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From "Markus Fuchs (JIRA)" <>
Subject [jira] Commented: (OPENJPA-235) SQL reordering to avoid non-nullable foreign key constraint violations
Date Fri, 01 Jun 2007 00:39:15 GMT


Markus Fuchs commented on OPENJPA-235:

Hi Reece,

I ran the JPA TCK with your changes, and all tests passed!

But I'd need some more time to really understand your changes. One
question upfront: What does "dereference" mean? Does it mean changing
the reference to a persistence capable object?

Hi Reece & Gokhan:

Are non-nullable foreign keys the only reason for constraint
dependencies? One update can be dependent on another update in case of
a OneToOne relationship, as OneToOne relationships are usually
enforced by unique keys in the database. Please also consider the
following situation:

a -> b;
c -> d;

c -> b;
a -> null;

B/c of the unique key, the foreign key in the row corresponding to "a"
has to be nullified, *before* the foreign key in row "c" can be
updated. Does this dependency also need to be addressed?

Is above dependency different from the dependencies imposed by
non-nullable foreign keys? I.e. can non-nullable foreign keys cause
dependencies, that can't be addressed by the user order of operations?
Are non-nullable foreign keys different in this regard?

Thanks and sorry for my late reply!

-- markus.

> SQL reordering to avoid non-nullable foreign key constraint violations
> ----------------------------------------------------------------------
>                 Key: OPENJPA-235
>                 URL:
>             Project: OpenJPA
>          Issue Type: Improvement
>          Components: kernel
>            Reporter: Reece Garrett
>            Assignee: Patrick Linskey
>             Fix For: 0.9.8
>         Attachments: merge-detached.patch,, openjpa-235-test.jar,
openjpa-235-test1.jar, sqlreorder.patch, sqlReorder2.patch
> OpenJPA does not do any SQL statement re-ordering in order to resolve foreign key constraints.
Instead, objects are always inserted in the order in which the user persists the instances.
 When you persist in an order that would violate foreign key constraints, OpenJPA attempts
to insert null and then update the foreign key value in a separate statement. If you use non-nullable
constraints, though, you must persist your objects in the correct order.
> This improvement re-orders SQL statements as follows:
> 1. First, all insert statements execute. Inserts which have foreign keys with non-nullable
constraints execute AFTER the foreign keys which they depend on have been inserted since no
deferred update is possible.
> 2. Next, all update statements execute. No reordering is necessary.
> 3.  Finally, all delete statements execute. Like inserts, deletes execute in an order
which does not violate non-nullable foreign key constraints.
> If a circular foreign key reference is found during the re-ordering process then re-ordering
halts and the remaining unordered statements are left as is. There is nothing that can be
done about the circular reference (other than fixing the schema) and the resulting SQL statements
will not succeed.
> The net effect is that users do not need to worry about the persistence order of their
objects regardless of non-nullable foreign key constraints. The only class modified was org.apache.openjpa.jdbc.kernel.OperationOrderUpdateManager.
I have included a patch which includes my modifications to OperationOrderUpdateManager and
test cases. The test cases I have provided fail on the current trunk but pass with my modifications.
I have also verified that I did not break anything by using maven to run all test cases with
my modifications in place.

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