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From "Remko Popma (JIRA)" <j...@apache.org>
Subject [jira] [Updated] (LOG4J2-1274) Layout improvements to enable avoiding temporary object allocation
Date Mon, 04 Apr 2016 14:04:25 GMT

     [ https://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/LOG4J2-1274?page=com.atlassian.jira.plugin.system.issuetabpanels:all-tabpanel
]

Remko Popma updated LOG4J2-1274:
--------------------------------
    Attachment: log4j-2.5-allocations.png

> Layout improvements to enable avoiding temporary object allocation
> ------------------------------------------------------------------
>
>                 Key: LOG4J2-1274
>                 URL: https://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/LOG4J2-1274
>             Project: Log4j 2
>          Issue Type: Improvement
>          Components: Layouts
>    Affects Versions: 2.5
>            Reporter: Remko Popma
>            Assignee: Remko Popma
>             Fix For: 2.6
>
>         Attachments: log4j-2.5-allocations.png
>
>
> *Problem*
> The current Layout API does not make it easy for implementors to avoid creating temporary
objects. Especially these methods:
> {code}
> byte[] toByteArray(LogEvent);
> T toSerializable(LogEvent);
> {code}
> The byte array returned from {{toByteArray(LogEvent)}} cannot be re-used between log
events, since the caller cannot know how many bytes a partially filled array contains.
> In practice, all Layout implementations in Log4j 2 except SerializedLayout implement
the {{StringLayout}} subinterface. This means that the {{toSerializable()}} method needs to
return a new String object for every log event.
> *Forces*
> I am interested in reducing or even eliminating the allocation of temporary objects for
text-based layouts. Many of these use (and re-use) a StringBuilder to build a text representation
of the current log event. Once this text representation is built, it needs to be converted
to bytes that the Appender can consume. I am aware of two ways in the JDK to convert text
to bytes:
> * the various {{String#getBytes}} methods - these all allocate a new byte array for each
invocation
> * the underlying {{java.nio.charset.CharsetEncoder}} used internally by String - especially
method {{CoderResult encode(CharBuffer in, ByteBuffer out, boolean endOfInput)}} which converts
characters to bytes without object allocation.
> The last method is interesting because this gives us an opportunity to also reduce the
amount of copying by directly supplying the ByteBuffer buffer used by RandomAccessFileAppender,
or the MappedByteBuffer of the MemoryMappedFileAppender.
> The resulting API needs to support the fact that implementations may need to call {{CharsetEncoder#encode}}
multiple times:
> * The ByteBuffer may not have enough remaining space to hold all the data; {{CharsetEncoder#encode}}
returns {{CoderResult.OVERFLOW}} to signal this so the caller can consume the contents and
reset/clear the buffer before continuing.
> * The CharBuffer may not be large enough to hold the full text representation of the
log event. Again, {{CharsetEncoder#encode}} may need to be invoked multiple times.
> *Proposal*
> (Thinking out loud here, I'm open to suggestions.)
> It may be sufficient for the layout interface to have a single additional new method:
> {code}
> /**
>  * Formats the event suitable for display and writes the result to the specified destination.
>  *
>  * @param event The Logging Event.
>  * @param destination Holds the ByteBuffer to write into.
>  */
> void writeTo(LogEvent e, ByteBufferDestination destination);
> {code}
> Appenders that want to be allocation-free need to implement the {{ByteBufferDestination}}
interface:
> {code}
> public interface ByteBufferDestination {
>     ByteBuffer getByteBuffer();
>     /**
>      * Consumes the buffer content and returns a buffer with more available() space
>      * (which may or may not be the same instance).
>      * <p>
>      * Called by the producer when the buffer becomes too full
>      * to write more data into it.
>      */
>     ByteBuffer drain(ByteBuffer buf);
> }
> {code}
> Usage: for example RandomAccessFileAppender code can look like this:
> {code}
> // RandomAccessFileAppender
> public void append(final LogEvent event) {
>     getLayout().writeTo(event, (ByteBufferDestination) manager);
> }
> {code}
> Layout implementation of the {{writeTo}} method: layouts need to know how to convert
LogEvents to text, but writing this text into the ByteBuffer can be delegated to a helper:
> {code}
> // some layout 
> public void writeTo(LogEvent event, ByteBufferDestination destination) {
>     StringBuilder text = toText(event, getCachedStringBuilder());
> 	
>     TextEncoderHelper helper = getCachedHelper();
>     helper.encodeWithoutAllocation(text, destination);
> }
> /**
>  * Creates a text representation of the specified log event
>  * and writes it into the specified StringBuilder.
>  * <p>
>  * Implementations are free to return a new StringBuilder if they can
>  * detect in advance that the specified StringBuilder is too small.
>  */
> StringBuilder toText(LogEvent e, StringBuilder destination) {} // existing logic goes
here
> public String toSerializable(LogEvent event) { // factored out logic to toText()
>     return toText(event, getCachedStringBuilder()).toString();
> }
> {code}
> Helper contains utility code for moving the text into a CharBuffer, and for repeatedly
calling {{CharsetEncoder#encode}}. 
> {code}
> public class TextEncoderHelper {
>     TextEncoderHelper(Charset charset) {} // create CharsetEncoder
>     void encodeWithoutAllocation(StringBuilder text, BinaryDestination destination) {
>         ByteBuffer byteBuf = destination.getByteBuffer();
>         CharBuffer charBuf = getCachedCharBuffer();
>         charBuf.reset();
>         int start = 0;
>         int todoChars = text.length();
>         do {
>             int copied = copy(text, start, charBuf);
>             start += copied;
>             todoChars -= copied;
>             boolean endOfInput = todoChars <= 0;
>     
>             charBuf.flip();
>             CodeResult result;
>             do {
>                 result = charsetEncoder.encode(charBuf, byteBuf, endOfInput);
>                 if (result == CodeResult.OVERFLOW) { // byteBuf full
>                     // destination consumes contents
>                     // and returns byte buffer with more capacity
>                     byteBuf = destination.drain(byteBuf);
>                 }
>             } while (result == CodeResult.OVERFLOW);
>         } while (!endOfInput);
>     }
>     
>     /**
>      * Copies characters from the StringBuilder into the CharBuffer,
>      * starting at the specified offset and ending when either all
>      * characters have been copied or when the CharBuffer is full.
>      *
>      * @return the number of characters that were copied
>      */
>     int copy(StringBuilder source, int offset, CharBuffer destination) {}
> }
> {code}



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