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From conflue...@apache.org
Subject [CONF] Apache MINA: IoBuffer (page edited)
Date Fri, 12 Dec 2008 08:53:03 GMT
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</head>
<body>

<div id="PageContent">
<table class="pagecontent" border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="100%"><tr>
<td valign="top" class="pagebody">

    <div class="pageheader">
        <span class="pagetitle">
            Page Edited :
            <a href="http://cwiki.apache.org/confluence/display/MINA">MINA</a>
:
            <a href="http://cwiki.apache.org/confluence/display/MINA/IoBuffer">IoBuffer</a>
        </span>
    </div>

     <p>
        <a href="http://cwiki.apache.org/confluence/display/MINA/IoBuffer">IoBuffer</a>
        has been edited by             <a href="http://cwiki.apache.org/confluence/display/~elecharny">Emmanuel
Lécharny</a>
            <span class="smallfont">(Dec 12, 2008)</span>.
     </p>
    <p>
      Change summary:
      <div class="greybox wiki-content"><p>Adding some info on what's wrong about
ByteBuffers</p></div>
    </p>
     <p>
                 <a href="http://cwiki.apache.org/confluence/pages/diffpagesbyversion.action?pageId=104793&originalVersion=6&revisedVersion=7">(View
changes)</a>
     </p>

    <span class="label">Content:</span><br/>
    <div class="greybox wiki-content"><h2><a name="IoBuffer-Introduction"></a>Introduction</h2>

<p>A byte buffer used by MINA applications.</p>

<p>This is a replacement for <span class="nobr"><a href="http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.5.0/docs/api/java/nio/ByteBuffer.html"
title="Visit page outside Confluence" rel="nofollow">ByteBuffer<sup><img class="rendericon"
src="/confluence/images/icons/linkext7.gif" height="7" width="7" align="absmiddle" alt=""
border="0"/></sup></a></span>. MINA does not use NIO ByteBuffer directly
for two reasons:</p>
<ul>
	<li>It doesn't provide useful getters and putters such as fill, get/putString, and
get/putAsciiInt() .</li>
</ul>


<ul>
	<li>It is difficult to write variable-length data due to its fixed capacity</li>
</ul>


<table cellpadding='5' width='85%' cellspacing='8px' class='noteMacro' border="0" align='center'><colgroup><col
width='24'><col></colgroup><tr><td valign='top'><img src="/confluence/images/icons/emoticons/warning.gif"
width="16" height="16" align="absmiddle" alt="" border="0"></td><td>
<p>This will change in MINA 3. The main reason why MINA has its own wrapper on top of
nio ByteBuffer is to have extensible buffers. This was a very bad decision. Bbuffers are just
buffers : a temporary place to store temporary data, before it is used. Many other solution
exist, like defining a wrapper which relies on a list of nio ByteBuffers, instead of copying
the existing buffer to a bigger one just because we want to extend the buffer capacity.</p>

<p>It might also be more comfortable to use an InputStream instead of a byte buffer
all along the filters, as it does not imply anything about the nature of the stored data :
it can be a byte array, strings, messages...</p>

<p>Last, not least, the current implementation defeat one of the target : zero-copy
strategy (ie, once we have read the data from the socket, we want to avoid a copy being done
later). As we use extensible byte buffers, we will most certainly copy those data if we have
to manage big messages. Assuming that the MINA ByteBuffer is just a wrapper on top of nio
ByteBuffer, this can be a real problem when using direct buffers.</p></td></tr></table>

<h2><a name="IoBuffer-IoBufferOperations"></a>IoBuffer Operations</h2>


<h3><a name="IoBuffer-AllocatinganewBuffer"></a>Allocating a new Buffer</h3>

<p><tt>IoBuffer</tt> is an abstract class, hence can't be instantiated directly.
To allocate IoBuffer, we&nbsp; need to use allocate() method.</p>
<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
<pre class="code-java"><span class="code-keyword">public</span> <span
class="code-keyword">static</span> IoBuffer allocate(<span class="code-object">int</span>
capacity, <span class="code-object">boolean</span> direct)</pre>
</div></div>
<p>The <tt>allocate()</tt> method takes two arguments</p>
<ul>
	<li><b>capacity</b>&nbsp; - the capacity of the buffer</li>
	<li><b>direct</b> &#45; type of buffer. <em>true</em> to
get direct buffer, <em>false</em> to get heap buffer</li>
</ul>


<p>The default buffer allocation is handled by <span class="nobr"><a href="http://mina.apache.org/report/trunk/xref/org/apache/mina/core/buffer/SimpleBufferAllocator.html"
title="Visit page outside Confluence" rel="nofollow">SimpleBufferAllocator<sup><img
class="rendericon" src="/confluence/images/icons/linkext7.gif" height="7" width="7" align="absmiddle"
alt="" border="0"/></sup></a></span></p>

<p>Alternatively, following form can also be used</p>
<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
<pre class="code-java"><span class="code-comment">// Allocate heap buffer by <span
class="code-keyword">default</span>.
</span> IoBuffer.setUseDirectBuffer(<span class="code-keyword">false</span>);
 <span class="code-comment">// A <span class="code-keyword">new</span>
heap buffer is returned.
</span> IoBuffer buf = IoBuffer.allocate(1024);</pre>
</div></div>

<h3><a name="IoBuffer-CreatingAutoExpandingBuffer"></a>Creating Auto Expanding
Buffer</h3>

<p>Creating auto expanding buffer is not verye asy with java NIO API's, coz of the fixed
size of the buffers. Having a buffer, that can auto expand on needs is a big plus for networking
applications. To address this, IoBuffer has introduced <tt>autoExpand</tt> property.
It automatically expands its capacity and limit value.</p>

<p>Lets see how to create an auto expanding buffer</p>
<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
<pre class="code-java">IoBuffer buffer = IoBuffer.allocate(8);
buffer.setAutoExpand(<span class="code-keyword">true</span>);

buffer.putString(<span class="code-quote">"12345678"</span>, encoder);
       
<span class="code-comment">// Add more to <span class="code-keyword">this</span>
buffer
</span>buffer.put((<span class="code-object">byte</span>)10);</pre>
</div></div>
<p>The underlying ByteBuffer is reallocated by IoBuffer behind the scene if the encoded
data is larger than 16 bytes in the example above. Its capacity will double, and its limit
will increase to the last position the string is written. This behaviour is very similar to
the way StringBuffer class works.</p>

<h3><a name="IoBuffer-CreatingAutoShrinkingBuffer"></a>Creating Auto Shrinking
Buffer</h3>

<p>There are situations which calls for releasing additionally allocated bytes from
the buffer, to preserve memory. IoBuffer provides <tt>autoShrink</tt> property
to address the need.&nbsp; If autoShrink is turned on, IoBuffer halves the capacity of
the buffer when compact() is invoked and only 1/4 or less of the current capacity is being
used. To manually shrink the buffer, use <tt>shrink()</tt> method.</p>

<p>Lets see this in action</p>
<div class="code"><div class="codeContent">
<pre class="code-java">IoBuffer buffer = IoBuffer.allocate(16);
buffer.setAutoShrink(<span class="code-keyword">true</span>);
buffer.put((<span class="code-object">byte</span>)1);
<span class="code-object">System</span>.out.println(<span class="code-quote">"Initial
Buffer capacity = "</span>+buffer.capacity());
buffer.shrink();
<span class="code-object">System</span>.out.println(<span class="code-quote">"Initial
Buffer capacity after shrink = "</span>+buffer.capacity());

buffer.capacity(32);
<span class="code-object">System</span>.out.println(<span class="code-quote">"Buffer
capacity after incrementing capacity to 32 = "</span>+buffer.capacity());
buffer.shrink();
<span class="code-object">System</span>.out.println(<span class="code-quote">"Buffer
capacity after shrink= "</span>+buffer.capacity());</pre>
</div></div>
<p>We have initially allocated a capacity as 16, and set the autoShrink property as
true.</p>

<p>Lets see the output of this</p>
<div class="preformatted"><div class="preformattedContent">
<pre>Initial Buffer capacity = 16
Initial Buffer capacity after shrink = 16
Buffer capacity after incrementing capacity to 32 = 32
Buffer capacity after shrink= 16
</pre>
</div></div>
<p>Lets take a break and analyze the output</p>
<ul>
	<li>Initial buffer capacity is 16, as we created the buffer with this capacity. Internally
this becomes the minimum capacity of the buffer</li>
	<li>After calling <tt>shrink()</tt>, the capacity remains 16, as capacity
shall never be less than minimum capacity</li>
	<li>After incrementing capacity to 32, the capacity becomes 32</li>
	<li>Call to <tt>shrink()</tt>, reduces the capacity to 16, thereby eliminating
extra storage</li>
</ul>


<h3><a name="IoBuffer-BufferAllocation"></a>Buffer Allocation</h3>

<p>IoBufferAllocater is responsible for allocating and managing buffers. To have precise
control on the buffer allocation policy, implement the interface.</p>

<p>MINA ships with following implementations of IoBufferAllocater</p>
<ul>
	<li><b>SimpleBufferAllocator (default)</b> &#45; Create a new buffer
every time</li>
	<li><b>CachedBufferAllocator</b> &#45; caches the buffer which are
likely to be reused during expansion</li>
</ul>


<p>You can implement you own implementation of IoBufferAllocator and call setAllocator()
on IoBuffer to use the same.</p></div>


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