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From whosc...@apache.org
Subject svn commit: r351891 - /lucene/java/trunk/contrib/memory/src/java/org/apache/lucene/index/memory/MemoryIndex.java
Date Sat, 03 Dec 2005 05:24:38 GMT
Author: whoschek
Date: Fri Dec  2 21:24:31 2005
New Revision: 351891

URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewcvs?rev=351891&view=rev
Log:
some performance improvements

Added:
    lucene/java/trunk/contrib/memory/src/java/org/apache/lucene/index/memory/MemoryIndex.java

Added: lucene/java/trunk/contrib/memory/src/java/org/apache/lucene/index/memory/MemoryIndex.java
URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewcvs/lucene/java/trunk/contrib/memory/src/java/org/apache/lucene/index/memory/MemoryIndex.java?rev=351891&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- lucene/java/trunk/contrib/memory/src/java/org/apache/lucene/index/memory/MemoryIndex.java
(added)
+++ lucene/java/trunk/contrib/memory/src/java/org/apache/lucene/index/memory/MemoryIndex.java
Fri Dec  2 21:24:31 2005
@@ -0,0 +1,1067 @@
+package org.apache.lucene.index.memory;
+
+/**
+ * Copyright 2005 The Apache Software Foundation
+ *
+ * Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
+ * you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
+ * You may obtain a copy of the License at
+ *
+ *     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+ *
+ * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
+ * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
+ * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
+ * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
+ * limitations under the License.
+ */
+
+import java.io.IOException;
+import java.io.Serializable;
+import java.util.Arrays;
+import java.util.Collection;
+import java.util.Collections;
+import java.util.Comparator;
+import java.util.HashMap;
+import java.util.Iterator;
+import java.util.Map;
+
+import org.apache.lucene.analysis.Analyzer;
+import org.apache.lucene.analysis.Token;
+import org.apache.lucene.analysis.TokenStream;
+import org.apache.lucene.document.Document;
+import org.apache.lucene.index.IndexReader;
+import org.apache.lucene.index.Term;
+import org.apache.lucene.index.TermDocs;
+import org.apache.lucene.index.TermEnum;
+import org.apache.lucene.index.TermFreqVector;
+import org.apache.lucene.index.TermPositionVector;
+import org.apache.lucene.index.TermPositions;
+import org.apache.lucene.search.HitCollector;
+import org.apache.lucene.search.IndexSearcher;
+import org.apache.lucene.search.Query;
+import org.apache.lucene.search.Searcher;
+import org.apache.lucene.search.Similarity;
+
+/**
+ * High-performance single-document main memory Apache Lucene fulltext search index. 
+ * 
+ * <h4>Overview</h4>
+ * 
+ * This class is a replacement/substitute for a large subset of
+ * {@link org.apache.lucene.store.RAMDirectory} functionality. It is designed to
+ * enable maximum efficiency for on-the-fly matchmaking combining structured and 
+ * fuzzy fulltext search in realtime streaming applications such as Nux XQuery based XML

+ * message queues, publish-subscribe systems for Blogs/newsfeeds, text chat, data acquisition
and 
+ * distribution systems, application level routers, firewalls, classifiers, etc. 
+ * Rather than targetting fulltext search of infrequent queries over huge persistent 
+ * data archives (historic search), this class targets fulltext search of huge 
+ * numbers of queries over comparatively small transient realtime data (prospective 
+ * search). 
+ * For example as in <code>float score = search(String text, Query query)</code>.
+ * <p>
+ * Each instance can hold at most one Lucene "document", with a document containing
+ * zero or more "fields", each field having a name and a fulltext value. The
+ * fulltext value is tokenized (split and transformed) into zero or more index terms 
+ * (aka words) on <code>addField()</code>, according to the policy implemented
by an
+ * Analyzer. For example, Lucene analyzers can split on whitespace, normalize to lower case
+ * for case insensitivity, ignore common terms with little discriminatory value such as "he",
"in", "and" (stop
+ * words), reduce the terms to their natural linguistic root form such as "fishing"
+ * being reduced to "fish" (stemming), resolve synonyms/inflexions/thesauri 
+ * (upon indexing and/or querying), etc. For details, see
+ * <a target="_blank" href="http://today.java.net/pub/a/today/2003/07/30/LuceneIntro.html">Lucene
Analyzer Intro</a>.
+ * <p>
+ * Arbitrary Lucene queries can be run against this class - see <a target="_blank" 
+ * href="http://lucene.apache.org/java/docs/queryparsersyntax.html">Lucene Query Syntax</a>
+ * as well as <a target="_blank" 
+ * href="http://today.java.net/pub/a/today/2003/11/07/QueryParserRules.html">Query Parser
Rules</a>.
+ * Note that a Lucene query selects on the field names and associated (indexed) 
+ * tokenized terms, not on the original fulltext(s) - the latter are not stored 
+ * but rather thrown away immediately after tokenization.
+ * <p>
+ * For some interesting background information on search technology, see Bob Wyman's
+ * <a target="_blank" 
+ * href="http://bobwyman.pubsub.com/main/2005/05/mary_hodder_poi.html">Prospective Search</a>,

+ * Jim Gray's
+ * <a target="_blank" href="http://www.acmqueue.org/modules.php?name=Content&pa=showpage&pid=293&page=4">
+ * A Call to Arms - Custom subscriptions</a>, and Tim Bray's
+ * <a target="_blank" 
+ * href="http://www.tbray.org/ongoing/When/200x/2003/07/30/OnSearchTOC">On Search, the
Series</a>.
+ * 
+ * 
+ * <h4>Example Usage</h4> 
+ * 
+ * <pre>
+ * Analyzer analyzer = PatternAnalyzer.DEFAULT_ANALYZER;
+ * //Analyzer analyzer = new SimpleAnalyzer();
+ * MemoryIndex index = new MemoryIndex();
+ * index.addField("content", "Readings about Salmons and other select Alaska fishing Manuals",
analyzer);
+ * index.addField("author", "Tales of James", analyzer);
+ * float score = index.search(QueryParser.parse("+author:james +salmon~ +fish* manual~",
"content", analyzer));
+ * if (score &gt; 0.0f) {
+ *     System.out.println("it's a match");
+ * } else {
+ *     System.out.println("no match found");
+ * }
+ * System.out.println("indexData=" + index.toString());
+ * </pre>
+ * 
+ * 
+ * <h4>Example XQuery Usage</h4> 
+ * 
+ * <pre>
+ * (: An XQuery that finds all books authored by James that have something to do with "salmon
fishing manuals", sorted by relevance :)
+ * declare namespace lucene = "java:nux.xom.pool.FullTextUtil";
+ * declare variable $query := "+salmon~ +fish* manual~"; (: any arbitrary Lucene query can
go here :)
+ * 
+ * for $book in /books/book[author="James" and lucene:match(abstract, $query) > 0.0]
+ * let $score := lucene:match($book/abstract, $query)
+ * order by $score descending
+ * return $book
+ * </pre>
+ * 
+ * 
+ * <h4>No thread safety guarantees</h4>
+ * 
+ * An instance can be queried multiple times with the same or different queries,
+ * but an instance is not thread-safe. If desired use idioms such as:
+ * <pre>
+ * MemoryIndex index = ...
+ * synchronized (index) {
+ *    // read and/or write index (i.e. add fields and/or query)
+ * } 
+ * </pre>
+ * 
+ * 
+ * <h4>Performance Notes</h4>
+ * 
+ * Internally there's a new data structure geared towards efficient indexing 
+ * and searching, plus the necessary support code to seamlessly plug into the Lucene 
+ * framework.
+ * <p>
+ * This class performs very well for very small texts (e.g. 10 chars) 
+ * as well as for large texts (e.g. 10 MB) and everything in between. 
+ * Typically, it is about 10-100 times faster than <code>RAMDirectory</code>.
+ * Note that <code>RAMDirectory</code> has particularly 
+ * large efficiency overheads for small to medium sized texts, both in time and space.
+ * Indexing a field with N tokens takes O(N) in the best case, and O(N logN) in the worst

+ * case. Memory consumption is probably larger than for <code>RAMDirectory</code>.
+ * <p>
+ * If you're curious about
+ * the whereabouts of bottlenecks, run java 1.5 with the non-perturbing '-server
+ * -agentlib:hprof=cpu=samples,depth=10' flags, then study the trace log and
+ * correlate its hotspot trailer with its call stack headers (see <a
+ * target="_blank"
+ * href="http://java.sun.com/developer/technicalArticles/Programming/HPROF.html">
+ * hprof tracing </a>).
+ * 
+ * @author whoschek.AT.lbl.DOT.gov
+ */
+public class MemoryIndex {
+
+	/** info for each field: Map<String fieldName, Info field> */
+	private final HashMap fields = new HashMap();
+	
+	/** fields sorted ascending by fieldName; lazily computed on demand */
+	private transient Map.Entry[] sortedFields; 
+	
+	/** pos: positions[3*i], startOffset: positions[3*i +1], endOffset: positions[3*i +2] */
+	private final int stride;
+	
+	private static final long serialVersionUID = 2782195016849084649L;
+
+	private static final boolean DEBUG = false;
+	
+	/**
+	 * Sorts term entries into ascending order; also works for
+	 * Arrays.binarySearch() and Arrays.sort()
+	 */
+	private static final Comparator termComparator = new Comparator() {
+		public int compare(Object o1, Object o2) {
+			if (o1 instanceof Map.Entry) o1 = ((Map.Entry) o1).getKey();
+			if (o2 instanceof Map.Entry) o2 = ((Map.Entry) o2).getKey();
+			if (o1 == o2) return 0;
+			return ((String) o1).compareTo((String) o2);
+		}
+	};
+
+	/**
+	 * Constructs an empty instance.
+	 */
+	public MemoryIndex() {
+		this(false);
+	}
+	
+	/**
+	 * Constructs an empty instance that can optionally store the start and end
+	 * character offset of each token term in the text. This can be useful for
+	 * highlighting of hit locations with the Lucene highlighter package.
+	 * Private until the highlighter package matures, so that this can actually
+	 * be meaningfully integrated.
+	 * 
+	 * @param storeOffsets
+	 *            whether or not to store the start and end character offset of
+	 *            each token term in the text
+	 */
+	private MemoryIndex(boolean storeOffsets) {
+		this.stride = storeOffsets ? 3 : 1;
+	}
+	
+	/**
+	 * Convenience method; Tokenizes the given field text and adds the resulting
+	 * terms to the index; Equivalent to adding a tokenized, indexed,
+	 * termVectorStored, unstored, non-keyword Lucene
+	 * {@link org.apache.lucene.document.Field}.
+	 * 
+	 * @param fieldName
+	 *            a name to be associated with the text
+	 * @param text
+	 *            the text to tokenize and index.
+	 * @param analyzer
+	 *            the analyzer to use for tokenization
+	 */
+	public void addField(String fieldName, String text, Analyzer analyzer) {
+		if (fieldName == null)
+			throw new IllegalArgumentException("fieldName must not be null");
+		if (text == null)
+			throw new IllegalArgumentException("text must not be null");
+		if (analyzer == null)
+			throw new IllegalArgumentException("analyzer must not be null");
+		
+		TokenStream stream;
+		if (analyzer instanceof PatternAnalyzer) {
+			stream = ((PatternAnalyzer) analyzer).tokenStream(fieldName, text);
+		} else {
+			stream = analyzer.tokenStream(fieldName, 
+					new PatternAnalyzer.FastStringReader(text));
+		}
+		addField(fieldName, stream);
+	}
+	
+	/**
+	 * Convenience method; Creates and returns a token stream that generates a
+	 * token for each keyword in the given collection, "as is", without any
+	 * transforming text analysis. The resulting token stream can be fed into
+	 * {@link #addField(String, TokenStream)}, perhaps wrapped into another
+	 * {@link org.apache.lucene.analysis.TokenFilter}, as desired.
+	 * 
+	 * @param keywords
+	 *            the keywords to generate tokens for
+	 * @return the corresponding token stream
+	 */
+	public TokenStream keywordTokenStream(final Collection keywords) {
+		// TODO: deprecate & move this method into AnalyzerUtil?
+		if (keywords == null)
+			throw new IllegalArgumentException("keywords must not be null");
+		
+		return new TokenStream() {
+			private Iterator iter = keywords.iterator();
+			private int start = 0;
+			public Token next() {
+				if (!iter.hasNext()) return null;
+				
+				Object obj = iter.next();
+				if (obj == null) 
+					throw new IllegalArgumentException("keyword must not be null");
+				
+				String term = obj.toString();
+				Token token = new Token(term, start, start + term.length());
+				start += term.length() + 1; // separate words by 1 (blank) character
+				return token;
+			}
+		};
+	}
+	
+	/**
+	 * Iterates over the given token stream and adds the resulting terms to the index;
+	 * Equivalent to adding a tokenized, indexed, termVectorStored, unstored,
+	 * Lucene {@link org.apache.lucene.document.Field}.
+	 * Finally closes the token stream. Note that untokenized keywords can be added with this
method via 
+	 * {@link #keywordTokenStream(Collection)}, the Lucene contrib <code>KeywordTokenizer</code>
or similar utilities.
+	 * 
+	 * @param fieldName
+	 *            a name to be associated with the text
+	 * @param stream
+	 *            the token stream to retrieve tokens from.
+	 */
+	public void addField(String fieldName, TokenStream stream) {
+		/*
+		 * Note that this method signature avoids having a user call new
+		 * o.a.l.d.Field(...) which would be much too expensive due to the
+		 * String.intern() usage of that class.
+		 * 
+		 * More often than not, String.intern() leads to serious performance
+		 * degradations rather than improvements! If you're curious why, check
+		 * out the JDK's native code, see how it oscillates multiple times back
+		 * and forth between Java code and native code on each intern() call,
+		 * only to end up using a plain vanilla java.util.HashMap on the Java
+		 * heap for it's interned strings! String.equals() has a small cost
+		 * compared to String.intern(), trust me. Application level interning
+		 * (e.g. a HashMap per Directory/Index) typically leads to better
+		 * solutions than frequent hidden low-level calls to String.intern().
+		 * 
+		 * Perhaps with some luck, Lucene's Field.java (and Term.java) and
+		 * cousins could be fixed to not use String.intern(). Sigh :-(
+		 */
+		try {
+			if (fieldName == null)
+				throw new IllegalArgumentException("fieldName must not be null");
+			if (stream == null)
+				throw new IllegalArgumentException("token stream must not be null");
+			if (fields.get(fieldName) != null)
+				throw new IllegalArgumentException("field must not be added more than once");
+			
+			HashMap terms = new HashMap();
+			int numTokens = 0;
+			int pos = -1;
+			Token token;
+			
+			while ((token = stream.next()) != null) {
+				String term = token.termText();
+				if (term.length() == 0) continue; // nothing to do
+//				if (DEBUG) System.err.println("token='" + term + "'");
+				numTokens++;
+				pos += token.getPositionIncrement();
+				
+				ArrayIntList positions = (ArrayIntList) terms.get(term);
+				if (positions == null) { // term not seen before
+					positions = new ArrayIntList(stride);
+					terms.put(term, positions);
+				}
+				if (stride == 1) {
+					positions.add(pos);
+				} else {
+					positions.add(pos, token.startOffset(), token.endOffset());
+				}
+			}
+			
+			// ensure infos.numTokens > 0 invariant; needed for correct operation of terms()
+			if (numTokens > 0) {
+				fields.put(fieldName, new Info(terms, numTokens));
+				sortedFields = null;    // invalidate sorted view, if any
+			}
+		} catch (IOException e) { // can never happen
+			throw new RuntimeException(e);
+		} finally {
+			try {
+				if (stream != null) stream.close();
+			} catch (IOException e2) {
+				throw new RuntimeException(e2);
+			}
+		}
+	}
+	
+	/**
+	 * Creates and returns a searcher that can be used to execute arbitrary
+	 * Lucene queries and to collect the resulting query results as hits.
+	 */
+	public IndexSearcher createSearcher() {
+		MemoryIndexReader reader = new MemoryIndexReader();
+		IndexSearcher searcher = new IndexSearcher(reader); // ensures no auto-close !!
+		reader.setSearcher(searcher); // to later get hold of searcher.getSimilarity()
+		return searcher;
+	}
+	
+	/**
+	 * Convenience method that efficiently returns the relevance score by
+	 * matching this index against the given Lucene query expression.
+	 * 
+	 * @param query
+	 *            an arbitrary Lucene query to run against this index
+	 * @return the relevance score of the matchmaking; A number in the range
+	 *         [0.0 .. 1.0], with 0.0 indicating no match. The higher the number
+	 *         the better the match.
+	 * @see org.apache.lucene.queryParser.QueryParser#parse(String, String,
+	 *      Analyzer)
+	 */
+	public float search(Query query) {
+		if (query == null) 
+			throw new IllegalArgumentException("query must not be null");
+		
+		Searcher searcher = createSearcher();
+		try {
+			final float[] scores = new float[1]; // inits to 0.0f (no match)
+			searcher.search(query, new HitCollector() {
+				public void collect(int doc, float score) {
+					scores[0] = score;
+				}
+			});
+			float score = scores[0];
+			return score;
+		} catch (IOException e) { // can never happen (RAMDirectory)
+			throw new RuntimeException(e);
+		} finally {
+			// searcher.close();
+			/*
+			 * Note that it is harmless and important for good performance to
+			 * NOT close the index reader!!! This avoids all sorts of
+			 * unnecessary baggage and locking in the Lucene IndexReader
+			 * superclass, all of which is completely unnecessary for this main
+			 * memory index data structure without thread-safety claims.
+			 * 
+			 * Wishing IndexReader would be an interface...
+			 * 
+			 * Actually with the new tight createSearcher() API auto-closing is now
+			 * made impossible, hence searcher.close() would be harmless...
+			 */
+		}		
+	}
+	
+	/**
+	 * Returns a reasonable approximation of the main memory [bytes] consumed by
+	 * this instance. Useful for smart memory sensititve caches/pools. Assumes
+	 * fieldNames are interned, whereas tokenized terms are memory-overlaid. For
+	 * simplicity, assumes no VM word boundary alignment of instance vars.
+	 */
+	public int getMemorySize() {
+		// for example usage in a smart cache see nux.xom.pool.Pool
+		int HEADER = 12; // object header of any java object
+		int PTR = 4; // pointer on 32 bit VMs
+		int ARR = HEADER + 4;
+		int STR = HEADER + 3*4 + PTR + ARR; // string
+		int INTARRLIST = HEADER + 4 + PTR + ARR;
+		int HASHMAP = HEADER + 4*PTR + 4*4 + ARR;
+		
+		int size = 0;
+		size += HEADER + 2*PTR + 4; // memory index
+		if (sortedFields != null) size += ARR + PTR * sortedFields.length;
+		
+		size += HASHMAP + fields.size() * (PTR + HEADER + 3*PTR + 4); // Map.entries
+		Iterator iter = fields.entrySet().iterator();
+		while (iter.hasNext()) { // for each Field Info
+			Map.Entry entry = (Map.Entry) iter.next();			
+			Info info = (Info) entry.getValue();
+			size += HEADER + 4 + PTR + PTR + PTR; // Info instance vars
+			if (info.sortedTerms != null) size += ARR + PTR * info.sortedTerms.length;
+			
+			int len = info.terms.size();
+			size += HASHMAP + len * (PTR + HEADER + 3*PTR + 4); // Map.entries
+			Iterator iter2 = info.terms.entrySet().iterator();
+			while (--len >= 0) { // for each term
+				Map.Entry e = (Map.Entry) iter2.next();
+				size += STR - ARR; // assumes substring() memory overlay
+//				size += STR + 2 * ((String) e.getKey()).length();
+				ArrayIntList positions = (ArrayIntList) e.getValue();
+				size += INTARRLIST + 4*positions.size();
+			}
+		}
+		return size;
+	}	
+
+	private int numPositions(ArrayIntList positions) {
+		return positions.size() / stride;
+	}
+	
+	/** sorts into ascending order (on demand), reusing memory along the way */
+	private void sortFields() {
+		if (sortedFields == null) sortedFields = sort(fields);
+	}
+	
+	/** returns a view of the given map's entries, sorted ascending by key */
+	private static Map.Entry[] sort(HashMap map) {
+		int size = map.size();
+		Map.Entry[] entries = new Map.Entry[size];
+		
+		Iterator iter = map.entrySet().iterator();
+		for (int i=0; i < size; i++) {
+			entries[i] = (Map.Entry) iter.next();
+		}
+		
+		if (size > 1) Arrays.sort(entries, termComparator);
+		return entries;
+	}
+	
+	/** Returns a String representation of the index data for debugging purposes. */
+	public String toString() {
+		StringBuffer result = new StringBuffer(256);		
+		sortFields();		
+		int sumChars = 0;
+		int sumPositions = 0;
+		int sumTerms = 0;
+		
+		for (int i=0; i < sortedFields.length; i++) {
+			Map.Entry entry = sortedFields[i];
+			String fieldName = (String) entry.getKey();
+			Info info = (Info) entry.getValue();
+			info.sortTerms();
+			result.append(fieldName + ":\n");
+			
+			int numChars = 0;
+			int numPositions = 0;
+			for (int j=0; j < info.sortedTerms.length; j++) {
+				Map.Entry e = info.sortedTerms[j];
+				String term = (String) e.getKey();
+				ArrayIntList positions = (ArrayIntList) e.getValue();
+				result.append("\t'" + term + "':" + numPositions(positions) + ":");
+				result.append(positions.toString(stride)); // ignore offsets
+				result.append("\n");
+				numPositions += numPositions(positions);
+				numChars += term.length();
+			}
+			
+			result.append("\tterms=" + info.sortedTerms.length);
+			result.append(", positions=" + numPositions);
+			result.append(", Kchars=" + (numChars/1000.0f));
+			result.append("\n");
+			sumPositions += numPositions;
+			sumChars += numChars;
+			sumTerms += info.sortedTerms.length;
+		}
+		
+		result.append("\nfields=" + sortedFields.length);
+		result.append(", terms=" + sumTerms);
+		result.append(", positions=" + sumPositions);
+		result.append(", Kchars=" + (sumChars/1000.0f));
+		return result.toString();
+	}
+	
+	
+	///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
+	// Nested classes:
+	///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
+	/**
+	 * Index data structure for a field; Contains the tokenized term texts and
+	 * their positions.
+	 */
+	private static final class Info implements Serializable {
+		
+		/**
+		 * Term strings and their positions for this field: Map <String
+		 * termText, ArrayIntList positions>
+		 */
+		private final HashMap terms; 
+		
+		/** Terms sorted ascending by term text; computed on demand */
+		private transient Map.Entry[] sortedTerms;
+		
+		/** Number of added tokens for this field */
+		private final int numTokens;
+		
+		/** Term for this field's fieldName, lazily computed on demand */
+		public transient Term template;
+
+		private static final long serialVersionUID = 2882195016849084649L;	
+
+		public Info(HashMap terms, int numTokens) {
+			this.terms = terms;
+			this.numTokens = numTokens;
+		}
+		
+		/**
+		 * Sorts hashed terms into ascending order, reusing memory along the
+		 * way. Note that sorting is lazily delayed until required (often it's
+		 * not required at all). If a sorted view is required then hashing +
+		 * sort + binary search is still faster and smaller than TreeMap usage
+		 * (which would be an alternative and somewhat more elegant approach,
+		 * apart from more sophisticated Tries / prefix trees).
+		 */
+		public void sortTerms() {
+			if (sortedTerms == null) sortedTerms = sort(terms);
+		}
+				
+		/** note that the frequency can be calculated as numPosition(getPositions(x)) */
+		public ArrayIntList getPositions(String term) {
+			return (ArrayIntList) terms.get(term);
+		}
+
+		/** note that the frequency can be calculated as numPosition(getPositions(x)) */
+		public ArrayIntList getPositions(int pos) {
+			return (ArrayIntList) sortedTerms[pos].getValue();
+		}
+		
+	}
+	
+	
+	///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
+	// Nested classes:
+	///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
+	/**
+	 * Efficient resizable auto-expanding list holding <code>int</code> elements;
+	 * implemented with arrays.
+	 */
+	private static final class ArrayIntList implements Serializable {
+
+		private int[] elements;
+		private int size = 0;
+		
+		private static final long serialVersionUID = 2282195016849084649L;	
+			
+		public ArrayIntList() {
+			this(10);
+		}
+
+		public ArrayIntList(int initialCapacity) {
+			elements = new int[initialCapacity];
+		}
+
+		public void add(int elem) {
+			if (size == elements.length) ensureCapacity(size + 1);
+			elements[size++] = elem;
+		}
+
+		public void add(int pos, int start, int end) {
+			if (size + 3 > elements.length) ensureCapacity(size + 3);
+			elements[size] = pos;
+			elements[size+1] = start;
+			elements[size+2] = end;
+			size += 3;
+		}
+
+		public int get(int index) {
+			if (index >= size) throwIndex(index);
+			return elements[index];
+		}
+		
+		public int size() {
+			return size;
+		}
+		
+		public int[] toArray(int stride) {
+			int[] arr = new int[size() / stride];
+			if (stride == 1)
+				System.arraycopy(elements, 0, arr, 0, size); // fast path
+			else 
+				for (int i=0, j=0; j < size; i++, j += stride) arr[i] = elements[j];
+			return arr;
+		}
+		
+		private void ensureCapacity(int minCapacity) {
+			int newCapacity = Math.max(minCapacity, (elements.length * 3) / 2 + 1);
+			int[] newElements = new int[newCapacity];
+			System.arraycopy(elements, 0, newElements, 0, size);
+			elements = newElements;
+		}
+
+		private void throwIndex(int index) {
+			throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException("index: " + index
+						+ ", size: " + size);
+		}
+		
+		/** returns the first few positions (without offsets); debug only */
+		public String toString(int stride) {
+			int s = size() / stride;
+			int len = Math.min(10, s); // avoid printing huge lists
+			StringBuffer buf = new StringBuffer(4*len);
+			buf.append("[");
+			for (int i = 0; i < len; i++) {
+				buf.append(get(i*stride));
+				if (i < len-1) buf.append(", ");
+			}
+			if (len != s) buf.append(", ..."); // and some more...
+			buf.append("]");
+			return buf.toString();
+		}		
+	}
+	
+	
+	///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
+	// Nested classes:
+	///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
+	private static final Term MATCH_ALL_TERM = new Term("", "");
+		
+	/**
+	 * Search support for Lucene framework integration; implements all methods
+	 * required by the Lucene IndexReader contracts.
+	 */
+	private final class MemoryIndexReader extends IndexReader {
+		
+		private Searcher searcher; // needed to find searcher.getSimilarity() 
+		
+		private MemoryIndexReader() {
+			super(null); // avoid as much superclass baggage as possible
+		}
+		
+		// lucene >= 1.9 or lucene-1.4.3 with patch removing "final" in superclass
+		protected void finalize() {}
+		
+		private Info getInfo(String fieldName) {
+			return (Info) fields.get(fieldName);
+		}
+		
+		private Info getInfo(int pos) {
+			return (Info) sortedFields[pos].getValue();
+		}
+		
+		public int docFreq(Term term) {
+			Info info = getInfo(term.field());
+			int freq = 0;
+			if (info != null) freq = info.getPositions(term.text()) != null ? 1 : 0;
+			if (DEBUG) System.err.println("MemoryIndexReader.docFreq: " + term + ", freq:" + freq);
+			return freq;
+		}
+	
+		public TermEnum terms() {
+			if (DEBUG) System.err.println("MemoryIndexReader.terms()");
+			return terms(MATCH_ALL_TERM);
+		}
+		
+		public TermEnum terms(Term term) {
+			if (DEBUG) System.err.println("MemoryIndexReader.terms: " + term);
+	
+			int i; // index into info.sortedTerms
+			int j; // index into sortedFields
+			
+			sortFields();
+			if (sortedFields.length == 1 && sortedFields[0].getKey() == term.field()) {
+				j = 0; // fast path
+			} else {
+				j = Arrays.binarySearch(sortedFields, term.field(), termComparator);
+			}
+			
+			if (j < 0) { // not found; choose successor
+				j = -j -1; 
+				i = 0;
+				if (j < sortedFields.length) getInfo(j).sortTerms();
+			}
+			else { // found
+				Info info = getInfo(j);
+				info.sortTerms();
+				i = Arrays.binarySearch(info.sortedTerms, term.text(), termComparator);
+				if (i < 0) { // not found; choose successor
+					i = -i -1;
+					if (i >= info.sortedTerms.length) { // move to next successor
+						j++;
+						i = 0;
+						if (j < sortedFields.length) getInfo(j).sortTerms();
+					}
+				}
+			}
+			final int ix = i;
+			final int jx = j;
+	
+			return new TermEnum() {
+	
+				private int i = ix; // index into info.sortedTerms
+				private int j = jx; // index into sortedFields
+					
+				public boolean next() {
+					if (DEBUG) System.err.println("TermEnum.next");
+					if (j >= sortedFields.length) return false;
+					Info info = getInfo(j);
+					if (++i < info.sortedTerms.length) return true;
+	
+					// move to successor
+					j++;
+					i = 0;
+					if (j >= sortedFields.length) return false;
+					getInfo(j).sortTerms();
+					return true;
+				}
+	
+				public Term term() {
+					if (DEBUG) System.err.println("TermEnum.term: " + i);
+					if (j >= sortedFields.length) return null;
+					Info info = getInfo(j);
+					if (i >= info.sortedTerms.length) return null;
+//					if (DEBUG) System.err.println("TermEnum.term: " + i + ", " + info.sortedTerms[i].getKey());
+					return createTerm(info, j, (String) info.sortedTerms[i].getKey());
+				}
+				
+				public int docFreq() {
+					if (DEBUG) System.err.println("TermEnum.docFreq");
+					if (j >= sortedFields.length) return 0;
+					Info info = getInfo(j);
+					if (i >= info.sortedTerms.length) return 0;
+					return numPositions(info.getPositions(i));
+				}
+	
+				public void close() {
+					if (DEBUG) System.err.println("TermEnum.close");
+				}
+				
+				/** Returns a new Term object, minimizing String.intern() overheads. */
+				private Term createTerm(Info info, int pos, String text) { 
+					// Assertion: sortFields has already been called before
+					Term template = info.template;
+					if (template == null) { // not yet cached?
+						String fieldName = (String) sortedFields[pos].getKey();
+						template = new Term(fieldName, "");
+						info.template = template;
+					}
+					
+					return template.createTerm(text);
+				}
+				
+			};
+		}
+	
+		public TermPositions termPositions() {
+			if (DEBUG) System.err.println("MemoryIndexReader.termPositions");
+			
+			return new TermPositions() {
+	
+				private boolean hasNext;
+				private int cursor = 0;
+				private ArrayIntList current;
+				
+				public void seek(Term term) {
+					if (DEBUG) System.err.println(".seek: " + term);
+					Info info = getInfo(term.field());
+					current = info == null ? null : info.getPositions(term.text());
+					hasNext = (current != null);
+					cursor = 0;
+				}
+	
+				public void seek(TermEnum termEnum) {
+					if (DEBUG) System.err.println(".seekEnum");
+					seek(termEnum.term());
+				}
+	
+				public int doc() {
+					if (DEBUG) System.err.println(".doc");
+					return 0;
+				}
+	
+				public int freq() {
+					int freq = current != null ? numPositions(current) : 0;
+					if (DEBUG) System.err.println(".freq: " + freq);
+					return freq;
+				}
+	
+				public boolean next() {
+					if (DEBUG) System.err.println(".next: " + current + ", oldHasNext=" + hasNext);
+					boolean next = hasNext;
+					hasNext = false;
+					return next;
+				}
+	
+				public int read(int[] docs, int[] freqs) {
+					if (DEBUG) System.err.println(".read: " + docs.length);
+					if (!hasNext) return 0;
+					hasNext = false;
+					docs[0] = 0;
+					freqs[0] = freq();
+					return 1;
+				}
+	
+				public boolean skipTo(int target) {
+					if (DEBUG) System.err.println(".skipTo: " + target);
+					return next();
+				}
+	
+				public void close() {
+					if (DEBUG) System.err.println(".close");
+				}
+				
+				public int nextPosition() { // implements TermPositions
+					int pos = current.get(cursor);
+					cursor += stride;
+					if (DEBUG) System.err.println(".nextPosition: " + pos);
+					return pos;
+				}
+			};
+		}
+	
+		public TermDocs termDocs() {
+			if (DEBUG) System.err.println("MemoryIndexReader.termDocs");
+			return termPositions();
+		}
+	
+		public TermFreqVector[] getTermFreqVectors(int docNumber) {
+			if (DEBUG) System.err.println("MemoryIndexReader.getTermFreqVectors");
+			TermFreqVector[] vectors = new TermFreqVector[fields.size()];
+//			if (vectors.length == 0) return null;
+			Iterator iter = fields.keySet().iterator();
+			for (int i=0; i < vectors.length; i++) {
+				String fieldName = (String) iter.next();
+				vectors[i] = getTermFreqVector(docNumber, fieldName);
+			}
+			return vectors;
+		}
+		
+		public TermFreqVector getTermFreqVector(int docNumber, final String fieldName) {
+			if (DEBUG) System.err.println("MemoryIndexReader.getTermFreqVector");
+			final Info info = getInfo(fieldName);
+			if (info == null) return null; // TODO: or return empty vector impl???
+			info.sortTerms();
+			
+			return new TermPositionVector() { 
+	
+				private final Map.Entry[] sortedTerms = info.sortedTerms;
+				
+				public String getField() {
+					return fieldName;
+				}
+	
+				public int size() {
+					return sortedTerms.length;
+				}
+	
+				public String[] getTerms() {
+					String[] terms = new String[sortedTerms.length];
+					for (int i=sortedTerms.length; --i >= 0; ) {
+						terms[i] = (String) sortedTerms[i].getKey();
+					}
+					return terms;
+				}
+	
+				public int[] getTermFrequencies() {
+					int[] freqs = new int[sortedTerms.length];
+					for (int i=sortedTerms.length; --i >= 0; ) {
+						freqs[i] = numPositions((ArrayIntList) sortedTerms[i].getValue());
+					}
+					return freqs;
+				}
+	
+				public int indexOf(String term) {
+					int i = Arrays.binarySearch(sortedTerms, term, termComparator);
+					return i >= 0 ? i : -1;
+				}
+	
+				public int[] indexesOf(String[] terms, int start, int len) {
+					int[] indexes = new int[len];
+					for (int i=0; i < len; i++) {
+						indexes[i] = indexOf(terms[start++]);
+					}
+					return indexes;
+				}
+				
+				// lucene >= 1.4.3
+				public int[] getTermPositions(int index) {
+					return ((ArrayIntList) sortedTerms[index].getValue()).toArray(stride);
+				} 
+				
+				// lucene >= 1.9 (remove this method for lucene-1.4.3)
+				public org.apache.lucene.index.TermVectorOffsetInfo[] getOffsets(int index) {
+					if (stride == 1) return null; // no offsets stored
+					
+					ArrayIntList positions = (ArrayIntList) sortedTerms[index].getValue();
+					int size = positions.size();
+					org.apache.lucene.index.TermVectorOffsetInfo[] offsets = 
+						new org.apache.lucene.index.TermVectorOffsetInfo[size / stride];
+					
+					for (int i=0, j=1; j < size; i++, j += stride) {
+						int start = positions.get(j);
+						int end = positions.get(j+1);
+						offsets[i] = new org.apache.lucene.index.TermVectorOffsetInfo(start, end);
+					}
+					return offsets;
+				}
+
+			};
+		}
+
+		private Similarity getSimilarity() {
+			if (searcher != null) return searcher.getSimilarity();
+			return Similarity.getDefault();
+		}
+		
+		private void setSearcher(Searcher searcher) {
+			this.searcher = searcher;
+		}
+		
+		/** performance hack: cache norms to avoid repeated expensive calculations */
+		private byte[] cachedNorms;
+		private String cachedFieldName;
+		private Similarity cachedSimilarity;
+		
+		public byte[] norms(String fieldName) {
+			byte[] norms = cachedNorms;
+			Similarity sim = getSimilarity();
+			if (fieldName != cachedFieldName || sim != cachedSimilarity) { // not cached?
+				Info info = getInfo(fieldName);
+				int numTokens = info != null ? info.numTokens : 0;
+				float n = sim.lengthNorm(fieldName, numTokens);
+				byte norm = Similarity.encodeNorm(n);
+				norms = new byte[] {norm};
+				
+				cachedNorms = norms;
+				cachedFieldName = fieldName;
+				cachedSimilarity = sim;
+				if (DEBUG) System.err.println("MemoryIndexReader.norms: " + fieldName + ":" + n + ":"
+ norm + ":" + numTokens);
+			}
+			return norms;
+		}
+	
+		public void norms(String fieldName, byte[] bytes, int offset) {
+			if (DEBUG) System.err.println("MemoryIndexReader.norms*: " + fieldName);
+			byte[] norms = norms(fieldName);
+			System.arraycopy(norms, 0, bytes, offset, norms.length);
+		}
+	
+		protected void doSetNorm(int doc, String fieldName, byte value) {
+			throw new UnsupportedOperationException();
+		}
+	
+		public int numDocs() {
+			if (DEBUG) System.err.println("MemoryIndexReader.numDocs");
+			return fields.size() > 0 ? 1 : 0;
+		}
+	
+		public int maxDoc() {
+			if (DEBUG) System.err.println("MemoryIndexReader.maxDoc");
+			return 1;
+		}
+	
+		public Document document(int n) {
+			if (DEBUG) System.err.println("MemoryIndexReader.document");
+			return new Document(); // there are no stored fields
+		}
+	
+		public boolean isDeleted(int n) {
+			if (DEBUG) System.err.println("MemoryIndexReader.isDeleted");
+			return false;
+		}
+	
+		public boolean hasDeletions() {
+			if (DEBUG) System.err.println("MemoryIndexReader.hasDeletions");
+			return false;
+		}
+	
+		protected void doDelete(int docNum) {
+			throw new UnsupportedOperationException();
+		}
+	
+		protected void doUndeleteAll() {
+			throw new UnsupportedOperationException();
+		}
+	
+		protected void doCommit() {
+			if (DEBUG) System.err.println("MemoryIndexReader.doCommit");
+		}
+	
+		protected void doClose() {
+			if (DEBUG) System.err.println("MemoryIndexReader.doClose");
+		}
+	
+		// lucene <= 1.4.3
+		public Collection getFieldNames() {
+			if (DEBUG) System.err.println("MemoryIndexReader.getFieldNames");
+			return getFieldNames(true);
+		}
+	
+		// lucene <= 1.4.3
+		public Collection getFieldNames(boolean indexed) {
+			if (DEBUG) System.err.println("MemoryIndexReader.getFieldNames " + indexed);
+			return indexed ? Collections.unmodifiableSet(fields.keySet()) : Collections.EMPTY_SET;
+		}
+	
+		// lucene <= 1.4.3
+		public Collection getIndexedFieldNames(boolean storedTermVector) {
+			if (DEBUG) System.err.println("MemoryIndexReader.getIndexedFieldNames " + storedTermVector);
+			return getFieldNames(storedTermVector);
+		}
+	
+		// lucene >= 1.9 (deprecated) (remove this method for lucene-1.4.3)
+		public Collection getIndexedFieldNames(org.apache.lucene.document.Field.TermVector tvSpec)
{
+			throw new UnsupportedOperationException(
+				"Deprecated; replaced by getFieldNames(IndexReader.FieldOption)");
+		}
+
+		// lucene >= 1.9 (remove this method for lucene-1.4.3)
+		public Collection getFieldNames(FieldOption fieldOption) {
+			if (DEBUG) System.err.println("MemoryIndexReader.getFieldNamesOption");
+			if (fieldOption == FieldOption.UNINDEXED) 
+				return Collections.EMPTY_SET;
+			if (fieldOption == FieldOption.INDEXED_NO_TERMVECTOR) 
+				return Collections.EMPTY_SET;
+			if (fieldOption == FieldOption.TERMVECTOR_WITH_OFFSET && stride == 1) 
+				return Collections.EMPTY_SET;
+			if (fieldOption == FieldOption.TERMVECTOR_WITH_POSITION_OFFSET && stride == 1)

+				return Collections.EMPTY_SET;
+			
+			return Collections.unmodifiableSet(fields.keySet());
+		}
+	}
+
+}



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