be almost
certainly incorrect. You can however have other packages in your sources, as described below.
+## Signature
+The expected signature for a `main` function is:
+`func Main(event map[string]interface{}) map[string]interface{}`
+So a very simple single file `hello.go` action would be:
 package main
-import "encoding/json"
-import "fmt"
-import "os"
+import "log"
+// Main is the function implementing the action
+func Main(obj map[string]interface{}) map[string]interface{} {
+  // do your work
+  name, ok := obj["name"].(string)
+  if !ok {
+    name = "world"
+  }
+  msg := make(map[string]interface{})
+  msg["message"] = "Hello, " + name + "!"
+  // log in stdout or in stderr
+  log.Printf("name=%s\n", name)
+  // encode the result back in json
+  return msg
-func main() {
-    //program receives one argument: the JSON object as a string
-    arg := os.Args[1]
+You can deploy it with just:
-    // unmarshal the string to a JSON object
-    var obj map[string]interface{}
-    json.Unmarshal([]byte(arg), &obj)
+wsk action create hello-go hello.go
-    // can optionally log to stdout (or stderr)
-    fmt.Println("hello Go action")
+You can also have multiple source files in an action, packages and vendor folders.
-    name, ok := obj["name"].(string)
-    if !ok { name = "Stranger" }
+## Deployment
-    // last line of stdout is the result JSON object as a string
-    msg := map[string]string{"msg": ("Hello, " + name + "!")}
-    res, _ := json.Marshal(msg)
-    fmt.Println(string(res))
+The runtime `actionloop-golang-v1.11` accepts:
+- executable binaries in Linux ELF executable compiled for the AMD64 architecture
+- zip files containing a binary executable named `exec` at the top level, again a Linux ELF
executable compiled for the AMD64 architecture
+- a single source file in Go, that will be compiled
+- a zip file not containing in the top level a binary file `exec`, it will be interpreted
as a collection of zip files, and compiled
+You can create a binary in the correct format on any GO platform cross-compiling with `GOOS=Linux`
and `GOARCH=amd64`. However it is recommended you use the compiler embedded in the Docker
image for this purpose using the precompilation feature, as described below.
+## Using packages and vendor folder
+When you deploy a zip file, you can:
+- have all your functions in the `main` package
+- have some functions placed in some packages, like `hello`
+- have some third party dependencies you want to include in your sources
+If all your functions are in the main package, just place all your sources in the top level
of your zip file.
+### Use a package folder
+If some functions belongs to a package, like `hello/`, you need to be careful with the layout
of your sources, especially if you use editors like [VcCode](#vscode), and make. The layout
recommended is the following:
+- Makefile
+- src/
+   - main.go
+   - main_test.go
+   - hello/
+       - hello.go
+       - hello_test.go
-Save the code above to a file `sample.go` and cross compile it for OpenWhisk.
-The executable must be called `exec`.
-GOOS=linux GOARCH=amd64 go build -o exec
-zip exec
-wsk action create helloGo --native
+For running tests, editing without errors with package resolution, you need to use a `src`
folder, place the sources that belongs to the main package in the `src` and place sources
of your package in the `src/hello` folder.
+You should import it your subpackage with `import "hello"`.
+Note this means if you want to compile locally you have to set your `GOPATH` to parent of
your `src` directory. If you use VSCode, you need to enable the `go.inferGopath` option.
+When you send the sources, you will have to zip the content of the `src` folder, *not* the
main directory. For example:
+cd src
+zip -r ../ *
+cd ..
+wsk action create hellozip --kind go:1.11
-The action may be run as any other action.
-wsk action invoke helloGo -r -p name gopher
-    "msg": "Hello, gopher!"
+Check the example [golang-main-package](
and the associated `Makefile`.
+### Using vendor folders
+When you need to use third party libraries, the runtime does not download them from Internet
when compiling. You have to provide them,  downloading and placing them using the `vendor`
folder mechanism. We are going to show here how to use the vendor folder with the `dep` tool.
+*NOTE* the `vendor` folder does not work at the top level, you have to use a `src` folder
and a package folder to have also the `vendor` folder. If you want use the vendor folder for
the `main` package, you can do it but instead of placing files that belongs to the `main`
package in the top-level, you have to place in a subfolder named `main`.
+For example consider you have in the file `src/hello/hello.go` the import:
+import ""
-Find out more about parameters in the [Working with parameters](./ section.
+To create a vendor folder, you need to
+- install the [dep]( tool
+- cd to the `src/hello` folder (*not* the `src` folder)
+- run `DEPPROJECTROOT=$(realpath $PWD/../..) dep init` the first time
+The tool will detect the used libraries and create 2 manifest files `Gopkg.lock` and `Gopkg.toml`.
If already have the manifest files, you just need `dep ensure` to create and populate the
`vendor` folder.
-Logs are retrieved in a similar way as well.
+The layout will be something like this:
-  wsk activation logs --last --strip
-  my first Go action.
+- Makefile
+- src/
+    - hello.go
+    - hello/
+      - Gopkg.lock
+      - Gopkg.toml
+         - hello.go
+         - hello_test.go
+         - vendor/
+            -
+            -
+Check the example [golang-hello-vendor](
+Note you do not need to store the `vendor` folder in the version control system as it can
be regenerated, you only the manifest files. However, you need to include the entire vendor
folder when you deploy the action in source format for compilation by the runtime.
+If you need to use vendor folder in the main package, you need to create a directory `main`
and place all the source code that would normally go in the top level, in the `main` folder
instead.  A vendor folder in the top level *does not work*.
+<a name="precompile"/>
+## Precompiling Go Sources Offline
+Compiling sources on the image can take some time when the images is initialized. You can
speed up precompiling the sources using the image `actionloop-golang-v1.11` as an offline
compiler. You need `docker` for doing that.
+The images accepts a `-compile <main>` flag, and expects you provide sources in standard
input. It will then compile them, emit the binary in standard output and errors in stderr.
The output is always a zip file containing an executable.
+If you have a single source maybe in file `main.go`, with a function named `Main` just do
+`docker run openwhisk/actionloop-golang-v1.11 -compile main <main.go >`
+If you have multiple sources in current directory, even with a subfolder with sources, you
can compile it all with:
+cd src
+zip -r ../ *
+cd ..
+docker run openwhisk/actionloop-golang-v1.11 -compile main < >
+Note that the output is always a zip file in  Linux AMD64 format so the executable can be
run only inside a Docker Linux container.
+Here a `Makefile` is helpful. Check the [examples](
for a collection of tested Makefiles. The  generated executable is suitable to be deployed
in OpenWhisk, so you can do:
+`wsk action create my-action --kind go:1.11`
+You can also use just the `openwhisk/actionloop` as runtime, it is smaller.
+<a name="vscode">
+## Using VsCode
+If you are using [VsCode[( as your Go development environment
with the [VsCode Go]( support,
without errors and with completion working you need to:
+- enable the option `go.inferGopath`
+- place all your sources in a `src` folder
+- either to open the `src` folder as the top level source or add it as a folder in the workspace
(it is not enough just have it as a subfolder)
+- create a `dummy.go` an empty main - it will not be used but it will shut up "`main.main`
missing error detection"
diff --git a/tests/dat/actions/unicode.tests/go-1.11.txt b/tests/dat/actions/unicode.tests/go-1.11.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..05852a7
--- /dev/null
+++ b/tests/dat/actions/unicode.tests/go-1.11.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,12 @@
+package main
+import "fmt"
+func Main(args map[string]interface{}) map[string]interface{} {
+	delimiter := args["delimiter"].(string)
+	str := delimiter + " ☃ " + delimiter
+    fmt.Println(str)
+	res := make(map[string]interface{})
+	res["winter"] = str
+	return res

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