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From luke...@apache.org
Subject [07/49] incubator-kylin git commit: KYLIN-753 Make the dependency on hbase-common to "provided"
Date Tue, 02 Jun 2015 10:26:01 GMT
KYLIN-753 Make the dependency on hbase-common to "provided"

Project: http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-kylin/repo
Commit: http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-kylin/commit/928ef4cf
Tree: http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-kylin/tree/928ef4cf
Diff: http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-kylin/diff/928ef4cf

Branch: refs/heads/0.7.1
Commit: 928ef4cf7ae9b5156c858db643a41514741984a4
Parents: aa3b1d2
Author: shaofengshi <shaofengshi@apache.org>
Authored: Wed May 27 15:01:22 2015 +0800
Committer: shaofengshi <shaofengshi@apache.org>
Committed: Wed May 27 15:01:22 2015 +0800

----------------------------------------------------------------------
 .../common/persistence/HBaseResourceStore.java  |    2 +-
 .../kylin/common/restclient/RestClient.java     |    2 +-
 .../org/apache/kylin/common/util/ByteArray.java |    2 +-
 .../org/apache/kylin/common/util/Bytes.java     | 2260 ++++++++++++++++++
 .../apache/kylin/common/util/BytesSplitter.java |    2 +-
 .../org/apache/kylin/common/util/BytesUtil.java |    2 +-
 .../kylin/common/util/CliCommandExecutor.java   |    2 +-
 .../common/util/HBaseRegionSizeCalculator.java  |    2 +-
 .../java/org/apache/kylin/common/util/Pair.java |  132 +
 .../common/util/HyperLogLogCounterTest.java     |    2 +-
 .../java/org/apache/kylin/cube/CubeManager.java |    2 +-
 .../kylin/cube/common/RowKeySplitter.java       |    2 +-
 .../org/apache/kylin/cube/cuboid/Cuboid.java    |    2 +-
 .../apache/kylin/cube/kv/RowKeyColumnIO.java    |    2 +-
 .../org/apache/kylin/cube/kv/RowKeyEncoder.java |    2 +-
 .../org/apache/kylin/cube/CubeSegmentsTest.java |    2 +-
 .../apache/kylin/cube/kv/RowKeyDecoderTest.java |    2 +-
 .../apache/kylin/cube/kv/RowKeyEncoderTest.java |    2 +-
 .../apache/kylin/dict/DictionaryGenerator.java  |    2 +-
 .../org/apache/kylin/dict/NumberDictionary.java |    2 +-
 .../kylin/dict/NumberDictionaryBuilder.java     |    2 +-
 .../apache/kylin/dict/StringBytesConverter.java |    2 +-
 .../kylin/dict/lookup/FileTableReader.java      |    2 +-
 .../kylin/dict/lookup/LookupBytesTable.java     |    2 +-
 .../apache/kylin/dict/lookup/LookupTable.java   |    2 +-
 .../org/apache/kylin/dict/LookupTableTest.java  |    2 +-
 .../apache/kylin/dict/NumberDictionaryTest.java |    2 +-
 .../kylin/dict/lookup/LookupTableTest.java      |    2 +-
 .../index/CompressedValueContainer.java         |    2 +-
 .../invertedindex/index/RawTableRecord.java     |    2 +-
 .../kylin/invertedindex/model/IIDesc.java       |    2 +-
 .../invertedindex/model/IIKeyValueCodec.java    |    2 +-
 .../apache/kylin/invertedindex/tools/IICLI.java |    2 +-
 .../invertedindex/InvertedIndexLocalTest.java   |    2 +-
 job/pom.xml                                     |    3 +-
 .../kylin/job/common/ShellExecutable.java       |    2 +-
 .../apache/kylin/job/cube/CubingJobBuilder.java |    2 +-
 .../cardinality/ColumnCardinalityMapper.java    |    2 +-
 .../kylin/job/hadoop/cube/BaseCuboidMapper.java |    2 +-
 .../kylin/job/hadoop/cube/CubeHFileMapper.java  |    2 +-
 .../cube/FactDistinctColumnsCombiner.java       |    2 +-
 .../hadoop/cube/FactDistinctColumnsMapper.java  |    2 +-
 .../hadoop/cube/FactDistinctColumnsReducer.java |    2 +-
 .../job/hadoop/cube/NewBaseCuboidMapper.java    |    4 +-
 .../IIDistinctColumnsCombiner.java              |    2 +-
 .../invertedindex/IIDistinctColumnsMapper.java  |    2 +-
 .../invertedindex/IIDistinctColumnsReducer.java |    2 +-
 .../invertedindex/InvertedIndexReducer.java     |    2 +-
 .../kylin/job/tools/DeployCoprocessorCLI.java   |    2 +-
 .../job/tools/GridTableHBaseBenchmark.java      |    4 +-
 .../java/org/apache/kylin/job/DeployUtil.java   |    2 +-
 .../job/hadoop/cube/BaseCuboidMapperTest.java   |    2 +-
 .../job/hadoop/cube/CubeHFileMapper2Test.java   |    2 +-
 .../job/hadoop/cube/NDCuboidMapperTest.java     |    2 +-
 .../kylin/job/hadoop/hbase/TestHbaseClient.java |    2 +-
 .../job/tools/ColumnCardinalityReducerTest.java |    2 +-
 .../metadata/measure/BigDecimalSerializer.java  |    2 +-
 .../metadata/measure/DoubleSerializer.java      |    2 +-
 .../kylin/metadata/measure/LongSerializer.java  |    2 +-
 .../apache/kylin/rest/service/AclService.java   |    2 +-
 .../apache/kylin/rest/service/JobService.java   |    2 +-
 .../apache/kylin/rest/service/QueryService.java |    2 +-
 .../apache/kylin/rest/service/UserService.java  |    2 +-
 .../storage/hbase/CubeSegmentTupleIterator.java |   17 +-
 .../kylin/storage/hbase/CubeStorageEngine.java  |    4 +-
 .../storage/hbase/DerivedFilterTranslator.java  |    2 +-
 .../storage/hbase/HBaseClientKVIterator.java    |    2 +-
 .../kylin/storage/hbase/HBaseKeyRange.java      |    4 +-
 .../kylin/storage/hbase/PingHBaseCLI.java       |    2 +-
 .../hbase/coprocessor/CoprocessorFilter.java    |    2 +-
 .../endpoint/HbaseServerKVIterator.java         |    2 +-
 .../hbase/coprocessor/endpoint/IIEndpoint.java  |    2 +-
 .../observer/ObserverAggregators.java           |    2 +-
 .../hbase/coprocessor/RowProjectorTest.java     |    2 +-
 .../observer/AggregateRegionObserverTest.java   |    2 +-
 .../observer/RowAggregatorsTest.java            |    2 +-
 76 files changed, 2483 insertions(+), 81 deletions(-)
----------------------------------------------------------------------


http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-kylin/blob/928ef4cf/common/src/main/java/org/apache/kylin/common/persistence/HBaseResourceStore.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/common/src/main/java/org/apache/kylin/common/persistence/HBaseResourceStore.java b/common/src/main/java/org/apache/kylin/common/persistence/HBaseResourceStore.java
index 59903c5..2868368 100644
--- a/common/src/main/java/org/apache/kylin/common/persistence/HBaseResourceStore.java
+++ b/common/src/main/java/org/apache/kylin/common/persistence/HBaseResourceStore.java
@@ -40,7 +40,7 @@ import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.client.Result;
 import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.client.ResultScanner;
 import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.client.Scan;
 import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.filter.KeyOnlyFilter;
-import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.util.Bytes;
+import org.apache.kylin.common.util.Bytes;
 
 import org.apache.kylin.common.KylinConfig;
 import org.apache.kylin.common.util.BytesUtil;

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-kylin/blob/928ef4cf/common/src/main/java/org/apache/kylin/common/restclient/RestClient.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/common/src/main/java/org/apache/kylin/common/restclient/RestClient.java b/common/src/main/java/org/apache/kylin/common/restclient/RestClient.java
index 22e5c0e..743acfe 100644
--- a/common/src/main/java/org/apache/kylin/common/restclient/RestClient.java
+++ b/common/src/main/java/org/apache/kylin/common/restclient/RestClient.java
@@ -30,7 +30,7 @@ import org.apache.commons.httpclient.UsernamePasswordCredentials;
 import org.apache.commons.httpclient.auth.AuthScope;
 import org.apache.commons.httpclient.methods.GetMethod;
 import org.apache.commons.httpclient.methods.PutMethod;
-import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.util.Bytes;
+import org.apache.kylin.common.util.Bytes;
 import org.codehaus.jettison.json.JSONException;
 import org.codehaus.jettison.json.JSONObject;
 

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-kylin/blob/928ef4cf/common/src/main/java/org/apache/kylin/common/util/ByteArray.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/common/src/main/java/org/apache/kylin/common/util/ByteArray.java b/common/src/main/java/org/apache/kylin/common/util/ByteArray.java
index df6f01b..e14780a 100644
--- a/common/src/main/java/org/apache/kylin/common/util/ByteArray.java
+++ b/common/src/main/java/org/apache/kylin/common/util/ByteArray.java
@@ -20,7 +20,7 @@ package org.apache.kylin.common.util;
 
 import java.util.Arrays;
 
-import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.util.Bytes;
+import org.apache.kylin.common.util.Bytes;
 
 /**
  * @author yangli9

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-kylin/blob/928ef4cf/common/src/main/java/org/apache/kylin/common/util/Bytes.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/common/src/main/java/org/apache/kylin/common/util/Bytes.java b/common/src/main/java/org/apache/kylin/common/util/Bytes.java
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..3bbc93c
--- /dev/null
+++ b/common/src/main/java/org/apache/kylin/common/util/Bytes.java
@@ -0,0 +1,2260 @@
+/**
+ * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+ * or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+ * distributed with this work for additional information
+ * regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+ * to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+ * "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+ * with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+ *
+ *     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+ *
+ * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
+ * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
+ * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
+ * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
+ * limitations under the License.
+ */
+package org.apache.kylin.common.util;
+
+import org.apache.commons.logging.Log;
+import org.apache.commons.logging.LogFactory;
+import org.apache.hadoop.io.RawComparator;
+import org.apache.hadoop.io.WritableComparator;
+import org.apache.hadoop.io.WritableUtils;
+import sun.misc.Unsafe;
+
+import java.io.DataInput;
+import java.io.DataOutput;
+import java.io.IOException;
+import java.lang.reflect.Field;
+import java.math.BigDecimal;
+import java.math.BigInteger;
+import java.nio.ByteBuffer;
+import java.nio.ByteOrder;
+import java.nio.charset.Charset;
+import java.security.AccessController;
+import java.security.PrivilegedAction;
+import java.security.SecureRandom;
+import java.util.Arrays;
+import java.util.Comparator;
+import java.util.Iterator;
+import java.util.List;
+
+import static com.google.common.base.Preconditions.*;
+
+/**
+ * Utility class that handles byte arrays, conversions to/from other types,
+ * comparisons, hash code generation, manufacturing keys for HashMaps or
+ * HashSets, etc.
+ *
+ * Copied from org.apache.hadoop.hbase.util.Bytes
+ */
+public class Bytes {
+    //HConstants.UTF8_ENCODING should be updated if this changed
+    /**
+     * When we encode strings, we always specify UTF8 encoding
+     */
+    private static final String UTF8_ENCODING = "UTF-8";
+
+    //HConstants.UTF8_CHARSET should be updated if this changed
+    /**
+     * When we encode strings, we always specify UTF8 encoding
+     */
+    private static final Charset UTF8_CHARSET = Charset.forName(UTF8_ENCODING);
+
+    //HConstants.EMPTY_BYTE_ARRAY should be updated if this changed
+    private static final byte[] EMPTY_BYTE_ARRAY = new byte[0];
+
+    private static final Log LOG = LogFactory.getLog(Bytes.class);
+
+    /**
+     * Size of boolean in bytes
+     */
+    public static final int SIZEOF_BOOLEAN = Byte.SIZE / Byte.SIZE;
+
+    /**
+     * Size of byte in bytes
+     */
+    public static final int SIZEOF_BYTE = SIZEOF_BOOLEAN;
+
+    /**
+     * Size of char in bytes
+     */
+    public static final int SIZEOF_CHAR = Character.SIZE / Byte.SIZE;
+
+    /**
+     * Size of double in bytes
+     */
+    public static final int SIZEOF_DOUBLE = Double.SIZE / Byte.SIZE;
+
+    /**
+     * Size of float in bytes
+     */
+    public static final int SIZEOF_FLOAT = Float.SIZE / Byte.SIZE;
+
+    /**
+     * Size of int in bytes
+     */
+    public static final int SIZEOF_INT = Integer.SIZE / Byte.SIZE;
+
+    /**
+     * Size of long in bytes
+     */
+    public static final int SIZEOF_LONG = Long.SIZE / Byte.SIZE;
+
+    /**
+     * Size of short in bytes
+     */
+    public static final int SIZEOF_SHORT = Short.SIZE / Byte.SIZE;
+
+
+    /**
+     * Estimate of size cost to pay beyond payload in jvm for instance of byte [].
+     * Estimate based on study of jhat and jprofiler numbers.
+     */
+    // JHat says BU is 56 bytes.
+    // SizeOf which uses java.lang.instrument says 24 bytes. (3 longs?)
+    public static final int ESTIMATED_HEAP_TAX = 16;
+
+
+    /**
+     * Returns length of the byte array, returning 0 if the array is null.
+     * Useful for calculating sizes.
+     *
+     * @param b byte array, which can be null
+     * @return 0 if b is null, otherwise returns length
+     */
+    final public static int len(byte[] b) {
+        return b == null ? 0 : b.length;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Byte array comparator class.
+     */
+    public static class ByteArrayComparator implements RawComparator<byte[]> {
+        /**
+         * Constructor
+         */
+        public ByteArrayComparator() {
+            super();
+        }
+
+        @Override
+        public int compare(byte[] left, byte[] right) {
+            return compareTo(left, right);
+        }
+
+        @Override
+        public int compare(byte[] b1, int s1, int l1, byte[] b2, int s2, int l2) {
+            return LexicographicalComparerHolder.BEST_COMPARER.
+                    compareTo(b1, s1, l1, b2, s2, l2);
+        }
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * A {@link ByteArrayComparator} that treats the empty array as the largest value.
+     * This is useful for comparing row end keys for regions.
+     */
+    // TODO: unfortunately, HBase uses byte[0] as both start and end keys for region
+    // boundaries. Thus semantically, we should treat empty byte array as the smallest value
+    // while comparing row keys, start keys etc; but as the largest value for comparing
+    // region boundaries for endKeys.
+    public static class RowEndKeyComparator extends ByteArrayComparator {
+        @Override
+        public int compare(byte[] left, byte[] right) {
+            return compare(left, 0, left.length, right, 0, right.length);
+        }
+
+        @Override
+        public int compare(byte[] b1, int s1, int l1, byte[] b2, int s2, int l2) {
+            if (b1 == b2 && s1 == s2 && l1 == l2) {
+                return 0;
+            }
+            if (l1 == 0) {
+                return l2; //0 or positive
+            }
+            if (l2 == 0) {
+                return -1;
+            }
+            return super.compare(b1, s1, l1, b2, s2, l2);
+        }
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Pass this to TreeMaps where byte [] are keys.
+     */
+    public final static Comparator<byte[]> BYTES_COMPARATOR = new ByteArrayComparator();
+
+    /**
+     * Use comparing byte arrays, byte-by-byte
+     */
+    public final static RawComparator<byte[]> BYTES_RAWCOMPARATOR = new ByteArrayComparator();
+
+    /**
+     * Read byte-array written with a WritableableUtils.vint prefix.
+     *
+     * @param in Input to read from.
+     * @return byte array read off <code>in</code>
+     * @throws java.io.IOException e
+     */
+    public static byte[] readByteArray(final DataInput in)
+            throws IOException {
+        int len = WritableUtils.readVInt(in);
+        if (len < 0) {
+            throw new NegativeArraySizeException(Integer.toString(len));
+        }
+        byte[] result = new byte[len];
+        in.readFully(result, 0, len);
+        return result;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Read byte-array written with a WritableableUtils.vint prefix.
+     * IOException is converted to a RuntimeException.
+     *
+     * @param in Input to read from.
+     * @return byte array read off <code>in</code>
+     */
+    public static byte[] readByteArrayThrowsRuntime(final DataInput in) {
+        try {
+            return readByteArray(in);
+        } catch (Exception e) {
+            throw new RuntimeException(e);
+        }
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Write byte-array with a WritableableUtils.vint prefix.
+     *
+     * @param out output stream to be written to
+     * @param b   array to write
+     * @throws IOException e
+     */
+    public static void writeByteArray(final DataOutput out, final byte[] b)
+            throws IOException {
+        if (b == null) {
+            WritableUtils.writeVInt(out, 0);
+        } else {
+            writeByteArray(out, b, 0, b.length);
+        }
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Write byte-array to out with a vint length prefix.
+     *
+     * @param out    output stream
+     * @param b      array
+     * @param offset offset into array
+     * @param length length past offset
+     * @throws IOException e
+     */
+    public static void writeByteArray(final DataOutput out, final byte[] b,
+                                      final int offset, final int length)
+            throws IOException {
+        WritableUtils.writeVInt(out, length);
+        out.write(b, offset, length);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Write byte-array from src to tgt with a vint length prefix.
+     *
+     * @param tgt       target array
+     * @param tgtOffset offset into target array
+     * @param src       source array
+     * @param srcOffset source offset
+     * @param srcLength source length
+     * @return New offset in src array.
+     */
+    public static int writeByteArray(final byte[] tgt, final int tgtOffset,
+                                     final byte[] src, final int srcOffset, final int srcLength) {
+        byte[] vint = vintToBytes(srcLength);
+        System.arraycopy(vint, 0, tgt, tgtOffset, vint.length);
+        int offset = tgtOffset + vint.length;
+        System.arraycopy(src, srcOffset, tgt, offset, srcLength);
+        return offset + srcLength;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Put bytes at the specified byte array position.
+     *
+     * @param tgtBytes  the byte array
+     * @param tgtOffset position in the array
+     * @param srcBytes  array to write out
+     * @param srcOffset source offset
+     * @param srcLength source length
+     * @return incremented offset
+     */
+    public static int putBytes(byte[] tgtBytes, int tgtOffset, byte[] srcBytes,
+                               int srcOffset, int srcLength) {
+        System.arraycopy(srcBytes, srcOffset, tgtBytes, tgtOffset, srcLength);
+        return tgtOffset + srcLength;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Write a single byte out to the specified byte array position.
+     *
+     * @param bytes  the byte array
+     * @param offset position in the array
+     * @param b      byte to write out
+     * @return incremented offset
+     */
+    public static int putByte(byte[] bytes, int offset, byte b) {
+        bytes[offset] = b;
+        return offset + 1;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Add the whole content of the ByteBuffer to the bytes arrays. The ByteBuffer is modified.
+     *
+     * @param bytes  the byte array
+     * @param offset position in the array
+     * @param buf    ByteBuffer to write out
+     * @return incremented offset
+     */
+    public static int putByteBuffer(byte[] bytes, int offset, ByteBuffer buf) {
+        int len = buf.remaining();
+        buf.get(bytes, offset, len);
+        return offset + len;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns a new byte array, copied from the given {@code buf},
+     * from the index 0 (inclusive) to the limit (exclusive),
+     * regardless of the current position.
+     * The position and the other index parameters are not changed.
+     *
+     * @param buf a byte buffer
+     * @return the byte array
+     * @see #getBytes(ByteBuffer)
+     */
+    public static byte[] toBytes(ByteBuffer buf) {
+        ByteBuffer dup = buf.duplicate();
+        dup.position(0);
+        return readBytes(dup);
+    }
+
+    private static byte[] readBytes(ByteBuffer buf) {
+        byte[] result = new byte[buf.remaining()];
+        buf.get(result);
+        return result;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @param b Presumed UTF-8 encoded byte array.
+     * @return String made from <code>b</code>
+     */
+    public static String toString(final byte[] b) {
+        if (b == null) {
+            return null;
+        }
+        return toString(b, 0, b.length);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Joins two byte arrays together using a separator.
+     *
+     * @param b1  The first byte array.
+     * @param sep The separator to use.
+     * @param b2  The second byte array.
+     */
+    public static String toString(final byte[] b1,
+                                  String sep,
+                                  final byte[] b2) {
+        return toString(b1, 0, b1.length) + sep + toString(b2, 0, b2.length);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * This method will convert utf8 encoded bytes into a string. If
+     * the given byte array is null, this method will return null.
+     *
+     * @param b   Presumed UTF-8 encoded byte array.
+     * @param off offset into array
+     * @param len length of utf-8 sequence
+     * @return String made from <code>b</code> or null
+     */
+    public static String toString(final byte[] b, int off, int len) {
+        if (b == null) {
+            return null;
+        }
+        if (len == 0) {
+            return "";
+        }
+        return new String(b, off, len, UTF8_CHARSET);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Write a printable representation of a byte array.
+     *
+     * @param b byte array
+     * @return string
+     * @see #toStringBinary(byte[], int, int)
+     */
+    public static String toStringBinary(final byte[] b) {
+        if (b == null)
+            return "null";
+        return toStringBinary(b, 0, b.length);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Converts the given byte buffer to a printable representation,
+     * from the index 0 (inclusive) to the limit (exclusive),
+     * regardless of the current position.
+     * The position and the other index parameters are not changed.
+     *
+     * @param buf a byte buffer
+     * @return a string representation of the buffer's binary contents
+     * @see #toBytes(ByteBuffer)
+     * @see #getBytes(ByteBuffer)
+     */
+    public static String toStringBinary(ByteBuffer buf) {
+        if (buf == null)
+            return "null";
+        if (buf.hasArray()) {
+            return toStringBinary(buf.array(), buf.arrayOffset(), buf.limit());
+        }
+        return toStringBinary(toBytes(buf));
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Write a printable representation of a byte array. Non-printable
+     * characters are hex escaped in the format \\x%02X, eg:
+     * \x00 \x05 etc
+     *
+     * @param b   array to write out
+     * @param off offset to start at
+     * @param len length to write
+     * @return string output
+     */
+    public static String toStringBinary(final byte[] b, int off, int len) {
+        StringBuilder result = new StringBuilder();
+        // Just in case we are passed a 'len' that is > buffer length...
+        if (off >= b.length) return result.toString();
+        if (off + len > b.length) len = b.length - off;
+        for (int i = off; i < off + len; ++i) {
+            int ch = b[i] & 0xFF;
+            if ((ch >= '0' && ch <= '9')
+                    || (ch >= 'A' && ch <= 'Z')
+                    || (ch >= 'a' && ch <= 'z')
+                    || " `~!@#$%^&*()-_=+[]{}|;:'\",.<>/?".indexOf(ch) >= 0) {
+                result.append((char) ch);
+            } else {
+                result.append(String.format("\\x%02X", ch));
+            }
+        }
+        return result.toString();
+    }
+
+    private static boolean isHexDigit(char c) {
+        return
+                (c >= 'A' && c <= 'F') ||
+                        (c >= '0' && c <= '9');
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Takes a ASCII digit in the range A-F0-9 and returns
+     * the corresponding integer/ordinal value.
+     *
+     * @param ch The hex digit.
+     * @return The converted hex value as a byte.
+     */
+    public static byte toBinaryFromHex(byte ch) {
+        if (ch >= 'A' && ch <= 'F')
+            return (byte) ((byte) 10 + (byte) (ch - 'A'));
+        // else
+        return (byte) (ch - '0');
+    }
+
+    public static byte[] toBytesBinary(String in) {
+        // this may be bigger than we need, but let's be safe.
+        byte[] b = new byte[in.length()];
+        int size = 0;
+        for (int i = 0; i < in.length(); ++i) {
+            char ch = in.charAt(i);
+            if (ch == '\\' && in.length() > i + 1 && in.charAt(i + 1) == 'x') {
+                // ok, take next 2 hex digits.
+                char hd1 = in.charAt(i + 2);
+                char hd2 = in.charAt(i + 3);
+
+                // they need to be A-F0-9:
+                if (!isHexDigit(hd1) ||
+                        !isHexDigit(hd2)) {
+                    // bogus escape code, ignore:
+                    continue;
+                }
+                // turn hex ASCII digit -> number
+                byte d = (byte) ((toBinaryFromHex((byte) hd1) << 4) + toBinaryFromHex((byte) hd2));
+
+                b[size++] = d;
+                i += 3; // skip 3
+            } else {
+                b[size++] = (byte) ch;
+            }
+        }
+        // resize:
+        byte[] b2 = new byte[size];
+        System.arraycopy(b, 0, b2, 0, size);
+        return b2;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Converts a string to a UTF-8 byte array.
+     *
+     * @param s string
+     * @return the byte array
+     */
+    public static byte[] toBytes(String s) {
+        return s.getBytes(UTF8_CHARSET);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Convert a boolean to a byte array. True becomes -1
+     * and false becomes 0.
+     *
+     * @param b value
+     * @return <code>b</code> encoded in a byte array.
+     */
+    public static byte[] toBytes(final boolean b) {
+        return new byte[]{b ? (byte) -1 : (byte) 0};
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Reverses {@link #toBytes(boolean)}
+     *
+     * @param b array
+     * @return True or false.
+     */
+    public static boolean toBoolean(final byte[] b) {
+        if (b.length != 1) {
+            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Array has wrong size: " + b.length);
+        }
+        return b[0] != (byte) 0;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Convert a long value to a byte array using big-endian.
+     *
+     * @param val value to convert
+     * @return the byte array
+     */
+    public static byte[] toBytes(long val) {
+        byte[] b = new byte[8];
+        for (int i = 7; i > 0; i--) {
+            b[i] = (byte) val;
+            val >>>= 8;
+        }
+        b[0] = (byte) val;
+        return b;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Converts a byte array to a long value. Reverses
+     * {@link #toBytes(long)}
+     *
+     * @param bytes array
+     * @return the long value
+     */
+    public static long toLong(byte[] bytes) {
+        return toLong(bytes, 0, SIZEOF_LONG);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Converts a byte array to a long value. Assumes there will be
+     * {@link #SIZEOF_LONG} bytes available.
+     *
+     * @param bytes  bytes
+     * @param offset offset
+     * @return the long value
+     */
+    public static long toLong(byte[] bytes, int offset) {
+        return toLong(bytes, offset, SIZEOF_LONG);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Converts a byte array to a long value.
+     *
+     * @param bytes  array of bytes
+     * @param offset offset into array
+     * @param length length of data (must be {@link #SIZEOF_LONG})
+     * @return the long value
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if length is not {@link #SIZEOF_LONG} or
+     *                                  if there's not enough room in the array at the offset indicated.
+     */
+    public static long toLong(byte[] bytes, int offset, final int length) {
+        if (length != SIZEOF_LONG || offset + length > bytes.length) {
+            throw explainWrongLengthOrOffset(bytes, offset, length, SIZEOF_LONG);
+        }
+        if (org.apache.kylin.common.util.Bytes.LexicographicalComparerHolder.UnsafeComparer.isAvailable()) {
+            return toLongUnsafe(bytes, offset);
+        } else {
+            long l = 0;
+            for (int i = offset; i < offset + length; i++) {
+                l <<= 8;
+                l ^= bytes[i] & 0xFF;
+            }
+            return l;
+        }
+    }
+
+    private static IllegalArgumentException
+    explainWrongLengthOrOffset(final byte[] bytes,
+                               final int offset,
+                               final int length,
+                               final int expectedLength) {
+        String reason;
+        if (length != expectedLength) {
+            reason = "Wrong length: " + length + ", expected " + expectedLength;
+        } else {
+            reason = "offset (" + offset + ") + length (" + length + ") exceed the"
+                    + " capacity of the array: " + bytes.length;
+        }
+        return new IllegalArgumentException(reason);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Put a long value out to the specified byte array position.
+     *
+     * @param bytes  the byte array
+     * @param offset position in the array
+     * @param val    long to write out
+     * @return incremented offset
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the byte array given doesn't have
+     *                                  enough room at the offset specified.
+     */
+    public static int putLong(byte[] bytes, int offset, long val) {
+        if (bytes.length - offset < SIZEOF_LONG) {
+            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Not enough room to put a long at"
+                    + " offset " + offset + " in a " + bytes.length + " byte array");
+        }
+        if (org.apache.kylin.common.util.Bytes.LexicographicalComparerHolder.UnsafeComparer.isAvailable()) {
+            return putLongUnsafe(bytes, offset, val);
+        } else {
+            for (int i = offset + 7; i > offset; i--) {
+                bytes[i] = (byte) val;
+                val >>>= 8;
+            }
+            bytes[offset] = (byte) val;
+            return offset + SIZEOF_LONG;
+        }
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Put a long value out to the specified byte array position (Unsafe).
+     *
+     * @param bytes  the byte array
+     * @param offset position in the array
+     * @param val    long to write out
+     * @return incremented offset
+     */
+    public static int putLongUnsafe(byte[] bytes, int offset, long val) {
+        if (org.apache.kylin.common.util.Bytes.LexicographicalComparerHolder.UnsafeComparer.littleEndian) {
+            val = Long.reverseBytes(val);
+        }
+        org.apache.kylin.common.util.Bytes.LexicographicalComparerHolder.UnsafeComparer.theUnsafe.putLong(bytes, (long) offset +
+                org.apache.kylin.common.util.Bytes.LexicographicalComparerHolder.UnsafeComparer.BYTE_ARRAY_BASE_OFFSET, val);
+        return offset + SIZEOF_LONG;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Presumes float encoded as IEEE 754 floating-point "single format"
+     *
+     * @param bytes byte array
+     * @return Float made from passed byte array.
+     */
+    public static float toFloat(byte[] bytes) {
+        return toFloat(bytes, 0);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Presumes float encoded as IEEE 754 floating-point "single format"
+     *
+     * @param bytes  array to convert
+     * @param offset offset into array
+     * @return Float made from passed byte array.
+     */
+    public static float toFloat(byte[] bytes, int offset) {
+        return Float.intBitsToFloat(toInt(bytes, offset, SIZEOF_INT));
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @param bytes  byte array
+     * @param offset offset to write to
+     * @param f      float value
+     * @return New offset in <code>bytes</code>
+     */
+    public static int putFloat(byte[] bytes, int offset, float f) {
+        return putInt(bytes, offset, Float.floatToRawIntBits(f));
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @param f float value
+     * @return the float represented as byte []
+     */
+    public static byte[] toBytes(final float f) {
+        // Encode it as int
+        return Bytes.toBytes(Float.floatToRawIntBits(f));
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @param bytes byte array
+     * @return Return double made from passed bytes.
+     */
+    public static double toDouble(final byte[] bytes) {
+        return toDouble(bytes, 0);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @param bytes  byte array
+     * @param offset offset where double is
+     * @return Return double made from passed bytes.
+     */
+    public static double toDouble(final byte[] bytes, final int offset) {
+        return Double.longBitsToDouble(toLong(bytes, offset, SIZEOF_LONG));
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @param bytes  byte array
+     * @param offset offset to write to
+     * @param d      value
+     * @return New offset into array <code>bytes</code>
+     */
+    public static int putDouble(byte[] bytes, int offset, double d) {
+        return putLong(bytes, offset, Double.doubleToLongBits(d));
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Serialize a double as the IEEE 754 double format output. The resultant
+     * array will be 8 bytes long.
+     *
+     * @param d value
+     * @return the double represented as byte []
+     */
+    public static byte[] toBytes(final double d) {
+        // Encode it as a long
+        return Bytes.toBytes(Double.doubleToRawLongBits(d));
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Convert an int value to a byte array.  Big-endian.  Same as what DataOutputStream.writeInt
+     * does.
+     *
+     * @param val value
+     * @return the byte array
+     */
+    public static byte[] toBytes(int val) {
+        byte[] b = new byte[4];
+        for (int i = 3; i > 0; i--) {
+            b[i] = (byte) val;
+            val >>>= 8;
+        }
+        b[0] = (byte) val;
+        return b;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Converts a byte array to an int value
+     *
+     * @param bytes byte array
+     * @return the int value
+     */
+    public static int toInt(byte[] bytes) {
+        return toInt(bytes, 0, SIZEOF_INT);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Converts a byte array to an int value
+     *
+     * @param bytes  byte array
+     * @param offset offset into array
+     * @return the int value
+     */
+    public static int toInt(byte[] bytes, int offset) {
+        return toInt(bytes, offset, SIZEOF_INT);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Converts a byte array to an int value
+     *
+     * @param bytes  byte array
+     * @param offset offset into array
+     * @param length length of int (has to be {@link #SIZEOF_INT})
+     * @return the int value
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if length is not {@link #SIZEOF_INT} or
+     *                                  if there's not enough room in the array at the offset indicated.
+     */
+    public static int toInt(byte[] bytes, int offset, final int length) {
+        if (length != SIZEOF_INT || offset + length > bytes.length) {
+            throw explainWrongLengthOrOffset(bytes, offset, length, SIZEOF_INT);
+        }
+        if (org.apache.kylin.common.util.Bytes.LexicographicalComparerHolder.UnsafeComparer.isAvailable()) {
+            return toIntUnsafe(bytes, offset);
+        } else {
+            int n = 0;
+            for (int i = offset; i < (offset + length); i++) {
+                n <<= 8;
+                n ^= bytes[i] & 0xFF;
+            }
+            return n;
+        }
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Converts a byte array to an int value (Unsafe version)
+     *
+     * @param bytes  byte array
+     * @param offset offset into array
+     * @return the int value
+     */
+    public static int toIntUnsafe(byte[] bytes, int offset) {
+        if (org.apache.kylin.common.util.Bytes.LexicographicalComparerHolder.UnsafeComparer.littleEndian) {
+            return Integer.reverseBytes(org.apache.kylin.common.util.Bytes.LexicographicalComparerHolder.UnsafeComparer.theUnsafe.getInt(bytes,
+                    (long) offset + org.apache.kylin.common.util.Bytes.LexicographicalComparerHolder.UnsafeComparer.BYTE_ARRAY_BASE_OFFSET));
+        } else {
+            return org.apache.kylin.common.util.Bytes.LexicographicalComparerHolder.UnsafeComparer.theUnsafe.getInt(bytes,
+                    (long) offset + org.apache.kylin.common.util.Bytes.LexicographicalComparerHolder.UnsafeComparer.BYTE_ARRAY_BASE_OFFSET);
+        }
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Converts a byte array to an short value (Unsafe version)
+     *
+     * @param bytes  byte array
+     * @param offset offset into array
+     * @return the short value
+     */
+    public static short toShortUnsafe(byte[] bytes, int offset) {
+        if (org.apache.kylin.common.util.Bytes.LexicographicalComparerHolder.UnsafeComparer.littleEndian) {
+            return Short.reverseBytes(org.apache.kylin.common.util.Bytes.LexicographicalComparerHolder.UnsafeComparer.theUnsafe.getShort(bytes,
+                    (long) offset + org.apache.kylin.common.util.Bytes.LexicographicalComparerHolder.UnsafeComparer.BYTE_ARRAY_BASE_OFFSET));
+        } else {
+            return org.apache.kylin.common.util.Bytes.LexicographicalComparerHolder.UnsafeComparer.theUnsafe.getShort(bytes,
+                    (long) offset + org.apache.kylin.common.util.Bytes.LexicographicalComparerHolder.UnsafeComparer.BYTE_ARRAY_BASE_OFFSET);
+        }
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Converts a byte array to an long value (Unsafe version)
+     *
+     * @param bytes  byte array
+     * @param offset offset into array
+     * @return the long value
+     */
+    public static long toLongUnsafe(byte[] bytes, int offset) {
+        if (org.apache.kylin.common.util.Bytes.LexicographicalComparerHolder.UnsafeComparer.littleEndian) {
+            return Long.reverseBytes(org.apache.kylin.common.util.Bytes.LexicographicalComparerHolder.UnsafeComparer.theUnsafe.getLong(bytes,
+                    (long) offset + org.apache.kylin.common.util.Bytes.LexicographicalComparerHolder.UnsafeComparer.BYTE_ARRAY_BASE_OFFSET));
+        } else {
+            return org.apache.kylin.common.util.Bytes.LexicographicalComparerHolder.UnsafeComparer.theUnsafe.getLong(bytes,
+                    (long) offset + org.apache.kylin.common.util.Bytes.LexicographicalComparerHolder.UnsafeComparer.BYTE_ARRAY_BASE_OFFSET);
+        }
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Converts a byte array to an int value
+     *
+     * @param bytes  byte array
+     * @param offset offset into array
+     * @param length how many bytes should be considered for creating int
+     * @return the int value
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if there's not enough room in the array at the offset
+     *                                  indicated.
+     */
+    public static int readAsInt(byte[] bytes, int offset, final int length) {
+        if (offset + length > bytes.length) {
+            throw new IllegalArgumentException("offset (" + offset + ") + length (" + length
+                    + ") exceed the" + " capacity of the array: " + bytes.length);
+        }
+        int n = 0;
+        for (int i = offset; i < (offset + length); i++) {
+            n <<= 8;
+            n ^= bytes[i] & 0xFF;
+        }
+        return n;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Put an int value out to the specified byte array position.
+     *
+     * @param bytes  the byte array
+     * @param offset position in the array
+     * @param val    int to write out
+     * @return incremented offset
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the byte array given doesn't have
+     *                                  enough room at the offset specified.
+     */
+    public static int putInt(byte[] bytes, int offset, int val) {
+        if (bytes.length - offset < SIZEOF_INT) {
+            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Not enough room to put an int at"
+                    + " offset " + offset + " in a " + bytes.length + " byte array");
+        }
+        if (org.apache.kylin.common.util.Bytes.LexicographicalComparerHolder.UnsafeComparer.isAvailable()) {
+            return putIntUnsafe(bytes, offset, val);
+        } else {
+            for (int i = offset + 3; i > offset; i--) {
+                bytes[i] = (byte) val;
+                val >>>= 8;
+            }
+            bytes[offset] = (byte) val;
+            return offset + SIZEOF_INT;
+        }
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Put an int value out to the specified byte array position (Unsafe).
+     *
+     * @param bytes  the byte array
+     * @param offset position in the array
+     * @param val    int to write out
+     * @return incremented offset
+     */
+    public static int putIntUnsafe(byte[] bytes, int offset, int val) {
+        if (org.apache.kylin.common.util.Bytes.LexicographicalComparerHolder.UnsafeComparer.littleEndian) {
+            val = Integer.reverseBytes(val);
+        }
+        org.apache.kylin.common.util.Bytes.LexicographicalComparerHolder.UnsafeComparer.theUnsafe.putInt(bytes, (long) offset +
+                org.apache.kylin.common.util.Bytes.LexicographicalComparerHolder.UnsafeComparer.BYTE_ARRAY_BASE_OFFSET, val);
+        return offset + SIZEOF_INT;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Convert a short value to a byte array of {@link #SIZEOF_SHORT} bytes long.
+     *
+     * @param val value
+     * @return the byte array
+     */
+    public static byte[] toBytes(short val) {
+        byte[] b = new byte[SIZEOF_SHORT];
+        b[1] = (byte) val;
+        val >>= 8;
+        b[0] = (byte) val;
+        return b;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Converts a byte array to a short value
+     *
+     * @param bytes byte array
+     * @return the short value
+     */
+    public static short toShort(byte[] bytes) {
+        return toShort(bytes, 0, SIZEOF_SHORT);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Converts a byte array to a short value
+     *
+     * @param bytes  byte array
+     * @param offset offset into array
+     * @return the short value
+     */
+    public static short toShort(byte[] bytes, int offset) {
+        return toShort(bytes, offset, SIZEOF_SHORT);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Converts a byte array to a short value
+     *
+     * @param bytes  byte array
+     * @param offset offset into array
+     * @param length length, has to be {@link #SIZEOF_SHORT}
+     * @return the short value
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if length is not {@link #SIZEOF_SHORT}
+     *                                  or if there's not enough room in the array at the offset indicated.
+     */
+    public static short toShort(byte[] bytes, int offset, final int length) {
+        if (length != SIZEOF_SHORT || offset + length > bytes.length) {
+            throw explainWrongLengthOrOffset(bytes, offset, length, SIZEOF_SHORT);
+        }
+        if (org.apache.kylin.common.util.Bytes.LexicographicalComparerHolder.UnsafeComparer.isAvailable()) {
+            return toShortUnsafe(bytes, offset);
+        } else {
+            short n = 0;
+            n ^= bytes[offset] & 0xFF;
+            n <<= 8;
+            n ^= bytes[offset + 1] & 0xFF;
+            return n;
+        }
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns a new byte array, copied from the given {@code buf},
+     * from the position (inclusive) to the limit (exclusive).
+     * The position and the other index parameters are not changed.
+     *
+     * @param buf a byte buffer
+     * @return the byte array
+     * @see #toBytes(ByteBuffer)
+     */
+    public static byte[] getBytes(ByteBuffer buf) {
+        return readBytes(buf.duplicate());
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Put a short value out to the specified byte array position.
+     *
+     * @param bytes  the byte array
+     * @param offset position in the array
+     * @param val    short to write out
+     * @return incremented offset
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the byte array given doesn't have
+     *                                  enough room at the offset specified.
+     */
+    public static int putShort(byte[] bytes, int offset, short val) {
+        if (bytes.length - offset < SIZEOF_SHORT) {
+            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Not enough room to put a short at"
+                    + " offset " + offset + " in a " + bytes.length + " byte array");
+        }
+        if (org.apache.kylin.common.util.Bytes.LexicographicalComparerHolder.UnsafeComparer.isAvailable()) {
+            return putShortUnsafe(bytes, offset, val);
+        } else {
+            bytes[offset + 1] = (byte) val;
+            val >>= 8;
+            bytes[offset] = (byte) val;
+            return offset + SIZEOF_SHORT;
+        }
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Put a short value out to the specified byte array position (Unsafe).
+     *
+     * @param bytes  the byte array
+     * @param offset position in the array
+     * @param val    short to write out
+     * @return incremented offset
+     */
+    public static int putShortUnsafe(byte[] bytes, int offset, short val) {
+        if (org.apache.kylin.common.util.Bytes.LexicographicalComparerHolder.UnsafeComparer.littleEndian) {
+            val = Short.reverseBytes(val);
+        }
+        org.apache.kylin.common.util.Bytes.LexicographicalComparerHolder.UnsafeComparer.theUnsafe.putShort(bytes, (long) offset +
+                org.apache.kylin.common.util.Bytes.LexicographicalComparerHolder.UnsafeComparer.BYTE_ARRAY_BASE_OFFSET, val);
+        return offset + SIZEOF_SHORT;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Put an int value as short out to the specified byte array position. Only the lower 2 bytes of
+     * the short will be put into the array. The caller of the API need to make sure they will not
+     * loose the value by doing so. This is useful to store an unsigned short which is represented as
+     * int in other parts.
+     *
+     * @param bytes  the byte array
+     * @param offset position in the array
+     * @param val    value to write out
+     * @return incremented offset
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the byte array given doesn't have
+     *                                  enough room at the offset specified.
+     */
+    public static int putAsShort(byte[] bytes, int offset, int val) {
+        if (bytes.length - offset < SIZEOF_SHORT) {
+            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Not enough room to put a short at"
+                    + " offset " + offset + " in a " + bytes.length + " byte array");
+        }
+        bytes[offset + 1] = (byte) val;
+        val >>= 8;
+        bytes[offset] = (byte) val;
+        return offset + SIZEOF_SHORT;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Convert a BigDecimal value to a byte array
+     *
+     * @param val
+     * @return the byte array
+     */
+    public static byte[] toBytes(BigDecimal val) {
+        byte[] valueBytes = val.unscaledValue().toByteArray();
+        byte[] result = new byte[valueBytes.length + SIZEOF_INT];
+        int offset = putInt(result, 0, val.scale());
+        putBytes(result, offset, valueBytes, 0, valueBytes.length);
+        return result;
+    }
+
+
+    /**
+     * Converts a byte array to a BigDecimal
+     *
+     * @param bytes
+     * @return the char value
+     */
+    public static BigDecimal toBigDecimal(byte[] bytes) {
+        return toBigDecimal(bytes, 0, bytes.length);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Converts a byte array to a BigDecimal value
+     *
+     * @param bytes
+     * @param offset
+     * @param length
+     * @return the char value
+     */
+    public static BigDecimal toBigDecimal(byte[] bytes, int offset, final int length) {
+        if (bytes == null || length < SIZEOF_INT + 1 ||
+                (offset + length > bytes.length)) {
+            return null;
+        }
+
+        int scale = toInt(bytes, offset);
+        byte[] tcBytes = new byte[length - SIZEOF_INT];
+        System.arraycopy(bytes, offset + SIZEOF_INT, tcBytes, 0, length - SIZEOF_INT);
+        return new BigDecimal(new BigInteger(tcBytes), scale);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Put a BigDecimal value out to the specified byte array position.
+     *
+     * @param bytes  the byte array
+     * @param offset position in the array
+     * @param val    BigDecimal to write out
+     * @return incremented offset
+     */
+    public static int putBigDecimal(byte[] bytes, int offset, BigDecimal val) {
+        if (bytes == null) {
+            return offset;
+        }
+
+        byte[] valueBytes = val.unscaledValue().toByteArray();
+        byte[] result = new byte[valueBytes.length + SIZEOF_INT];
+        offset = putInt(result, offset, val.scale());
+        return putBytes(result, offset, valueBytes, 0, valueBytes.length);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @param vint Integer to make a vint of.
+     * @return Vint as bytes array.
+     */
+    public static byte[] vintToBytes(final long vint) {
+        long i = vint;
+        int size = WritableUtils.getVIntSize(i);
+        byte[] result = new byte[size];
+        int offset = 0;
+        if (i >= -112 && i <= 127) {
+            result[offset] = (byte) i;
+            return result;
+        }
+
+        int len = -112;
+        if (i < 0) {
+            i ^= -1L; // take one's complement'
+            len = -120;
+        }
+
+        long tmp = i;
+        while (tmp != 0) {
+            tmp = tmp >> 8;
+            len--;
+        }
+
+        result[offset++] = (byte) len;
+
+        len = (len < -120) ? -(len + 120) : -(len + 112);
+
+        for (int idx = len; idx != 0; idx--) {
+            int shiftbits = (idx - 1) * 8;
+            long mask = 0xFFL << shiftbits;
+            result[offset++] = (byte) ((i & mask) >> shiftbits);
+        }
+        return result;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @param buffer buffer to convert
+     * @return vint bytes as an integer.
+     */
+    public static long bytesToVint(final byte[] buffer) {
+        int offset = 0;
+        byte firstByte = buffer[offset++];
+        int len = WritableUtils.decodeVIntSize(firstByte);
+        if (len == 1) {
+            return firstByte;
+        }
+        long i = 0;
+        for (int idx = 0; idx < len - 1; idx++) {
+            byte b = buffer[offset++];
+            i = i << 8;
+            i = i | (b & 0xFF);
+        }
+        return (WritableUtils.isNegativeVInt(firstByte) ? ~i : i);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Reads a zero-compressed encoded long from input stream and returns it.
+     *
+     * @param buffer Binary array
+     * @param offset Offset into array at which vint begins.
+     * @return deserialized long from stream.
+     * @throws java.io.IOException e
+     */
+    public static long readVLong(final byte[] buffer, final int offset)
+            throws IOException {
+        byte firstByte = buffer[offset];
+        int len = WritableUtils.decodeVIntSize(firstByte);
+        if (len == 1) {
+            return firstByte;
+        }
+        long i = 0;
+        for (int idx = 0; idx < len - 1; idx++) {
+            byte b = buffer[offset + 1 + idx];
+            i = i << 8;
+            i = i | (b & 0xFF);
+        }
+        return (WritableUtils.isNegativeVInt(firstByte) ? ~i : i);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @param left  left operand
+     * @param right right operand
+     * @return 0 if equal, < 0 if left is less than right, etc.
+     */
+    public static int compareTo(final byte[] left, final byte[] right) {
+        return LexicographicalComparerHolder.BEST_COMPARER.
+                compareTo(left, 0, left.length, right, 0, right.length);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Lexicographically compare two arrays.
+     *
+     * @param buffer1 left operand
+     * @param buffer2 right operand
+     * @param offset1 Where to start comparing in the left buffer
+     * @param offset2 Where to start comparing in the right buffer
+     * @param length1 How much to compare from the left buffer
+     * @param length2 How much to compare from the right buffer
+     * @return 0 if equal, < 0 if left is less than right, etc.
+     */
+    public static int compareTo(byte[] buffer1, int offset1, int length1,
+                                byte[] buffer2, int offset2, int length2) {
+        return LexicographicalComparerHolder.BEST_COMPARER.
+                compareTo(buffer1, offset1, length1, buffer2, offset2, length2);
+    }
+
+    interface Comparer<T> {
+        int compareTo(
+                T buffer1, int offset1, int length1, T buffer2, int offset2, int length2
+        );
+    }
+
+    static Comparer<byte[]> lexicographicalComparerJavaImpl() {
+        return LexicographicalComparerHolder.PureJavaComparer.INSTANCE;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Provides a lexicographical comparer implementation; either a Java
+     * implementation or a faster implementation based on {@link sun.misc.Unsafe}.
+     * <p/>
+     * <p>Uses reflection to gracefully fall back to the Java implementation if
+     * {@code Unsafe} isn't available.
+     */
+    static class LexicographicalComparerHolder {
+        static final String UNSAFE_COMPARER_NAME =
+                LexicographicalComparerHolder.class.getName() + "$UnsafeComparer";
+
+        static final Comparer<byte[]> BEST_COMPARER = getBestComparer();
+
+        /**
+         * Returns the Unsafe-using Comparer, or falls back to the pure-Java
+         * implementation if unable to do so.
+         */
+        static Comparer<byte[]> getBestComparer() {
+            try {
+                Class<?> theClass = Class.forName(UNSAFE_COMPARER_NAME);
+
+                // yes, UnsafeComparer does implement Comparer<byte[]>
+                @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
+                Comparer<byte[]> comparer =
+                        (Comparer<byte[]>) theClass.getEnumConstants()[0];
+                return comparer;
+            } catch (Throwable t) { // ensure we really catch *everything*
+                return lexicographicalComparerJavaImpl();
+            }
+        }
+
+        enum PureJavaComparer implements Comparer<byte[]> {
+            INSTANCE;
+
+            @Override
+            public int compareTo(byte[] buffer1, int offset1, int length1,
+                                 byte[] buffer2, int offset2, int length2) {
+                // Short circuit equal case
+                if (buffer1 == buffer2 &&
+                        offset1 == offset2 &&
+                        length1 == length2) {
+                    return 0;
+                }
+                // Bring WritableComparator code local
+                int end1 = offset1 + length1;
+                int end2 = offset2 + length2;
+                for (int i = offset1, j = offset2; i < end1 && j < end2; i++, j++) {
+                    int a = (buffer1[i] & 0xff);
+                    int b = (buffer2[j] & 0xff);
+                    if (a != b) {
+                        return a - b;
+                    }
+                }
+                return length1 - length2;
+            }
+        }
+
+        enum UnsafeComparer implements Comparer<byte[]> {
+            INSTANCE;
+
+            static final Unsafe theUnsafe;
+
+            /**
+             * The offset to the first element in a byte array.
+             */
+            static final int BYTE_ARRAY_BASE_OFFSET;
+
+            static {
+                theUnsafe = (Unsafe) AccessController.doPrivileged(
+                        new PrivilegedAction<Object>() {
+                            @Override
+                            public Object run() {
+                                try {
+                                    Field f = Unsafe.class.getDeclaredField("theUnsafe");
+                                    f.setAccessible(true);
+                                    return f.get(null);
+                                } catch (NoSuchFieldException e) {
+                                    // It doesn't matter what we throw;
+                                    // it's swallowed in getBestComparer().
+                                    throw new Error();
+                                } catch (IllegalAccessException e) {
+                                    throw new Error();
+                                }
+                            }
+                        });
+
+                BYTE_ARRAY_BASE_OFFSET = theUnsafe.arrayBaseOffset(byte[].class);
+
+                // sanity check - this should never fail
+                if (theUnsafe.arrayIndexScale(byte[].class) != 1) {
+                    throw new AssertionError();
+                }
+            }
+
+            static final boolean littleEndian =
+                    ByteOrder.nativeOrder().equals(ByteOrder.LITTLE_ENDIAN);
+
+            /**
+             * Returns true if x1 is less than x2, when both values are treated as
+             * unsigned long.
+             */
+            static boolean lessThanUnsignedLong(long x1, long x2) {
+                return (x1 + Long.MIN_VALUE) < (x2 + Long.MIN_VALUE);
+            }
+
+            /**
+             * Returns true if x1 is less than x2, when both values are treated as
+             * unsigned int.
+             */
+            static boolean lessThanUnsignedInt(int x1, int x2) {
+                return (x1 & 0xffffffffL) < (x2 & 0xffffffffL);
+            }
+
+            /**
+             * Returns true if x1 is less than x2, when both values are treated as
+             * unsigned short.
+             */
+            static boolean lessThanUnsignedShort(short x1, short x2) {
+                return (x1 & 0xffff) < (x2 & 0xffff);
+            }
+
+            /**
+             * Checks if Unsafe is available
+             *
+             * @return true, if available, false - otherwise
+             */
+            public static boolean isAvailable() {
+                return theUnsafe != null;
+            }
+
+            /**
+             * Lexicographically compare two arrays.
+             *
+             * @param buffer1 left operand
+             * @param buffer2 right operand
+             * @param offset1 Where to start comparing in the left buffer
+             * @param offset2 Where to start comparing in the right buffer
+             * @param length1 How much to compare from the left buffer
+             * @param length2 How much to compare from the right buffer
+             * @return 0 if equal, < 0 if left is less than right, etc.
+             */
+            @Override
+            public int compareTo(byte[] buffer1, int offset1, int length1,
+                                 byte[] buffer2, int offset2, int length2) {
+
+                // Short circuit equal case
+                if (buffer1 == buffer2 &&
+                        offset1 == offset2 &&
+                        length1 == length2) {
+                    return 0;
+                }
+                final int minLength = Math.min(length1, length2);
+                final int minWords = minLength / SIZEOF_LONG;
+                final long offset1Adj = offset1 + BYTE_ARRAY_BASE_OFFSET;
+                final long offset2Adj = offset2 + BYTE_ARRAY_BASE_OFFSET;
+
+        /*
+         * Compare 8 bytes at a time. Benchmarking shows comparing 8 bytes at a
+         * time is no slower than comparing 4 bytes at a time even on 32-bit.
+         * On the other hand, it is substantially faster on 64-bit.
+         */
+                for (int i = 0; i < minWords * SIZEOF_LONG; i += SIZEOF_LONG) {
+                    long lw = theUnsafe.getLong(buffer1, offset1Adj + (long) i);
+                    long rw = theUnsafe.getLong(buffer2, offset2Adj + (long) i);
+                    long diff = lw ^ rw;
+                    if (littleEndian) {
+                        lw = Long.reverseBytes(lw);
+                        rw = Long.reverseBytes(rw);
+                    }
+                    if (diff != 0) {
+                        return lessThanUnsignedLong(lw, rw) ? -1 : 1;
+                    }
+                }
+                int offset = minWords * SIZEOF_LONG;
+
+                if (minLength - offset >= SIZEOF_INT) {
+                    int il = theUnsafe.getInt(buffer1, offset1Adj + offset);
+                    int ir = theUnsafe.getInt(buffer2, offset2Adj + offset);
+                    if (littleEndian) {
+                        il = Integer.reverseBytes(il);
+                        ir = Integer.reverseBytes(ir);
+                    }
+                    if (il != ir) {
+                        return lessThanUnsignedInt(il, ir) ? -1 : 1;
+                    }
+                    offset += SIZEOF_INT;
+                }
+                if (minLength - offset >= SIZEOF_SHORT) {
+                    short sl = theUnsafe.getShort(buffer1, offset1Adj + offset);
+                    short sr = theUnsafe.getShort(buffer2, offset2Adj + offset);
+                    if (littleEndian) {
+                        sl = Short.reverseBytes(sl);
+                        sr = Short.reverseBytes(sr);
+                    }
+                    if (sl != sr) {
+                        return lessThanUnsignedShort(sl, sr) ? -1 : 1;
+                    }
+                    offset += SIZEOF_SHORT;
+                }
+                if (minLength - offset == 1) {
+                    int a = (buffer1[(int) (offset1 + offset)] & 0xff);
+                    int b = (buffer2[(int) (offset2 + offset)] & 0xff);
+                    if (a != b) {
+                        return a - b;
+                    }
+                }
+                return length1 - length2;
+            }
+        }
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @param left  left operand
+     * @param right right operand
+     * @return True if equal
+     */
+    public static boolean equals(final byte[] left, final byte[] right) {
+        // Could use Arrays.equals?
+        //noinspection SimplifiableConditionalExpression
+        if (left == right) return true;
+        if (left == null || right == null) return false;
+        if (left.length != right.length) return false;
+        if (left.length == 0) return true;
+
+        // Since we're often comparing adjacent sorted data,
+        // it's usual to have equal arrays except for the very last byte
+        // so check that first
+        if (left[left.length - 1] != right[right.length - 1]) return false;
+
+        return compareTo(left, right) == 0;
+    }
+
+    public static boolean equals(final byte[] left, int leftOffset, int leftLen,
+                                 final byte[] right, int rightOffset, int rightLen) {
+        // short circuit case
+        if (left == right &&
+                leftOffset == rightOffset &&
+                leftLen == rightLen) {
+            return true;
+        }
+        // different lengths fast check
+        if (leftLen != rightLen) {
+            return false;
+        }
+        if (leftLen == 0) {
+            return true;
+        }
+
+        // Since we're often comparing adjacent sorted data,
+        // it's usual to have equal arrays except for the very last byte
+        // so check that first
+        if (left[leftOffset + leftLen - 1] != right[rightOffset + rightLen - 1]) return false;
+
+        return LexicographicalComparerHolder.BEST_COMPARER.
+                compareTo(left, leftOffset, leftLen, right, rightOffset, rightLen) == 0;
+    }
+
+
+    /**
+     * @param a   left operand
+     * @param buf right operand
+     * @return True if equal
+     */
+    public static boolean equals(byte[] a, ByteBuffer buf) {
+        if (a == null) return buf == null;
+        if (buf == null) return false;
+        if (a.length != buf.remaining()) return false;
+
+        // Thou shalt not modify the original byte buffer in what should be read only operations.
+        ByteBuffer b = buf.duplicate();
+        for (byte anA : a) {
+            if (anA != b.get()) {
+                return false;
+            }
+        }
+        return true;
+    }
+
+
+    /**
+     * Return true if the byte array on the right is a prefix of the byte
+     * array on the left.
+     */
+    public static boolean startsWith(byte[] bytes, byte[] prefix) {
+        return bytes != null && prefix != null &&
+                bytes.length >= prefix.length &&
+                LexicographicalComparerHolder.BEST_COMPARER.
+                        compareTo(bytes, 0, prefix.length, prefix, 0, prefix.length) == 0;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @param b bytes to hash
+     * @return Runs {@link org.apache.hadoop.io.WritableComparator#hashBytes(byte[], int)} on the
+     * passed in array.  This method is what {@link org.apache.hadoop.io.Text} and
+     * {@link org.apache.hadoop.hbase.io.ImmutableBytesWritable} use calculating hash code.
+     */
+    public static int hashCode(final byte[] b) {
+        return hashCode(b, b.length);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @param b      value
+     * @param length length of the value
+     * @return Runs {@link org.apache.hadoop.io.WritableComparator#hashBytes(byte[], int)} on the
+     * passed in array.  This method is what {@link org.apache.hadoop.io.Text} and
+     * {@link org.apache.hadoop.hbase.io.ImmutableBytesWritable} use calculating hash code.
+     */
+    public static int hashCode(final byte[] b, final int length) {
+        return WritableComparator.hashBytes(b, length);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @param b bytes to hash
+     * @return A hash of <code>b</code> as an Integer that can be used as key in
+     * Maps.
+     */
+    public static Integer mapKey(final byte[] b) {
+        return hashCode(b);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @param b      bytes to hash
+     * @param length length to hash
+     * @return A hash of <code>b</code> as an Integer that can be used as key in
+     * Maps.
+     */
+    public static Integer mapKey(final byte[] b, final int length) {
+        return hashCode(b, length);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @param a lower half
+     * @param b upper half
+     * @return New array that has a in lower half and b in upper half.
+     */
+    public static byte[] add(final byte[] a, final byte[] b) {
+        return add(a, b, EMPTY_BYTE_ARRAY);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @param a first third
+     * @param b second third
+     * @param c third third
+     * @return New array made from a, b and c
+     */
+    public static byte[] add(final byte[] a, final byte[] b, final byte[] c) {
+        byte[] result = new byte[a.length + b.length + c.length];
+        System.arraycopy(a, 0, result, 0, a.length);
+        System.arraycopy(b, 0, result, a.length, b.length);
+        System.arraycopy(c, 0, result, a.length + b.length, c.length);
+        return result;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @param a      array
+     * @param length amount of bytes to grab
+     * @return First <code>length</code> bytes from <code>a</code>
+     */
+    public static byte[] head(final byte[] a, final int length) {
+        if (a.length < length) {
+            return null;
+        }
+        byte[] result = new byte[length];
+        System.arraycopy(a, 0, result, 0, length);
+        return result;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @param a      array
+     * @param length amount of bytes to snarf
+     * @return Last <code>length</code> bytes from <code>a</code>
+     */
+    public static byte[] tail(final byte[] a, final int length) {
+        if (a.length < length) {
+            return null;
+        }
+        byte[] result = new byte[length];
+        System.arraycopy(a, a.length - length, result, 0, length);
+        return result;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @param a      array
+     * @param length new array size
+     * @return Value in <code>a</code> plus <code>length</code> prepended 0 bytes
+     */
+    public static byte[] padHead(final byte[] a, final int length) {
+        byte[] padding = new byte[length];
+        for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
+            padding[i] = 0;
+        }
+        return add(padding, a);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @param a      array
+     * @param length new array size
+     * @return Value in <code>a</code> plus <code>length</code> appended 0 bytes
+     */
+    public static byte[] padTail(final byte[] a, final int length) {
+        byte[] padding = new byte[length];
+        for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
+            padding[i] = 0;
+        }
+        return add(a, padding);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Split passed range.  Expensive operation relatively.  Uses BigInteger math.
+     * Useful splitting ranges for MapReduce jobs.
+     *
+     * @param a   Beginning of range
+     * @param b   End of range
+     * @param num Number of times to split range.  Pass 1 if you want to split
+     *            the range in two; i.e. one split.
+     * @return Array of dividing values
+     */
+    public static byte[][] split(final byte[] a, final byte[] b, final int num) {
+        return split(a, b, false, num);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Split passed range.  Expensive operation relatively.  Uses BigInteger math.
+     * Useful splitting ranges for MapReduce jobs.
+     *
+     * @param a         Beginning of range
+     * @param b         End of range
+     * @param inclusive Whether the end of range is prefix-inclusive or is
+     *                  considered an exclusive boundary.  Automatic splits are generally exclusive
+     *                  and manual splits with an explicit range utilize an inclusive end of range.
+     * @param num       Number of times to split range.  Pass 1 if you want to split
+     *                  the range in two; i.e. one split.
+     * @return Array of dividing values
+     */
+    public static byte[][] split(final byte[] a, final byte[] b,
+                                 boolean inclusive, final int num) {
+        byte[][] ret = new byte[num + 2][];
+        int i = 0;
+        Iterable<byte[]> iter = iterateOnSplits(a, b, inclusive, num);
+        if (iter == null)
+            return null;
+        for (byte[] elem : iter) {
+            ret[i++] = elem;
+        }
+        return ret;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Iterate over keys within the passed range, splitting at an [a,b) boundary.
+     */
+    public static Iterable<byte[]> iterateOnSplits(final byte[] a,
+                                                   final byte[] b, final int num) {
+        return iterateOnSplits(a, b, false, num);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Iterate over keys within the passed range.
+     */
+    public static Iterable<byte[]> iterateOnSplits(
+            final byte[] a, final byte[] b, boolean inclusive, final int num) {
+        byte[] aPadded;
+        byte[] bPadded;
+        if (a.length < b.length) {
+            aPadded = padTail(a, b.length - a.length);
+            bPadded = b;
+        } else if (b.length < a.length) {
+            aPadded = a;
+            bPadded = padTail(b, a.length - b.length);
+        } else {
+            aPadded = a;
+            bPadded = b;
+        }
+        if (compareTo(aPadded, bPadded) >= 0) {
+            throw new IllegalArgumentException("b <= a");
+        }
+        if (num <= 0) {
+            throw new IllegalArgumentException("num cannot be <= 0");
+        }
+        byte[] prependHeader = {1, 0};
+        final BigInteger startBI = new BigInteger(add(prependHeader, aPadded));
+        final BigInteger stopBI = new BigInteger(add(prependHeader, bPadded));
+        BigInteger diffBI = stopBI.subtract(startBI);
+        if (inclusive) {
+            diffBI = diffBI.add(BigInteger.ONE);
+        }
+        final BigInteger splitsBI = BigInteger.valueOf(num + 1);
+        if (diffBI.compareTo(splitsBI) < 0) {
+            return null;
+        }
+        final BigInteger intervalBI;
+        try {
+            intervalBI = diffBI.divide(splitsBI);
+        } catch (Exception e) {
+            LOG.error("Exception caught during division", e);
+            return null;
+        }
+
+        final Iterator<byte[]> iterator = new Iterator<byte[]>() {
+            private int i = -1;
+
+            @Override
+            public boolean hasNext() {
+                return i < num + 1;
+            }
+
+            @Override
+            public byte[] next() {
+                i++;
+                if (i == 0) return a;
+                if (i == num + 1) return b;
+
+                BigInteger curBI = startBI.add(intervalBI.multiply(BigInteger.valueOf(i)));
+                byte[] padded = curBI.toByteArray();
+                if (padded[1] == 0)
+                    padded = tail(padded, padded.length - 2);
+                else
+                    padded = tail(padded, padded.length - 1);
+                return padded;
+            }
+
+            @Override
+            public void remove() {
+                throw new UnsupportedOperationException();
+            }
+
+        };
+
+        return new Iterable<byte[]>() {
+            @Override
+            public Iterator<byte[]> iterator() {
+                return iterator;
+            }
+        };
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @param bytes  array to hash
+     * @param offset offset to start from
+     * @param length length to hash
+     */
+    public static int hashCode(byte[] bytes, int offset, int length) {
+        int hash = 1;
+        for (int i = offset; i < offset + length; i++)
+            hash = (31 * hash) + (int) bytes[i];
+        return hash;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @param t operands
+     * @return Array of byte arrays made from passed array of Text
+     */
+    public static byte[][] toByteArrays(final String[] t) {
+        byte[][] result = new byte[t.length][];
+        for (int i = 0; i < t.length; i++) {
+            result[i] = Bytes.toBytes(t[i]);
+        }
+        return result;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @param column operand
+     * @return A byte array of a byte array where first and only entry is
+     * <code>column</code>
+     */
+    public static byte[][] toByteArrays(final String column) {
+        return toByteArrays(toBytes(column));
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @param column operand
+     * @return A byte array of a byte array where first and only entry is
+     * <code>column</code>
+     */
+    public static byte[][] toByteArrays(final byte[] column) {
+        byte[][] result = new byte[1][];
+        result[0] = column;
+        return result;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Binary search for keys in indexes.
+     *
+     * @param arr        array of byte arrays to search for
+     * @param key        the key you want to find
+     * @param offset     the offset in the key you want to find
+     * @param length     the length of the key
+     * @param comparator a comparator to compare.
+     * @return zero-based index of the key, if the key is present in the array.
+     * Otherwise, a value -(i + 1) such that the key is between arr[i -
+     * 1] and arr[i] non-inclusively, where i is in [0, i], if we define
+     * arr[-1] = -Inf and arr[N] = Inf for an N-element array. The above
+     * means that this function can return 2N + 1 different values
+     * ranging from -(N + 1) to N - 1.
+     */
+    public static int binarySearch(byte[][] arr, byte[] key, int offset,
+                                   int length, RawComparator<?> comparator) {
+        int low = 0;
+        int high = arr.length - 1;
+
+        while (low <= high) {
+            int mid = (low + high) >>> 1;
+            // we have to compare in this order, because the comparator order
+            // has special logic when the 'left side' is a special key.
+            int cmp = comparator.compare(key, offset, length,
+                    arr[mid], 0, arr[mid].length);
+            // key lives above the midpoint
+            if (cmp > 0)
+                low = mid + 1;
+                // key lives below the midpoint
+            else if (cmp < 0)
+                high = mid - 1;
+                // BAM. how often does this really happen?
+            else
+                return mid;
+        }
+        return -(low + 1);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Bytewise binary increment/deincrement of long contained in byte array
+     * on given amount.
+     *
+     * @param value  - array of bytes containing long (length <= SIZEOF_LONG)
+     * @param amount value will be incremented on (deincremented if negative)
+     * @return array of bytes containing incremented long (length == SIZEOF_LONG)
+     */
+    public static byte[] incrementBytes(byte[] value, long amount) {
+        byte[] val = value;
+        if (val.length < SIZEOF_LONG) {
+            // Hopefully this doesn't happen too often.
+            byte[] newvalue;
+            if (val[0] < 0) {
+                newvalue = new byte[]{-1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1};
+            } else {
+                newvalue = new byte[SIZEOF_LONG];
+            }
+            System.arraycopy(val, 0, newvalue, newvalue.length - val.length,
+                    val.length);
+            val = newvalue;
+        } else if (val.length > SIZEOF_LONG) {
+            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Increment Bytes - value too big: " +
+                    val.length);
+        }
+        if (amount == 0) return val;
+        if (val[0] < 0) {
+            return binaryIncrementNeg(val, amount);
+        }
+        return binaryIncrementPos(val, amount);
+    }
+
+    /* increment/deincrement for positive value */
+    private static byte[] binaryIncrementPos(byte[] value, long amount) {
+        long amo = amount;
+        int sign = 1;
+        if (amount < 0) {
+            amo = -amount;
+            sign = -1;
+        }
+        for (int i = 0; i < value.length; i++) {
+            int cur = ((int) amo % 256) * sign;
+            amo = (amo >> 8);
+            int val = value[value.length - i - 1] & 0x0ff;
+            int total = val + cur;
+            if (total > 255) {
+                amo += sign;
+                total %= 256;
+            } else if (total < 0) {
+                amo -= sign;
+            }
+            value[value.length - i - 1] = (byte) total;
+            if (amo == 0) return value;
+        }
+        return value;
+    }
+
+    /* increment/deincrement for negative value */
+    private static byte[] binaryIncrementNeg(byte[] value, long amount) {
+        long amo = amount;
+        int sign = 1;
+        if (amount < 0) {
+            amo = -amount;
+            sign = -1;
+        }
+        for (int i = 0; i < value.length; i++) {
+            int cur = ((int) amo % 256) * sign;
+            amo = (amo >> 8);
+            int val = ((~value[value.length - i - 1]) & 0x0ff) + 1;
+            int total = cur - val;
+            if (total >= 0) {
+                amo += sign;
+            } else if (total < -256) {
+                amo -= sign;
+                total %= 256;
+            }
+            value[value.length - i - 1] = (byte) total;
+            if (amo == 0) return value;
+        }
+        return value;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Writes a string as a fixed-size field, padded with zeros.
+     */
+    public static void writeStringFixedSize(final DataOutput out, String s,
+                                            int size) throws IOException {
+        byte[] b = toBytes(s);
+        if (b.length > size) {
+            throw new IOException("Trying to write " + b.length + " bytes (" +
+                    toStringBinary(b) + ") into a field of length " + size);
+        }
+
+        out.writeBytes(s);
+        for (int i = 0; i < size - s.length(); ++i)
+            out.writeByte(0);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Reads a fixed-size field and interprets it as a string padded with zeros.
+     */
+    public static String readStringFixedSize(final DataInput in, int size)
+            throws IOException {
+        byte[] b = new byte[size];
+        in.readFully(b);
+        int n = b.length;
+        while (n > 0 && b[n - 1] == 0)
+            --n;
+
+        return toString(b, 0, n);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Copy the byte array given in parameter and return an instance
+     * of a new byte array with the same length and the same content.
+     *
+     * @param bytes the byte array to duplicate
+     * @return a copy of the given byte array
+     */
+    public static byte[] copy(byte[] bytes) {
+        if (bytes == null) return null;
+        byte[] result = new byte[bytes.length];
+        System.arraycopy(bytes, 0, result, 0, bytes.length);
+        return result;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Copy the byte array given in parameter and return an instance
+     * of a new byte array with the same length and the same content.
+     *
+     * @param bytes  the byte array to copy from
+     * @param offset
+     * @param length
+     * @return a copy of the given designated byte array
+     */
+    public static byte[] copy(byte[] bytes, final int offset, final int length) {
+        if (bytes == null) return null;
+        byte[] result = new byte[length];
+        System.arraycopy(bytes, offset, result, 0, length);
+        return result;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Search sorted array "a" for byte "key". I can't remember if I wrote this or copied it from
+     * somewhere. (mcorgan)
+     *
+     * @param a         Array to search. Entries must be sorted and unique.
+     * @param fromIndex First index inclusive of "a" to include in the search.
+     * @param toIndex   Last index exclusive of "a" to include in the search.
+     * @param key       The byte to search for.
+     * @return The index of key if found. If not found, return -(index + 1), where negative indicates
+     * "not found" and the "index + 1" handles the "-0" case.
+     */
+    public static int unsignedBinarySearch(byte[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, byte key) {
+        int unsignedKey = key & 0xff;
+        int low = fromIndex;
+        int high = toIndex - 1;
+
+        while (low <= high) {
+            int mid = (low + high) >>> 1;
+            int midVal = a[mid] & 0xff;
+
+            if (midVal < unsignedKey) {
+                low = mid + 1;
+            } else if (midVal > unsignedKey) {
+                high = mid - 1;
+            } else {
+                return mid; // key found
+            }
+        }
+        return -(low + 1); // key not found.
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Treat the byte[] as an unsigned series of bytes, most significant bits first.  Start by adding
+     * 1 to the rightmost bit/byte and carry over all overflows to the more significant bits/bytes.
+     *
+     * @param input The byte[] to increment.
+     * @return The incremented copy of "in".  May be same length or 1 byte longer.
+     */
+    public static byte[] unsignedCopyAndIncrement(final byte[] input) {
+        byte[] copy = copy(input);
+        if (copy == null) {
+            throw new IllegalArgumentException("cannot increment null array");
+        }
+        for (int i = copy.length - 1; i >= 0; --i) {
+            if (copy[i] == -1) {// -1 is all 1-bits, which is the unsigned maximum
+                copy[i] = 0;
+            } else {
+                ++copy[i];
+                return copy;
+            }
+        }
+        // we maxed out the array
+        byte[] out = new byte[copy.length + 1];
+        out[0] = 1;
+        System.arraycopy(copy, 0, out, 1, copy.length);
+        return out;
+    }
+
+    public static boolean equals(List<byte[]> a, List<byte[]> b) {
+        if (a == null) {
+            if (b == null) {
+                return true;
+            }
+            return false;
+        }
+        if (b == null) {
+            return false;
+        }
+        if (a.size() != b.size()) {
+            return false;
+        }
+        for (int i = 0; i < a.size(); ++i) {
+            if (!Bytes.equals(a.get(i), b.get(i))) {
+                return false;
+            }
+        }
+        return true;
+    }
+
+
+    /**
+     * Returns the index of the first appearance of the value {@code target} in
+     * {@code array}.
+     *
+     * @param array  an array of {@code byte} values, possibly empty
+     * @param target a primitive {@code byte} value
+     * @return the least index {@code i} for which {@code array[i] == target}, or
+     * {@code -1} if no such index exists.
+     */
+    public static int indexOf(byte[] array, byte target) {
+        for (int i = 0; i < array.length; i++) {
+            if (array[i] == target) {
+                return i;
+            }
+        }
+        return -1;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns the start position of the first occurrence of the specified {@code
+     * target} within {@code array}, or {@code -1} if there is no such occurrence.
+     * <p/>
+     * <p>More formally, returns the lowest index {@code i} such that {@code
+     * java.util.Arrays.copyOfRange(array, i, i + target.length)} contains exactly
+     * the same elements as {@code target}.
+     *
+     * @param array  the array to search for the sequence {@code target}
+     * @param target the array to search for as a sub-sequence of {@code array}
+     */
+    public static int indexOf(byte[] array, byte[] target) {
+        checkNotNull(array, "array");
+        checkNotNull(target, "target");
+        if (target.length == 0) {
+            return 0;
+        }
+
+        outer:
+        for (int i = 0; i < array.length - target.length + 1; i++) {
+            for (int j = 0; j < target.length; j++) {
+                if (array[i + j] != target[j]) {
+                    continue outer;
+                }
+            }
+            return i;
+        }
+        return -1;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @param array  an array of {@code byte} values, possibly empty
+     * @param target a primitive {@code byte} value
+     * @return {@code true} if {@code target} is present as an element anywhere in {@code array}.
+     */
+    public static boolean contains(byte[] array, byte target) {
+        return indexOf(array, target) > -1;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * @param array  an array of {@code byte} values, possibly empty
+     * @param target an array of {@code byte}
+     * @return {@code true} if {@code target} is present anywhere in {@code array}
+     */
+    public static boolean contains(byte[] array, byte[] target) {
+        return indexOf(array, target) > -1;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Fill given array with zeros.
+     *
+     * @param b array which needs to be filled with zeros
+     */
+    public static void zero(byte[] b) {
+        zero(b, 0, b.length);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Fill given array with zeros at the specified position.
+     *
+     * @param b
+     * @param offset
+     * @param length
+     */
+    public static void zero(byte[] b, int offset, int length) {
+        checkPositionIndex(offset, b.length, "offset");
+        checkArgument(length > 0, "length must be greater than 0");
+        checkPositionIndex(offset + length, b.length, "offset + length");
+        Arrays.fill(b, offset, offset + length, (byte) 0);
+    }
+
+    private static final SecureRandom RNG = new SecureRandom();
+
+    /**
+     * Fill given array with random bytes.
+     *
+     * @param b array which needs to be filled with random bytes
+     */
+    public static void random(byte[] b) {
+        RNG.nextBytes(b);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Fill given array with random bytes at the specified position.
+     *
+     * @param b
+     * @param offset
+     * @param length
+     */
+    public static void random(byte[] b, int offset, int length) {
+        checkPositionIndex(offset, b.length, "offset");
+        checkArgument(length > 0, "length must be greater than 0");
+        checkPositionIndex(offset + length, b.length, "offset + length");
+        byte[] buf = new byte[length];
+        RNG.nextBytes(buf);
+        System.arraycopy(buf, 0, b, offset, length);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Create a max byte array with the specified max byte count
+     *
+     * @param maxByteCount the length of returned byte array
+     * @return the created max byte array
+     */
+    public static byte[] createMaxByteArray(int maxByteCount) {
+        byte[] maxByteArray = new byte[maxByteCount];
+        for (int i = 0; i < maxByteArray.length; i++) {
+            maxByteArray[i] = (byte) 0xff;
+        }
+        return maxByteArray;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Create a byte array which is multiple given bytes
+     *
+     * @param srcBytes
+     * @param multiNum
+     * @return byte array
+     */
+    public static byte[] multiple(byte[] srcBytes, int multiNum) {
+        if (multiNum <= 0) {
+            return new byte[0];
+        }
+        byte[] result = new byte[srcBytes.length * multiNum];
+        for (int i = 0; i < multiNum; i++) {
+            System.arraycopy(srcBytes, 0, result, i * srcBytes.length,
+                    srcBytes.length);
+        }
+        return result;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Convert a byte array into a hex string
+     *
+     * @param b
+     */
+    public static String toHex(byte[] b) {
+        checkArgument(b.length > 0, "length must be greater than 0");
+        return String.format("%x", new BigInteger(1, b));
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Create a byte array from a string of hash digits. The length of the
+     * string must be a multiple of 2
+     *
+     * @param hex
+     */
+    public static byte[] fromHex(String hex) {
+        checkArgument(hex.length() > 0, "length must be greater than 0");
+        checkArgument(hex.length() % 2 == 0, "length must be a multiple of 2");
+        // Make sure letters are upper case
+        hex = hex.toUpperCase();
+        byte[] b = new byte[hex.length() / 2];
+        for (int i = 0; i < b.length; i++) {
+            b[i] = (byte) ((toBinaryFromHex((byte) hex.charAt(2 * i)) << 4) +
+                    toBinaryFromHex((byte) hex.charAt((2 * i + 1))));
+        }
+        return b;
+    }
+
+}
+



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