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From Boris Galitsky <>
Subject to map trees to logical forms
Date Mon, 15 Aug 2011 18:39:32 GMT

Hi Jason and Jörn

I will briefly comment on how our approach is different from the authors below:,
having something that maps trees to logical forms would be useful.

Boris, I would recommend you look at papers in Ray Mooney's group on
semantic parsing:
> "The authors align naturallanguage sentences to their correct meaning representations
given the ambiguous supervision
provided by a grounded language acquisition scenario".This approach takes a vertical domain,
applies statistical learning and learns to find a better meaning representation, taking into
account, in particular, parsing information. Mooney's et al approach cant directly map a syntactic
tree structure into a logic form 'structure', at least it does not intend to do so.
If a vertical domain changes, one have to re-train. It is adequate for a robocap competition
but not really for an industrial app in a horizontal domain, in my opinion. 
What we are describing/proposing does not go as high semantically as Mooney et al, but it
is domain - independent and is directly (in a structured, not statistical) way linked to syntactic
parse tree, so a user does not have to worry about re-training. After training, if we have
a fixed set of meaning (meaning representations in Mooneys' terms), his system would give
a higher accuracy than ours, but his settings are not really plausible for industrial cases
like search relevance and text relevance in a broader domain. What we observed is that overlap
of syntactic tree, properly transformed, is usually good enough to accept/reject relevance
>In particular, Ruifang Ge (who is now at Facebook) did phrase structure to
>logical form learning:

I definitely enjoyed  reading the phd thesis, nice survey part! Earlier work of Mooney at
al used Inductive Logic Programming to learn commonalities between syntactic structure. Our
approach kind of takes it to extreme: syntactic parse trees are considered a special case
of logic formulas and Inductive Logic Programming 's anti-unification is defined DIRECTLY
on syntactic parse trees.I am more skeptical about universality of 'semantic grammar' unless
we focus on a given text classification domain. So my understanding is lets not go too far
up in semantic representation unless the classification domain is fixed, there is no such
thing as most accurate semantic representation for everything (unless we are in a so restricted
domain as specific database querying). So I can see  "Meaning Representation Language Grammar"
as a different component of openNLP, but it is hard for me to see how a search engineer (not
a linguist) can just plug it in and leverage it in an industrial application.

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