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From ma...@apache.org
Subject [8/9] incubator-mynewt-newt git commit: newtmgr; add new dependency to vendoring.
Date Mon, 03 Oct 2016 00:38:37 GMT
http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-mynewt-newt/blob/d0d9944b/newtmgr/vendor/github.com/ugorji/go/codec/decode.go
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/newtmgr/vendor/github.com/ugorji/go/codec/decode.go b/newtmgr/vendor/github.com/ugorji/go/codec/decode.go
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..b87ea63
--- /dev/null
+++ b/newtmgr/vendor/github.com/ugorji/go/codec/decode.go
@@ -0,0 +1,2019 @@
+// Copyright (c) 2012-2015 Ugorji Nwoke. All rights reserved.
+// Use of this source code is governed by a MIT license found in the LICENSE file.
+
+package codec
+
+import (
+	"encoding"
+	"errors"
+	"fmt"
+	"io"
+	"reflect"
+	"time"
+)
+
+// Some tagging information for error messages.
+const (
+	msgBadDesc            = "Unrecognized descriptor byte"
+	msgDecCannotExpandArr = "cannot expand go array from %v to stream length: %v"
+)
+
+var (
+	onlyMapOrArrayCanDecodeIntoStructErr = errors.New("only encoded map or array can be decoded into a struct")
+	cannotDecodeIntoNilErr               = errors.New("cannot decode into nil")
+)
+
+// decReader abstracts the reading source, allowing implementations that can
+// read from an io.Reader or directly off a byte slice with zero-copying.
+type decReader interface {
+	unreadn1()
+
+	// readx will use the implementation scratch buffer if possible i.e. n < len(scratchbuf), OR
+	// just return a view of the []byte being decoded from.
+	// Ensure you call detachZeroCopyBytes later if this needs to be sent outside codec control.
+	readx(n int) []byte
+	readb([]byte)
+	readn1() uint8
+	readn1eof() (v uint8, eof bool)
+	numread() int // number of bytes read
+	track()
+	stopTrack() []byte
+}
+
+type decReaderByteScanner interface {
+	io.Reader
+	io.ByteScanner
+}
+
+type decDriver interface {
+	// this will check if the next token is a break.
+	CheckBreak() bool
+	TryDecodeAsNil() bool
+	// vt is one of: Bytes, String, Nil, Slice or Map. Return unSet if not known.
+	ContainerType() (vt valueType)
+	IsBuiltinType(rt uintptr) bool
+	DecodeBuiltin(rt uintptr, v interface{})
+
+	// DecodeNaked will decode primitives (number, bool, string, []byte) and RawExt.
+	// For maps and arrays, it will not do the decoding in-band, but will signal
+	// the decoder, so that is done later, by setting the decNaked.valueType field.
+	//
+	// Note: Numbers are decoded as int64, uint64, float64 only (no smaller sized number types).
+	// for extensions, DecodeNaked must read the tag and the []byte if it exists.
+	// if the []byte is not read, then kInterfaceNaked will treat it as a Handle
+	// that stores the subsequent value in-band, and complete reading the RawExt.
+	//
+	// extensions should also use readx to decode them, for efficiency.
+	// kInterface will extract the detached byte slice if it has to pass it outside its realm.
+	DecodeNaked()
+	DecodeInt(bitsize uint8) (i int64)
+	DecodeUint(bitsize uint8) (ui uint64)
+	DecodeFloat(chkOverflow32 bool) (f float64)
+	DecodeBool() (b bool)
+	// DecodeString can also decode symbols.
+	// It looks redundant as DecodeBytes is available.
+	// However, some codecs (e.g. binc) support symbols and can
+	// return a pre-stored string value, meaning that it can bypass
+	// the cost of []byte->string conversion.
+	DecodeString() (s string)
+
+	// DecodeBytes may be called directly, without going through reflection.
+	// Consequently, it must be designed to handle possible nil.
+	DecodeBytes(bs []byte, isstring, zerocopy bool) (bsOut []byte)
+
+	// decodeExt will decode into a *RawExt or into an extension.
+	DecodeExt(v interface{}, xtag uint64, ext Ext) (realxtag uint64)
+	// decodeExt(verifyTag bool, tag byte) (xtag byte, xbs []byte)
+	ReadMapStart() int
+	ReadArrayStart() int
+
+	reset()
+	uncacheRead()
+}
+
+type decNoSeparator struct{}
+
+func (_ decNoSeparator) ReadEnd()     {}
+func (_ decNoSeparator) uncacheRead() {}
+
+type DecodeOptions struct {
+	// MapType specifies type to use during schema-less decoding of a map in the stream.
+	// If nil, we use map[interface{}]interface{}
+	MapType reflect.Type
+
+	// SliceType specifies type to use during schema-less decoding of an array in the stream.
+	// If nil, we use []interface{}
+	SliceType reflect.Type
+
+	// MaxInitLen defines the initial length that we "make" a collection (slice, chan or map) with.
+	// If 0 or negative, we default to a sensible value based on the size of an element in the collection.
+	//
+	// For example, when decoding, a stream may say that it has MAX_UINT elements.
+	// We should not auto-matically provision a slice of that length, to prevent Out-Of-Memory crash.
+	// Instead, we provision up to MaxInitLen, fill that up, and start appending after that.
+	MaxInitLen int
+
+	// If ErrorIfNoField, return an error when decoding a map
+	// from a codec stream into a struct, and no matching struct field is found.
+	ErrorIfNoField bool
+
+	// If ErrorIfNoArrayExpand, return an error when decoding a slice/array that cannot be expanded.
+	// For example, the stream contains an array of 8 items, but you are decoding into a [4]T array,
+	// or you are decoding into a slice of length 4 which is non-addressable (and so cannot be set).
+	ErrorIfNoArrayExpand bool
+
+	// If SignedInteger, use the int64 during schema-less decoding of unsigned values (not uint64).
+	SignedInteger bool
+
+	// MapValueReset controls how we decode into a map value.
+	//
+	// By default, we MAY retrieve the mapping for a key, and then decode into that.
+	// However, especially with big maps, that retrieval may be expensive and unnecessary
+	// if the stream already contains all that is necessary to recreate the value.
+	//
+	// If true, we will never retrieve the previous mapping,
+	// but rather decode into a new value and set that in the map.
+	//
+	// If false, we will retrieve the previous mapping if necessary e.g.
+	// the previous mapping is a pointer, or is a struct or array with pre-set state,
+	// or is an interface.
+	MapValueReset bool
+
+	// InterfaceReset controls how we decode into an interface.
+	//
+	// By default, when we see a field that is an interface{...},
+	// or a map with interface{...} value, we will attempt decoding into the
+	// "contained" value.
+	//
+	// However, this prevents us from reading a string into an interface{}
+	// that formerly contained a number.
+	//
+	// If true, we will decode into a new "blank" value, and set that in the interface.
+	// If false, we will decode into whatever is contained in the interface.
+	InterfaceReset bool
+
+	// InternString controls interning of strings during decoding.
+	//
+	// Some handles, e.g. json, typically will read map keys as strings.
+	// If the set of keys are finite, it may help reduce allocation to
+	// look them up from a map (than to allocate them afresh).
+	//
+	// Note: Handles will be smart when using the intern functionality.
+	// So everything will not be interned.
+	InternString bool
+}
+
+// ------------------------------------
+
+// ioDecByteScanner implements Read(), ReadByte(...), UnreadByte(...) methods
+// of io.Reader, io.ByteScanner.
+type ioDecByteScanner struct {
+	r  io.Reader
+	l  byte    // last byte
+	ls byte    // last byte status. 0: init-canDoNothing, 1: canRead, 2: canUnread
+	b  [1]byte // tiny buffer for reading single bytes
+}
+
+func (z *ioDecByteScanner) Read(p []byte) (n int, err error) {
+	var firstByte bool
+	if z.ls == 1 {
+		z.ls = 2
+		p[0] = z.l
+		if len(p) == 1 {
+			n = 1
+			return
+		}
+		firstByte = true
+		p = p[1:]
+	}
+	n, err = z.r.Read(p)
+	if n > 0 {
+		if err == io.EOF && n == len(p) {
+			err = nil // read was successful, so postpone EOF (till next time)
+		}
+		z.l = p[n-1]
+		z.ls = 2
+	}
+	if firstByte {
+		n++
+	}
+	return
+}
+
+func (z *ioDecByteScanner) ReadByte() (c byte, err error) {
+	n, err := z.Read(z.b[:])
+	if n == 1 {
+		c = z.b[0]
+		if err == io.EOF {
+			err = nil // read was successful, so postpone EOF (till next time)
+		}
+	}
+	return
+}
+
+func (z *ioDecByteScanner) UnreadByte() (err error) {
+	x := z.ls
+	if x == 0 {
+		err = errors.New("cannot unread - nothing has been read")
+	} else if x == 1 {
+		err = errors.New("cannot unread - last byte has not been read")
+	} else if x == 2 {
+		z.ls = 1
+	}
+	return
+}
+
+// ioDecReader is a decReader that reads off an io.Reader
+type ioDecReader struct {
+	br decReaderByteScanner
+	// temp byte array re-used internally for efficiency during read.
+	// shares buffer with Decoder, so we keep size of struct within 8 words.
+	x   *[scratchByteArrayLen]byte
+	bs  ioDecByteScanner
+	n   int    // num read
+	tr  []byte // tracking bytes read
+	trb bool
+}
+
+func (z *ioDecReader) numread() int {
+	return z.n
+}
+
+func (z *ioDecReader) readx(n int) (bs []byte) {
+	if n <= 0 {
+		return
+	}
+	if n < len(z.x) {
+		bs = z.x[:n]
+	} else {
+		bs = make([]byte, n)
+	}
+	if _, err := io.ReadAtLeast(z.br, bs, n); err != nil {
+		panic(err)
+	}
+	z.n += len(bs)
+	if z.trb {
+		z.tr = append(z.tr, bs...)
+	}
+	return
+}
+
+func (z *ioDecReader) readb(bs []byte) {
+	if len(bs) == 0 {
+		return
+	}
+	n, err := io.ReadAtLeast(z.br, bs, len(bs))
+	z.n += n
+	if err != nil {
+		panic(err)
+	}
+	if z.trb {
+		z.tr = append(z.tr, bs...)
+	}
+}
+
+func (z *ioDecReader) readn1() (b uint8) {
+	b, err := z.br.ReadByte()
+	if err != nil {
+		panic(err)
+	}
+	z.n++
+	if z.trb {
+		z.tr = append(z.tr, b)
+	}
+	return b
+}
+
+func (z *ioDecReader) readn1eof() (b uint8, eof bool) {
+	b, err := z.br.ReadByte()
+	if err == nil {
+		z.n++
+		if z.trb {
+			z.tr = append(z.tr, b)
+		}
+	} else if err == io.EOF {
+		eof = true
+	} else {
+		panic(err)
+	}
+	return
+}
+
+func (z *ioDecReader) unreadn1() {
+	err := z.br.UnreadByte()
+	if err != nil {
+		panic(err)
+	}
+	z.n--
+	if z.trb {
+		if l := len(z.tr) - 1; l >= 0 {
+			z.tr = z.tr[:l]
+		}
+	}
+}
+
+func (z *ioDecReader) track() {
+	if z.tr != nil {
+		z.tr = z.tr[:0]
+	}
+	z.trb = true
+}
+
+func (z *ioDecReader) stopTrack() (bs []byte) {
+	z.trb = false
+	return z.tr
+}
+
+// ------------------------------------
+
+var bytesDecReaderCannotUnreadErr = errors.New("cannot unread last byte read")
+
+// bytesDecReader is a decReader that reads off a byte slice with zero copying
+type bytesDecReader struct {
+	b []byte // data
+	c int    // cursor
+	a int    // available
+	t int    // track start
+}
+
+func (z *bytesDecReader) reset(in []byte) {
+	z.b = in
+	z.a = len(in)
+	z.c = 0
+	z.t = 0
+}
+
+func (z *bytesDecReader) numread() int {
+	return z.c
+}
+
+func (z *bytesDecReader) unreadn1() {
+	if z.c == 0 || len(z.b) == 0 {
+		panic(bytesDecReaderCannotUnreadErr)
+	}
+	z.c--
+	z.a++
+	return
+}
+
+func (z *bytesDecReader) readx(n int) (bs []byte) {
+	// slicing from a non-constant start position is more expensive,
+	// as more computation is required to decipher the pointer start position.
+	// However, we do it only once, and it's better than reslicing both z.b and return value.
+
+	if n <= 0 {
+	} else if z.a == 0 {
+		panic(io.EOF)
+	} else if n > z.a {
+		panic(io.ErrUnexpectedEOF)
+	} else {
+		c0 := z.c
+		z.c = c0 + n
+		z.a = z.a - n
+		bs = z.b[c0:z.c]
+	}
+	return
+}
+
+func (z *bytesDecReader) readn1() (v uint8) {
+	if z.a == 0 {
+		panic(io.EOF)
+	}
+	v = z.b[z.c]
+	z.c++
+	z.a--
+	return
+}
+
+func (z *bytesDecReader) readn1eof() (v uint8, eof bool) {
+	if z.a == 0 {
+		eof = true
+		return
+	}
+	v = z.b[z.c]
+	z.c++
+	z.a--
+	return
+}
+
+func (z *bytesDecReader) readb(bs []byte) {
+	copy(bs, z.readx(len(bs)))
+}
+
+func (z *bytesDecReader) track() {
+	z.t = z.c
+}
+
+func (z *bytesDecReader) stopTrack() (bs []byte) {
+	return z.b[z.t:z.c]
+}
+
+// ------------------------------------
+
+type decFnInfo struct {
+	d     *Decoder
+	ti    *typeInfo
+	xfFn  Ext
+	xfTag uint64
+	seq   seqType
+}
+
+// ----------------------------------------
+
+type decFn struct {
+	i decFnInfo
+	f func(*decFnInfo, reflect.Value)
+}
+
+func (f *decFnInfo) builtin(rv reflect.Value) {
+	f.d.d.DecodeBuiltin(f.ti.rtid, rv.Addr().Interface())
+}
+
+func (f *decFnInfo) rawExt(rv reflect.Value) {
+	f.d.d.DecodeExt(rv.Addr().Interface(), 0, nil)
+}
+
+func (f *decFnInfo) ext(rv reflect.Value) {
+	f.d.d.DecodeExt(rv.Addr().Interface(), f.xfTag, f.xfFn)
+}
+
+func (f *decFnInfo) getValueForUnmarshalInterface(rv reflect.Value, indir int8) (v interface{}) {
+	if indir == -1 {
+		v = rv.Addr().Interface()
+	} else if indir == 0 {
+		v = rv.Interface()
+	} else {
+		for j := int8(0); j < indir; j++ {
+			if rv.IsNil() {
+				rv.Set(reflect.New(rv.Type().Elem()))
+			}
+			rv = rv.Elem()
+		}
+		v = rv.Interface()
+	}
+	return
+}
+
+func (f *decFnInfo) selferUnmarshal(rv reflect.Value) {
+	f.getValueForUnmarshalInterface(rv, f.ti.csIndir).(Selfer).CodecDecodeSelf(f.d)
+}
+
+func (f *decFnInfo) binaryUnmarshal(rv reflect.Value) {
+	bm := f.getValueForUnmarshalInterface(rv, f.ti.bunmIndir).(encoding.BinaryUnmarshaler)
+	xbs := f.d.d.DecodeBytes(nil, false, true)
+	if fnerr := bm.UnmarshalBinary(xbs); fnerr != nil {
+		panic(fnerr)
+	}
+}
+
+func (f *decFnInfo) textUnmarshal(rv reflect.Value) {
+	tm := f.getValueForUnmarshalInterface(rv, f.ti.tunmIndir).(encoding.TextUnmarshaler)
+	fnerr := tm.UnmarshalText(f.d.d.DecodeBytes(f.d.b[:], true, true))
+	if fnerr != nil {
+		panic(fnerr)
+	}
+}
+
+func (f *decFnInfo) jsonUnmarshal(rv reflect.Value) {
+	tm := f.getValueForUnmarshalInterface(rv, f.ti.junmIndir).(jsonUnmarshaler)
+	// bs := f.d.d.DecodeBytes(f.d.b[:], true, true)
+	// grab the bytes to be read, as UnmarshalJSON needs the full JSON so as to unmarshal it itself.
+	fnerr := tm.UnmarshalJSON(f.d.nextValueBytes())
+	if fnerr != nil {
+		panic(fnerr)
+	}
+}
+
+func (f *decFnInfo) kErr(rv reflect.Value) {
+	f.d.errorf("no decoding function defined for kind %v", rv.Kind())
+}
+
+func (f *decFnInfo) kString(rv reflect.Value) {
+	rv.SetString(f.d.d.DecodeString())
+}
+
+func (f *decFnInfo) kBool(rv reflect.Value) {
+	rv.SetBool(f.d.d.DecodeBool())
+}
+
+func (f *decFnInfo) kInt(rv reflect.Value) {
+	rv.SetInt(f.d.d.DecodeInt(intBitsize))
+}
+
+func (f *decFnInfo) kInt64(rv reflect.Value) {
+	rv.SetInt(f.d.d.DecodeInt(64))
+}
+
+func (f *decFnInfo) kInt32(rv reflect.Value) {
+	rv.SetInt(f.d.d.DecodeInt(32))
+}
+
+func (f *decFnInfo) kInt8(rv reflect.Value) {
+	rv.SetInt(f.d.d.DecodeInt(8))
+}
+
+func (f *decFnInfo) kInt16(rv reflect.Value) {
+	rv.SetInt(f.d.d.DecodeInt(16))
+}
+
+func (f *decFnInfo) kFloat32(rv reflect.Value) {
+	rv.SetFloat(f.d.d.DecodeFloat(true))
+}
+
+func (f *decFnInfo) kFloat64(rv reflect.Value) {
+	rv.SetFloat(f.d.d.DecodeFloat(false))
+}
+
+func (f *decFnInfo) kUint8(rv reflect.Value) {
+	rv.SetUint(f.d.d.DecodeUint(8))
+}
+
+func (f *decFnInfo) kUint64(rv reflect.Value) {
+	rv.SetUint(f.d.d.DecodeUint(64))
+}
+
+func (f *decFnInfo) kUint(rv reflect.Value) {
+	rv.SetUint(f.d.d.DecodeUint(uintBitsize))
+}
+
+func (f *decFnInfo) kUintptr(rv reflect.Value) {
+	rv.SetUint(f.d.d.DecodeUint(uintBitsize))
+}
+
+func (f *decFnInfo) kUint32(rv reflect.Value) {
+	rv.SetUint(f.d.d.DecodeUint(32))
+}
+
+func (f *decFnInfo) kUint16(rv reflect.Value) {
+	rv.SetUint(f.d.d.DecodeUint(16))
+}
+
+// func (f *decFnInfo) kPtr(rv reflect.Value) {
+// 	debugf(">>>>>>> ??? decode kPtr called - shouldn't get called")
+// 	if rv.IsNil() {
+// 		rv.Set(reflect.New(rv.Type().Elem()))
+// 	}
+// 	f.d.decodeValue(rv.Elem())
+// }
+
+// var kIntfCtr uint64
+
+func (f *decFnInfo) kInterfaceNaked() (rvn reflect.Value) {
+	// nil interface:
+	// use some hieristics to decode it appropriately
+	// based on the detected next value in the stream.
+	d := f.d
+	d.d.DecodeNaked()
+	n := &d.n
+	if n.v == valueTypeNil {
+		return
+	}
+	// We cannot decode non-nil stream value into nil interface with methods (e.g. io.Reader).
+	// if num := f.ti.rt.NumMethod(); num > 0 {
+	if f.ti.numMeth > 0 {
+		d.errorf("cannot decode non-nil codec value into nil %v (%v methods)", f.ti.rt, f.ti.numMeth)
+		return
+	}
+	// var useRvn bool
+	switch n.v {
+	case valueTypeMap:
+		// if d.h.MapType == nil || d.h.MapType == mapIntfIntfTyp {
+		// } else if d.h.MapType == mapStrIntfTyp { // for json performance
+		// }
+		if d.mtid == 0 || d.mtid == mapIntfIntfTypId {
+			l := len(n.ms)
+			n.ms = append(n.ms, nil)
+			var v2 interface{} = &n.ms[l]
+			d.decode(v2)
+			rvn = reflect.ValueOf(v2).Elem()
+			n.ms = n.ms[:l]
+		} else if d.mtid == mapStrIntfTypId { // for json performance
+			l := len(n.ns)
+			n.ns = append(n.ns, nil)
+			var v2 interface{} = &n.ns[l]
+			d.decode(v2)
+			rvn = reflect.ValueOf(v2).Elem()
+			n.ns = n.ns[:l]
+		} else {
+			rvn = reflect.New(d.h.MapType).Elem()
+			d.decodeValue(rvn, nil)
+		}
+	case valueTypeArray:
+		// if d.h.SliceType == nil || d.h.SliceType == intfSliceTyp {
+		if d.stid == 0 || d.stid == intfSliceTypId {
+			l := len(n.ss)
+			n.ss = append(n.ss, nil)
+			var v2 interface{} = &n.ss[l]
+			d.decode(v2)
+			rvn = reflect.ValueOf(v2).Elem()
+			n.ss = n.ss[:l]
+		} else {
+			rvn = reflect.New(d.h.SliceType).Elem()
+			d.decodeValue(rvn, nil)
+		}
+	case valueTypeExt:
+		var v interface{}
+		tag, bytes := n.u, n.l // calling decode below might taint the values
+		if bytes == nil {
+			l := len(n.is)
+			n.is = append(n.is, nil)
+			v2 := &n.is[l]
+			d.decode(v2)
+			v = *v2
+			n.is = n.is[:l]
+		}
+		bfn := d.h.getExtForTag(tag)
+		if bfn == nil {
+			var re RawExt
+			re.Tag = tag
+			re.Data = detachZeroCopyBytes(d.bytes, nil, bytes)
+			rvn = reflect.ValueOf(re)
+		} else {
+			rvnA := reflect.New(bfn.rt)
+			rvn = rvnA.Elem()
+			if bytes != nil {
+				bfn.ext.ReadExt(rvnA.Interface(), bytes)
+			} else {
+				bfn.ext.UpdateExt(rvnA.Interface(), v)
+			}
+		}
+	case valueTypeNil:
+		// no-op
+	case valueTypeInt:
+		rvn = reflect.ValueOf(&n.i).Elem()
+	case valueTypeUint:
+		rvn = reflect.ValueOf(&n.u).Elem()
+	case valueTypeFloat:
+		rvn = reflect.ValueOf(&n.f).Elem()
+	case valueTypeBool:
+		rvn = reflect.ValueOf(&n.b).Elem()
+	case valueTypeString, valueTypeSymbol:
+		rvn = reflect.ValueOf(&n.s).Elem()
+	case valueTypeBytes:
+		rvn = reflect.ValueOf(&n.l).Elem()
+	case valueTypeTimestamp:
+		rvn = reflect.ValueOf(&n.t).Elem()
+	default:
+		panic(fmt.Errorf("kInterfaceNaked: unexpected valueType: %d", n.v))
+	}
+	return
+}
+
+func (f *decFnInfo) kInterface(rv reflect.Value) {
+	// debugf("\t===> kInterface")
+
+	// Note:
+	// A consequence of how kInterface works, is that
+	// if an interface already contains something, we try
+	// to decode into what was there before.
+	// We do not replace with a generic value (as got from decodeNaked).
+
+	var rvn reflect.Value
+	if rv.IsNil() {
+		rvn = f.kInterfaceNaked()
+		if rvn.IsValid() {
+			rv.Set(rvn)
+		}
+	} else if f.d.h.InterfaceReset {
+		rvn = f.kInterfaceNaked()
+		if rvn.IsValid() {
+			rv.Set(rvn)
+		} else {
+			// reset to zero value based on current type in there.
+			rv.Set(reflect.Zero(rv.Elem().Type()))
+		}
+	} else {
+		rvn = rv.Elem()
+		// Note: interface{} is settable, but underlying type may not be.
+		// Consequently, we have to set the reflect.Value directly.
+		// if underlying type is settable (e.g. ptr or interface),
+		// we just decode into it.
+		// Else we create a settable value, decode into it, and set on the interface.
+		if rvn.CanSet() {
+			f.d.decodeValue(rvn, nil)
+		} else {
+			rvn2 := reflect.New(rvn.Type()).Elem()
+			rvn2.Set(rvn)
+			f.d.decodeValue(rvn2, nil)
+			rv.Set(rvn2)
+		}
+	}
+}
+
+func (f *decFnInfo) kStruct(rv reflect.Value) {
+	fti := f.ti
+	d := f.d
+	dd := d.d
+	cr := d.cr
+	ctyp := dd.ContainerType()
+	if ctyp == valueTypeMap {
+		containerLen := dd.ReadMapStart()
+		if containerLen == 0 {
+			if cr != nil {
+				cr.sendContainerState(containerMapEnd)
+			}
+			return
+		}
+		tisfi := fti.sfi
+		hasLen := containerLen >= 0
+		if hasLen {
+			for j := 0; j < containerLen; j++ {
+				// rvkencname := dd.DecodeString()
+				if cr != nil {
+					cr.sendContainerState(containerMapKey)
+				}
+				rvkencname := stringView(dd.DecodeBytes(f.d.b[:], true, true))
+				// rvksi := ti.getForEncName(rvkencname)
+				if cr != nil {
+					cr.sendContainerState(containerMapValue)
+				}
+				if k := fti.indexForEncName(rvkencname); k > -1 {
+					si := tisfi[k]
+					if dd.TryDecodeAsNil() {
+						si.setToZeroValue(rv)
+					} else {
+						d.decodeValue(si.field(rv, true), nil)
+					}
+				} else {
+					d.structFieldNotFound(-1, rvkencname)
+				}
+			}
+		} else {
+			for j := 0; !dd.CheckBreak(); j++ {
+				// rvkencname := dd.DecodeString()
+				if cr != nil {
+					cr.sendContainerState(containerMapKey)
+				}
+				rvkencname := stringView(dd.DecodeBytes(f.d.b[:], true, true))
+				// rvksi := ti.getForEncName(rvkencname)
+				if cr != nil {
+					cr.sendContainerState(containerMapValue)
+				}
+				if k := fti.indexForEncName(rvkencname); k > -1 {
+					si := tisfi[k]
+					if dd.TryDecodeAsNil() {
+						si.setToZeroValue(rv)
+					} else {
+						d.decodeValue(si.field(rv, true), nil)
+					}
+				} else {
+					d.structFieldNotFound(-1, rvkencname)
+				}
+			}
+		}
+		if cr != nil {
+			cr.sendContainerState(containerMapEnd)
+		}
+	} else if ctyp == valueTypeArray {
+		containerLen := dd.ReadArrayStart()
+		if containerLen == 0 {
+			if cr != nil {
+				cr.sendContainerState(containerArrayEnd)
+			}
+			return
+		}
+		// Not much gain from doing it two ways for array.
+		// Arrays are not used as much for structs.
+		hasLen := containerLen >= 0
+		for j, si := range fti.sfip {
+			if hasLen {
+				if j == containerLen {
+					break
+				}
+			} else if dd.CheckBreak() {
+				break
+			}
+			if cr != nil {
+				cr.sendContainerState(containerArrayElem)
+			}
+			if dd.TryDecodeAsNil() {
+				si.setToZeroValue(rv)
+			} else {
+				d.decodeValue(si.field(rv, true), nil)
+			}
+		}
+		if containerLen > len(fti.sfip) {
+			// read remaining values and throw away
+			for j := len(fti.sfip); j < containerLen; j++ {
+				if cr != nil {
+					cr.sendContainerState(containerArrayElem)
+				}
+				d.structFieldNotFound(j, "")
+			}
+		}
+		if cr != nil {
+			cr.sendContainerState(containerArrayEnd)
+		}
+	} else {
+		f.d.error(onlyMapOrArrayCanDecodeIntoStructErr)
+		return
+	}
+}
+
+func (f *decFnInfo) kSlice(rv reflect.Value) {
+	// A slice can be set from a map or array in stream.
+	// This way, the order can be kept (as order is lost with map).
+	ti := f.ti
+	d := f.d
+	dd := d.d
+	rtelem0 := ti.rt.Elem()
+	ctyp := dd.ContainerType()
+	if ctyp == valueTypeBytes || ctyp == valueTypeString {
+		// you can only decode bytes or string in the stream into a slice or array of bytes
+		if !(ti.rtid == uint8SliceTypId || rtelem0.Kind() == reflect.Uint8) {
+			f.d.errorf("bytes or string in the stream must be decoded into a slice or array of bytes, not %v", ti.rt)
+		}
+		if f.seq == seqTypeChan {
+			bs2 := dd.DecodeBytes(nil, false, true)
+			ch := rv.Interface().(chan<- byte)
+			for _, b := range bs2 {
+				ch <- b
+			}
+		} else {
+			rvbs := rv.Bytes()
+			bs2 := dd.DecodeBytes(rvbs, false, false)
+			if rvbs == nil && bs2 != nil || rvbs != nil && bs2 == nil || len(bs2) != len(rvbs) {
+				if rv.CanSet() {
+					rv.SetBytes(bs2)
+				} else {
+					copy(rvbs, bs2)
+				}
+			}
+		}
+		return
+	}
+
+	// array := f.seq == seqTypeChan
+
+	slh, containerLenS := d.decSliceHelperStart() // only expects valueType(Array|Map)
+
+	// // an array can never return a nil slice. so no need to check f.array here.
+	if containerLenS == 0 {
+		if f.seq == seqTypeSlice {
+			if rv.IsNil() {
+				rv.Set(reflect.MakeSlice(ti.rt, 0, 0))
+			} else {
+				rv.SetLen(0)
+			}
+		} else if f.seq == seqTypeChan {
+			if rv.IsNil() {
+				rv.Set(reflect.MakeChan(ti.rt, 0))
+			}
+		}
+		slh.End()
+		return
+	}
+
+	rtelem := rtelem0
+	for rtelem.Kind() == reflect.Ptr {
+		rtelem = rtelem.Elem()
+	}
+	fn := d.getDecFn(rtelem, true, true)
+
+	var rv0, rv9 reflect.Value
+	rv0 = rv
+	rvChanged := false
+
+	// for j := 0; j < containerLenS; j++ {
+	var rvlen int
+	if containerLenS > 0 { // hasLen
+		if f.seq == seqTypeChan {
+			if rv.IsNil() {
+				rvlen, _ = decInferLen(containerLenS, f.d.h.MaxInitLen, int(rtelem0.Size()))
+				rv.Set(reflect.MakeChan(ti.rt, rvlen))
+			}
+			// handle chan specially:
+			for j := 0; j < containerLenS; j++ {
+				rv9 = reflect.New(rtelem0).Elem()
+				slh.ElemContainerState(j)
+				d.decodeValue(rv9, fn)
+				rv.Send(rv9)
+			}
+		} else { // slice or array
+			var truncated bool         // says len of sequence is not same as expected number of elements
+			numToRead := containerLenS // if truncated, reset numToRead
+
+			rvcap := rv.Cap()
+			rvlen = rv.Len()
+			if containerLenS > rvcap {
+				if f.seq == seqTypeArray {
+					d.arrayCannotExpand(rvlen, containerLenS)
+				} else {
+					oldRvlenGtZero := rvlen > 0
+					rvlen, truncated = decInferLen(containerLenS, f.d.h.MaxInitLen, int(rtelem0.Size()))
+					if truncated {
+						if rvlen <= rvcap {
+							rv.SetLen(rvlen)
+						} else {
+							rv = reflect.MakeSlice(ti.rt, rvlen, rvlen)
+							rvChanged = true
+						}
+					} else {
+						rv = reflect.MakeSlice(ti.rt, rvlen, rvlen)
+						rvChanged = true
+					}
+					if rvChanged && oldRvlenGtZero && !isImmutableKind(rtelem0.Kind()) {
+						reflect.Copy(rv, rv0) // only copy up to length NOT cap i.e. rv0.Slice(0, rvcap)
+					}
+					rvcap = rvlen
+				}
+				numToRead = rvlen
+			} else if containerLenS != rvlen {
+				if f.seq == seqTypeSlice {
+					rv.SetLen(containerLenS)
+					rvlen = containerLenS
+				}
+			}
+			j := 0
+			// we read up to the numToRead
+			for ; j < numToRead; j++ {
+				slh.ElemContainerState(j)
+				d.decodeValue(rv.Index(j), fn)
+			}
+
+			// if slice, expand and read up to containerLenS (or EOF) iff truncated
+			// if array, swallow all the rest.
+
+			if f.seq == seqTypeArray {
+				for ; j < containerLenS; j++ {
+					slh.ElemContainerState(j)
+					d.swallow()
+				}
+			} else if truncated { // slice was truncated, as chan NOT in this block
+				for ; j < containerLenS; j++ {
+					rv = expandSliceValue(rv, 1)
+					rv9 = rv.Index(j)
+					if resetSliceElemToZeroValue {
+						rv9.Set(reflect.Zero(rtelem0))
+					}
+					slh.ElemContainerState(j)
+					d.decodeValue(rv9, fn)
+				}
+			}
+		}
+	} else {
+		rvlen = rv.Len()
+		j := 0
+		for ; !dd.CheckBreak(); j++ {
+			if f.seq == seqTypeChan {
+				slh.ElemContainerState(j)
+				rv9 = reflect.New(rtelem0).Elem()
+				d.decodeValue(rv9, fn)
+				rv.Send(rv9)
+			} else {
+				// if indefinite, etc, then expand the slice if necessary
+				var decodeIntoBlank bool
+				if j >= rvlen {
+					if f.seq == seqTypeArray {
+						d.arrayCannotExpand(rvlen, j+1)
+						decodeIntoBlank = true
+					} else { // if f.seq == seqTypeSlice
+						// rv = reflect.Append(rv, reflect.Zero(rtelem0)) // uses append logic, plus varargs
+						rv = expandSliceValue(rv, 1)
+						rv9 = rv.Index(j)
+						// rv.Index(rv.Len() - 1).Set(reflect.Zero(rtelem0))
+						if resetSliceElemToZeroValue {
+							rv9.Set(reflect.Zero(rtelem0))
+						}
+						rvlen++
+						rvChanged = true
+					}
+				} else { // slice or array
+					rv9 = rv.Index(j)
+				}
+				slh.ElemContainerState(j)
+				if decodeIntoBlank {
+					d.swallow()
+				} else { // seqTypeSlice
+					d.decodeValue(rv9, fn)
+				}
+			}
+		}
+		if f.seq == seqTypeSlice {
+			if j < rvlen {
+				rv.SetLen(j)
+			} else if j == 0 && rv.IsNil() {
+				rv = reflect.MakeSlice(ti.rt, 0, 0)
+				rvChanged = true
+			}
+		}
+	}
+	slh.End()
+
+	if rvChanged {
+		rv0.Set(rv)
+	}
+}
+
+func (f *decFnInfo) kArray(rv reflect.Value) {
+	// f.d.decodeValue(rv.Slice(0, rv.Len()))
+	f.kSlice(rv.Slice(0, rv.Len()))
+}
+
+func (f *decFnInfo) kMap(rv reflect.Value) {
+	d := f.d
+	dd := d.d
+	containerLen := dd.ReadMapStart()
+	cr := d.cr
+	ti := f.ti
+	if rv.IsNil() {
+		rv.Set(reflect.MakeMap(ti.rt))
+	}
+
+	if containerLen == 0 {
+		if cr != nil {
+			cr.sendContainerState(containerMapEnd)
+		}
+		return
+	}
+
+	ktype, vtype := ti.rt.Key(), ti.rt.Elem()
+	ktypeId := reflect.ValueOf(ktype).Pointer()
+	vtypeKind := vtype.Kind()
+	var keyFn, valFn *decFn
+	var xtyp reflect.Type
+	for xtyp = ktype; xtyp.Kind() == reflect.Ptr; xtyp = xtyp.Elem() {
+	}
+	keyFn = d.getDecFn(xtyp, true, true)
+	for xtyp = vtype; xtyp.Kind() == reflect.Ptr; xtyp = xtyp.Elem() {
+	}
+	valFn = d.getDecFn(xtyp, true, true)
+	var mapGet, mapSet bool
+	if !f.d.h.MapValueReset {
+		// if pointer, mapGet = true
+		// if interface, mapGet = true if !DecodeNakedAlways (else false)
+		// if builtin, mapGet = false
+		// else mapGet = true
+		if vtypeKind == reflect.Ptr {
+			mapGet = true
+		} else if vtypeKind == reflect.Interface {
+			if !f.d.h.InterfaceReset {
+				mapGet = true
+			}
+		} else if !isImmutableKind(vtypeKind) {
+			mapGet = true
+		}
+	}
+
+	var rvk, rvv, rvz reflect.Value
+
+	// for j := 0; j < containerLen; j++ {
+	if containerLen > 0 {
+		for j := 0; j < containerLen; j++ {
+			rvk = reflect.New(ktype).Elem()
+			if cr != nil {
+				cr.sendContainerState(containerMapKey)
+			}
+			d.decodeValue(rvk, keyFn)
+
+			// special case if a byte array.
+			if ktypeId == intfTypId {
+				rvk = rvk.Elem()
+				if rvk.Type() == uint8SliceTyp {
+					rvk = reflect.ValueOf(d.string(rvk.Bytes()))
+				}
+			}
+			mapSet = true // set to false if u do a get, and its a pointer, and exists
+			if mapGet {
+				rvv = rv.MapIndex(rvk)
+				if rvv.IsValid() {
+					if vtypeKind == reflect.Ptr {
+						mapSet = false
+					}
+				} else {
+					if rvz.IsValid() {
+						rvz.Set(reflect.Zero(vtype))
+					} else {
+						rvz = reflect.New(vtype).Elem()
+					}
+					rvv = rvz
+				}
+			} else {
+				if rvz.IsValid() {
+					rvz.Set(reflect.Zero(vtype))
+				} else {
+					rvz = reflect.New(vtype).Elem()
+				}
+				rvv = rvz
+			}
+			if cr != nil {
+				cr.sendContainerState(containerMapValue)
+			}
+			d.decodeValue(rvv, valFn)
+			if mapSet {
+				rv.SetMapIndex(rvk, rvv)
+			}
+		}
+	} else {
+		for j := 0; !dd.CheckBreak(); j++ {
+			rvk = reflect.New(ktype).Elem()
+			if cr != nil {
+				cr.sendContainerState(containerMapKey)
+			}
+			d.decodeValue(rvk, keyFn)
+
+			// special case if a byte array.
+			if ktypeId == intfTypId {
+				rvk = rvk.Elem()
+				if rvk.Type() == uint8SliceTyp {
+					rvk = reflect.ValueOf(d.string(rvk.Bytes()))
+				}
+			}
+			mapSet = true // set to false if u do a get, and its a pointer, and exists
+			if mapGet {
+				rvv = rv.MapIndex(rvk)
+				if rvv.IsValid() {
+					if vtypeKind == reflect.Ptr {
+						mapSet = false
+					}
+				} else {
+					if rvz.IsValid() {
+						rvz.Set(reflect.Zero(vtype))
+					} else {
+						rvz = reflect.New(vtype).Elem()
+					}
+					rvv = rvz
+				}
+			} else {
+				if rvz.IsValid() {
+					rvz.Set(reflect.Zero(vtype))
+				} else {
+					rvz = reflect.New(vtype).Elem()
+				}
+				rvv = rvz
+			}
+			if cr != nil {
+				cr.sendContainerState(containerMapValue)
+			}
+			d.decodeValue(rvv, valFn)
+			if mapSet {
+				rv.SetMapIndex(rvk, rvv)
+			}
+		}
+	}
+	if cr != nil {
+		cr.sendContainerState(containerMapEnd)
+	}
+}
+
+type decRtidFn struct {
+	rtid uintptr
+	fn   decFn
+}
+
+// decNaked is used to keep track of the primitives decoded.
+// Without it, we would have to decode each primitive and wrap it
+// in an interface{}, causing an allocation.
+// In this model, the primitives are decoded in a "pseudo-atomic" fashion,
+// so we can rest assured that no other decoding happens while these
+// primitives are being decoded.
+//
+// maps and arrays are not handled by this mechanism.
+// However, RawExt is, and we accomodate for extensions that decode
+// RawExt from DecodeNaked, but need to decode the value subsequently.
+// kInterfaceNaked and swallow, which call DecodeNaked, handle this caveat.
+//
+// However, decNaked also keeps some arrays of default maps and slices
+// used in DecodeNaked. This way, we can get a pointer to it
+// without causing a new heap allocation.
+//
+// kInterfaceNaked will ensure that there is no allocation for the common
+// uses.
+type decNaked struct {
+	// r RawExt // used for RawExt, uint, []byte.
+	u uint64
+	i int64
+	f float64
+	l []byte
+	s string
+	t time.Time
+	b bool
+	v valueType
+
+	// stacks for reducing allocation
+	is []interface{}
+	ms []map[interface{}]interface{}
+	ns []map[string]interface{}
+	ss [][]interface{}
+	// rs []RawExt
+
+	// keep arrays at the bottom? Chance is that they are not used much.
+	ia [4]interface{}
+	ma [4]map[interface{}]interface{}
+	na [4]map[string]interface{}
+	sa [4][]interface{}
+	// ra [2]RawExt
+}
+
+func (n *decNaked) reset() {
+	if n.ss != nil {
+		n.ss = n.ss[:0]
+	}
+	if n.is != nil {
+		n.is = n.is[:0]
+	}
+	if n.ms != nil {
+		n.ms = n.ms[:0]
+	}
+	if n.ns != nil {
+		n.ns = n.ns[:0]
+	}
+}
+
+// A Decoder reads and decodes an object from an input stream in the codec format.
+type Decoder struct {
+	// hopefully, reduce derefencing cost by laying the decReader inside the Decoder.
+	// Try to put things that go together to fit within a cache line (8 words).
+
+	d decDriver
+	// NOTE: Decoder shouldn't call it's read methods,
+	// as the handler MAY need to do some coordination.
+	r decReader
+	// sa [initCollectionCap]decRtidFn
+	h  *BasicHandle
+	hh Handle
+
+	be    bool // is binary encoding
+	bytes bool // is bytes reader
+	js    bool // is json handle
+
+	rb bytesDecReader
+	ri ioDecReader
+	cr containerStateRecv
+
+	s []decRtidFn
+	f map[uintptr]*decFn
+
+	// _  uintptr // for alignment purposes, so next one starts from a cache line
+
+	// cache the mapTypeId and sliceTypeId for faster comparisons
+	mtid uintptr
+	stid uintptr
+
+	n  decNaked
+	b  [scratchByteArrayLen]byte
+	is map[string]string // used for interning strings
+}
+
+// NewDecoder returns a Decoder for decoding a stream of bytes from an io.Reader.
+//
+// For efficiency, Users are encouraged to pass in a memory buffered reader
+// (eg bufio.Reader, bytes.Buffer).
+func NewDecoder(r io.Reader, h Handle) *Decoder {
+	d := newDecoder(h)
+	d.Reset(r)
+	return d
+}
+
+// NewDecoderBytes returns a Decoder which efficiently decodes directly
+// from a byte slice with zero copying.
+func NewDecoderBytes(in []byte, h Handle) *Decoder {
+	d := newDecoder(h)
+	d.ResetBytes(in)
+	return d
+}
+
+func newDecoder(h Handle) *Decoder {
+	d := &Decoder{hh: h, h: h.getBasicHandle(), be: h.isBinary()}
+	n := &d.n
+	// n.rs = n.ra[:0]
+	n.ms = n.ma[:0]
+	n.is = n.ia[:0]
+	n.ns = n.na[:0]
+	n.ss = n.sa[:0]
+	_, d.js = h.(*JsonHandle)
+	if d.h.InternString {
+		d.is = make(map[string]string, 32)
+	}
+	d.d = h.newDecDriver(d)
+	d.cr, _ = d.d.(containerStateRecv)
+	// d.d = h.newDecDriver(decReaderT{true, &d.rb, &d.ri})
+	return d
+}
+
+func (d *Decoder) resetCommon() {
+	d.n.reset()
+	d.d.reset()
+	// reset all things which were cached from the Handle,
+	// but could be changed.
+	d.mtid, d.stid = 0, 0
+	if d.h.MapType != nil {
+		d.mtid = reflect.ValueOf(d.h.MapType).Pointer()
+	}
+	if d.h.SliceType != nil {
+		d.stid = reflect.ValueOf(d.h.SliceType).Pointer()
+	}
+}
+
+func (d *Decoder) Reset(r io.Reader) {
+	d.ri.x = &d.b
+	// d.s = d.sa[:0]
+	d.ri.bs.r = r
+	var ok bool
+	d.ri.br, ok = r.(decReaderByteScanner)
+	if !ok {
+		d.ri.br = &d.ri.bs
+	}
+	d.r = &d.ri
+	d.resetCommon()
+}
+
+func (d *Decoder) ResetBytes(in []byte) {
+	// d.s = d.sa[:0]
+	d.rb.reset(in)
+	d.r = &d.rb
+	d.resetCommon()
+}
+
+// func (d *Decoder) sendContainerState(c containerState) {
+// 	if d.cr != nil {
+// 		d.cr.sendContainerState(c)
+// 	}
+// }
+
+// Decode decodes the stream from reader and stores the result in the
+// value pointed to by v. v cannot be a nil pointer. v can also be
+// a reflect.Value of a pointer.
+//
+// Note that a pointer to a nil interface is not a nil pointer.
+// If you do not know what type of stream it is, pass in a pointer to a nil interface.
+// We will decode and store a value in that nil interface.
+//
+// Sample usages:
+//   // Decoding into a non-nil typed value
+//   var f float32
+//   err = codec.NewDecoder(r, handle).Decode(&f)
+//
+//   // Decoding into nil interface
+//   var v interface{}
+//   dec := codec.NewDecoder(r, handle)
+//   err = dec.Decode(&v)
+//
+// When decoding into a nil interface{}, we will decode into an appropriate value based
+// on the contents of the stream:
+//   - Numbers are decoded as float64, int64 or uint64.
+//   - Other values are decoded appropriately depending on the type:
+//     bool, string, []byte, time.Time, etc
+//   - Extensions are decoded as RawExt (if no ext function registered for the tag)
+// Configurations exist on the Handle to override defaults
+// (e.g. for MapType, SliceType and how to decode raw bytes).
+//
+// When decoding into a non-nil interface{} value, the mode of encoding is based on the
+// type of the value. When a value is seen:
+//   - If an extension is registered for it, call that extension function
+//   - If it implements BinaryUnmarshaler, call its UnmarshalBinary(data []byte) error
+//   - Else decode it based on its reflect.Kind
+//
+// There are some special rules when decoding into containers (slice/array/map/struct).
+// Decode will typically use the stream contents to UPDATE the container.
+//   - A map can be decoded from a stream map, by updating matching keys.
+//   - A slice can be decoded from a stream array,
+//     by updating the first n elements, where n is length of the stream.
+//   - A slice can be decoded from a stream map, by decoding as if
+//     it contains a sequence of key-value pairs.
+//   - A struct can be decoded from a stream map, by updating matching fields.
+//   - A struct can be decoded from a stream array,
+//     by updating fields as they occur in the struct (by index).
+//
+// When decoding a stream map or array with length of 0 into a nil map or slice,
+// we reset the destination map or slice to a zero-length value.
+//
+// However, when decoding a stream nil, we reset the destination container
+// to its "zero" value (e.g. nil for slice/map, etc).
+//
+func (d *Decoder) Decode(v interface{}) (err error) {
+	defer panicToErr(&err)
+	d.decode(v)
+	return
+}
+
+// this is not a smart swallow, as it allocates objects and does unnecessary work.
+func (d *Decoder) swallowViaHammer() {
+	var blank interface{}
+	d.decodeValue(reflect.ValueOf(&blank).Elem(), nil)
+}
+
+func (d *Decoder) swallow() {
+	// smarter decode that just swallows the content
+	dd := d.d
+	if dd.TryDecodeAsNil() {
+		return
+	}
+	cr := d.cr
+	switch dd.ContainerType() {
+	case valueTypeMap:
+		containerLen := dd.ReadMapStart()
+		clenGtEqualZero := containerLen >= 0
+		for j := 0; ; j++ {
+			if clenGtEqualZero {
+				if j >= containerLen {
+					break
+				}
+			} else if dd.CheckBreak() {
+				break
+			}
+			if cr != nil {
+				cr.sendContainerState(containerMapKey)
+			}
+			d.swallow()
+			if cr != nil {
+				cr.sendContainerState(containerMapValue)
+			}
+			d.swallow()
+		}
+		if cr != nil {
+			cr.sendContainerState(containerMapEnd)
+		}
+	case valueTypeArray:
+		containerLenS := dd.ReadArrayStart()
+		clenGtEqualZero := containerLenS >= 0
+		for j := 0; ; j++ {
+			if clenGtEqualZero {
+				if j >= containerLenS {
+					break
+				}
+			} else if dd.CheckBreak() {
+				break
+			}
+			if cr != nil {
+				cr.sendContainerState(containerArrayElem)
+			}
+			d.swallow()
+		}
+		if cr != nil {
+			cr.sendContainerState(containerArrayEnd)
+		}
+	case valueTypeBytes:
+		dd.DecodeBytes(d.b[:], false, true)
+	case valueTypeString:
+		dd.DecodeBytes(d.b[:], true, true)
+		// dd.DecodeStringAsBytes(d.b[:])
+	default:
+		// these are all primitives, which we can get from decodeNaked
+		// if RawExt using Value, complete the processing.
+		dd.DecodeNaked()
+		if n := &d.n; n.v == valueTypeExt && n.l == nil {
+			l := len(n.is)
+			n.is = append(n.is, nil)
+			v2 := &n.is[l]
+			d.decode(v2)
+			n.is = n.is[:l]
+		}
+	}
+}
+
+// MustDecode is like Decode, but panics if unable to Decode.
+// This provides insight to the code location that triggered the error.
+func (d *Decoder) MustDecode(v interface{}) {
+	d.decode(v)
+}
+
+func (d *Decoder) decode(iv interface{}) {
+	// if ics, ok := iv.(Selfer); ok {
+	// 	ics.CodecDecodeSelf(d)
+	// 	return
+	// }
+
+	if d.d.TryDecodeAsNil() {
+		switch v := iv.(type) {
+		case nil:
+		case *string:
+			*v = ""
+		case *bool:
+			*v = false
+		case *int:
+			*v = 0
+		case *int8:
+			*v = 0
+		case *int16:
+			*v = 0
+		case *int32:
+			*v = 0
+		case *int64:
+			*v = 0
+		case *uint:
+			*v = 0
+		case *uint8:
+			*v = 0
+		case *uint16:
+			*v = 0
+		case *uint32:
+			*v = 0
+		case *uint64:
+			*v = 0
+		case *float32:
+			*v = 0
+		case *float64:
+			*v = 0
+		case *[]uint8:
+			*v = nil
+		case reflect.Value:
+			if v.Kind() != reflect.Ptr || v.IsNil() {
+				d.errNotValidPtrValue(v)
+			}
+			// d.chkPtrValue(v)
+			v = v.Elem()
+			if v.IsValid() {
+				v.Set(reflect.Zero(v.Type()))
+			}
+		default:
+			rv := reflect.ValueOf(iv)
+			if rv.Kind() != reflect.Ptr || rv.IsNil() {
+				d.errNotValidPtrValue(rv)
+			}
+			// d.chkPtrValue(rv)
+			rv = rv.Elem()
+			if rv.IsValid() {
+				rv.Set(reflect.Zero(rv.Type()))
+			}
+		}
+		return
+	}
+
+	switch v := iv.(type) {
+	case nil:
+		d.error(cannotDecodeIntoNilErr)
+		return
+
+	case Selfer:
+		v.CodecDecodeSelf(d)
+
+	case reflect.Value:
+		if v.Kind() != reflect.Ptr || v.IsNil() {
+			d.errNotValidPtrValue(v)
+		}
+		// d.chkPtrValue(v)
+		d.decodeValueNotNil(v.Elem(), nil)
+
+	case *string:
+		*v = d.d.DecodeString()
+	case *bool:
+		*v = d.d.DecodeBool()
+	case *int:
+		*v = int(d.d.DecodeInt(intBitsize))
+	case *int8:
+		*v = int8(d.d.DecodeInt(8))
+	case *int16:
+		*v = int16(d.d.DecodeInt(16))
+	case *int32:
+		*v = int32(d.d.DecodeInt(32))
+	case *int64:
+		*v = d.d.DecodeInt(64)
+	case *uint:
+		*v = uint(d.d.DecodeUint(uintBitsize))
+	case *uint8:
+		*v = uint8(d.d.DecodeUint(8))
+	case *uint16:
+		*v = uint16(d.d.DecodeUint(16))
+	case *uint32:
+		*v = uint32(d.d.DecodeUint(32))
+	case *uint64:
+		*v = d.d.DecodeUint(64)
+	case *float32:
+		*v = float32(d.d.DecodeFloat(true))
+	case *float64:
+		*v = d.d.DecodeFloat(false)
+	case *[]uint8:
+		*v = d.d.DecodeBytes(*v, false, false)
+
+	case *interface{}:
+		d.decodeValueNotNil(reflect.ValueOf(iv).Elem(), nil)
+
+	default:
+		if !fastpathDecodeTypeSwitch(iv, d) {
+			d.decodeI(iv, true, false, false, false)
+		}
+	}
+}
+
+func (d *Decoder) preDecodeValue(rv reflect.Value, tryNil bool) (rv2 reflect.Value, proceed bool) {
+	if tryNil && d.d.TryDecodeAsNil() {
+		// No need to check if a ptr, recursively, to determine
+		// whether to set value to nil.
+		// Just always set value to its zero type.
+		if rv.IsValid() { // rv.CanSet() // always settable, except it's invalid
+			rv.Set(reflect.Zero(rv.Type()))
+		}
+		return
+	}
+
+	// If stream is not containing a nil value, then we can deref to the base
+	// non-pointer value, and decode into that.
+	for rv.Kind() == reflect.Ptr {
+		if rv.IsNil() {
+			rv.Set(reflect.New(rv.Type().Elem()))
+		}
+		rv = rv.Elem()
+	}
+	return rv, true
+}
+
+func (d *Decoder) decodeI(iv interface{}, checkPtr, tryNil, checkFastpath, checkCodecSelfer bool) {
+	rv := reflect.ValueOf(iv)
+	if checkPtr {
+		if rv.Kind() != reflect.Ptr || rv.IsNil() {
+			d.errNotValidPtrValue(rv)
+		}
+		// d.chkPtrValue(rv)
+	}
+	rv, proceed := d.preDecodeValue(rv, tryNil)
+	if proceed {
+		fn := d.getDecFn(rv.Type(), checkFastpath, checkCodecSelfer)
+		fn.f(&fn.i, rv)
+	}
+}
+
+func (d *Decoder) decodeValue(rv reflect.Value, fn *decFn) {
+	if rv, proceed := d.preDecodeValue(rv, true); proceed {
+		if fn == nil {
+			fn = d.getDecFn(rv.Type(), true, true)
+		}
+		fn.f(&fn.i, rv)
+	}
+}
+
+func (d *Decoder) decodeValueNotNil(rv reflect.Value, fn *decFn) {
+	if rv, proceed := d.preDecodeValue(rv, false); proceed {
+		if fn == nil {
+			fn = d.getDecFn(rv.Type(), true, true)
+		}
+		fn.f(&fn.i, rv)
+	}
+}
+
+func (d *Decoder) getDecFn(rt reflect.Type, checkFastpath, checkCodecSelfer bool) (fn *decFn) {
+	rtid := reflect.ValueOf(rt).Pointer()
+
+	// retrieve or register a focus'ed function for this type
+	// to eliminate need to do the retrieval multiple times
+
+	// if d.f == nil && d.s == nil { debugf("---->Creating new dec f map for type: %v\n", rt) }
+	var ok bool
+	if useMapForCodecCache {
+		fn, ok = d.f[rtid]
+	} else {
+		for i := range d.s {
+			v := &(d.s[i])
+			if v.rtid == rtid {
+				fn, ok = &(v.fn), true
+				break
+			}
+		}
+	}
+	if ok {
+		return
+	}
+
+	if useMapForCodecCache {
+		if d.f == nil {
+			d.f = make(map[uintptr]*decFn, initCollectionCap)
+		}
+		fn = new(decFn)
+		d.f[rtid] = fn
+	} else {
+		if d.s == nil {
+			d.s = make([]decRtidFn, 0, initCollectionCap)
+		}
+		d.s = append(d.s, decRtidFn{rtid: rtid})
+		fn = &(d.s[len(d.s)-1]).fn
+	}
+
+	// debugf("\tCreating new dec fn for type: %v\n", rt)
+	ti := d.h.getTypeInfo(rtid, rt)
+	fi := &(fn.i)
+	fi.d = d
+	fi.ti = ti
+
+	// An extension can be registered for any type, regardless of the Kind
+	// (e.g. type BitSet int64, type MyStruct { / * unexported fields * / }, type X []int, etc.
+	//
+	// We can't check if it's an extension byte here first, because the user may have
+	// registered a pointer or non-pointer type, meaning we may have to recurse first
+	// before matching a mapped type, even though the extension byte is already detected.
+	//
+	// NOTE: if decoding into a nil interface{}, we return a non-nil
+	// value except even if the container registers a length of 0.
+	if checkCodecSelfer && ti.cs {
+		fn.f = (*decFnInfo).selferUnmarshal
+	} else if rtid == rawExtTypId {
+		fn.f = (*decFnInfo).rawExt
+	} else if d.d.IsBuiltinType(rtid) {
+		fn.f = (*decFnInfo).builtin
+	} else if xfFn := d.h.getExt(rtid); xfFn != nil {
+		fi.xfTag, fi.xfFn = xfFn.tag, xfFn.ext
+		fn.f = (*decFnInfo).ext
+	} else if supportMarshalInterfaces && d.be && ti.bunm {
+		fn.f = (*decFnInfo).binaryUnmarshal
+	} else if supportMarshalInterfaces && !d.be && d.js && ti.junm {
+		//If JSON, we should check JSONUnmarshal before textUnmarshal
+		fn.f = (*decFnInfo).jsonUnmarshal
+	} else if supportMarshalInterfaces && !d.be && ti.tunm {
+		fn.f = (*decFnInfo).textUnmarshal
+	} else {
+		rk := rt.Kind()
+		if fastpathEnabled && checkFastpath && (rk == reflect.Map || rk == reflect.Slice) {
+			if rt.PkgPath() == "" {
+				if idx := fastpathAV.index(rtid); idx != -1 {
+					fn.f = fastpathAV[idx].decfn
+				}
+			} else {
+				// use mapping for underlying type if there
+				ok = false
+				var rtu reflect.Type
+				if rk == reflect.Map {
+					rtu = reflect.MapOf(rt.Key(), rt.Elem())
+				} else {
+					rtu = reflect.SliceOf(rt.Elem())
+				}
+				rtuid := reflect.ValueOf(rtu).Pointer()
+				if idx := fastpathAV.index(rtuid); idx != -1 {
+					xfnf := fastpathAV[idx].decfn
+					xrt := fastpathAV[idx].rt
+					fn.f = func(xf *decFnInfo, xrv reflect.Value) {
+						// xfnf(xf, xrv.Convert(xrt))
+						xfnf(xf, xrv.Addr().Convert(reflect.PtrTo(xrt)).Elem())
+					}
+				}
+			}
+		}
+		if fn.f == nil {
+			switch rk {
+			case reflect.String:
+				fn.f = (*decFnInfo).kString
+			case reflect.Bool:
+				fn.f = (*decFnInfo).kBool
+			case reflect.Int:
+				fn.f = (*decFnInfo).kInt
+			case reflect.Int64:
+				fn.f = (*decFnInfo).kInt64
+			case reflect.Int32:
+				fn.f = (*decFnInfo).kInt32
+			case reflect.Int8:
+				fn.f = (*decFnInfo).kInt8
+			case reflect.Int16:
+				fn.f = (*decFnInfo).kInt16
+			case reflect.Float32:
+				fn.f = (*decFnInfo).kFloat32
+			case reflect.Float64:
+				fn.f = (*decFnInfo).kFloat64
+			case reflect.Uint8:
+				fn.f = (*decFnInfo).kUint8
+			case reflect.Uint64:
+				fn.f = (*decFnInfo).kUint64
+			case reflect.Uint:
+				fn.f = (*decFnInfo).kUint
+			case reflect.Uint32:
+				fn.f = (*decFnInfo).kUint32
+			case reflect.Uint16:
+				fn.f = (*decFnInfo).kUint16
+				// case reflect.Ptr:
+				// 	fn.f = (*decFnInfo).kPtr
+			case reflect.Uintptr:
+				fn.f = (*decFnInfo).kUintptr
+			case reflect.Interface:
+				fn.f = (*decFnInfo).kInterface
+			case reflect.Struct:
+				fn.f = (*decFnInfo).kStruct
+			case reflect.Chan:
+				fi.seq = seqTypeChan
+				fn.f = (*decFnInfo).kSlice
+			case reflect.Slice:
+				fi.seq = seqTypeSlice
+				fn.f = (*decFnInfo).kSlice
+			case reflect.Array:
+				fi.seq = seqTypeArray
+				fn.f = (*decFnInfo).kArray
+			case reflect.Map:
+				fn.f = (*decFnInfo).kMap
+			default:
+				fn.f = (*decFnInfo).kErr
+			}
+		}
+	}
+
+	return
+}
+
+func (d *Decoder) structFieldNotFound(index int, rvkencname string) {
+	// NOTE: rvkencname may be a stringView, so don't pass it to another function.
+	if d.h.ErrorIfNoField {
+		if index >= 0 {
+			d.errorf("no matching struct field found when decoding stream array at index %v", index)
+			return
+		} else if rvkencname != "" {
+			d.errorf("no matching struct field found when decoding stream map with key " + rvkencname)
+			return
+		}
+	}
+	d.swallow()
+}
+
+func (d *Decoder) arrayCannotExpand(sliceLen, streamLen int) {
+	if d.h.ErrorIfNoArrayExpand {
+		d.errorf("cannot expand array len during decode from %v to %v", sliceLen, streamLen)
+	}
+}
+
+func (d *Decoder) chkPtrValue(rv reflect.Value) {
+	// We can only decode into a non-nil pointer
+	if rv.Kind() == reflect.Ptr && !rv.IsNil() {
+		return
+	}
+	d.errNotValidPtrValue(rv)
+}
+
+func (d *Decoder) errNotValidPtrValue(rv reflect.Value) {
+	if !rv.IsValid() {
+		d.error(cannotDecodeIntoNilErr)
+		return
+	}
+	if !rv.CanInterface() {
+		d.errorf("cannot decode into a value without an interface: %v", rv)
+		return
+	}
+	rvi := rv.Interface()
+	d.errorf("cannot decode into non-pointer or nil pointer. Got: %v, %T, %v", rv.Kind(), rvi, rvi)
+}
+
+func (d *Decoder) error(err error) {
+	panic(err)
+}
+
+func (d *Decoder) errorf(format string, params ...interface{}) {
+	params2 := make([]interface{}, len(params)+1)
+	params2[0] = d.r.numread()
+	copy(params2[1:], params)
+	err := fmt.Errorf("[pos %d]: "+format, params2...)
+	panic(err)
+}
+
+func (d *Decoder) string(v []byte) (s string) {
+	if d.is != nil {
+		s, ok := d.is[string(v)] // no allocation here.
+		if !ok {
+			s = string(v)
+			d.is[s] = s
+		}
+		return s
+	}
+	return string(v) // don't return stringView, as we need a real string here.
+}
+
+func (d *Decoder) intern(s string) {
+	if d.is != nil {
+		d.is[s] = s
+	}
+}
+
+// nextValueBytes returns the next value in the stream as a set of bytes.
+func (d *Decoder) nextValueBytes() []byte {
+	d.d.uncacheRead()
+	d.r.track()
+	d.swallow()
+	return d.r.stopTrack()
+}
+
+// --------------------------------------------------
+
+// decSliceHelper assists when decoding into a slice, from a map or an array in the stream.
+// A slice can be set from a map or array in stream. This supports the MapBySlice interface.
+type decSliceHelper struct {
+	d *Decoder
+	// ct valueType
+	array bool
+}
+
+func (d *Decoder) decSliceHelperStart() (x decSliceHelper, clen int) {
+	dd := d.d
+	ctyp := dd.ContainerType()
+	if ctyp == valueTypeArray {
+		x.array = true
+		clen = dd.ReadArrayStart()
+	} else if ctyp == valueTypeMap {
+		clen = dd.ReadMapStart() * 2
+	} else {
+		d.errorf("only encoded map or array can be decoded into a slice (%d)", ctyp)
+	}
+	// x.ct = ctyp
+	x.d = d
+	return
+}
+
+func (x decSliceHelper) End() {
+	cr := x.d.cr
+	if cr == nil {
+		return
+	}
+	if x.array {
+		cr.sendContainerState(containerArrayEnd)
+	} else {
+		cr.sendContainerState(containerMapEnd)
+	}
+}
+
+func (x decSliceHelper) ElemContainerState(index int) {
+	cr := x.d.cr
+	if cr == nil {
+		return
+	}
+	if x.array {
+		cr.sendContainerState(containerArrayElem)
+	} else {
+		if index%2 == 0 {
+			cr.sendContainerState(containerMapKey)
+		} else {
+			cr.sendContainerState(containerMapValue)
+		}
+	}
+}
+
+func decByteSlice(r decReader, clen int, bs []byte) (bsOut []byte) {
+	if clen == 0 {
+		return zeroByteSlice
+	}
+	if len(bs) == clen {
+		bsOut = bs
+	} else if cap(bs) >= clen {
+		bsOut = bs[:clen]
+	} else {
+		bsOut = make([]byte, clen)
+	}
+	r.readb(bsOut)
+	return
+}
+
+func detachZeroCopyBytes(isBytesReader bool, dest []byte, in []byte) (out []byte) {
+	if xlen := len(in); xlen > 0 {
+		if isBytesReader || xlen <= scratchByteArrayLen {
+			if cap(dest) >= xlen {
+				out = dest[:xlen]
+			} else {
+				out = make([]byte, xlen)
+			}
+			copy(out, in)
+			return
+		}
+	}
+	return in
+}
+
+// decInferLen will infer a sensible length, given the following:
+//    - clen: length wanted.
+//    - maxlen: max length to be returned.
+//      if <= 0, it is unset, and we infer it based on the unit size
+//    - unit: number of bytes for each element of the collection
+func decInferLen(clen, maxlen, unit int) (rvlen int, truncated bool) {
+	// handle when maxlen is not set i.e. <= 0
+	if clen <= 0 {
+		return
+	}
+	if maxlen <= 0 {
+		// no maxlen defined. Use maximum of 256K memory, with a floor of 4K items.
+		// maxlen = 256 * 1024 / unit
+		// if maxlen < (4 * 1024) {
+		// 	maxlen = 4 * 1024
+		// }
+		if unit < (256 / 4) {
+			maxlen = 256 * 1024 / unit
+		} else {
+			maxlen = 4 * 1024
+		}
+	}
+	if clen > maxlen {
+		rvlen = maxlen
+		truncated = true
+	} else {
+		rvlen = clen
+	}
+	return
+	// if clen <= 0 {
+	// 	rvlen = 0
+	// } else if maxlen > 0 && clen > maxlen {
+	// 	rvlen = maxlen
+	// 	truncated = true
+	// } else {
+	// 	rvlen = clen
+	// }
+	// return
+}
+
+// // implement overall decReader wrapping both, for possible use inline:
+// type decReaderT struct {
+// 	bytes bool
+// 	rb    *bytesDecReader
+// 	ri    *ioDecReader
+// }
+//
+// // implement *Decoder as a decReader.
+// // Using decReaderT (defined just above) caused performance degradation
+// // possibly because of constant copying the value,
+// // and some value->interface conversion causing allocation.
+// func (d *Decoder) unreadn1() {
+// 	if d.bytes {
+// 		d.rb.unreadn1()
+// 	} else {
+// 		d.ri.unreadn1()
+// 	}
+// }
+// ... for other methods of decReader.
+// Testing showed that performance improvement was negligible.


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