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From nightowl...@apache.org
Subject [1/6] lucenenet git commit: Lucene.Net.ICU: Used new linked folder functionality to streamline the configuration and added the remaining files from Lucene.Net.Analysis.ICU (most commented until the features are completed)
Date Mon, 11 Sep 2017 01:49:08 GMT
Repository: lucenenet
Updated Branches:
  refs/heads/master 84fdac04c -> d7595af7a


http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/lucenenet/blob/b3a2dd0b/src/dotnet/Lucene.Net.Tests.ICU/Search/PostingsHighlight/CambridgeMA.utf8
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-{{Distinguish|Cambridge, England}} {{primary sources|date=June 2012}} {{Use mdy dates|date=January 2011}} {{Infobox settlement |official_name = Cambridge, Massachusetts |nickname = |motto = "Boston's Left Bank"<ref>{{cite web|url= http://www.epodunk.com/cgi-bin/genInfo.php?locIndex=2894|title=Profile for Cambridge, Massachusetts, MA|publisher= ePodunk |accessdate= November 1, 2012}}</ref> |image_skyline = CambridgeMACityHall2.jpg |imagesize = 175px |image_caption = Cambridge City Hall |image_seal = |image_flag = |image_map = Cambridge ma highlight.png |mapsize = 250px |map_caption = Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts |image_map1 = |mapsize1 = |map_caption1 = |coordinates_region = US-MA |subdivision_type = Country |subdivision_name = United States |subdivision_type1 = State |subdivision_name1 = [[Massachusetts]] |subdivision_type2 = [[List of counties in Massachusetts|County]] |subdivision_name2 = [[Middlesex County, Massachusetts|Middlesex]] |established_title = Settled |
 established_date = 1630 |established_title2 = Incorporated |established_date2 = 1636 |established_title3 = |established_date3 = |government_type = [[Council-manager government|Council-City Manager]] |leader_title = Mayor |leader_name = Henrietta Davis |leader_title1 = [[City manager|City Manager]] |leader_name1 = [[Robert W. Healy]] |area_magnitude = |area_total_km2 = 18.47 |area_total_sq_mi = 7.13 |area_land_km2 = 16.65 |area_land_sq_mi = 6.43 |area_water_km2 = 1.81 |area_water_sq_mi = 0.70 |population_as_of = 2010 |population_blank2_title = [[Demonym]] |population_blank2 = [[Cantabrigian]] |settlement_type = City |population_total = 105,162 |population_density_km2 = 6,341.98 |population_density_sq_mi = 16,422.08 |elevation_m = 12 |elevation_ft = 40 |timezone = [[Eastern Time Zone|Eastern]] |utc_offset = -5 |timezone_DST = [[Eastern Time Zone|Eastern]] |utc_offset_DST = -4 |coordinates_display = display=inline,title |latd = 42 |latm = 22 |lats = 25 |latNS = N |longd = 71 |longm = 0
 6 |longs = 38 |longEW = W |website = [http://www.cambridgema.gov/ www.cambridgema.gov] |postal_code_type = ZIP code |postal_code = 02138, 02139, 02140, 02141, 02142 |area_code = [[Area code 617|617]] / [[Area code 857|857]] |blank_name = [[Federal Information Processing Standard|FIPS code]] |blank_info = 25-11000 |blank1_name = [[Geographic Names Information System|GNIS]] feature ID |blank1_info = 0617365 |footnotes = }} '''Cambridge''' is a city in [[Middlesex County, Massachusetts|Middlesex County]], [[Massachusetts]], [[United States]], in the [[Greater Boston]] area. It was named in honor of the [[University of Cambridge]] in [[England]], an important center of the [[Puritan]] theology embraced by the town's founders.<ref>{{cite book|last=Degler|first=Carl Neumann|title=Out of Our Pasts: The Forces That Shaped Modern America|publisher=HarperCollins|location=New York|year=1984|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=NebLe1ueuGQC&pg=PA18&lpg=PA18&dq=cambridge+university+puritans+newt
 owne#v=onepage&q=&f=false|accessdate=September 9, 2009 | isbn=978-0-06-131985-3}}</ref> Cambridge is home to two of the world's most prominent universities, [[Harvard University]] and the [[Massachusetts Institute of Technology]]. According to the [[2010 United States Census]], the city's population was 105,162.<ref name="2010.census.gov">{{cite web|url=http://2010.census.gov/news/releases/operations/cb11-cn104.html |title=Census 2010 News &#124; U.S. Census Bureau Delivers Massachusetts' 2010 Census Population Totals, Including First Look at Race and Hispanic Origin Data for Legislative Redistricting |publisher=2010.census.gov |date=2011-03-22 |accessdate=2012-04-28}}</ref> It is the fifth most populous city in the state, behind [[Boston]], [[Worcester, MA|Worcester]], [[Springfield, MA|Springfield]], and [[Lowell, Massachusetts|Lowell]].<ref name="2010.census.gov"/> Cambridge was one of the two [[county seat]]s of Middlesex County prior to the abolition of county government in 199
 7; [[Lowell, Massachusetts|Lowell]] was the other. ==History== {{See also|Timeline of Cambridge, Massachusetts history}} [[File:Formation of Massachusetts towns.svg|thumb|A map showing the original boundaries of Cambridge]] The site for what would become Cambridge was chosen in December 1630, because it was located safely upriver from Boston Harbor, which made it easily defensible from attacks by enemy ships. Also, the water from the local spring was so good that the local Native Americans believed it had medicinal properties.{{Citation needed|date=November 2009}} [[Thomas Dudley]], his daughter [[Anne Bradstreet]] and her husband Simon were among the first settlers of the town. The first houses were built in the spring of 1631. The settlement was initially referred to as "the newe towne".<ref name=drake>{{cite book|last=Drake|first=Samuel Adams|title=History of Middlesex County, Massachusetts|publisher=Estes and Lauriat|location=Boston|year=1880|volume=1|pages=305–16|url=http://b
 ooks.google.com/books?id=QGolOAyd9RMC&pg=PA316&lpg=PA305&dq=newetowne&ct=result#PPA305,M1|accessdate=December 26, 2008}}</ref> Official Massachusetts records show the name capitalized as '''Newe Towne''' by 1632.<ref name=public>{{cite book|title=Report on the Custody and Condition of the Public Records of Parishes|publisher=Massachusetts Secretary of the Commonwealth|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=IyYWAAAAYAAJ&pg=RA1-PA298&lpg=RA1-PA298&dq=%22Ordered+That+Newtowne+shall+henceforward+be+called%22|location=Boston|year=1889|page=298|accessdate=December 24, 2008}}</ref> Located at the first convenient [[Charles River]] crossing west of [[Boston]], Newe Towne was one of a number of towns (including Boston, [[Dorchester, Massachusetts|Dorchester]], [[Watertown, Massachusetts|Watertown]], and [[Weymouth, Massachusetts|Weymouth]]) founded by the 700 original [[Puritan]] colonists of the [[Massachusetts Bay Colony]] under governor [[John Winthrop]]. The original village site is in the
  heart of today's [[Harvard Square]]. The marketplace where farmers brought in crops from surrounding towns to sell survives today as the small park at the corner of John F. Kennedy (J.F.K.) and Winthrop Streets, then at the edge of a salt marsh, since filled. The town included a much larger area than the present city, with various outlying parts becoming independent towns over the years: [[Newton, Massachusetts|Newton (originally Cambridge Village, then Newtown)]] in 1688,<ref>{{cite book |last= Ritter |first= Priscilla R. |coauthors= Thelma Fleishman |title= Newton, Massachusetts 1679–1779: A Biographical Directory |year= 1982 |publisher= New England Historic Genealogical Society }}</ref> [[Lexington, Massachusetts|Lexington (Cambridge Farms)]] in 1712, and both [[Arlington, Massachusetts|West Cambridge (originally Menotomy)]] and [[Brighton, Massachusetts|Brighton (Little Cambridge)]] in 1807.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.brightonbot.com/history.php |title=A Short History of 
 Allston-Brighton |first=Marchione |last=William P. |author= |authorlink= |coauthors= |date= |month= |year=2011 |work=Brighton-Allston Historical Society |publisher=Brighton Board of Trade |location= |page= |pages= |at= |language= |trans_title= |arxiv= |asin= |bibcode= |doi= |doibroken= |isbn= |issn= |jfm= |jstor= |lccn= |mr= |oclc= |ol= |osti= |pmc = |pmid= |rfc= |ssrn= |zbl= |id= |archiveurl= |archivedate= |deadurl= |accessdate=December 21, 2011 |quote= |ref= |separator= |postscript=}}</ref> Part of West Cambridge joined the new town of [[Belmont, Massachusetts|Belmont]] in 1859, and the rest of West Cambridge was renamed Arlington in 1867; Brighton was annexed by Boston in 1874. In the late 19th century, various schemes for annexing Cambridge itself to the City of Boston were pursued and rejected.<ref>{{cite news |title=ANNEXATION AND ITS FRUITS |author=Staff writer |first= |last= |authorlink= |url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9901E4DC173BEF34BC4D52DFB766838F669F
 DE |agency= |newspaper=[[The New York Times]] |publisher= |isbn= |issn= |pmid= |pmd= |bibcode= |doi= |date=January 15, 1874, Wednesday |page= 4 |pages= |accessdate=|archiveurl=http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9901E4DC173BEF34BC4D52DFB766838F669FDE |archivedate=January 15, 1874 |ref= }}</ref><ref>{{cite news |title=BOSTON'S ANNEXATION SCHEMES.; PROPOSAL TO ABSORB CAMBRIDGE AND OTHER NEAR-BY TOWNS |author=Staff writer |first= |last= |authorlink= |url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9C05E1DC1F39E233A25754C2A9659C94639ED7CF |agency= |newspaper=[[The New York Times]] |publisher= |isbn= |issn= |pmid= |pmd= |bibcode= |doi= |date=March 26, 1892, Wednesday |page= 11 |pages= |accessdate=August 21, 2010|archiveurl=http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9C05E1DC1F39E233A25754C2A9659C94639ED7CF |archivedate=March 27, 1892 |ref= }}</ref> In 1636, [[Harvard College]] was founded by the colony to train [[minister (religion)|ministers]] and the new town was
  chosen for its site by [[Thomas Dudley]]. By 1638, the name "Newe Towne" had "compacted by usage into 'Newtowne'."<ref name=drake /> In May 1638<ref>{{cite book|title=The Cambridge of Eighteen Hundred and Ninety-six|editor=Arthur Gilman, ed.|publisher=Committee on the Memorial Volume|location=Cambridge|year=1896|page=8}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|author=Harvard News Office |url=http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/2002/05.02/02-history.html |title='&#39;Harvard Gazette'&#39; historical calendar giving May 12, 1638 as date of name change; certain other sources say May 2, 1638 or late 1637 |publisher=News.harvard.edu |date=2002-05-02 |accessdate=2012-04-28}}</ref> the name was changed to '''Cambridge''' in honor of the [[University of Cambridge|university]] in [[Cambridge, England]].<ref>{{cite book |last= Hannah Winthrop Chapter, D.A.R. |title= Historic Guide to Cambridge |edition= Second |year= 1907 |publisher= Hannah Winthrop Chapter, D.A.R. |location= Cambridge, Mass. |pages= 20–21 |quot
 e= On October&nbsp;15, 1637, the Great and General Court passed a vote that: "The college is ordered to bee at Newetowne." In this same year the name of Newetowne was changed to Cambridge, ("It is ordered that Newetowne shall henceforward be called Cambridge") in honor of the university in Cambridge, England, where many of the early settlers were educated. }}</ref> The first president ([[Henry Dunster]]), the first benefactor ([[John Harvard (clergyman)|John Harvard]]), and the first schoolmaster ([[Nathaniel Eaton]]) of Harvard were all Cambridge University alumni, as was the then ruling (and first) governor of the [[Massachusetts Bay Colony]], John Winthrop. In 1629, Winthrop had led the signing of the founding document of the city of Boston, which was known as the [[Cambridge Agreement]], after the university.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.winthropsociety.org/doc_cambr.php|publisher=The Winthrop Society|title=Descendants of the Great Migration|accessdate=September 8, 2008}}</ref>
  It was Governor Thomas Dudley who, in 1650, signed the charter creating the corporation which still governs Harvard College.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://hul.harvard.edu/huarc/charter.html |title=Harvard Charter of 1650, Harvard University Archives, Harvard University, harvard.edu |publisher=Hul.harvard.edu |date= |accessdate=2012-04-28}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1= |first1= |authorlink1= |editor1-first= |editor1-last= |editor1-link= |others= |title=Constitution of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts|url=http://www.mass.gov/legis/const.htm |accessdate=December 13, 2009 |edition= |series= |volume= |date=September 1, 1779 |publisher=The General Court of Massachusetts |location= |isbn= |oclc= |doi= |page= |pages=|chapter=Chapter V: The University at Cambridge, and encouragement of literature, etc. |chapterurl= |ref= |bibcode= }}</ref> [[Image:Washington taking command of the American Army at Cambridge, 1775 - NARA - 532874.tif|thumb|right|George Washington in Cambridge, 1775]] Cambridge 
 grew slowly as an agricultural village eight miles (13&nbsp;km) by road from Boston, the capital of the colony. By the [[American Revolution]], most residents lived near the [[Cambridge Common|Common]] and Harvard College, with farms and estates comprising most of the town. Most of the inhabitants were descendants of the original Puritan colonists, but there was also a small elite of [[Anglicans|Anglican]] "worthies" who were not involved in village life, who made their livings from estates, investments, and trade, and lived in mansions along "the Road to Watertown" (today's [[Brattle Street (Cambridge, Massachusetts)|Brattle Street]], still known as [[Tory Row]]). In 1775, [[George Washington]] came up from [[Virginia]] to take command of fledgling volunteer American soldiers camped on the [[Cambridge Common]]—today called the birthplace of the [[U.S. Army]]. (The name of today's nearby Sheraton Commander Hotel refers to that event.) Most of the Tory estates were confiscated afte
 r the Revolution. On January 24, 1776, [[Henry Knox]] arrived with artillery captured from [[Fort Ticonderoga]], which enabled Washington to drive the British army out of Boston. [[File:Cambridge 1873 WardMap.jpg|thumb|300px|left|A map of Cambridge from 1873]] Between 1790 and 1840, Cambridge began to grow rapidly, with the construction of the [[West Boston Bridge]] in 1792, that connected Cambridge directly to Boston, making it no longer necessary to travel eight miles (13&nbsp;km) through the [[Boston Neck]], [[Roxbury, Massachusetts|Roxbury]], and [[Brookline, Massachusetts|Brookline]] to cross the [[Charles River]]. A second bridge, the Canal Bridge, opened in 1809 alongside the new [[Middlesex Canal]]. The new bridges and roads made what were formerly estates and [[marsh]]land into prime industrial and residential districts. In the mid-19th century, Cambridge was the center of a literary revolution when it gave the country a new identity through poetry and literature. Cambridge
  was home to the famous Fireside Poets—so called because their poems would often be read aloud by families in front of their evening fires. In their day, the [[Fireside Poets]]—[[Henry Wadsworth Longfellow]], [[James Russell Lowell]], and [[Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr.|Oliver Wendell Holmes]]—were as popular and influential as rock stars are today.{{Citation needed|date=November 2009}} Soon after, [[Toll road|turnpikes]] were built: the [[Cambridge and Concord Turnpike]] (today's Broadway and Concord Ave.), the [[Middlesex Turnpike (Massachusetts)|Middlesex Turnpike]] (Hampshire St. and [[Massachusetts Avenue (Boston)|Massachusetts Ave.]] northwest of [[Porter Square]]), and what are today's Cambridge, Main, and Harvard Streets were roads to connect various areas of Cambridge to the bridges. In addition, railroads crisscrossed the town during the same era, leading to the development of Porter Square as well as the creation of neighboring town [[Somerville, Massachusetts|Somervil
 le]] from the formerly rural parts of [[Charlestown, Massachusetts|Charlestown]]. [[File:Middlesex Canal (Massachusetts) map, 1852.jpg|thumb|1852 Map of Boston area showing Cambridge and rail lines.]] Cambridge was incorporated as a city in 1846. This was despite noticeable tensions between East Cambridge, Cambridgeport, and Old Cambridge that stemmed from differences in in each area's culture, sources of income, and the national origins of the residents.<ref>Cambridge Considered: A Very Brief History of Cambridge, 1800-1900, Part I. http://cambridgeconsidered.blogspot.com/2011/01/very-brief-history-of-cambridge-1800.html</ref> The city's commercial center began to shift from Harvard Square to Central Square, which became the downtown of the city around this time. Between 1850 and 1900, Cambridge took on much of its present character—[[streetcar suburb]]an development along the turnpikes, with working-class and industrial neighborhoods focused on East Cambridge, comfortable middle
 -class housing being built on old estates in Cambridgeport and Mid-Cambridge, and upper-class enclaves near Harvard University and on the minor hills of the city. The coming of the railroad to North Cambridge and Northwest Cambridge then led to three major changes in the city: the development of massive brickyards and brickworks between Massachusetts Ave., Concord Ave. and [[Alewife Brook]]; the ice-cutting industry launched by [[Frederic Tudor]] on [[Fresh Pond, Cambridge, Massachusetts|Fresh Pond]]; and the carving up of the last estates into residential subdivisions to provide housing to the thousands of immigrants that arrived to work in the new industries. For many years, the city's largest employer was the [[New England Glass Company]], founded in 1818. By the middle of the 19th century it was the largest and most modern glassworks in the world. In 1888, all production was moved, by [[Edward Libbey|Edward Drummond Libbey]], to [[Toledo, Ohio]], where it continues today under t
 he name Owens Illinois. Flint glassware with heavy lead content, produced by that company, is prized by antique glass collectors. There is none on public display in Cambridge, but there is a large collection in the [[Toledo Museum of Art]]. Among the largest businesses located in Cambridge was the firm of [[Carter's Ink Company]], whose neon sign long adorned the [[Charles River]] and which was for many years the largest manufacturer of ink in the world. By 1920, Cambridge was one of the main industrial cities of [[New England]], with nearly 120,000 residents. As industry in New England began to decline during the [[Great Depression]] and after World War II, Cambridge lost much of its industrial base. It also began the transition to being an intellectual, rather than an industrial, center. Harvard University had always been important in the city (both as a landowner and as an institution), but it began to play a more dominant role in the city's life and culture. Also, the move of th
 e [[Massachusetts Institute of Technology]] from Boston in 1916 ensured Cambridge's status as an intellectual center of the United States. After the 1950s, the city's population began to decline slowly, as families tended to be replaced by single people and young couples. The 1980s brought a wave of high-technology startups, creating software such as [[Visicalc]] and [[Lotus 1-2-3]], and advanced computers, but many of these companies fell into decline with the fall of the minicomputer and [[DOS]]-based systems. However, the city continues to be home to many startups as well as a thriving biotech industry. By the end of the 20th century, Cambridge had one of the most expensive housing markets in the Northeastern United States. While maintaining much diversity in class, race, and age, it became harder and harder for those who grew up in the city to be able to afford to stay. The end of [[rent control]] in 1994 prompted many Cambridge renters to move to housing that was more affordabl
 e, in Somerville and other communities. In 2005, a reassessment of residential property values resulted in a disproportionate number of houses owned by non-affluent people jumping in value relative to other houses, with hundreds having their property tax increased by over 100%; this forced many homeowners in Cambridge to move elsewhere.<ref>Cambridge Chronicle, October 6, 13, 20, 27, 2005</ref> As of 2012, Cambridge's mix of amenities and proximity to Boston has kept housing prices relatively stable. ==Geography== [[File:Charles River Cambridge USA.jpg|thumb|upright|A view from Boston of Harvard's [[Weld Boathouse]] and Cambridge in winter. The [[Charles River]] is in the foreground.]] According to the [[United States Census Bureau]], Cambridge has a total area of {{convert|7.1|sqmi|km2}}, of which {{convert|6.4|sqmi|km2}} of it is land and {{convert|0.7|sqmi|km2}} of it (9.82%) is water. ===Adjacent municipalities=== Cambridge is located in eastern Massachusetts, bordered by: *the 
 city of [[Boston]] to the south (across the [[Charles River]]) and east *the city of [[Somerville, Massachusetts|Somerville]] to the north *the town of [[Arlington, Massachusetts|Arlington]] to the northwest *the town of [[Belmont, Massachusetts|Belmont]] and *the city of [[Watertown, Massachusetts|Watertown]] to the west The border between Cambridge and the neighboring city of [[Somerville, Massachusetts|Somerville]] passes through densely populated neighborhoods which are connected by the [[Red Line (MBTA)|MBTA Red Line]]. Some of the main squares, [[Inman Square|Inman]], [[Porter Square|Porter]], and to a lesser extent, [[Harvard Square|Harvard]], are very close to the city line, as are Somerville's [[Union Square (Somerville)|Union]] and [[Davis Square]]s. ===Neighborhoods=== ====Squares==== [[File:Centralsquarecambridgemass.jpg|thumb|[[Central Square (Cambridge)|Central Square]]]] [[File:Harvard square 2009j.JPG|thumb|[[Harvard Square]]]] [[File:Cambridge MA Inman Square.jpg|th
 umb|[[Inman Square]]]] Cambridge has been called the "City of Squares" by some,<ref>{{cite web|author=No Writer Attributed |url=http://www.thecrimson.com/article/1969/9/18/cambridge-a-city-of-squares-pcambridge/ |title="Cambridge: A City of Squares" Harvard Crimson, Sept. 18, 1969 |publisher=Thecrimson.com |date=1969-09-18 |accessdate=2012-04-28}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.travelwritersmagazine.com/RonBernthal/Cambridge.html |title=Cambridge Journal: Massachusetts City No Longer in Boston's Shadow |publisher=Travelwritersmagazine.com |date= |accessdate=2012-04-28}}</ref> as most of its commercial districts are major street intersections known as [[Town square|squares]]. Each of the squares acts as a neighborhood center. These include: * [[Kendall Square]], formed by the junction of Broadway, Main Street, and Third Street, is also known as '''Technology Square''', a name shared with an office and laboratory building cluster in the neighborhood. Just over the [[Longfellow Br
 idge]] from Boston, at the eastern end of the [[Massachusetts Institute of Technology|MIT]] campus, it is served by the [[Kendall (MBTA station)|Kendall/MIT]] station on the [[Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority|MBTA]] [[Red Line (MBTA)|Red Line]] subway. Most of Cambridge's large office towers are located here, giving the area somewhat of an office park feel. A flourishing [[biotech]] industry has grown up around this area. The "One Kendall Square" complex is nearby, but—confusingly—not actually in Kendall Square. Also, the "Cambridge Center" office complex is located here, and not at the actual center of Cambridge. * [[Central Square (Cambridge)|Central Square]], formed by the junction of Massachusetts Avenue, Prospect Street, and Western Avenue, is well known for its wide variety of ethnic restaurants. As recently as the late 1990s it was rather run-down; it underwent a controversial [[gentrification]] in recent years (in conjunction with the development of the nearby 
 [[University Park at MIT]]), and continues to grow more expensive. It is served by the [[Central (MBTA station)|Central Station]] stop on the MBTA Red Line subway. '''Lafayette Square''', formed by the junction of Massachusetts Avenue, Columbia Street, Sidney Street, and Main Street, is considered part of the Central Square area. [[Cambridgeport]] is south of Central Square along Magazine Street and Brookline Street. * [[Harvard Square]], formed by the junction of Massachusetts Avenue, Brattle Street, and JFK Street. This is the primary site of [[Harvard University]], and is a major Cambridge shopping area. It is served by a [[Harvard (MBTA station)|Red Line station]]. Harvard Square was originally the northwestern terminus of the Red Line and a major transfer point to streetcars that also operated in a short [[Harvard Bus Tunnel|tunnel]]—which is still a major bus terminal, although the area under the Square was reconfigured dramatically in the 1980s when the Red Line was extende
 d. The Harvard Square area includes '''Brattle Square''' and '''Eliot Square'''. A short distance away from the square lies the [[Cambridge Common]], while the neighborhood north of Harvard and east of Massachusetts Avenue is known as Agassiz in honor of the famed scientist [[Louis Agassiz]]. * [[Porter Square]], about a mile north on Massachusetts Avenue from Harvard Square, is formed by the junction of Massachusetts and Somerville Avenues, and includes part of the city of [[Somerville, Massachusetts|Somerville]]. It is served by the [[Porter (MBTA station)|Porter Square Station]], a complex housing a [[Red Line (MBTA)|Red Line]] stop and a [[Fitchburg Line]] [[MBTA commuter rail|commuter rail]] stop. [[Lesley University]]'s University Hall and Porter campus are located at Porter Square. * [[Inman Square]], at the junction of Cambridge and Hampshire streets in Mid-Cambridge. Inman Square is home to many diverse restaurants, bars, music venues and boutiques. The funky street scene s
 till holds some urban flair, but was dressed up recently with Victorian streetlights, benches and bus stops. A new community park was installed and is a favorite place to enjoy some takeout food from the nearby restaurants and ice cream parlor. * [[Lechmere Square]], at the junction of Cambridge and First streets, adjacent to the CambridgeSide Galleria shopping mall. Perhaps best known as the northern terminus of the [[Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority|MBTA]] [[Green Line (MBTA)|Green Line]] subway, at [[Lechmere (MBTA station)|Lechmere Station]]. ====Other neighborhoods==== The residential neighborhoods ([http://www.cambridgema.gov/CPD/publications/neighborhoods.cfm map]) in Cambridge border, but are not defined by the squares. These include: * [[East Cambridge, Massachusetts|East Cambridge]] (Area 1) is bordered on the north by the [[Somerville, Massachusetts|Somerville]] border, on the east by the Charles River, on the south by Broadway and Main Street, and on the west b
 y the [[Grand Junction Railroad]] tracks. It includes the [[NorthPoint (Cambridge, Massachusetts)|NorthPoint]] development. * [[Massachusetts Institute of Technology|MIT]] Campus ([[MIT Campus (Area 2), Cambridge|Area 2]]) is bordered on the north by Broadway, on the south and east by the Charles River, and on the west by the Grand Junction Railroad tracks. * [[Wellington-Harrington]] (Area 3) is bordered on the north by the [[Somerville, Massachusetts|Somerville]] border, on the south and west by Hampshire Street, and on the east by the Grand Junction Railroad tracks. Referred to as "Mid-Block".{{clarify|What is? By whom? A full sentence would help.|date=September 2011}} * [[Area 4, Cambridge|Area 4]] is bordered on the north by Hampshire Street, on the south by Massachusetts Avenue, on the west by Prospect Street, and on the east by the Grand Junction Railroad tracks. Residents of Area 4 often refer to their neighborhood simply as "The Port", and refer to the area of Cambridgeport
  and Riverside as "The Coast". * [[Cambridgeport]] (Area 5) is bordered on the north by Massachusetts Avenue, on the south by the Charles River, on the west by River Street, and on the east by the Grand Junction Railroad tracks. * [[Mid-Cambridge]] (Area 6) is bordered on the north by Kirkland and Hampshire Streets and the [[Somerville, Massachusetts|Somerville]] border, on the south by Massachusetts Avenue, on the west by Peabody Street, and on the east by Prospect Street. * [[Riverside, Cambridge|Riverside]] (Area 7), an area sometimes referred to as "The Coast," is bordered on the north by Massachusetts Avenue, on the south by the Charles River, on the west by JFK Street, and on the east by River Street. * [[Agassiz, Cambridge, Massachusetts|Agassiz (Harvard North)]] (Area 8) is bordered on the north by the [[Somerville, Massachusetts|Somerville]] border, on the south and east by Kirkland Street, and on the west by Massachusetts Avenue. * [[Peabody, Cambridge, Massachusetts|Peabo
 dy]] (Area 9) is bordered on the north by railroad tracks, on the south by Concord Avenue, on the west by railroad tracks, and on the east by Massachusetts Avenue. The Avon Hill sub-neighborhood consists of the higher elevations bounded by Upland Road, Raymond Street, Linnaean Street and Massachusetts Avenue. * Brattle area/[[West Cambridge (neighborhood)|West Cambridge]] (Area 10) is bordered on the north by Concord Avenue and Garden Street, on the south by the Charles River and the [[Watertown, Massachusetts|Watertown]] border, on the west by Fresh Pond and the Collins Branch Library, and on the east by JFK Street. It includes the sub-neighborhoods of Brattle Street (formerly known as [[Tory Row]]) and Huron Village. * [[North Cambridge, Massachusetts|North Cambridge]] (Area 11) is bordered on the north by the [[Arlington, Massachusetts|Arlington]] and [[Somerville, Massachusetts|Somerville]] borders, on the south by railroad tracks, on the west by the [[Belmont, Massachusetts|Bel
 mont]] border, and on the east by the [[Somerville, Massachusetts|Somerville]] border. * [[Cambridge Highlands]] (Area 12) is bordered on the north and east by railroad tracks, on the south by Fresh Pond, and on the west by the [[Belmont, Massachusetts|Belmont]] border. * [[Strawberry Hill, Cambridge|Strawberry Hill]] (Area 13) is bordered on the north by Fresh Pond, on the south by the [[Watertown, Massachusetts|Watertown]] border, on the west by the [[Belmont, Massachusetts|Belmont]] border, and on the east by railroad tracks. ===Parks and outdoors=== [[File:Alewife Brook Reservation.jpg|thumb|Alewife Brook Reservation]] Consisting largely of densely built residential space, Cambridge lacks significant tracts of public parkland. This is partly compensated for, however, by the presence of easily accessible open space on the university campuses, including [[Harvard Yard]] and MIT's Great Lawn, as well as the considerable open space of [[Mount Auburn Cemetery]]. At the western edge o
 f Cambridge, the cemetery is well known as the first garden cemetery, for its distinguished inhabitants, for its superb landscaping (the oldest planned landscape in the country), and as a first-rate [[arboretum]]. Although known as a Cambridge landmark, much of the cemetery lies within the bounds of Watertown.<ref>http://www2.cambridgema.gov/CityOfCambridge_Content/documents/CambridgeStreetMap18x24_032007.pdf</ref> It is also a significant [[Important Bird Area]] (IBA) in the Greater Boston area. Public parkland includes the esplanade along the Charles River, which mirrors its [[Charles River Esplanade|Boston counterpart]], [[Cambridge Common]], a busy and historic public park immediately adjacent to the Harvard campus, and the [[Alewife Brook Reservation]] and [[Fresh Pond, Cambridge, Massachusetts|Fresh Pond]] in the western part of the city. ==Demographics== {{Historical populations | type=USA | align=right | 1790|2115 | 1800|2453 | 1810|2323 | 1820|3295 | 1830|6072 | 1840|8409 |
  1850|15215 | 1860|26060 | 1870|39634 | 1880|52669 | 1890|70028 | 1900|91886 | 1910|104839 | 1920|109694 | 1930|113643 | 1940|110879 | 1950|120740 | 1960|107716 | 1970|100361 | 1980|95322 | 1990|95802 | 2000|101355 | 2010|105162 | footnote= {{Historical populations/Massachusetts municipalities references}}<ref name="1950_Census_Urban_populations_since_1790">{{cite journal | title=1950 Census of Population | volume=1: Number of Inhabitants | at=Section 6, Pages 21-7 through 21-09, Massachusetts Table 4. Population of Urban Places of 10,000 or more from Earliest Census to 1920 | publisher=Bureau of the Census | accessdate=July 12, 2011 | year=1952 | url=http://www2.census.gov/prod2/decennial/documents/23761117v1ch06.pdf}}</ref> }} As of the census{{GR|2}} of 2010, there were 105,162 people, 44,032 households, and 17,420 families residing in the city. The population density was 16,422.08 people per square mile (6,341.98/km²), making Cambridge the fifth most densely populated city in t
 he US<ref name=CountyCityDataBook>County and City Data Book: 2000. Washington, DC: US Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. Table C-1.</ref> and the second most densely populated city in [[Massachusetts]] behind neighboring [[Somerville, Massachusetts|Somerville]].<ref>[http://www.boston.com/realestate/news/articles/2008/07/13/highest_population_density/ Highest Population Density, The Boston Globe]</ref> There were 47,291 housing units at an average density of 7,354.7 per square mile (2,840.3/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 66.60% [[White (U.S. Census)|White]], 11.70% [[Black (people)|Black]] or [[Race (United States Census)|African American]], 0.20% [[Native American (U.S. Census)|Native American]], 15.10% [[Asian (U.S. Census)|Asian]], 0.01% [[Pacific Islander (U.S. Census)|Pacific Islander]], 2.10% from [[Race (United States Census)|other races]], and 4.30% from two or more races. 7.60% of the population were [[Hispanics in the United States|Hispanic]] or [[Lati
 no (U.S. Census)|Latino]] of any race. [[Non-Hispanic Whites]] were 62.1% of the population in 2010,<ref>{{cite web |url=http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/25/2511000.html |title=Cambridge (city), Massachusetts |work=State & County QuickFacts |publisher=U.S. Census Bureau}}</ref> down from 89.7% in 1970.<ref>{{cite web|title=Massachusetts - Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990|publisher=U.S. Census Bureau|url=http://www.census.gov/population/www/documentation/twps0076/twps0076.html}}</ref> This rather closely parallels the average [[racial demographics of the United States]] as a whole, although Cambridge has significantly more Asians than the average, and fewer Hispanics and Caucasians. 11.0% were of [[irish people|Irish]], 7.2% English, 6.9% [[italians|Italian]], 5.5% [[West Indian]] and 5.3% [[germans|German]] ancestry according to [[Census 2000]]. 69.4% spoke English, 6.9% Spanish, 3.2% [[Standard Mandarin|Chinese]] or [[Sta
 ndard Mandarin|Mandarin]], 3.0% [[portuguese language|Portuguese]], 2.9% [[French-based creole languages|French Creole]], 2.3% French, 1.5% [[korean language|Korean]], and 1.0% [[italian language|Italian]] as their first language. There were 44,032 households out of which 16.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 28.9% were married couples living together, 8.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 60.4% were non-families. 40.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.00 and the average family size was 2.76. In the city the population was spread out with 13.3% under the age of 18, 21.2% from 18 to 24, 38.6% from 25 to 44, 17.8% from 45 to 64, and 9.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30.5 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.7 males. The median income for a h
 ousehold in the city was $47,979, and the median income for a family was $59,423 (these figures had risen to $58,457 and $79,533 respectively {{as of|2007|alt=as of a 2007 estimate}}<ref>{{cite web|url=http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ACSSAFFFacts?_event=Search&geo_id=16000US2418750&_geoContext=01000US%7C04000US24%7C16000US2418750&_street=&_county=cambridge&_cityTown=cambridge&_state=04000US25&_zip=&_lang=en&_sse=on&ActiveGeoDiv=geoSelect&_useEV=&pctxt=fph&pgsl=160&_submenuId=factsheet_1&ds_name=ACS_2007_3YR_SAFF&_ci_nbr=null&qr_name=null&reg=null%3Anull&_keyword=&_industry= |title=U.S. Census, 2000 |publisher=Factfinder.census.gov |date= |accessdate=2012-04-28}}</ref>). Males had a median income of $43,825 versus $38,489 for females. The per capita income for the city was $31,156. About 8.7% of families and 12.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.1% of those under age 18 and 12.9% of those age 65 or over. Cambridge was ranked as one of the most liberal
  cities in America.<ref>{{cite web|author=Aug 16, 2005 12:00 AM |url=http://www.govpro.com/News/Article/31439/ |title=Study Ranks America’s Most Liberal and Conservative Cities |publisher=Govpro.com |date=2005-08-16 |accessdate=2012-04-28}}</ref> Locals living in and near the city jokingly refer to it as "The People's Republic of Cambridge."<ref>[http://www.universalhub.com/glossary/peoples_republic_the.html Wicked Good Guide to Boston English] Accessed February 2, 2009</ref> For 2012, the residential property tax rate in Cambridge is $8.48 per $1,000.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.cambridgema.gov/finance/propertytaxinformation/fy12propertytaxinformation.aspx |title=FY12 Property Tax Information - City of Cambridge, Massachusetts |publisher=Cambridgema.gov |date= |accessdate=2012-04-28}}</ref> Cambridge enjoys the highest possible [[bond credit rating]], AAA, with all three Wall Street rating agencies.<ref>http://www.cambridgema.gov/CityOfCambridge_Content/documents/Understanding_
 Your_Taxes_2007.pdf</ref> Cambridge is noted for its diverse population, both racially and economically. Residents, known as ''Cantabrigians'', include affluent [[MIT]] and Harvard professors. The first legal applications in America for same-sex marriage licenses were issued at Cambridge's City Hall.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.boston.com/news/local/articles/2004/05/17/free_to_marry/ |title=Free to Marry |work=[[The Boston Globe]] |date=2004-05-17 |accessdate=2012-07-18}}</ref> Cambridge is also the birthplace of [[Thailand|Thai]] king [[Bhumibol Adulyadej|Bhumibol Adulyadej (Rama IX)]], who is the world's longest reigning monarch at age 82 (2010), as well as the longest reigning monarch in Thai history. He is also the first king of a foreign country to be born in the United States. ==Government== ===Federal and state representation=== {| class=wikitable ! colspan = 6 | Voter registration and party enrollment {{as of|lc=y|df=US|2008|10|15}}<ref>{{cite web|title = 2008 State Party 
 Election Party Enrollment Statistics | publisher = Massachusetts Elections Division | format = PDF | accessdate = July 7, 2010 | url = http://www.sec.state.ma.us/ele/elepdf/st_county_town_enroll_breakdown_08.pdf}}</ref> |- ! colspan = 2 | Party ! Number of voters ! Percentage {{American politics/party colors/Democratic/row}} | [[Democratic Party (United States)|Democratic]] | style="text-align:center;"| 37,822 | style="text-align:center;"| 58.43% {{American politics/party colors/Republican/row}} | [[Republican Party (United States)|Republican]] | style="text-align:center;"| 3,280 | style="text-align:center;"| 5.07% {{American politics/party colors/Independent/row}} | Unaffiliated | style="text-align:center;"| 22,935 | style="text-align:center;"| 35.43% {{American politics/party colors/Libertarian/row}} | Minor Parties | style="text-align:center;"| 690 | style="text-align:center;"| 1.07% |- ! colspan = 2 | Total ! style="text-align:center;"| 64,727 ! style="text-align:center;"| 100% 
 |} Cambridge is part of [[Massachusetts's 8th congressional district]], represented by Democrat [[Mike Capuano]], elected in 1998. The state's senior member of the [[United States Senate]] is Democrat [[John Kerry]], elected in 1984. The state's junior member is Republican [[Scott Brown]], [[United States Senate special election in Massachusetts, 2010|elected in 2010]] to fill the vacancy caused by the death of long-time Democratic Senator [[Ted Kennedy]]. The Governor of Massachusetts is Democrat [[Deval Patrick]], elected in 2006 and re-elected in 2010. On the state level, Cambridge is represented in six districts in the [[Massachusetts House of Representatives]]: the 24th Middlesex (which includes parts of Belmont and Arlington), the 25th and 26th Middlesex (the latter which includes a portion of Somerville), the 29th Middlesex (which includes a small part of Watertown), and the Eighth and Ninth Suffolk (both including parts of the City of Boston). The city is represented in the 
 [[Massachusetts Senate]] as a part of the "First Suffolk and Middlesex" district (this contains parts of Boston, Revere and Winthrop each in Suffolk County); the "Middlesex, Suffolk and Essex" district, which includes Everett and Somerville, with Boston, Chelsea, and Revere of Suffolk, and Saugus in Essex; and the "Second Suffolk and Middlesex" district, containing parts of the City of Boston in Suffolk county, and Cambridge, Belmont and Watertown in Middlesex county.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.malegislature.gov/ |title=Index of Legislative Representation by City and Town, from |publisher=Mass.gov |date= |accessdate=2012-04-28}}</ref> In addition to the [[Cambridge Police Department (Massachusetts)|Cambridge Police Department]], the city is patrolled by the Fifth (Brighton) Barracks of Troop H of the [[Massachusetts State Police]].<ref>[http://www.mass.gov/?pageID=eopsterminal&L=5&L0=Home&L1=Law+Enforcement+%26+Criminal+Justice&L2=Law+Enforcement&L3=State+Police+Troops&L4=Troop+H
 &sid=Eeops&b=terminalcontent&f=msp_divisions_field_services_troops_troop_h_msp_field_troop_h_station_h5&csid=Eeops Station H-5, SP Brighton]{{dead link|date=April 2012}}</ref> Due, however, to close proximity, the city also practices functional cooperation with the Fourth (Boston) Barracks of Troop H, as well.<ref>[http://www.mass.gov/?pageID=eopsterminal&L=5&L0=Home&L1=Law+Enforcement+%26+Criminal+Justice&L2=Law+Enforcement&L3=State+Police+Troops&L4=Troop+H&sid=Eeops&b=terminalcontent&f=msp_divisions_field_services_troops_troop_h_msp_field_troop_h_station_h4&csid=Eeops Station H-4, SP Boston]{{dead link|date=April 2012}}</ref> ===City government=== [[File:CambridgeMACityHall1.jpg|thumb|right|[[Cambridge, Massachusetts City Hall|Cambridge City Hall]] in the 1980s]] Cambridge has a city government led by a [[List of mayors of Cambridge, Massachusetts|Mayor]] and nine-member City Council. There is also a six-member School Committee which functions alongside the Superintendent of publi
 c schools. The councilors and school committee members are elected every two years using the [[single transferable vote]] (STV) system.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.cambridgema.gov/election/Proportional_Representation.cfm |title=Proportional Representation Voting in Cambridge |publisher=Cambridgema.gov |date= |accessdate=2012-04-28}}</ref> Once a laborious process that took several days to complete by hand, ballot sorting and calculations to determine the outcome of elections are now quickly performed by computer, after the ballots have been [[Optical scan voting system|optically scanned]]. The mayor is elected by the city councilors from amongst themselves, and serves as the chair of City Council meetings. The mayor also sits on the School Committee. However, the Mayor is not the Chief Executive of the City. Rather, the City Manager, who is appointed by the City Council, serves in that capacity. Under the City's Plan E form of government the city council does not have the power to
  appoint or remove city officials who are under direction of the city manager. The city council and its individual members are also forbidden from giving orders to any subordinate of the city manager.<ref>http://www.cambridgema.gov/CityOfCambridge_Content/documents/planE.pdf</ref> [[Robert W. Healy]] is the City Manager; he has served in the position since 1981. In recent history, the media has highlighted the salary of the City Manager as being one of the highest in the State of Massachusetts.<ref>{{cite news |title=Cambridge city manager's salary almost as much as Obama's pay |url=http://www.wickedlocal.com/cambridge/features/x1837730973/Cambridge-city-managers-salary-almost-as-much-as-Obamas |agency= |newspaper=Wicked Local: Cambridge |publisher= |date=August 11, 2011 |accessdate=December 30, 2011 |quote= |archiveurl= |archivedate= |deadurl= |ref=}}</ref> The city council consists of:<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.cambridgema.gov/ccouncil/citycouncilmembers.aspx |title=City of Ca
 mbridge – City Council Members |publisher=Cambridgema.gov |date= |accessdate=2012-04-28}}</ref>{{Refbegin|3}} *[[Leland Cheung]] (Jan. 2010–present) *Henrietta Davis (Jan. 1996–present)* *Marjorie C. Decker (Jan. 2000–present)<ref>{{cite web |url= http://www.wickedlocal.com/cambridge/news/x738245499/Marjorie-Decker-announces-she-will-run-for-Alice-Wolfs-Cambridge-State-Representative-seat |title= Marjorie Decker announces she will run for Alice Wolf's Cambridge State Representative seat |date= 22 March 2012 |work= Wicked Local Cambridge |publisher= GateHouse Media, Inc. |accessdate= 4 April 2012 }}</ref> *Craig A. Kelley (Jan. 2006–present) *David Maher (Jan. 2000-Jan. 2006, Sept. 2007–present<ref>{{cite web|author=By ewelin, on September 5th, 2007 |url=http://www.cambridgehighlands.com/2007/09/david-p-maher-elected-to-fill-michael-sullivans-vacated-city-council-seat |title=David P. Maher Elected to fill Michael Sullivan’s Vacated City Council Seat • Cambridge Highla
 nds Neighborhood Association |publisher=Cambridgehighlands.com |date=2007-09-05 |accessdate=2012-04-28}}</ref>)** *[[Kenneth Reeves]] (Jan. 1990–present)** *[[E. Denise Simmons]] (Jan. 2002–present)** *[[Timothy J. Toomey, Jr.]] (Jan. 1990–present) *Minka vanBeuzekom (Jan. 2012–present){{Refend}} ''* = Current Mayor''<br> ''** = former Mayor'' ===Fire Department=== The city of Cambridge is protected full-time by the 274 professional firefighters of the Cambridge Fire Department. The current Chief of Department is Gerald R. Reardon. The Cambridge Fire Department operates out of eight fire stations, located throughout the city, under the command of two divisions. The CFD also maintains and operates a front-line fire apparatus fleet of eight engines, four ladders, two Non-Transport Paramedic EMS units, a Haz-Mat unit, a Tactical Rescue unit, a Dive Rescue unit, two Marine units, and numerous special, support, and reserve units. John J. Gelinas, Chief of Operations, is in charge
  of day to day operation of the department.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www2.cambridgema.gov/cfd/ |title=City of Cambridge Fire Department |publisher=.cambridgema.gov |date=2005-03-13 |accessdate=2012-06-26}}</ref> The CFD is rated as a Class 1 fire department by the [[Insurance Services Office]] (ISO), and is one of only 32 fire departments so rated, out of 37,000 departments in the United States. The other class 1 departments in New England are in [[Hartford, Connecticut]] and [[Milford, Connecticut]]. Class 1 signifies the highest level of fire protection according to various criteria.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www2.cambridgema.gov/CFD/Class1FD.cfm |title=Class 1 Fire Department |publisher=.cambridgema.gov |date=1999-07-01 |accessdate=2012-06-26}}</ref> The CFD responds to approximately 15,000 emergency calls annually. {| class=wikitable |- valign=bottom ! Engine Company ! Ladder Company ! Special Unit ! Division ! Address ! Neighborhood |- | Engine 1 || Ladder 1 || || || 491 Broad
 way || Harvard Square |- | Engine 2 || Ladder 3 || Squad 2 || || 378 Massachusetts Ave. || Lafayette Square |- | Engine 3 || Ladder 2 || || || 175 Cambridge St. || East Cambridge |- | Engine 4 || || Squad 4 || || 2029 Massachusetts Ave. || Porter Square |- | Engine 5 || || || Division 1 || 1384 Cambridge St. || Inman Square |- | Engine 6 || || || || 176 River St. || Cambridgeport |- | Engine 8 || Ladder 4 || || Division 2 || 113 Garden St. || Taylor Square |- | Engine 9 || || || || 167 Lexington Ave || West Cambridge |- | Maintenance Facility || || || || 100 Smith Pl. || |} ===Water Department=== Cambridge is unusual among cities inside Route 128 in having a non-[[MWRA]] water supply. City water is obtained from [[Hobbs Brook]] (in [[Lincoln, Massachusetts|Lincoln]] and [[Waltham, Massachusetts|Waltham]]), [[Stony Brook (Boston)|Stony Brook]] (Waltham and [[Weston, Massachusetts|Weston]]), and [[Fresh Pond (Cambridge, Massachusetts)|Fresh Pond]] (Cambridge). The city owns over 1200 
 acres of land in other towns that includes these reservoirs and portions of their watershed.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www2.cambridgema.gov/CWD/wat_lands.cfm |title=Cambridge Watershed Lands & Facilities |publisher=.cambridgema.gov |date= |accessdate=2012-04-28}}</ref> Water is treated at Fresh Pond, then pumped uphill to an elevation of {{convert|176|ft|m}} [[above sea level]] at the Payson Park Reservoir ([[Belmont, Massachusetts|Belmont]]); From there, the water is redistributed downhill via gravity to individual users in the city.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.cambridgema.gov/CityOfCambridge_Content/documents/CWD_March_2010.pdf |title=Water supply system |format=PDF |date= |accessdate=2012-04-28}}</ref><ref>[http://www.cambridgema.gov/CWD/fpfaqs.cfm Is Fresh Pond really used for drinking water?], Cambridge Water Department</ref> ===County government=== Cambridge is a [[county seat]] of [[Middlesex County, Massachusetts]], along with [[Lowell, Massachusetts|Lowell]]. Though the c
 ounty government was abolished in 1997, the county still exists as a geographical and political region. The employees of Middlesex County courts, jails, registries, and other county agencies now work directly for the state. At present, the county's registrars of [[Deed]]s and Probate remain in Cambridge; however, the Superior Court and District Attorney have had their base of operations transferred to [[Woburn, Massachusetts|Woburn]]. Third District court has shifted operations to [[Medford, Massachusetts|Medford]], and the Sheriff's office for the county is still awaiting a near-term relocation.<ref>{{cite news | url=http://www.boston.com/news/local/massachusetts/articles/2008/02/14/court_move_a_hassle_for_commuters/ |title=Court move a hassle for commuters |accessdate=July 25, 2009 |first=Eric |last=Moskowitz |authorlink= |coauthors= |date=February 14, 2008 |work=[[Boston Globe|The Boston Globe]] |pages= |archiveurl= |archivedate= |quote=In a little more than a month, Middlesex Su
 perior Court will open in Woburn after nearly four decades at the Edward J. Sullivan Courthouse in Cambridge. With it, the court will bring the roughly 500 people who pass through its doors each day – the clerical staff, lawyers, judges, jurors, plaintiffs, defendants, and others who use or work in the system.}}</ref><ref>{{cite news | url=http://www.wickedlocal.com/cambridge/homepage/x135741754/Cambridges-Middlesex-Jail-courts-may-be-shuttered-for-good |title=Cambridge's Middlesex Jail, courts may be shuttered for good |accessdate=July 25, 2009 |first=Charlie |last=Breitrose |authorlink= |coauthors= |date=July 7, 2009 |work=Wicked Local News: Cambridge |pages= |archiveurl= |archivedate= |quote=The courts moved out of the building to allow workers to remove asbestos. Superior Court moved to Woburn in March 2008, and in February, the Third District Court moved to Medford.}}</ref> ==Education== [[File:MIT Main Campus Aerial.jpg|thumb|Aerial view of part of [[MIT]]'s main campus]] [[
 File:Dunster House.jpg|thumb|[[Dunster House]], Harvard]] ===Higher education=== Cambridge is perhaps best known as an academic and intellectual center, owing to its colleges and universities, which include: *[[Cambridge College]] *[[Cambridge School of Culinary Arts]] *[[Episcopal Divinity School]] *[[Harvard University]] *[[Hult International Business School]] *[[Lesley University]] *[[Longy School of Music]] *[[Massachusetts Institute of Technology]] *[[Le Cordon Bleu College of Culinary Arts in Boston]] [[Nobel laureates by university affiliation|At least 129]] of the world's total 780 [[Nobel Prize]] winners have been, at some point in their careers, affiliated with universities in Cambridge. The [[American Academy of Arts and Sciences]] is also based in Cambridge. ===Primary and secondary public education=== The Cambridge Public School District encompasses 12 elementary schools that follow a variety of different educational systems and philosophies. All but one of the elementa
 ry schools extend up to the [[middle school]] grades as well. The 12 elementary schools are: *[[Amigos School]] *Baldwin School *Cambridgeport School *Fletcher-Maynard Academy *Graham and Parks Alternative School *Haggerty School *Kennedy-Longfellow School *King Open School *Martin Luther King, Jr. School *Morse School (a [[Core Knowledge Foundation|Core Knowledge]] school) *Peabody School *Tobin School (a [[Montessori school]]) There are three public high schools serving Cambridge students, including the [[Cambridge Rindge and Latin School]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.cpsd.us/Web/PubInfo/SchoolsAtAGlance06-07.pdf|title=Cambridge Public Schools at a Glance|format=PDF}}{{dead link|date=June 2012}}</ref> and Community Charter School of Cambridge (www.ccscambridge.org) In 2003, the CRLS, also known as Rindge, came close to losing its educational accreditation when it was placed on probation by the [[New England Association of Schools and Colleges]].<ref name="Crimson MCAS">{{cite w
 eb|url=http://www.thecrimson.com/article.aspx?ref=512061|title=School Fights Achievement Gap|publisher=The Harvard Crimson|accessdate=May 14, 2009}}</ref> The school has improved under Principal Chris Saheed, graduation rates hover around 98%, and 70% of students gain college admission. Community Charter School of Cambridge serves 350 students, primarily from Boston and Cambridge, and is a tuition free public charter school with a college preparatory curriculum. All students from the class of 2009 and 2010 gained admission to college. Outside of the main public schools are public charter schools including: [[Benjamin Banneker Charter School]], which serves students in grades K-6,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.banneker.org/ |title=The Benjamin Banneker Charter Public School |publisher=Banneker.org |date=2012-03-01 |accessdate=2012-04-28}}</ref> [[Community Charter School of Cambridge]],<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.ccscambridge.org/ |title=Community Charter School of Cambridge |publ
 isher=Ccscambridge.org |date= |accessdate=2012-04-28}}</ref> which is located in Kendall Square and serves students in grades 7–12, and [[Prospect Hill Academy]], a [[charter school]] whose upper school is in [[Central Square (Cambridge)|Central Square]], though it is not a part of the Cambridge Public School District. ===Primary and secondary private education=== [[File:Cambridge Public Library, Cambridge, Massachusetts.JPG|thumb|right|[[Cambridge Public Library]] original building, part of an expanded facility]] There are also many private schools in the city including: <!-- please keep alphabetical --> *[[Boston Archdiocesan Choir School]] (BACS) *[[Buckingham Browne & Nichols]] (BB&N) *[[Cambridge montessori school|Cambridge Montessori School]] (CMS) *Cambridge [[Religious Society of Friends|Friends]] School. Thomas Waring served as founding headmaster of the school. *Fayerweather Street School (FSS)[http://www.fayerweather.org/ ] *[[International School of Boston]] (ISB, form
 erly École Bilingue) *[[Matignon High School]] *[[North Cambridge Catholic High School]] (re-branded as Cristo Rey Boston and relocated to Dorchester, MA in 2010) *[[Shady Hill School]] *St. Peter School ==Economy== [[File:Cambridge Skyline.jpg|thumb|Buildings of [[Kendall Square]], center of Cambridge's [[biotech]] economy, seen from the [[Charles River]]]] Manufacturing was an important part of the economy in the late 19th and early 20th century, but educational institutions are the city's biggest employers today. Harvard and [[Massachusetts Institute of Technology|MIT]] together employ about 20,000.<ref name="2008top25">[http://www2.cambridgema.gov/cdd/data/labor/top25/top25_2008.html Top 25 Cambridge Employers: 2008], City of Cambridge</ref> As a cradle of technological innovation, Cambridge was home to technology firms [[Analog Devices]], [[Akamai Technologies|Akamai]], [[BBN Technologies|Bolt, Beranek, and Newman (BBN Technologies)]] (now part of Raytheon), [[General Radio|Ge
 neral Radio (later GenRad)]], [[Lotus Development Corporation]] (now part of [[IBM]]), [[Polaroid Corporation|Polaroid]], [[Symbolics]], and [[Thinking Machines]]. In 1996, [[Polaroid Corporation|Polaroid]], [[Arthur D. Little]], and [[Lotus Development Corporation|Lotus]] were top employers with over 1,000 employees in Cambridge, but faded out a few years later. Health care and biotechnology firms such as [[Genzyme]], [[Biogen Idec]], [[Millennium Pharmaceuticals]], [[Sanofi]], [[Pfizer]] and [[Novartis]]<ref>{{cite news |title=Novartis doubles plan for Cambridge |author=Casey Ross and Robert Weisman |first= |last= |authorlink= |authorlink2= |url=http://articles.boston.com/2010-10-27/business/29323650_1_french-drug-maker-astrazeneca-plc-research-operations |agency= |newspaper=[[The Boston Globe]] |publisher= |isbn= |issn= |pmid= |pmd= |bibcode= |doi= |date=October 27, 2010 |page= |pages= |accessdate=April 12, 2011|quote=Already Cambridge’s largest corporate employer, the Swiss fi
 rm expects to hire an additional 200 to 300 employees over the next five years, bringing its total workforce in the city to around 2,300. Novartis’s global research operations are headquartered in Cambridge, across Massachusetts Avenue from the site of the new four-acre campus. |archiveurl= |archivedate= |ref=}}</ref> have significant presences in the city. Though headquartered in Switzerland, Novartis continues to expand its operations in Cambridge. Other major biotech and pharmaceutical firms expanding their presence in Cambridge include [[GlaxoSmithKline]], [[AstraZeneca]], [[Shire plc|Shire]], and [[Pfizer]].<ref>{{cite news|title=Novartis Doubles Plan for Cambridge|url=http://www.boston.com/business/healthcare/articles/2010/10/27/novartis_doubles_plan_for_cambridge/|accessdate=23 February 2012 | work=The Boston Globe|first1=Casey|last1=Ross|first2=Robert|last2=Weisman|date=October 27, 2010}}</ref> Most Biotech firms in Cambridge are located around [[Kendall Square]] and [[Eas
 t Cambridge, Massachusetts|East Cambridge]], which decades ago were the city's center of manufacturing. A number of biotechnology companies are also located in [[University Park at MIT]], a new development in another former manufacturing area. None of the high technology firms that once dominated the economy was among the 25 largest employers in 2005, but by 2008 high tech companies [[Akamai Technologies|Akamai]] and [[ITA Software]] had grown to be among the largest 25 employers.<ref name="2008top25" /> [[Google]],<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.google.com/corporate/address.html |title=Google Offices |publisher=Google.com |date= |accessdate=2012-07-18}}</ref> [[IBM Research]], and [[Microsoft Research]] maintain offices in Cambridge. In late January 2012—less than a year after acquiring [[Billerica, Massachusetts|Billerica]]-based analytic database management company, [[Vertica]]—[[Hewlett-Packard]] announced it would also be opening its first offices in Cambridge.<ref>{{cite we
 b|last=Huang|first=Gregory|title=Hewlett-Packard Expands to Cambridge via Vertica’s "Big Data" Center|url=http://www.xconomy.com/boston/2012/01/23/hewlett-packard-expands-to-cambridge-via-verticas-big-data-center/?single_page=true}}</ref> Around this same time, e-commerce giants [[Staples Inc.|Staples]]<ref>{{cite web|title=Staples to bring e-commerce office to Cambridge's Kendall Square Read more: Staples to bring e-commerce office to Cambridge's Kendall Square - Cambridge, Massachusetts - Cambridge Chronicle http://www.wickedlocal.com/cambridge/news/x690035936/Staples-to-bring-E-commerce-office-to-Cambridges-Kendall-Square#ixzz1nDY39Who|url=http://www.wickedlocal.com/cambridge/news/x690035936/Staples-to-bring-E-commerce-office-to-Cambridges-Kendall-Square#axzz1kg3no7Zg}}</ref> and [[Amazon.com]]<ref>{{cite web|title=Amazon Seeks Brick-And-Mortar Presence In Boston Area|url=http://www.wbur.org/2011/12/22/amazon-boston}}</ref> said they would be opening research and innovation cen
 ters in Kendall Square. Video game developer [[Harmonix Music Systems]] is based in [[Central Square (Cambridge)|Central Square]]. The proximity of Cambridge's universities has also made the city a center for nonprofit groups and think tanks, including the [[National Bureau of Economic Research]], the [[Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory]], the [[Lincoln Institute of Land Policy]], [[Cultural Survival]], and [[One Laptop per Child]]. In September 2011, an initiative by the City of Cambridge called the "[[Entrepreneur Walk of Fame]]" was launched. It seeks to highlight individuals who have made contributions to innovation in the global business community.<ref>{{cite news |title=Stars of invention |author= |first=Kathleen |last=Pierce |url=http://articles.boston.com/2011-09-16/business/30165912_1_gates-and-jobs-microsoft-granite-stars |agency= |newspaper=The Boston Globe|date=September 16, 2011 |page= |pages= |at= |accessdate=October 1, 2011}}</ref> ===Top employers=== The top ten 
 employers in the city are:<ref>{{cite web|url=http://cambridgema.gov/citynewsandpublications/news/2012/01/fy11comprehensiveannualfinancialreportnowavailable.aspx |title=City of Cambridge, Massachusetts Comprehensive Annual Financial Report July 1, 2010—June 30, 2011 |publisher=Cambridgema.gov |date=2011-06-30 |accessdate=2012-04-28}}</ref> {| class="wikitable" |- ! # ! Employer ! # of employees |- | 1 |[[Harvard University]] |10,718 |- |2 |[[Massachusetts Institute of Technology]] |7,604 |- |3 |City of Cambridge |2,922 |- |4 |[[Novartis]] Institutes for BioMedical Research |2,095 |- |5 |[[Mount Auburn Hospital]] |1,665 |- |6 |[[Vertex Pharmaceuticals]] |1,600 |- |7 |[[Genzyme]] |1,504 |- |8 |[[Biogen Idec]] |1,350 |- |9 |[[Federal government of the United States|Federal Government]] |1,316 |- |10 |[[Pfizer]] |1,300 |} ==Transportation== {{See also|Boston transportation}} ===Road=== [[File:Harvard Square at Peabody Street and Mass Avenue.jpg|thumb|[[Massachusetts Avenue (Boston)|Ma
 ssachusetts Avenue]] in [[Harvard Square]]]] Several major roads lead to Cambridge, including [[Massachusetts State Highway 2|Route 2]], [[Massachusetts State Highway 16|Route 16]] and the [[Massachusetts State Highway 28|McGrath Highway (Route 28)]]. The [[Massachusetts Turnpike]] does not pass through Cambridge, but provides access by an exit in nearby [[Allston, Massachusetts|Allston]]. Both [[U.S. Route 1]] and [[I-93 (MA)]] also provide additional access on the eastern end of Cambridge at Leverett Circle in [[Boston]]. [[Massachusetts State Highway 2A|Route 2A]] runs the length of the city, chiefly along Massachusetts Avenue. The Charles River forms the southern border of Cambridge and is crossed by 11 bridges connecting Cambridge to Boston, including the [[Longfellow Bridge]] and the [[Harvard Bridge]], eight of which are open to motorized road traffic. Cambridge has an irregular street network because many of the roads date from the colonial era. Contrary to popular belief, t
 he road system did not evolve from longstanding cow-paths. Roads connected various village settlements with each other and nearby towns, and were shaped by geographic features, most notably streams, hills, and swampy areas. Today, the major "squares" are typically connected by long, mostly straight roads, such as Massachusetts Avenue between [[Harvard Square]] and [[Central Square (Cambridge)|Central Square]], or Hampshire Street between [[Kendall Square]] and [[Inman Square]]. ===Mass transit=== [[File:Central MBTA station.jpg|thumb|[[Central (MBTA)|Central station on the MBTA Red Line]]]] Cambridge is well served by the [[MBTA]], including the [[Porter (MBTA station)|Porter Square stop]] on the regional [[MBTA Commuter Rail|Commuter Rail]], the [[Lechmere (MBTA station)|Lechmere stop]] on the [[Green Line (MBTA)|Green Line]], and five stops on the [[Red Line (MBTA)|Red Line]] ([[Alewife Station (MBTA)|Alewife]], [[Porter (MBTA)|Porter Square]], [[Harvard (MBTA station)|Harvard Squ
 are]], [[Central (MBTA station)|Central Square]], and [[Kendall/MIT (MBTA station)|Kendall Square/MIT]]). Alewife Station, the current terminus of the Red Line, has a large multi-story parking garage (at a rate of $7 per day {{as of|lc=y|2009}}).<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.mbta.com/schedules_and_maps/subway/lines/stations/?stopId=10029 |title=> Schedules & Maps > Subway > Alewife Station |publisher=MBTA |date= |accessdate=2012-04-28}}</ref> The [[Harvard Bus Tunnel]], under Harvard Square, reduces traffic congestion on the surface, and connects to the Red Line underground. This tunnel was originally opened for streetcars in 1912, and served trackless trolleys and buses as the routes were converted. The tunnel was partially reconfigured when the Red Line was extended to Alewife in the early 1980s. Outside of the state-owned transit agency, the city is also served by the Charles River Transportation Management Agency (CRTMA) shuttles which are supported by some of the largest compa
 nies operating in city, in addition to the municipal government itself.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.charlesrivertma.org/members.htm |title=Charles River TMA Members |author=Staff writer |date=(As of) January 1, 2013 |work=CRTMA |publisher= |language= |trans_title= |type= |archiveurl= |archivedate= |deadurl= |accessdate=January 1, 2013 |quote= |ref= |separator= |postscript=}} </ref> ===Cycling=== Cambridge has several [[bike path]]s, including one along the Charles River,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.mass.gov/dcr/parks/metroboston/maps/bikepaths_dudley.gif |title=Dr. Paul Dudley White Bikepath |date= |accessdate=2012-04-28}}</ref> and the [[Cambridge Linear Park|Linear Park]] connecting the [[Minuteman Bikeway]] at Alewife with the [[Somerville Community Path]]. Bike parking is common and there are bike lanes on many streets, although concerns have been expressed regarding the suitability of many of the lanes. On several central MIT streets, bike lanes transfer onto the sidewalk.
  Cambridge bans cycling on certain sections of sidewalk where pedestrian traffic is heavy.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.cambridgema.gov/cdd/et/bike/bike_ban.html |title=Sidewalk Bicycling Banned Areas – Cambridge Massachusetts |publisher=Cambridgema.gov |date= |accessdate=2012-04-28}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.cambridgema.gov/cdd/et/bike/bike_reg.html |title=Traffic Regulations for Cyclists – Cambridge Massachusetts |publisher=Cambridgema.gov |date=1997-05-01 |accessdate=2012-04-28}}</ref> While ''[[Bicycling Magazine]]'' has rated Boston as one of the worst cities in the nation for bicycling (In their words, for "lousy roads, scarce and unconnected bike lanes and bike-friendly gestures from City Hall that go nowhere—such as hiring a bike coordinator in 2001, only to cut the position two years later"),<ref>[http://www.bicycling.com/article/1,6610,s1-2-16-14593-11,00.html Urban Treasures – bicycling.com]{{dead link|date=April 2012}}</ref> it has listed Cambridge as
  an honorable mention as one of the best<ref>[http://www.bicycling.com/article/1,6610,s1-2-16-14593-9,00.html Urban Treasures – bicycling.com]{{dead link|date=April 2012}}</ref> and was called by the magazine "Boston's Great Hope." Cambridge has an active, official bicycle committee. ===Walking=== [[File:Weeks Footbridge Cambridge, MA.jpg|thumb|The [[John W. Weeks Bridge|Weeks Bridge]] provides a pedestrian-only connection between Boston's Allston-Brighton neighborhood and Cambridge over the Charles River]] Walking is a popular activity in Cambridge. Per year 2000 data, of the communities in the U.S. with more than 100,000 residents, Cambridge has the highest percentage of commuters who walk to work.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.bikesatwork.com/carfree/census-lookup.php?state_select=ALL_STATES&lower_pop=100000&upper_pop=99999999&sort_num=2&show_rows=25&first_row=0 |title=The Carfree Census Database: Result of search for communities in any state with population over 100,000, sorte
 d in descending order by % Pedestrian Commuters |publisher=Bikesatwork.com |date= |accessdate=2012-04-28}}</ref> Cambridge receives a "Walk Score" of 100 out of 100 possible points.<ref>[http://www.walkscore.com/get-score.php?street=cambridge%2C+ma&go=Go Walk Score site] Accessed July 28, 2009</ref> Cambridge's major historic squares have been recently changed into a modern walking landscape, which has sparked a traffic calming program based on the needs of pedestrians rather than of motorists. ===Intercity=== The Boston intercity bus and train stations at [[South Station]], Boston, and [[Logan International Airport]] in [[East Boston]], are accessible by [[Red Line (MBTA)|subway]]. The [[Fitchburg Line]] rail service from [[Porter (MBTA station)|Porter Square]] connects to some western suburbs. Since October 2010, there has also been intercity bus service between [[Alewife (MBTA station)|Alewife Station]] (Cambridge) and [[New York City]].<ref>{{cite web|last=Thomas |first=Sarah |u
 rl=http://www.boston.com/yourtown/news/cambridge/2010/10/warren_mbta_welcome_world_wide.html |title=NYC-bound buses will roll from Newton, Cambridge |publisher=Boston.com |date=2010-10-19 |accessdate=2012-04-28}}</ref> ==Media== ===Newspapers=== Cambridge is served by several weekly newspapers. The most prominent is the ''[[Cambridge Chronicle]]'', which is also the oldest surviving weekly paper in the United States. ===Radio=== Cambridge is home to the following commercially licensed and student-run radio stations: {| class=wikitable |- ! [[Callsign]] !! Frequency !! City/town !! Licensee !! Format |- | [[WHRB]] || align=right | 95.3 FM || Cambridge (Harvard) || Harvard Radio Broadcasting Co., Inc. || [[Variety (US radio)|Musical variety]] |- | [[WJIB]] || align=right | 740&nbsp;AM || Cambridge || Bob Bittner Broadcasting || [[Adult Standards]]/Pop |- | [[WMBR]] || align=right | 88.1 FM || Cambridge (MIT) || Technology Broadcasting Corporation || [[College radio]] |} ===Television=
 == Cambridge Community Television (CCTV) has served the Cambridge community since its inception in 1988. CCTV operates Cambridge's public access television facility and programs three television channels, 8, 9, and 96 on the Cambridge cable system (Comcast). ===Social media=== As of 2011, a growing number of social media efforts provide means for participatory engagement with the locality of Cambridge, such as Localocracy<ref>"Localocracy is an online town common where registered voters using real names can weigh in on local issues." [http://cambridge.localocracy.com/ Localocracy Cambridge, Massachusetts]. Accessed 2011-10-01</ref> and [[foursquare (website)|Foursquare]]. ==Culture, art and architecture== [[File:Fogg.jpg|thumb|[[Fogg Museum]], Harvard]] ===Museums=== * [[Harvard Art Museum]], including the [[Busch-Reisinger Museum]], a collection of Germanic art the [[Fogg Art Museum]], a comprehensive collection of Western art, and the [[Arthur M. Sackler Museum]], a collection of 
 Middle East and Asian art * [[Harvard Museum of Natural History]], including the [[Glass Flowers]] collection * [[Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology]], Harvard *[[Semitic Museum]], Harvard * [[MIT Museum]] * [[List Visual Arts Center]], MIT ===Public art=== Cambridge has a large and varied collection of permanent public art, both on city property (managed by the Cambridge Arts Council),<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.cambridgema.gov/CAC/Public/overview.cfm |title=CAC Public Art Program |publisher=Cambridgema.gov |date=2007-03-13 |accessdate=2012-04-28}}</ref> and on the campuses of Harvard<ref>{{cite web|url=http://ofa.fas.harvard.edu/visualarts/pubart.php |title=Office for the Arts at Harvard: Public Art |publisher=Ofa.fas.harvard.edu |date= |accessdate=2012-04-28}}</ref> and MIT.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://listart.mit.edu/map |title=MIT Public Art Collection Map |publisher=Listart.mit.edu |date= |accessdate=2012-04-28}}</ref> Temporary public artworks are displayed as part 
 of the annual Cambridge River Festival on the banks of the Charles River, during winter celebrations in Harvard and Central Squares, and at university campus sites. Experimental forms of public artistic and cultural expression include the Central Square World's Fair, the Somerville-based annual Honk! Festival,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://honkfest.org/ |title= Honk Fest}}</ref> and [[If This House Could Talk]],<ref>{{cite web|url=http://cambridgehistory.org/discover/ifthishousecouldtalk/index.html |title=The Cambridge Historical Society}}</ref> a neighborhood art and history event. {{or|date=April 2012}} {{Citation needed|date=April 2012}} An active tradition of street musicians and other performers in Harvard Square entertains an audience of tourists and local residents during the warmer months of the year. The performances are coordinated through a public process that has been developed collaboratively by the performers,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.buskersadvocates.org/ | title= St
 reet Arts & Buskers Advocates}}</ref> city administrators, private organizations and business groups.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://harvardsquare.com/Home/Arts-and-Entertainment/Street-Arts-and-Buskers-Advocates.aspx |title=Street Arts and Buskers Advocates |publisher=Harvardsquare.com |date= |accessdate=2012-04-28}}</ref> [[File:Longfellow National Historic Site, Cambridge, Massachusetts.JPG|thumb|right|The [[Longfellow National Historic Site]]]] [[File:Wfm stata center.jpg|thumb|[[Stata Center]], MIT]] [[File:Simmons Hall, MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts.JPG|thumb|[[List of MIT undergraduate dormitories|Simmons Hall]], MIT]] ===Architecture=== Despite intensive urbanization during the late 19th century and 20th century, Cambridge has preserved an unusual number of historic buildings, including some dating to the 17th century. The city also contains an abundance of innovative contemporary architecture, largely built by Harvard and MIT. ;Notable historic buildings in the city include: * T
 he [[Asa Gray House]] (1810) * [[Austin Hall, Harvard University]] (1882–84) * [[Cambridge, Massachusetts City Hall|Cambridge City Hall]] (1888–89) * [[Cambridge Public Library]] (1888) * [[Christ Church, Cambridge]] (1761) * [[Cooper-Frost-Austin House]] (1689–1817) * [[Elmwood (Cambridge, Massachusetts)|Elmwood House]] (1767), residence of the [[President of Harvard University]] * [[First Church of Christ, Scientist (Cambridge, Massachusetts)|First Church of Christ, Scientist]] (1924–30) * [[The First Parish in Cambridge]] (1833) * [[Harvard-Epworth United Methodist Church]] (1891–93) * [[Harvard Lampoon Building]] (1909) * The [[Hooper-Lee-Nichols House]] (1685–1850) * [[Longfellow National Historic Site]] (1759), former home of poet [[Henry Wadsworth Longfellow]] * [[The Memorial Church of Harvard University]] (1932) * [[Memorial Hall, Harvard University]] (1870–77) * [[Middlesex County Courthouse (Massachusetts)|Middlesex County Courthouse]] (1814–48) * [[Urban 
 Rowhouse (40-48 Pearl Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts)|Urban Rowhouse]] (1875) * [[spite house|O'Reilly Spite House]] (1908), built to spite a neighbor who would not sell his adjacent land<ref name="existing">Bloom, Jonathan. (February 2, 2003) [[Boston Globe]] ''[http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=BG&p_theme=bg&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&p_topdoc=1&p_text_direct-0=0F907F2342522B5D&p_field_direct-0=document_id&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:D Existing by the Thinnest of Margins. A Concord Avenue Landmark Gives New Meaning to Cozy.]'' Section: City Weekly; Page 11. Location: 260 Concord Ave, Cambridge, MA 02138.</ref> {{See also|List of Registered Historic Places in Cambridge, Massachusetts}} ;Contemporary architecture: * [[List of MIT undergraduate dormitories#Baker House|Baker House]] dormitory, MIT, by Finnish architect [[Alvar Aalto]], one of only two buildings by Aalto in the US * Harvard Graduate Center/Harkness Commons, by [[The Architects Collaborative]]
  (TAC, with [[Walter Gropius]]) * [[Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts]], Harvard, the only building in North America by [[Le Corbusier]] * [[Kresge Auditorium]], MIT, by [[Eero Saarinen]] * [[MIT Chapel]], by [[Eero Saarinen]] * [[Design Research Building]], by [[Benjamin Thompson and Associates]] * [[American Academy of Arts and Sciences]], by [[Kallmann McKinnell and Wood]], also architects of Boston City Hall * [[Arthur M. Sackler Museum]], Harvard, one of the few buildings in the U.S. by [[James Stirling (architect)|James Stirling]], winner of the [[Pritzker Prize]] * [[Stata Center]], MIT, by [[Frank Gehry]] * [[List of MIT undergraduate dormitories#Simmons Hall|Simmons Hall]], MIT, by [[Steven Holl]] ===Music=== <!-- make section generic. NEEDS MORE WORK. remove marketing fluff for Ryles. --> The city has an active music scene from classical performances to the latest popular bands. ==Sister cities== Cambridge has 8 active, official [[Twin towns and sister cities|sister cit
 ies]], and an unofficial relationship with [[Cambridge]], England:<ref name="peacom">"A message from the Peace Commission" [http://www.cambridgema.gov/peace/newsandpublications/news/detail.aspx?path=%2fsitecore%2fcontent%2fhome%2fpeace%2fnewsandpublications%2fnews%2f2008%2f02%2finformationoncambridgessistercities].</ref> *{{Flagicon|PRT}} [[Coimbra]], [[Portugal]] *{{Flagicon|CUB}} [[Cienfuegos]], [[Cuba]] *{{Flagicon|ITA}} [[Gaeta]], [[Italy]] *{{Flagicon|IRL}} [[Galway]], [[Republic of Ireland|Ireland]] *{{Flagicon|ARM}} [[Yerevan]], [[Armenia]]<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.cysca.org/ |title=Cambridge-Yerevan Sister City Association |publisher=Cysca.org |date= |accessdate=2012-04-28}}</ref> *{{Flagicon|SLV}} [[San José Las Flores, Chalatenango|San José Las Flores]], [[El Salvador]] *{{Flagicon|JPN}} [[Tsukuba, Ibaraki|Tsukuba Science City]], Japan *{{Flagicon|POL}} [[Kraków]], [[Poland]] *{{Flagicon|CHN}} [[Haidian District]], [[China]] Ten other official sister city relations
 hips are inactive: [[Dublin]], Ireland; [[Ischia]], [[Catania]], and [[Florence]], Italy; [[Kraków]], Poland; [[Santo Domingo Oeste]], Dominican Republic; [[Southwark]], London, England; [[Yuseong]], Daejeon, Korea; and [[Haidian District|Haidian]], Beijing, China.<ref name="peacom"/> There has also been an unofficial relationship with: *{{Flagicon|GBR}} [[Cambridge]], England, UK<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.cambridgema.gov/peace/newsandpublications/news/detail.aspx?path=%2fsitecore%2fcontent%2fhome%2fpeace%2fnewsandpublications%2fnews%2f2008%2f02%2finformationoncambridgessistercities |title="Sister Cities", Cambridge Peace Commission |publisher=Cambridgema.gov |date=2008-02-15 |accessdate=2012-07-18}}</ref> ==Zip codes== *02138—Harvard Square/West Cambridge *02139—Central Square/Inman Square/MIT *02140—Porter Square/North Cambridge *02141—East Cambridge *02142—Kendall Square ==References== {{reflist|30em}} ==General references== * ''History of Middlesex County, Massach
 usetts'', [http://books.google.com/books?id=QGolOAyd9RMC&dq=intitle:History+intitle:of+intitle:Middlesex+intitle:County+intitle:Massachusetts&lr=&num=50&as_brr=0&source=gbs_other_versions_sidebar_s&cad=5 Volume 1 (A-H)], [http://books.google.com/books?id=hNaAnwRMedUC&pg=PA506&dq=intitle:History+intitle:of+intitle:Middlesex+intitle:County+intitle:Massachusetts&lr=&num=50&as_brr=0#PPA3,M1 Volume 2 (L-W)] compiled by Samuel Adams Drake, published 1879–1880. ** [http://books.google.com/books?id=QGolOAyd9RMC&printsec=titlepage#PPA305,M1 Cambridge article] by Rev. Edward Abbott in volume 1, pages 305–358. *Eliot, Samuel Atkins. ''A History of Cambridge, Massachusetts: 1630–1913''. Cambridge: The Cambridge Tribune, 1913. *Hiestand, Emily. "Watershed: An Excursion in Four Parts" The Georgia Review Spring 1998 pages 7–28 *[[Lucius Robinson Paige|Paige, Lucius]]. ''History of Cambridge, Massachusetts: 1630–1877''. Cambridge: The Riverside Press, 1877. *Survey of Architectural Histor
 y in Cambridge: Mid Cambridge, 1967, Cambridge Historical Commission, Cambridge, Mass.{{ISBN missing}} *Survey of Architectural History in Cambridge: Cambridgeport, 1971 ISBN 0-262-53013-9, Cambridge Historical Commission, Cambridge, Mass. *Survey of Architectural History in Cambridge: Old Cambridge, 1973 ISBN 0-262-53014-7, Cambridge Historical Commission, Cambridge, Mass. *Survey of Architectural History in Cambridge: Northwest Cambridge, 1977 ISBN 0-262-53032-5, Cambridge Historical Commission, Cambridge, Mass. *Survey of Architectural History in Cambridge: East Cambridge, 1988 (revised) ISBN 0-262-53078-3, Cambridge Historical Commission, Cambridge, Mass. *{{cite book|last=Sinclair|first=Jill|title=Fresh Pond: The History of a Cambridge Landscape|publisher=MIT Press|location=Cambridge, Mass.|date=April 2009|isbn=978-0-262-19591-1 }} *{{cite book|last=Seaburg|first=Alan|title=Cambridge on the Charles|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=c7_oCS782-8C|publisher=Anne Miniver Press|l
 ocation=Billerica, Mass.|year=2001|author=Seaburg, A. and Dahill, T. and Rose, C.H.|isbn=978-0-9625794-9-3}} ==External links== {{Commons category}} <!-- for current and future use if material is uploaded --> {{Wikivoyage|Cambridge (Massachusetts)}} {{Portal|Boston}} {{Commons category|Cambridge, Massachusetts}} *{{Official website|http://www.cambridgema.gov/}} *[http://www.cambridge-usa.org/ Cambridge Office for Tourism] *[http://www.city-data.com/city/Cambridge-Massachusetts.html City-Data.com] *[http://www.epodunk.com/cgi-bin/genInfo.php?locIndex=2894 ePodunk: Profile for Cambridge, Massachusetts] *{{dmoz|Regional/North_America/United_States/Massachusetts/Localities/C/Cambridge}} <br/><!--this break is to put visual space between the last information and the following template if needed--> ===Maps=== *[http://www.cambridgema.gov/GIS/FindMapAtlas.cfm Cambridge Maps] *[http://www.cambridgema.gov/GIS City of Cambridge Geographic Information System (GIS)] *[http://www.salemdeeds.com/
 atlases_results.asp?ImageType=index&atlastype=MassWorld&atlastown=&atlas=MASSACHUSETTS+1871&atlas_desc=MASSACHUSETTS+1871 ''1871 Atlas of Massachusetts''.] by Wall & Gray. [http://www.salemdeeds.com/atlases_pages.asp?ImageName=PAGE_0010_0011.jpg&atlastype=MassWorld&atlastown=&atlas=MASSACHUSETTS+1871&atlas_desc=MASSACHUSETTS+1871&pageprefix= Map of Massachusetts.] [http://www.salemdeeds.com/atlases_pages.asp?ImageName=PAGE_0044_0045.jpg&atlastype=MassWorld&atlastown=&atlas=MASSACHUSETTS+1871&atlas_desc=MASSACHUSETTS+1871&pageprefix= Map of Middlesex County.] *Dutton, E.P. [http://maps.bpl.org/details_10717/?srch_query=Dutton%2C+E.P.&srch_fields=all&srch_author=on&srch_style=exact&srch_fa=save&srch_ok=Go+Search Chart of Boston Harbor and Massachusetts Bay with Map of Adjacent Country.] Published 1867. A good map of roads and rail lines around Cambridge. *[http://www.citymap.com/cambridge/index.htm Cambridge Citymap – Community, Business, and Visitor Map.] *[http://docs.unh.edu/town
 s/CambridgeMassachusettsMapList.htm Old USGS maps of Cambridge area.] {{Greater Boston}} {{Middlesex County, Massachusetts}} {{Massachusetts}} {{New England}} {{Massachusetts cities and mayors of 100,000 population}} [[Category:Cambridge, Massachusetts| ]] [[Category:University towns in the United States]] [[Category:County seats in Massachusetts]] [[Category:Populated places established in 1630]] [[Category:Charles River]] [[Category:Place names of English origin in the United States]] [[af:Cambridge, Massachusetts]] [[ar:كامبريدج، ماساتشوستس]] [[zh-min-nan:Cambridge, Massachusetts]] [[be:Горад Кембрыдж, Масачусетс]] [[be-x-old:Кембрыдж (Масачусэтс)]] [[bg:Кеймбридж (Масачузетс)]] [[br:Cambridge (Massachusetts)]] [[ca:Cambridge (Massachusetts)]] [[cs:Cambridge (Massachusetts)]] [[cy:Cambridge, Massachusetts]] [[da:Cambridge (Massachusetts)]] [[de:Cambridge (Massachusetts)]] [[et:Cambridge (Massachusetts)
 ]] [[es:Cambridge (Massachusetts)]] [[eo:Kembriĝo (Masaĉuseco)]] [[eu:Cambridge (Massachusetts)]] [[fa:کمبریج (ماساچوست)]] [[fr:Cambridge (Massachusetts)]] [[gd:Cambridge (MA)]] [[ko:케임브리지 (매사추세츠 주)]] [[hy:Քեմբրիջ (Մասաչուսեթս)]] [[id:Cambridge, Massachusetts]] [[it:Cambridge (Massachusetts)]] [[he:קיימברידג' (מסצ'וסטס)]] [[jv:Cambridge, Massachusetts]] [[kk:Кэмбридж (Массачусетс)]] [[kw:Cambridge, Massachusetts]] [[sw:Cambridge, Massachusetts]] [[ht:Cambridge, Massachusetts]] [[la:Cantabrigia (Massachusetta)]] [[lv:Keimbridža]] [[lb:Cambridge (Massachusetts)]] [[hu:Cambridge (Massachusetts)]] [[mr:केंब्रिज, मॅसेच्युसेट्स]] [[ms:Cambridge, Massachusetts]] [[nl:Cambridge (Massachusetts)]] [[ja:ケンブリッジ (マサチューセッツ州)]] [[no:Cambridge (Massachusetts)]] [[pl:Cambridge (Massachusetts)]] [[pt:Cambridge (Massachusetts)]] [[ro:Cambri
 dge, Massachusetts]] [[ru:Кембридж (Массачусетс)]] [[scn:Cambridge (Massachusetts), USA]] [[simple:Cambridge, Massachusetts]] [[sk:Cambridge (Massachusetts)]] [[sl:Cambridge, Massachusetts]] [[sr:Кембриџ (Масачусетс)]] [[fi:Cambridge (Massachusetts)]] [[sv:Cambridge, Massachusetts]] [[tl:Cambridge, Massachusetts]] [[ta:கேம்பிரிஜ், மாசசூசெட்ஸ்]] [[th:เคมบริดจ์ (รัฐแมสซาชูเซตส์)]] [[tg:Кембриҷ (Массачусетс)]] [[tr:Cambridge, Massachusetts]] [[uk:Кембридж (Массачусетс)]] [[vi:Cambridge, Massachusetts]] [[vo:Cambridge (Massachusetts)]] [[war:Cambridge, Massachusetts]] [[yi:קעמברידזש, מאסאטשוסעטס]] [[zh:剑桥 (马萨诸塞州)]]
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