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From bode...@apache.org
Subject svn commit: r1293762 [6/15] - in /logging/log4net/site: ./ css/ release/ release/howto/ release/manual/
Date Sun, 26 Feb 2012 07:36:47 GMT
Modified: logging/log4net/site/release/faq.html
URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc/logging/log4net/site/release/faq.html?rev=1293762&r1=1293761&r2=1293762&view=diff
==============================================================================
--- logging/log4net/site/release/faq.html (original)
+++ logging/log4net/site/release/faq.html Sun Feb 26 07:36:45 2012
@@ -171,1103 +171,1103 @@
     </div>
     <div id="bodyColumn">
       <div id="contentBox">
-        <!-- Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more 
-contributor license agreements. See the NOTICE file distributed with
-this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership. 
-The ASF licenses this file to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0
-(the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with 
-the License. You may obtain a copy of the License at
-
-http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
-
-Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
-distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
-WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
-See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
-limitations under the License. -->
-
-    
-      <a name="top">
-      </a>
-        <a name="main"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="main">Apache log4net&#x2122; Frequently Asked Questions</h2>
-            <a name="information"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="information">Information</h2>
-            
-                <a name="what-is-log4net"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="what-is-log4net">What is log4net?</h2>
-                    <p>
-                        log4net is a tool to help the programmer output log statements to a variety of 
-                        output targets.
-                    </p>
-                    <p>
-                        In case of problems with an application, it is helpful to enable logging so 
-                        that the problem can be located. With log4net it is possible to enable logging at 
-                        runtime without modifying the application binary. The log4net package is designed 
-                        so that log statements can remain in <i>production</i> code without incurring a 
-                        high performance cost. It follows that the speed of logging (or rather not 
-                        logging) is crucial.
-                    </p>
-                    <p>
-                        At the same time, log output can be so voluminous that it quickly becomes 
-                        overwhelming. One of the distinctive features of log4net (and common to all of
-                        the log4x libraries) is the notion of <i>hierarchical 
-                        loggers</i>. Using these loggers it is possible to selectively control 
-                        which log statements are output at arbitrary granularity.
-                    </p>
-                    <p>
-                        log4net is designed with two distinct goals in mind: speed and flexibility. There 
-                        is a tight balance between these two requirements.
-                    </p>
-                </div>
-                <p><a href="#top">Back to Top</a></p>
-
-
-                <a name="reliability"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="reliability">Is log4net a reliable logging system?</h2>
-                    <p>
-                        No. log4net is not reliable. It is a best-effort and <i>fail-stop</i> logging system.
-                    </p>
-                    <p>
-                        By fail-stop, we mean that log4net will not throw unexpected exceptions at 
-                        run-time potentially causing your application to crash. <b>If for any reason, log4net 
-                        throws an uncaught exception</b> (except for <span class="code">ArgumentException</span> and 
-                        <span class="code">ArgumentNullException</span> which may be thrown), <b>please send an email 
-                        to the <a class="externalLink" href="mailto:log4net-user@logging.apache.org">
-                        log4net-user@logging.apache.org</a> mailing list</b>. Uncaught exceptions 
-                        are handled as serious bugs requiring immediate attention.
-                    </p>
-                    <p>
-                        Moreover, log4net will not revert to <span class="code">System.Console.Out</span>
-                        or <span class="code">System.Console.Error</span> when its designated 
-                        output stream is not opened, is not writable or becomes full. This avoids 
-                        corrupting an otherwise working program by flooding the user's terminal because 
-                        logging fails. However, log4net will output a single message to 
-                        <span class="code">System.Console.Error</span> and <span>System.Diagnostics.Trace</span>
-                        indicating that logging can not be performed.
-                    </p>
-                </div>
-                <p><a href="#top">Back to Top</a></p>
-
-
-                <a name="prerequisites"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="prerequisites">What are the prerequisites for log4net?</h2>
-                    <p>
-                        log4net runs on many different frameworks and each framework has its own requirements.
-                        As a rule of thumb you will need an ECMA-335 compliant CLI runtime, for example, 
-                        the Microsoft&#xae; .NET runtime 1.0 (1.0.3705) or 1.1 (1.1.4322).
-                    </p>
-                    <p>
-                        Not all frameworks are created equal and some features have been excluded from 
-                        some of the builds. See the <a href="framework-support.html">Framework Support</a> 
-                        document for more information.
-                    </p>
-                </div>
-                <p><a href="#top">Back to Top</a></p>
-
-
-                <a name="examples"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="examples">Is there example code for using log4net?</h2>
-                    <p>
-                        There is a directory containing examples in <span class="code">log4net\examples</span>. 
-                        The examples are broken down by framework.
-                    </p>
-                </div>
-                <p><a href="#top">Back to Top</a></p>
-
-
-                <a name="features"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="features">What are the features of log4net?</h2>
-                    <ul>
-                        <li>
-                            log4net is optimized for speed.</li>
-                        <li>
-                            log4net is based on a named logger hierarchy.</li>
-                        <li>
-                            log4net is fail-stop but not reliable.</li>
-                        <li>
-                            log4net is thread-safe.</li>
-                        <li>
-                            log4net is not restricted to a predefined set of facilities.</li>
-                        <li>
-                            Logging behavior can be set at runtime using a configuration file. 
-                            Configuration files are in XML format.</li>
-                        <li>
-                            log4net is designed to handle exceptions from the start.</li>
-                        <li>
-                            log4net can direct its output to many sinks including: a file, the console, the NT EventLog or even e-mail.</li>
-                        <li>
-                            log4net categorizes logging into levels: DEBUG, INFO, WARN, ERROR and FATAL.</li>
-                        <li>
-                            The format of the log output can be easily changed by implementing a new layout class.</li>
-                        <li>
-                            The target of the log output as well as the writing strategy can be altered by 
-                            writing a new appender class.</li>
-                        <li>
-                            log4net supports multiple output appenders per logger.</li>
-                    </ul>
-                    <p>
-                        See the <a href="../features.html">features</a> overview document for more information on the features of log4net.
-                    </p>
-                </div>
-                <p><a href="#top">Back to Top</a></p>
-
-
-                <a name="thread-safe"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="thread-safe">Is log4net thread-safe?</h2>
-                    <p>
-                        Yes, log4net is thread-safe.
-                    </p>
-                </div>
-                <p><a href="#top">Back to Top</a></p>
-
-
-                <a name="output"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="output">What does log output look like?</h2>
-                    <p>
-                        The log output can be customized in many ways. Moreover, one can completely 
-                        override the output format by implementing one's own <span class="code">ILayout</span>
-                    </p>
-                    <p>
-                        Here is an example output using <span class="code">PatternLayout</span> with the conversion 
-                        pattern <span class="code">%timestamp [%thread] %-5level %logger{2} %ndc - %message%newline</span>
-                    </p>
-                    <div class="source"><pre>
-176 [main] INFO  examples.Sort - Populating an array of 2 elements in reverse order.
-225 [main] INFO  examples.SortAlgo - Entered the sort method.
-262 [main] DEBUG SortAlgo.OUTER i=1 - Outer loop.
-276 [main] DEBUG SortAlgo.SWAP i=1 j=0 - Swapping intArray[0] = 1 and intArray[1] = 0
-290 [main] DEBUG SortAlgo.OUTER i=0 - Outer loop.
-304 [main] INFO  SortAlgo.DUMP - Dump of integer array:
-317 [main] INFO  SortAlgo.DUMP - Element [0] = 0
-331 [main] INFO  SortAlgo.DUMP - Element [1] = 1
-343 [main] INFO  examples.Sort - The next log statement should be an error message.
-346 [main] ERROR SortAlgo.DUMP - Tried to dump an uninitialized array.
-467 [main] INFO  examples.Sort - Exiting main method.</pre></div>
-                    <p>
-                        The first field is the number of milliseconds elapsed since the start of the 
-                        program. The second field is the thread outputting the log statement. The third 
-                        field is the level of the log statement. The fourth field is the rightmost 
-                        two components of the name of the logger making the log request. The fifth field (just 
-                        before the '-') is the <i>nested diagnostic context</i> (<span class="code">NDC</span>). Note the 
-                        nested diagnostic context may be empty as in the first two statements. The text 
-                        after the '-' is the message of the statement.
-                    </p>
-                </div>
-                <p><a href="#top">Back to Top</a></p>
-
-
-                <a name="loggers"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="loggers">What are Loggers?</h2>
-                    <p>
-                        The logger concept lies at the heart of log4net's configuration. Loggers are organized into a 
-                        hierarchy and give the programmer <i>run-time</i> control on which logging statements 
-                        are printed or not.
-                    </p>
-                    <p>
-                        Loggers are assigned levels through the configuration of log4net. A log statement is 
-                        routed through to the appender depending on its level <i>and</i> its logger.
-                    </p>
-                </div>
-                <p><a href="#top">Back to Top</a></p>
-                
-                
-                <a name="contributing"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="contributing">Why should I donate my extensions to log4net back to the project?</h2>
-                    <p>
-                        Contrary to the GNU Public License (GPL) the Apache Software License does not 
-                        make any claims over your extensions. By extensions, we mean totally new code 
-                        that invokes existing log4net code. <i>You are free to do whatever you wish with 
-                        your proprietary log4net extensions.</i> In particular, you may choose to 
-                        never release your extensions to the wider public. For details see the
-                        <a class="externalLink" href="http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0">Apache License, Version 2.0</a>.
-                    </p>
-                    <p>
-                        We are very careful not to unnecessarily change the log4net client API so that newer log4net 
-                        releases are backward compatible with previous versions. We are a lot less 
-                        scrupulous with the internal log4net API. Thus, if your extension is designed to 
-                        work with the internals of a specific log4net version, then when the next release
-                        of log4net comes out, you will probably need to adapt your proprietary extensions to the 
-                        new release. Thus, you will be forced to spend precious resources in order to 
-                        keep up with log4net changes. This is commonly referred to as the &quot;stupid-tax&quot;. 
-                        By donating the code and making it part of the standard distribution, you save 
-                        yourself the unnecessary maintenance work.
-                    </p>
-                    <p>
-                        If your extensions are useful then someone will eventually write an extension 
-                        providing the same or very similar functionality. Your development effort will 
-                        be wasted.
-                    </p>
-                    <p>
-                        Unless the proprietary log4net extension is business critical, there is little 
-                        reason for not donating your extensions back to the project.
-                    </p>
-                </div>
-                <p><a href="#top">Back to Top</a></p>
-
-
-                <a name="contributing-guidelines"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="contributing-guidelines">What should I keep in mind when contributing code?</h2>
-                    <ol style="list-style-type: decimal">
-                        <li>
-                            Stick to the existing indentation style even if you hate it.
-                            <p>
-                                Alternating between indentation styles makes it hard to understand the source 
-                                code. Make it hard on yourself but easier on others.
-                            </p>
-                        </li>
-                        <li>
-                            <b>Thoroughly test your code.</b>
-                            <p>
-                                There is nothing more irritating than finding the bugs in debugging (i.e. logging) code.
-                            </p>
-                        </li>
-                        <li>
-                            Keep it simple, small and fast.
-                            <p>
-                                It's all about the application not about logging.
-                            </p>
-                        </li>
-                        <li>
-                            Did I mention sticking with the indentation style?</li>
-                    </ol>
-                </div>
-                <p><a href="#top">Back to Top</a></p>
-                
-
-                <a name="bug-fixes"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="bug-fixes">How fast do bugs in log4net get fixed?</h2>
-                    <p>
-                        As fast as they get reported ;-)
-                    </p>
-                </div>
-                <p><a href="#top">Back to Top</a></p>
-
-
-                <a name="history"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="history">What is the history of log4net?</h2>
-                    <p>
-                        log4net is a port of the popular <a class="externalLink" href="http://logging.apache.org/log4j/">Apache log4j&#x2122;</a> logging library.
-                        The initial port was done in June 2001, since then we have tried to remain in the
-                        spirit of the original log4j. See the log4net <a href="../history.html">history</a> page for more details.
-                    </p>
-                </div>
-                <p><a href="#top">Back to Top</a></p>
-                        
-
-                <a name="download"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="download">Where can I find the latest distribution of log4net?</h2>
-                    <p>
-                        The log4net <a class="externalLink" href="http://logging.apache.org/log4net/">home page</a> is a good place to start.
-                    </p>
-                </div>
-                <p><a href="#top">Back to Top</a></p>
-                
-                <a name="two-snks"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="two-snks">Why are there two different strong name keys?</h2>
-                  <p>
-                    Starting with log4net 1.2.11 there are two
-                    different binary distributions,
-                    <tt>oldkey</tt> and <tt>newkey</tt>.
-                  </p>
-
-                  <p>
-                    The <tt>oldkey</tt> distribution contains
-                    assemblies signed with the same strong name key
-                    that was used to sign the assemblies of log4net
-                    1.2.10 and earlier.  This strong name key is only
-                    available to log4net developers.
-                  </p>
-
-                  <p>
-                    The <tt>newkey</tt> distribution contains
-                    assemblies signed with the strong name key
-                    available from <a class="externalLink" href="https://svn.apache.org/repos/asf/logging/log4net/trunk/log4net.snk">log4net's
-                    svn area</a> or inside the source distribution.
-                    Everybody can create assemblies that have the same
-                    strong name.
-                  </p>
-
-                  <p>
-                    For open source projects it is important that you
-                    can create your own patched version of a product
-                    and use it instead of the official release.  This
-                    is something that is now possible if the
-                    <tt>newkey</tt> is used throughout.
-                  </p>
-
-                  <p>
-                    The <tt>oldkey</tt> distribution is mostly
-                    only for people who work with third-party
-                    dependencies that require one of the earlier
-                    releases of log4net and can't be recompiled to use
-                    the new strong name.  If you start a new project
-                    or can recompile all your dependencies we strongly
-                    recommend you use the <tt>newkey</tt>
-                    assemblies.
-                  </p>
-
-                  <p>
-                    Note that the &quot;new&quot; strong name no longer provides
-                    any kind of authenticity.  If you want to be sure
-                    you have the &quot;real&quot; Apache log4net, download the binary
-                    release from one of the mirrors and verify the PGP
-                    signature.
-                  </p>
-
-                </div>
-                <p><a href="#top">Back to Top</a></p>
-
-            </div>
-
-            <a name="configuration"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="configuration">Configuration</h2>
-
-                <a name="dynamic"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="dynamic">How can I change log behavior at runtime?</h2>
-                    <p>
-                        Logging behavior can be set using configuration files which are parsed at runtime. 
-                        Using configuration files the programmer can define loggers and set their 
-                        levels.
-                    </p>
-                    <p>
-                        Configuration files are specified in XML. See <span class="code">log4net.Config.XmlConfigurator</span>
-                        for more details.
-                    </p>
-                    <p>
-                        See the various <span class="code">log4net.Layout</span> and <span class="code">log4net.Appender</span>
-                        components for specific configuration options.
-                    </p>
-                </div>
-                <p><a href="#top">Back to Top</a></p>
-
-
-                <a name="runtime-disable"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="runtime-disable">How do I completely disable all logging at runtime?</h2>
-                    <p>
-                        Setting the <span class="code">Threshold</span> on the Hierarchy to Level OFF will disable all
-                        logging from that Hierarchy. This can be done in the log4net configuration file
-                        by setting the &quot;threshold&quot; attribute on the log4net configuration element to &quot;OFF&quot;.
-                        For example:
-                    </p>
-                    <div class="source"><pre>
-&lt;log4net threshold=&quot;OFF&quot; /&gt;</pre></div>
-                </div>
-                <p><a href="#top">Back to Top</a></p>
-                
-                <a name="appender-options"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="appender-options">What are the configurable options for an appender?</h2>
-                    <p>
-                        log4net uses public properties to configure components such as
-                        Appenders, Layouts, Loggers etc.
-                    </p>
-                    <p>
-                        Thus, any writable public property in on the appender corresponds to a 
-                        configurable option. For example, in <span class="code">RollingFileAppender</span> the 
-                        <span class="code">public int MaxSizeRollBackups { set; }</span> property corresponds to 
-                        the <span class="code">MaxSizeRollBackups</span> option.
-                    </p>
-                    <p>
-                        Layouts options are also defined by their writable properties. Same goes for most 
-                        other log4net components. 
-                    </p>
-                </div>
-                <p><a href="#top">Back to Top</a></p>
-                
-
-                <a name="appender-level"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="appender-level">Is it possible to direct log output to different appenders by level?</h2>
-                    <p>
-                        Yes it is. Setting the <span class="code">Threshold</span> option of any appender extending 
-                        <span class="code">AppenderSkeleton</span>, (most log4net appenders extend 
-                        <span class="code">AppenderSkeleton</span>) will filter out all log events 
-                        with a <i>lower</i> level than the value of the threshold option.
-                    </p>
-                    <p>
-                        For example, setting the threshold of an appender to DEBUG will also allow INFO, 
-                        WARN, ERROR and FATAL messages to log along with DEBUG messages. (DEBUG is the 
-                        lowest level). This is usually acceptable as there is little use for DEBUG 
-                        messages without the surrounding INFO, WARN, ERROR and FATAL messages. 
-                        Similarly, setting the threshold of an appender to ERROR will filter out DEBUG, 
-                        INFO and WARN messages but not ERROR or FATAL messages.
-                    </p>
-                    <p>
-                        This policy usually best encapsulates what the user actually wants to do, as 
-                        opposed to her mind-projected solution.
-                    </p>
-                    <p>
-                        If you must filter events by exact level match, then you can attach a 
-                        <span class="code">LevelMatchFilter</span> to any appender to filter out logging 
-                        events by exact level match.
-                    </p>
-                </div>
-                <p><a href="#top">Back to Top</a></p>
-
-                
-                <a name="config-reload"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="config-reload">Is there a way to get log4net to automatically reload a configuration file if it changes?</h2>
-                    <p>
-                        Yes. The <span class="code">XmlConfigurator</span> supports automatic 
-                        reloading through the <span class="code">ConfigureAndWatch</span> APIs. See the API 
-                        documentation for more details.
-                    </p>
-                </div>
-                <p><a href="#top">Back to Top</a></p>
-
-
-                <a name="appender-assembly"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="appender-assembly">Can I load an appender from another assembly?</h2>
-                    <p>
-                        Yes. When specifying the type in the configuration file you can give the assembly
-                        qualified name of the type. For example:
-                    </p>
-                    <div class="source"><pre>
-&lt;appender name=&quot;...&quot; type=&quot;MyNamespace.MyAppender, MyAssembly&quot;&gt;</pre></div>
-                    <p>
-                        The .NET runtime will try to locate the assembly called <i>MyAssembly</i>.
-                        How .NET locates assemblies is beyond the scope of this FAQ.
-                    </p>
-                    <p>
-                        When loading an assembly from the GAC the fully qualified assembly name,
-                        including the version, culture and public key must be specified. This is 
-                        in the standard syntax supported by <span class="code">System.Type.GetType</span>.
-                        See the next FAQ on how to get the version and public key for an assembly.
-                    </p>
-                </div>
-                <p><a href="#top">Back to Top</a></p>
-
-                
-                <a name="assembly-public-key"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="assembly-public-key">How do I get the Public Key for an assembly?</h2>
-                    <p>
-                        The fully qualified name for an assembly includes the version, culture and
-                        public key. The public key is derived from the strong name used to identify
-                        the publisher. When referencing an assembly from the GAC the fully qualified
-                        name must be used. To get the version, culture and public key you can use a
-                        tool like the excellent .NET Reflector from Lutz Roeder available from
-                        <a class="externalLink" href="http://www.aisto.com/roeder/dotnet">http://www.aisto.com/roeder/dotnet</a>.
-                    </p>
-                </div>
-                <p><a href="#top">Back to Top</a></p>
-                
-                
-                <a name="layout-header-xml-newlines"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="layout-header-xml-newlines">How do I insert newlines into the layout header?</h2>
-                    <p>
-                        Newlines in the config file need to be escaped using an XML numeric character reference.
-                        The sequence that represents a CR LF is &amp;#13; &amp;#10;. The following example adds
-                        a header and footer to the output each followed by a newline.
-                    </p>
-                    <div class="source"><pre>
-&lt;layout type=&quot;log4net.Layout.PatternLayout&quot;&gt;
-    &lt;header value=&quot;[Header]&amp;#13;&amp;#10;&quot; /&gt;
-    &lt;footer value=&quot;[Footer]&amp;#13;&amp;#10;&quot; /&gt;
-    &lt;conversionPattern value=&quot;%date [%thread] %-5level %logger - %message%newline&quot; /&gt;
-&lt;/layout&gt;</pre></div>
-                </div>
-                <p><a href="#top">Back to Top</a></p>
-                
-                
-                <a name="pattern-string"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="pattern-string">How do I use a pattern to set the value of a string property?</h2>
-                    <p>
-                        Log4net supports a pattern syntax for setting string properties similar to the 
-                        <span class="code">PatternLayout</span> used to format the output messages.
-                        This pattern syntax can be used by specifying <span class="code">type=&quot;log4net.Util.PatternString&quot;</span>
-                        on the string property in the config file. This tells the config parser to pass the
-                        value to the <span class="code">PatternString</span> type before converting the result
-                        to a string. For details on the patterns supported see the <a href="sdk/log4net.Util.PatternString.html">
-                        PatternString SDK Reference</a>.
-                    </p>
-                    <p>
-                        The following example sets the file name for a <span class="code">FileAppender</span> to include the 
-                        current process id by specifying the <span class="code">%processid</span> pattern in the
-                        <span class="code">File</span> property.
-                    </p>
-                    <div class="source"><pre>
-&lt;appender name=&quot;LogFileAppender&quot; type=&quot;log4net.Appender.FileAppender&quot;&gt;
-    &lt;file type=&quot;log4net.Util.PatternString&quot; value=&quot;log-file-[%processid].txt&quot; /&gt;
-    &lt;layout type=&quot;log4net.Layout.PatternLayout&quot; value=&quot;%date [%thread] %-5level %logger - %message%newline&quot; /&gt;
-&lt;/appender&gt;</pre></div>
-                </div>
-                <p><a href="#top">Back to Top</a></p>
-        
-        
-            </div>
-
-            <a name="implementing"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="implementing">Implementing Logging</h2>
-            
-                <a name="naming"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="naming">Are there any suggested ways for naming loggers?</h2>
-                    <p>
-                        Yes, there are.
-                    </p>
-                    <p>
-                        You can name logging loggers by <b>locality</b>. It turns out that 
-                        instantiating a logger in each class, with the logger name equal to the 
-                        fully-qualified name of the class, is a useful and straightforward approach of 
-                        defining loggers. This approach has many benefits:
-                    </p>
-                    <ul>
-                        <li>
-                            It is very simple to implement.</li>
-                        <li>
-                            It is very simple to explain to new developers.</li>
-                        <li>
-                            It automatically mirrors your application's own modular design.</li>
-                        <li>
-                            It can be further refined at will.</li>
-                        <li>
-                            Printing the logger automatically gives information on the locality of the 
-                            log statement.</li>
-                    </ul>
-                    <p>
-                        However, this is not the only way for naming loggers. A common alternative 
-                        is to name loggers by <b>functional areas</b>. For example, the 
-                        &quot;database&quot; logger, &quot;remoting&quot; logger, &quot;security&quot; logger, or the &quot;XML&quot; 
-                        logger.
-                    </p>
-                    <p>
-                        You may choose to name loggers by functionality and subcategorize by 
-                        locality, as in &quot;DATABASE.MyApp.MyClass&quot; or 
-                        &quot;DATABASE.MyApp.MyModule.MyOtherClass&quot;.
-                    </p>
-                    <p>
-                        <i>You are totally free in choosing the names of your loggers.</i> The 
-                        log4net package merely allows you to manage your names in a hierarchy. However, 
-                        it is your responsibility to define this hierarchy.
-                    </p>
-                    <p>
-                        <b>Note:</b> by naming loggers by locality one tends to name things by 
-                        functionality, since in most cases the locality relates closely to 
-                        functionality.
-                    </p>
-                </div>
-                <p><a href="#top">Back to Top</a></p>
-                
-
-                <a name="static-class-name"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="static-class-name">How do I get the fully-qualified name of a class in a static block?</h2>
-                    <p>
-                        You can easily retrieve the fully-qualified name of a class in a static block 
-                        for class <span class="code">X</span>, with the statement <span class="code">typeof(X).Name</span>. 
-                        Note that <span class="code">X</span> is the class name and span an instance.
-                        However because the <span class="code">LogManager.GetLogger</span> method is overloaded
-                        to take an instance of <span class="code">Type</span> as well as <span class="code">string</span>
-                        usually only the type of the class is required.
-                    </p>
-                    <p>
-                        Here is the suggested usage template:
-                    </p>
-                    <div class="source"><pre>
-public class Foo
-{
-    private static readonly ILog log = LogManager.GetLogger(typeof(Foo));
-    ... other code
-}</pre></div>
-                    <p>
-                        An equivalent and more portable solution, though slightly longer, is to use the declaring type 
-                        of the static constructor.
-                    </p>
-                    <div class="source"><pre>
-public class Foo
-{
-    private static readonly ILog log = LogManager.GetLogger(System.Reflection.MethodBase.GetCurrentMethod().DeclaringType);
-    ... other code
-}</pre></div>
-                    <p>
-                        <b>Note:</b> the .NET Compact Framework 1.0 does not support <span class="code">System.Reflection.MethodBase.GetCurrentMethod()</span>.
-                    </p>
-
-                    <p>
-                      <b>Note:</b> the two forms are only equivalent
-                      if <span class="code">Foo</span> is not a
-                      generic class.  For a generic class <span class="code">Foo&lt;T&gt;</span> the variant
-                      using <span class="code">typeof</span> generates
-                      a different logger for each different type
-                      parameter <span class="code">T</span> while the
-                      variant using reflection generates the same
-                      logger for all <span class="code">T</span>s.
-                    </p>
-                </div>
-                <p><a href="#top">Back to Top</a></p>
-
-
-                <a name="perf-not-logging"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="perf-not-logging">What is the fastest way of (not) logging?</h2>
-                    <p>
-                        For some logger <span class="code">log</span>, writing,
-                    </p>
-                    <div class="source"><pre>
-log.Debug(&quot;Entry number: &quot; + i + &quot; is &quot; + entry[i]);</pre></div>
-                    <p>
-                        incurs the cost of constructing the message parameter, that is converting both 
-                        integer <span class="code">i</span> and <span class="code">entry[i]</span> to 
-                        a string, and concatenating intermediate strings. This, regardless of whether 
-                        the message will be logged or not.
-                    </p>
-                    <p>
-                        If you are worried about speed, then write
-                    </p>
-                    <div class="source"><pre>
-if(log.IsDebugEnabled) 
-{
-    log.Debug(&quot;Entry number: &quot; + i + &quot; is &quot; + entry[i]);
-}</pre></div>
-                    <p>
-                        This way you will not incur the cost of parameter construction if debugging is 
-                        disabled for logger <span class="code">log</span>. On the other hand, if the logger is 
-                        debug enabled, you will incur the cost of evaluating whether the logger is 
-                        enabled or not, twice: once in <span class="code">IsDebugEnabled</span> and once in <span class="code">Debug</span>. 
-                        This is an insignificant overhead since evaluating a logger takes less than 
-                        1% of the time it takes to actually log a statement.
-                    </p>
-                </div>
-                <p><a href="#top">Back to Top</a></p>
-
-
-                <a name="perf-not-logging2"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="perf-not-logging2">What is REALLY the FASTEST way of (not) logging?</h2>
-                    <p>
-                        So you don't think that the previous FAQ is really the fastest way
-                        of not logging? Well there is a faster way but it does have some
-                        drawbacks. Starting from: 
-                    </p>
-                    <div class="source"><pre>
-if(log.IsDebugEnabled) 
-{
-    log.Debug(&quot;Entry number: &quot; + i + &quot; is &quot; + entry[i]);
-}</pre></div>
-                    <p>
-                        It is possible to further eliminate the calls to <span class="code">IsDebugEnabled</span>
-                        so that the call is only made once per logger. If you are using one logger 
-                        for each class then you can store the enabled state for the logger in a static
-                        variable in the class and then test against this variable:
-                    </p>
-                    <div class="source"><pre>
-public class FastLogger
-{
-    private static readonly ILog log = LogManager.GetLogger(typeof(FastLogger));
-    private static readonly bool isDebugEnabled = log.IsDebugEnabled;
-
-    public void MyMethod()
-    {
-        if(isDebugEnabled) 
-        {
-            log.Debug(&quot;Entry number: &quot; + i + &quot; is &quot; + entry[i]);
-        }
-    }
-}</pre></div>
-                    <p>
-                        So why exactly is this faster? Well to start with the <span class="code">IsDebugEnabled</span>
-                        is not called for each log statement, it is called once per logger. Furthermore as the
-                        <span class="code">isDebugEnabled</span> variable is <span class="code">private static readonly</span>
-                        the JIT compiler can at <i>run-time</i> optimize out the <span class="code">if</span> test altogether. 
-                        This means that at runtime the JIT compiler won't even compile the logging statements into native code, i.e.
-                        all the logging just disappears.
-                    </p>
-                    <p>
-                        So what is the downside to using this? Well one of the clever features of log4net is that
-                        you can change the logging configuration while your program is running. If you need to 
-                        investigate an issue in your application, you don't have to stop the application, setup the
-                        logging and restart the application, you can change the logging configuration and the
-                        log4net will reload it (see <span class="code">XmlConfigurator.ConfigureAndWatch</span> APIs for more 
-                        information). However if the JIT has compiled out all of the logging statements
-                        then they are gone and you can't get them back by reloading the configuration file. Effectively
-                        this means that the logging configuration can only be set when the application loads and
-                        it cannot be changed at runtime. It is up to you to decide if you need ultimate speed or need
-                        to be able to reload the logging configuration while the application is running.
-                    </p>
-                </div>
-                <p><a href="#top">Back to Top</a></p>
-
-
-                <a name="multiple-files"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="multiple-files">Can the outputs of multiple client request go to different log files?</h2>
-                    <p>
-                        Many developers are confronted with the problem of distinguishing the log 
-                        output originating from the same class but different client requests. They come 
-                        up with ingenious mechanisms to fan out the log output to different files. In 
-                        most cases, this is not the right approach.
-                    </p>
-                    <p>
-                        It is simpler to use a context property or stack (<span class="code">ThreadContext</span>). 
-                        Typically, one would <span class="code">ThreadContext.Properties[&quot;ID&quot;] = &quot;XXX&quot;</span>
-                        client specific information, such as the client's hostname, ID or any other 
-                        distinguishing information when starting to handle the client's request. 
-                        Thereafter, log output will automatically include the context data
-                        so that you can distinguish logs from different client requests even if they 
-                        are output to the same file.
-                    </p>
-                    <p>
-                        See the <span class="code">ThreadContext</span> and the <span class="code">PatternLayout</span> classes for more 
-                        information.
-                    </p>
-                </div>
-                <p><a href="#top">Back to Top</a></p>
-
-
-                <a name="remove-logger"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="remove-logger">Logger instances seem to be create only. Why isn't there a method to remove logger instances?</h2>
-                    <p>
-                        It is quite nontrivial to define the semantics of a &quot;removed&quot; logger which is 
-                        still referenced by the user.
-                    </p>
-                </div>
-                <p><a href="#top">Back to Top</a></p>
-
-
-                <a name="single-file"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="single-file">How do I get multiple process to log to the same file?</h2>
-                  <p>
-                    Before you even start trying any of the
-                    alternatives provided, ask yourself whether you
-                    really need to have multiple processes log to the
-                    same file, then don't do it ;-).
-                  </p>
-
-                  <p>
-                    FileAppender offers pluggable locking models for
-                    this usecase but all existing implementations have
-                    issues and drawbacks.
-                  </p>
-
-                    <p>
-                        By default the <span class="code">FileAppender</span> holds an
-                        exclusive write lock on the log file while it
-                        is logging. This prevents other processes from
-                        writing to the file.  This model is known to
-                        break down with (at least on some versions of)
-                        Mono on Linux and log files may get corrupted
-                        as soon as another process tries to access the
-                        log file.
-                    </p>
-
-                    <p>
-                      <span class="code">MinimalLock</span> only
-                      acquires the write lock while a log is being
-                      written. This allows multiple processes to
-                      interleave writes to the same file, albeit with
-                      a considerable loss in performance.
-                    </p>
-                    <p>
-                      <span class="code">InterProcessLock</span>
-                      doesn't lock the file at all but synchronizes
-                      using a system wide Mutex.  This will only work
-                      if all processes cooperate (and use the same
-                      locking model).  The acquisition and release of a
-                      Mutex for every log entry to be written will
-                      result in a loss of performance, but the Mutex
-                      is preferable to the use of MinimalLock.
-                    </p>
-                    <p>
-                      If you use <span class="code">RollingFileAppender</span> things
-                      become even worse as several process may try to
-                      start rolling the log file concurrently.  <span class="code">RollingFileAppender</span>
-                      completely ignores the locking model when
-                      rolling files, rolling files is simply not
-                      compatible with this scenario.
-                    </p>
-                    <p>
-                        A better alternative is to have your processes
-                        log to <span class="code">RemotingAppenders</span>.  Using
-                        the <span class="code">RemoteLoggingServerPlugin</span>
-                        (or <span class="code">IRemoteLoggingSink</span>) a
-                        process can receive all the events and log
-                        them to a single log file.  One of the
-                        examples shows how to use the <span class="code">RemoteLoggingServerPlugin</span>.
-                    </p>
-                </div>
-                <p><a href="#top">Back to Top</a></p>
-                
-
-                <a name="distributed"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="distributed">If I have many processes across multiple hosts (possibly across multiple time zones) logging to the same file using the RemotingAppender, what happens to timestamps?</h2>
-                    <p>
-                        The timestamp is created when the logging event is created. That is so say, 
-                        when the <span class="code">Debug</span>, <span class="code">Info</span>, 
-                        <span class="code">Warn</span>, <span class="code">Error</span>
-                        or <span class="code">Fatal</span> method is invoked. This is unaffected by the time at 
-                        which they may arrive at a remote server. Since the timestamps are 
-                        transmitted in UTC format by the <span class="code">RemotingAppender</span>, 
-                        they all appear in the same time zone as 
-                        the host creating the logfile. Since the clocks of various machines may not be 
-                        synchronized, this may account for time interval inconsistencies between events 
-                        generated on different hosts.
-                    </p>
-                </div>
-                <p><a href="#top">Back to Top</a></p>
-                
-                
-                <a name="first-log"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="first-log">When should I log my first message?</h2>
-                    <p>
-                        The simple answer is as soon as possible. The long answer is more complex.
-                    </p>
-                    <p>
-                        If you are configuring log4net programmatically, i.e. by calling the 
-                        <span class="code">XmlConfigurator.Configure</span> method then you should do so
-                        before you begin logging and it is reasonable to do this very soon after application
-                        start.
-                    </p>
-                    <p>
-                        If you are configuring log4net by specifying assembly level attributes on 
-                        your assembly then the configuration will be loaded once the first call to
-                        the <span class="code">LogManager.GetLogger</span> is made. It is necessary
-                        that the first call to <span class="code">LogManager.GetLogger</span> made
-                        during the process (or AppDomain) is made from the assembly that has the
-                        configuration attributes. Log4net will look only once and only on the first 
-                        calling assembly for the configuration attributes.
-                    </p>
-                </div>
-                <p><a href="#top">Back to Top</a></p>
-                
-                
-            </div>
-            
-            <a name="customization"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="customization">Customization</h2>
-
-                <a name="custom-output"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="custom-output">Can the log output format be customized?</h2>
-                    <p>
-                        Yes. You can implement the <span class="code">log4net.Layout.ILayout</span> 
-                        interface to create you own customized log format, or you can extend the 
-                        <span class="code">LayoutSkeleton</span> class which provides a default
-                        implementation of the <span class="code">ILayout</span> interface.
-                        Appenders can be parameterized to use the layout of your choice.
-                    </p>
-                </div>
-                <p><a href="#top">Back to Top</a></p>
-                
-                
-                <a name="custom-appender"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="custom-appender">Can I write a custom appender?</h2>
-                    <p>
-                        Yes. You can implement the <span class="code">log4net.Appender.IAppender</span> 
-                        interface to create you own customized appender. We recommend that you extend the
-                        <span class="code">log4net.Appender.AppenderSkeleton</span> class rather than
-                        starting from scratch. You should implement your custom code in a assembly
-                        separate from the log4net assembly. To get started it is worth looking at the
-                        source of the <span class="code">log4net.Appender.TraceAppender</span> as an
-                        example of the minimum amount of code required to get an appender working.
-                    </p>
-                    <p>
-                        To configure log4net to use your custom appender you need to specify the
-                        assembly qualified name of the appender type in the config file. For
-                        example:
-                    </p>
-                    <div class="source"><pre>
-&lt;appender name=&quot;...&quot; type=&quot;MyNamespace.MyAppender, MyAssembly&quot;&gt;</pre></div>
-                    <p>
-                        The .NET runtime will try to locate the assembly called <i>MyAssembly</i>.
-                        How .NET locates assemblies is beyond the scope of this FAQ.
-                    </p>
-                </div>
-                <p><a href="#top">Back to Top</a></p>
-
-            </div>
-
-            <a name="troubleshooting"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="troubleshooting">Troubleshooting</h2>
-
-                <a name="internalDebug"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="internalDebug">How do I enable log4net internal debugging?</h2>
-                    <p>
-                        There are 2 different ways to enable internal debugging in log4net.
-                        These are listed below. The preferred method is to specify
-                        the <span class="code">log4net.Internal.Debug</span> option in the application's
-                        config file.
-                    </p>
-                    <ul>
-                        <li>
-                            <p>
-                                Internal debugging can also be enabled by setting a value in the application's
-                                configuration file (not the log4net configuration file, unless the log4net config
-                                data is embedded in the application's config file). The <span class="code">log4net.Internal.Debug</span>
-                                application setting must be set to the value <span class="code">true</span>.
-                                For example:
-                            </p>
-                            <div class="syntax"><div class="code"><pre>
-&lt;?xml version=&quot;1.0&quot; encoding=&quot;utf-8&quot; ?&gt;
-&lt;configuration&gt;
-    &lt;appSettings&gt;
-        &lt;add key=&quot;log4net.Internal.Debug&quot; value=&quot;true&quot;/&gt;
-    &lt;/appSettings&gt;
-&lt;/configuration&gt;</pre></div></div>
-                            <p>
-                                This setting is read immediately on startup an will cause all internal
-                                debugging messages to be emitted.
-                            </p>
-                        </li>
-                        <li>
-                            <p>
-                                To enable log4net's internal debug programmatically you need
-                                to set the <span class="code">log4net.Util.LogLog.InternalDebugging</span>
-                                property to <span class="code">true</span>. Obviously the sooner this
-                                is set the more debug will be produced.
-                            </p>
-                        </li>
-                    </ul>
-                    <p>
-                        Internal debugging messages are written to the console and to the 
-                        <span class="code">System.Diagnostics.Trace</span>
-                        system. If the application does not have a console the messages logged
-                        there will be lost. Note that an application can redirect the console
-                        stream by setting the <span class="code">System.Console.Out</span>. The
-                        Trace system will by default send the message to an attached debugger
-                        (where the messages will appear in the output window). If the process
-                        does not have a debugger attached then the messages are sent to the 
-                        system debugger. A utility like DebugView from 
-                        <a class="externalLink" href="http://www.sysinternals.com">http://www.sysinternals.com</a>
-                        may be used to capture these messages.
-                    </p>
-                    <p>
-                        As log4net internal debug messages are written to the <span class="code">System.Diagnostics.Trace</span>
-                        system it is possible to redirect those messages to a local file. You can define
-                        a trace listener by adding the following to your application's .config file:
-                    </p>
-                    <div class="syntax"><div class="code"><pre>
-&lt;configuration&gt;
-    ...
-    
-    &lt;system.diagnostics&gt;
-        &lt;trace autoflush=&quot;true&quot;&gt;
-            &lt;listeners&gt;
-                &lt;add 
-                    name=&quot;textWriterTraceListener&quot; 
-                    type=&quot;System.Diagnostics.TextWriterTraceListener&quot; 
-                    initializeData=&quot;C:\tmp\log4net.txt&quot; /&gt;
-            &lt;/listeners&gt;
-        &lt;/trace&gt;
-    &lt;/system.diagnostics&gt;
-
-    ...
-&lt;/configuration&gt;</pre></div></div>
-                    <p>
-                        Make sure that the process running your application has permission 
-                        to write to this file.
-                    </p>
-                </div>
-                <p><a href="#top">Back to Top</a></p>
-
-
-                <a name="trouble-EventLog"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="trouble-EventLog">Why doesn't the EventLogAppender work?</h2>
-                    <p>
-                        If you are not getting events delivered to the event log this usually indicates 
-                        a permissions problem. Basically if the event log does not exist the EventLogAppender 
-                        tries to create it, but you need local administrator permissions to create event logs 
-                        (just to write into the right bit of the registry). You don't need administrator 
-                        permissions to log to an existing event log, but it must exist. If you are using the 
-                        event log from a web application or service using the event log can be a little tricky. 
-                    </p>
-                    <p>
-                        A web application will run as the user account ASPNET. This account deliberately has 
-                        few permissions to reduce the chances of someone hacking into the web server. While the 
-                        account has permission to write to the event log it does not have permission to create 
-                        event sources (registry create and write access), which are needed to write to the event log.
-                    </p>
-                    <p>
-                        There are a couple of solutions:
-                    </p>
-                    <ol style="list-style-type: decimal">
-                        <li>
-                            <p>
-                                Make the ASPNET user a member of the Administrators group. This will work because the 
-                                user will then have the required permissions. This is <b>not recommended</b>
-                                for production use.
-                            </p>
-                        </li>
-                        <li>
-                            <p>
-                                As the event source only needs to be created once for the machine, create an installer
-                                and configure it to create the event source. 
-                                The installer will need to be run as Administrator (don't they all). See 
-                                <span class="code">System.Diagnostics.EventLogInstaller</span> in the Microsoft .NET 
-                                Framework SDK for an example of how to create a simple event log installer.
-                            </p>
-                        </li>
-                    </ol>
-                    <p>
-                        There is a Microsoft Knowledge Base article that covers this issue and how to resolve
-                        it. <a class="externalLink" href="http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;en-us;329291">
-                            PRB: &quot;Requested Registry Access Is Not Allowed&quot; Error Message When ASP.NET 
-                            Application Tries to Write New EventSource in the EventLog</a>.
-                    </p>
-                </div>
-                <p><a href="#top">Back to Top</a></p>
-
-
-                <a name="trouble-file-perm"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="trouble-file-perm">Why can't I log to a FileAppender from a web application?</h2>
-                    <p>
-                        The web application runs as a special user account on the web server
-                        called ASPNET. This account has restricted permissions to protect the 
-                        web server from attacks. By default this account may not have permission
-                        to write to the file system. Make sure that the ASPNET account has 
-                        permission to create and write to files in the directory chosen for
-                        logging.
-                    </p>
-                </div>
-                <p><a href="#top">Back to Top</a></p>
-
-
-                <a name="trouble-service"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="trouble-service">Why doesn't the logging in my service work?</h2>
-                    <p>
-                        A windows service runs as a user account specified in the services
-                        control panel. This account may have restricted permissions, make 
-                        sure that the account has permission to create and write to files 
-                        in the directory chosen for logging.
-                    </p>
-                    <p>
-                        A windows service is launched by windows. The current directory in
-                        a service is set to the windows system directory (e.g. 
-                        <span class="code">C:\Windows\System32</span>). If you are loading
-                        the configuration file from the current directory then be aware
-                        that this path will not be the location of your assemblies.
-                        The best way to get the path to your assemblies is to use
-                        <span class="code">AppDomain.BaseDirectory</span>.
-                        Note that the log4net internals never use the current directory.
-                    </p>
-                </div>
-                <p><a href="#top">Back to Top</a></p>
-
-                
-                <a name="trouble-db"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="trouble-db">I am having trouble using the AdoNetAppender to connect to my database?</h2>
-                    <p>
-                        For details on the different ways in which ADO.NET can connect to a database see:
-                        <a class="externalLink" href="http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/en-us/cpguide/html/cpconadonetconnections.asp">Connecting to a Data Source Using ADO.NET</a>.
-                    </p>
-                    <p>
-                        If you need to use ODBC to connect to your database then please note that the
-                        ADO.NET ODBC drivers are not included in the standard .NET framework redistributable.
-                        You can download the drivers from microsoft download at: 
-                        <a class="externalLink" href="http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?FamilyID=6ccd8427-1017-4f33-a062-d165078e32b1">ODBC .NET Data Provider</a>.
-                    </p>
-                </div>
-                <p><a href="#top">Back to Top</a></p>
-
-
-                <a name="report-bugs"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="report-bugs">How do I report bugs?</h2>
-                    <p>
-                      First make sure it really is a bug and not a
-                      usage error.  When in doubt, ask on the <a href="../mail-lists.html">log4net-user mailing
-                      list</a> first.
-                    </p>
-                    <p>
-                      If you have identified a bug, please report it
-                      via our <a href="../issue-tracking.html">Issue
-                      Tracker</a>.  You may want to check it hasn't
-                      been reported before by searching the existing
-                      issues.
-                    </p>
-                </div>
-                <p><a href="#top">Back to Top</a></p>
-
-                <a name="log-early"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="log-early">log4net doesn't log when built in RELEASE mode</h2>
-                    <p>
-                      If you use attributes to configure log4net then
-                      the order by which assemblies are loaded may
-                      determine whether you attributes are used or
-                      not.  Assembly load order may be different in
-                      DEBUG and RELEASE mode.
-                    </p>
-
-                    <p>
-                      As stated in <a href="manual/configuration.html#attributes">the
-                      manual</a> the attribute will only be read for
-                      the first assembly that tries to use log4net.
-                      So it is important that you obtain your
-                      <tt>ILog</tt> instance as early as possible.
-                    </p>
-
-                    <p>
-                      For a command line application &quot;as early as
-                      possible&quot; probably is the class holding the
-                      <tt>Main</tt> method, for a Web-Application
-                      it would be your <tt>Global.asax</tt> class
-                      and for a Windows Service it would be the class
-                      deriving from <tt>ServiceBase</tt>.
-                    </p>
-                </div>
-                <p><a href="#top">Back to Top</a></p>
-
-            </div>
-            
-            <a name="misc"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="misc">Miscellaneous</h2>
-            
-                <a name="vsnet-add-reference"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="vsnet-add-reference">How do I make log4net appear in the Visual Studio Add References dialog?</h2>
-                    <p>
-                        There is a good discussion of this topic on Robert McLaws blog:
-                        <a class="externalLink" href="http://weblogs.asp.net/rmclaws/archive/2003/11/15/37743.aspx">Building a Better Server Control Experience, Part 2</a>.
-                    </p>
-                </div>
-                <p><a href="#top">Back to Top</a></p>
-                
-            </div>
-            
-        </div>
-
-    
+        <!-- Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more 
+contributor license agreements. See the NOTICE file distributed with
+this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership. 
+The ASF licenses this file to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0
+(the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with 
+the License. You may obtain a copy of the License at
+
+http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+
+Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
+distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
+WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
+See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
+limitations under the License. -->
+
+    
+      <a name="top">
+      </a>
+        <a name="main"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="main">Apache log4net&#x2122; Frequently Asked Questions</h2>
+            <a name="information"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="information">Information</h2>
+            
+                <a name="what-is-log4net"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="what-is-log4net">What is log4net?</h2>
+                    <p>
+                        log4net is a tool to help the programmer output log statements to a variety of 
+                        output targets.
+                    </p>
+                    <p>
+                        In case of problems with an application, it is helpful to enable logging so 
+                        that the problem can be located. With log4net it is possible to enable logging at 
+                        runtime without modifying the application binary. The log4net package is designed 
+                        so that log statements can remain in <i>production</i> code without incurring a 
+                        high performance cost. It follows that the speed of logging (or rather not 
+                        logging) is crucial.
+                    </p>
+                    <p>
+                        At the same time, log output can be so voluminous that it quickly becomes 
+                        overwhelming. One of the distinctive features of log4net (and common to all of
+                        the log4x libraries) is the notion of <i>hierarchical 
+                        loggers</i>. Using these loggers it is possible to selectively control 
+                        which log statements are output at arbitrary granularity.
+                    </p>
+                    <p>
+                        log4net is designed with two distinct goals in mind: speed and flexibility. There 
+                        is a tight balance between these two requirements.
+                    </p>
+                </div>
+                <p><a href="#top">Back to Top</a></p>
+
+
+                <a name="reliability"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="reliability">Is log4net a reliable logging system?</h2>
+                    <p>
+                        No. log4net is not reliable. It is a best-effort and <i>fail-stop</i> logging system.
+                    </p>
+                    <p>
+                        By fail-stop, we mean that log4net will not throw unexpected exceptions at 
+                        run-time potentially causing your application to crash. <b>If for any reason, log4net 
+                        throws an uncaught exception</b> (except for <span class="code">ArgumentException</span> and 
+                        <span class="code">ArgumentNullException</span> which may be thrown), <b>please send an email 
+                        to the <a class="externalLink" href="mailto:log4net-user@logging.apache.org">
+                        log4net-user@logging.apache.org</a> mailing list</b>. Uncaught exceptions 
+                        are handled as serious bugs requiring immediate attention.
+                    </p>
+                    <p>
+                        Moreover, log4net will not revert to <span class="code">System.Console.Out</span>
+                        or <span class="code">System.Console.Error</span> when its designated 
+                        output stream is not opened, is not writable or becomes full. This avoids 
+                        corrupting an otherwise working program by flooding the user's terminal because 
+                        logging fails. However, log4net will output a single message to 
+                        <span class="code">System.Console.Error</span> and <span>System.Diagnostics.Trace</span>
+                        indicating that logging can not be performed.
+                    </p>
+                </div>
+                <p><a href="#top">Back to Top</a></p>
+
+
+                <a name="prerequisites"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="prerequisites">What are the prerequisites for log4net?</h2>
+                    <p>
+                        log4net runs on many different frameworks and each framework has its own requirements.
+                        As a rule of thumb you will need an ECMA-335 compliant CLI runtime, for example, 
+                        the Microsoft&#xae; .NET runtime 1.0 (1.0.3705) or 1.1 (1.1.4322).
+                    </p>
+                    <p>
+                        Not all frameworks are created equal and some features have been excluded from 
+                        some of the builds. See the <a href="framework-support.html">Framework Support</a> 
+                        document for more information.
+                    </p>
+                </div>
+                <p><a href="#top">Back to Top</a></p>
+
+
+                <a name="examples"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="examples">Is there example code for using log4net?</h2>
+                    <p>
+                        There is a directory containing examples in <span class="code">log4net\examples</span>. 
+                        The examples are broken down by framework.
+                    </p>
+                </div>
+                <p><a href="#top">Back to Top</a></p>
+
+
+                <a name="features"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="features">What are the features of log4net?</h2>
+                    <ul>
+                        <li>
+                            log4net is optimized for speed.</li>
+                        <li>
+                            log4net is based on a named logger hierarchy.</li>
+                        <li>
+                            log4net is fail-stop but not reliable.</li>
+                        <li>
+                            log4net is thread-safe.</li>
+                        <li>
+                            log4net is not restricted to a predefined set of facilities.</li>
+                        <li>
+                            Logging behavior can be set at runtime using a configuration file. 
+                            Configuration files are in XML format.</li>
+                        <li>
+                            log4net is designed to handle exceptions from the start.</li>
+                        <li>
+                            log4net can direct its output to many sinks including: a file, the console, the NT EventLog or even e-mail.</li>
+                        <li>
+                            log4net categorizes logging into levels: DEBUG, INFO, WARN, ERROR and FATAL.</li>
+                        <li>
+                            The format of the log output can be easily changed by implementing a new layout class.</li>
+                        <li>
+                            The target of the log output as well as the writing strategy can be altered by 
+                            writing a new appender class.</li>
+                        <li>
+                            log4net supports multiple output appenders per logger.</li>
+                    </ul>
+                    <p>
+                        See the <a href="../features.html">features</a> overview document for more information on the features of log4net.
+                    </p>
+                </div>
+                <p><a href="#top">Back to Top</a></p>
+
+
+                <a name="thread-safe"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="thread-safe">Is log4net thread-safe?</h2>
+                    <p>
+                        Yes, log4net is thread-safe.
+                    </p>
+                </div>
+                <p><a href="#top">Back to Top</a></p>
+
+
+                <a name="output"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="output">What does log output look like?</h2>
+                    <p>
+                        The log output can be customized in many ways. Moreover, one can completely 
+                        override the output format by implementing one's own <span class="code">ILayout</span>
+                    </p>
+                    <p>
+                        Here is an example output using <span class="code">PatternLayout</span> with the conversion 
+                        pattern <span class="code">%timestamp [%thread] %-5level %logger{2} %ndc - %message%newline</span>
+                    </p>
+                    <div class="source"><pre>
+176 [main] INFO  examples.Sort - Populating an array of 2 elements in reverse order.
+225 [main] INFO  examples.SortAlgo - Entered the sort method.
+262 [main] DEBUG SortAlgo.OUTER i=1 - Outer loop.
+276 [main] DEBUG SortAlgo.SWAP i=1 j=0 - Swapping intArray[0] = 1 and intArray[1] = 0
+290 [main] DEBUG SortAlgo.OUTER i=0 - Outer loop.
+304 [main] INFO  SortAlgo.DUMP - Dump of integer array:
+317 [main] INFO  SortAlgo.DUMP - Element [0] = 0
+331 [main] INFO  SortAlgo.DUMP - Element [1] = 1
+343 [main] INFO  examples.Sort - The next log statement should be an error message.
+346 [main] ERROR SortAlgo.DUMP - Tried to dump an uninitialized array.
+467 [main] INFO  examples.Sort - Exiting main method.</pre></div>
+                    <p>
+                        The first field is the number of milliseconds elapsed since the start of the 
+                        program. The second field is the thread outputting the log statement. The third 
+                        field is the level of the log statement. The fourth field is the rightmost 
+                        two components of the name of the logger making the log request. The fifth field (just 
+                        before the '-') is the <i>nested diagnostic context</i> (<span class="code">NDC</span>). Note the 
+                        nested diagnostic context may be empty as in the first two statements. The text 
+                        after the '-' is the message of the statement.
+                    </p>
+                </div>
+                <p><a href="#top">Back to Top</a></p>
+
+
+                <a name="loggers"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="loggers">What are Loggers?</h2>
+                    <p>
+                        The logger concept lies at the heart of log4net's configuration. Loggers are organized into a 
+                        hierarchy and give the programmer <i>run-time</i> control on which logging statements 
+                        are printed or not.
+                    </p>
+                    <p>
+                        Loggers are assigned levels through the configuration of log4net. A log statement is 
+                        routed through to the appender depending on its level <i>and</i> its logger.
+                    </p>
+                </div>
+                <p><a href="#top">Back to Top</a></p>
+                
+                
+                <a name="contributing"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="contributing">Why should I donate my extensions to log4net back to the project?</h2>
+                    <p>
+                        Contrary to the GNU Public License (GPL) the Apache Software License does not 
+                        make any claims over your extensions. By extensions, we mean totally new code 
+                        that invokes existing log4net code. <i>You are free to do whatever you wish with 
+                        your proprietary log4net extensions.</i> In particular, you may choose to 
+                        never release your extensions to the wider public. For details see the
+                        <a class="externalLink" href="http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0">Apache License, Version 2.0</a>.
+                    </p>
+                    <p>
+                        We are very careful not to unnecessarily change the log4net client API so that newer log4net 
+                        releases are backward compatible with previous versions. We are a lot less 
+                        scrupulous with the internal log4net API. Thus, if your extension is designed to 
+                        work with the internals of a specific log4net version, then when the next release
+                        of log4net comes out, you will probably need to adapt your proprietary extensions to the 
+                        new release. Thus, you will be forced to spend precious resources in order to 
+                        keep up with log4net changes. This is commonly referred to as the &quot;stupid-tax&quot;. 
+                        By donating the code and making it part of the standard distribution, you save 
+                        yourself the unnecessary maintenance work.
+                    </p>
+                    <p>
+                        If your extensions are useful then someone will eventually write an extension 
+                        providing the same or very similar functionality. Your development effort will 
+                        be wasted.
+                    </p>
+                    <p>
+                        Unless the proprietary log4net extension is business critical, there is little 
+                        reason for not donating your extensions back to the project.
+                    </p>
+                </div>
+                <p><a href="#top">Back to Top</a></p>
+
+
+                <a name="contributing-guidelines"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="contributing-guidelines">What should I keep in mind when contributing code?</h2>
+                    <ol style="list-style-type: decimal">
+                        <li>
+                            Stick to the existing indentation style even if you hate it.
+                            <p>
+                                Alternating between indentation styles makes it hard to understand the source 
+                                code. Make it hard on yourself but easier on others.
+                            </p>
+                        </li>
+                        <li>
+                            <b>Thoroughly test your code.</b>
+                            <p>
+                                There is nothing more irritating than finding the bugs in debugging (i.e. logging) code.
+                            </p>
+                        </li>
+                        <li>
+                            Keep it simple, small and fast.
+                            <p>
+                                It's all about the application not about logging.
+                            </p>
+                        </li>
+                        <li>
+                            Did I mention sticking with the indentation style?</li>
+                    </ol>
+                </div>
+                <p><a href="#top">Back to Top</a></p>
+                
+
+                <a name="bug-fixes"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="bug-fixes">How fast do bugs in log4net get fixed?</h2>
+                    <p>
+                        As fast as they get reported ;-)
+                    </p>
+                </div>
+                <p><a href="#top">Back to Top</a></p>
+
+
+                <a name="history"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="history">What is the history of log4net?</h2>
+                    <p>
+                        log4net is a port of the popular <a class="externalLink" href="http://logging.apache.org/log4j/">Apache log4j&#x2122;</a> logging library.
+                        The initial port was done in June 2001, since then we have tried to remain in the
+                        spirit of the original log4j. See the log4net <a href="../history.html">history</a> page for more details.
+                    </p>
+                </div>
+                <p><a href="#top">Back to Top</a></p>
+                        
+
+                <a name="download"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="download">Where can I find the latest distribution of log4net?</h2>
+                    <p>
+                        The log4net <a class="externalLink" href="http://logging.apache.org/log4net/">home page</a> is a good place to start.
+                    </p>
+                </div>
+                <p><a href="#top">Back to Top</a></p>
+                
+                <a name="two-snks"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="two-snks">Why are there two different strong name keys?</h2>
+                  <p>
+                    Starting with log4net 1.2.11 there are two
+                    different binary distributions,
+                    <tt>oldkey</tt> and <tt>newkey</tt>.
+                  </p>
+
+                  <p>
+                    The <tt>oldkey</tt> distribution contains
+                    assemblies signed with the same strong name key
+                    that was used to sign the assemblies of log4net
+                    1.2.10 and earlier.  This strong name key is only
+                    available to log4net developers.
+                  </p>
+
+                  <p>
+                    The <tt>newkey</tt> distribution contains
+                    assemblies signed with the strong name key
+                    available from <a class="externalLink" href="https://svn.apache.org/repos/asf/logging/log4net/trunk/log4net.snk">log4net's
+                    svn area</a> or inside the source distribution.
+                    Everybody can create assemblies that have the same
+                    strong name.
+                  </p>
+
+                  <p>
+                    For open source projects it is important that you
+                    can create your own patched version of a product
+                    and use it instead of the official release.  This
+                    is something that is now possible if the
+                    <tt>newkey</tt> is used throughout.
+                  </p>
+
+                  <p>
+                    The <tt>oldkey</tt> distribution is mostly
+                    only for people who work with third-party
+                    dependencies that require one of the earlier
+                    releases of log4net and can't be recompiled to use
+                    the new strong name.  If you start a new project
+                    or can recompile all your dependencies we strongly
+                    recommend you use the <tt>newkey</tt>
+                    assemblies.
+                  </p>
+
+                  <p>
+                    Note that the &quot;new&quot; strong name no longer provides
+                    any kind of authenticity.  If you want to be sure
+                    you have the &quot;real&quot; Apache log4net, download the binary
+                    release from one of the mirrors and verify the PGP
+                    signature.
+                  </p>
+
+                </div>
+                <p><a href="#top">Back to Top</a></p>
+
+            </div>
+
+            <a name="configuration"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="configuration">Configuration</h2>
+
+                <a name="dynamic"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="dynamic">How can I change log behavior at runtime?</h2>
+                    <p>
+                        Logging behavior can be set using configuration files which are parsed at runtime. 
+                        Using configuration files the programmer can define loggers and set their 
+                        levels.
+                    </p>
+                    <p>
+                        Configuration files are specified in XML. See <span class="code">log4net.Config.XmlConfigurator</span>
+                        for more details.
+                    </p>
+                    <p>
+                        See the various <span class="code">log4net.Layout</span> and <span class="code">log4net.Appender</span>
+                        components for specific configuration options.
+                    </p>
+                </div>
+                <p><a href="#top">Back to Top</a></p>
+
+
+                <a name="runtime-disable"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="runtime-disable">How do I completely disable all logging at runtime?</h2>
+                    <p>
+                        Setting the <span class="code">Threshold</span> on the Hierarchy to Level OFF will disable all
+                        logging from that Hierarchy. This can be done in the log4net configuration file
+                        by setting the &quot;threshold&quot; attribute on the log4net configuration element to &quot;OFF&quot;.
+                        For example:
+                    </p>
+                    <div class="source"><pre>
+&lt;log4net threshold=&quot;OFF&quot; /&gt;</pre></div>
+                </div>
+                <p><a href="#top">Back to Top</a></p>
+                
+                <a name="appender-options"></a><div class="section"><h2 id="appender-options">What are the configurable options for an appender?</h2>
+                    <p>
+                        log4net uses public properties to configure components such as
+                        Appenders, Layouts, Loggers etc.
+                    </p>
+                    <p>
+                        Thus, any writable public property in on the appender corresponds to a 
+                        configurable option. For example, in <span class="code">RollingFileAppender</span> the 
+                        <span class="code">public int MaxSizeRollBackups { set; }</span> property corresponds to 

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