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From jbono...@apache.org
Subject svn commit: r1484249 [15/21] - in /karaf/site/production/manual/latest: ./ commands/ developers-guide/ users-guide/
Date Sun, 19 May 2013 09:53:13 GMT
Modified: karaf/site/production/manual/latest/developers-guide/security-framework.html
URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc/karaf/site/production/manual/latest/developers-guide/security-framework.html?rev=1484249&r1=1484248&r2=1484249&view=diff
==============================================================================
--- karaf/site/production/manual/latest/developers-guide/security-framework.html (original)
+++ karaf/site/production/manual/latest/developers-guide/security-framework.html Sun May 19 09:53:10 2013
@@ -93,7 +93,7 @@
                   <div id="wrapper-menu-page-top">
                     <div id="wrapper-menu-page-bottom">
                       <div id="menu-page">
-                        <h3 id="Homeindex"><a href="../index.html">Home</a></h3><ul style="list-style: square"><li><a href="../overview.html">Overview</a></li><li><a href="../quick-start.html">Quick Start</a></li></ul><h3 id="UsersGuideusersguideindex"><a href="../users-guide/index.html">Users Guide</a></h3><ul style="list-style: square"><li><a href="../users-guide/installation.html">Installing Karaf</a></li><li><a href="../users-guide/directory-structure.html">Directory Structure</a></li><li><a href="../users-guide/start-stop.html">Starting and stopping Karaf</a></li><li><a href="../users-guide/wrapper.html">OS integration</a></li><li><a href="../users-guide/configuration.html">Configuration</a></li><li><a href="../users-guide/using-console.html">Using the console</a></li><li><a href="../users-guide/web-console.html">Web console</a></li><li><a href="../users-guide/remote-console.html">Remote console</a></li><li><a href="../users-guide/web-console.html">Web console</a></li><
 li><a href="../users-guide/deployer.html">Deployer</a></li><li><a href="../users-guide/child-instances.html">Child instances</a></li><li><a href="../users-guide/security.html">Security</a></li><li><a href="../users-guide/failover.html">Failover Deployments</a></li><li><a href="../users-guide/logging-system.html">Logging system</a></li><li><a href="../users-guide/provisioning.html">Provisioning</a></li><li><a href="../users-guide/kar.html">KAR archive</a></li><li><a href="../users-guide/jre-tuning.html">JRE tuning</a></li><li><a href="../users-guide/web-applications.html">Web applications</a></li><li><a href="../users-guide/http.html">HTTP service</a></li><li><a href="../users-guide/jmx.html">JMX for monitoring and administration</a></li></ul><h3 id="DevelopersGuidedevelopersguideindex"><a href="index.html">Developers Guide</a></h3><ul style="list-style: square"><li><a href="connect-console.html">Programmatically connect to the Console</a></li><li><a href="shell-syntax.html">
 Shell syntax</a></li><li><a href="creating-bundles.html">Creating bundles</a></li><li><a href="debugging.html">Troubleshooting, Debugging and Profiling</a></li><li><a href="developer-command.html">Developer Commands</a></li><li><a href="archetypes.html">Maven Archetypes</a></li><li><a href="extending-console.html">Extending the Console</a></li><li><a href="branding-console.html">Branding the Console</a></li><li><a href="karaf-maven-plugin.html">Using the Karaf Maven plugin</a></li><li><a href="security-framework.html">Security Framework</a></li><li><a href="custom-distribution.html">Custom Distribution</a></li><li><a href="debugging.html">Troubleshooting, Debugging and Profiling</a></li><li><a href="connect-console.html">Programmatically connect to the console</a></li><li><a href="writing-tests.html">Writing integration tests</a></li><li><a href="creating-bundles.html">Creating bundles</a></li><li><a href="shell-syntax.html">Shell syntax</a></li><li><a href="github-contribut
 ions.html">Github Contributions</a></li></ul><h3 id="Commandscommandscommands"><a href="../commands/commands.html">Commands</a></h3>
+                        <h3 id="Homeindex"><a href="../index.html">Home</a></h3><ul style="list-style: square"><li><a href="../overview.html">Overview</a></li><li><a href="../quick-start.html">Quick Start</a></li></ul><h3 id="UsersGuideusersguideindex"><a href="../users-guide/index.html">Users Guide</a></h3><ul style="list-style: square"><li><a href="../users-guide/installation.html">Installing Karaf</a></li><li><a href="../users-guide/directory-structure.html">Directory Structure</a></li><li><a href="../users-guide/start-stop.html">Starting and stopping Karaf</a></li><li><a href="../users-guide/wrapper.html">OS integration</a></li><li><a href="../users-guide/configuration.html">Configuration</a></li><li><a href="../users-guide/using-console.html">Using the console</a></li><li><a href="../users-guide/web-console.html">Web console</a></li><li><a href="../users-guide/remote-console.html">Remote console</a></li><li><a href="../users-guide/web-console.html">Web console</a></li><
 li><a href="../users-guide/deployer.html">Deployer</a></li><li><a href="../users-guide/child-instances.html">Child instances</a></li><li><a href="../users-guide/security.html">Security</a></li><li><a href="../users-guide/failover.html">Failover Deployments</a></li><li><a href="../users-guide/logging-system.html">Logging system</a></li><li><a href="../users-guide/provisioning.html">Provisioning</a></li><li><a href="../users-guide/kar.html">KAR archive</a></li><li><a href="../users-guide/jre-tuning.html">JRE tuning</a></li><li><a href="../users-guide/web-applications.html">Web applications</a></li><li><a href="../users-guide/http.html">HTTP service</a></li><li><a href="../users-guide/jmx.html">JMX for monitoring and administration</a></li></ul><h3 id="DevelopersGuidedevelopersguideindex"><a href="index.html">Developers Guide</a></h3><ul style="list-style: square"><li><a href="connect-console.html">Programmatically connect to the Console</a></li><li><a href="shell-syntax.html">
 Shell syntax</a></li><li><a href="creating-bundles.html">Creating bundles</a></li><li><a href="debugging.html">Troubleshooting, Debugging and Profiling</a></li><li><a href="developer-commands.html">Developer Commands</a></li><li><a href="archetypes.html">Maven Archetypes</a></li><li><a href="extending-console.html">Extending the Console</a></li><li><a href="branding-console.html">Branding the Console</a></li><li><a href="karaf-maven-plugin.html">Using the Karaf Maven plugin</a></li><li><a href="security-framework.html">Security Framework</a></li><li><a href="custom-distribution.html">Custom Distribution</a></li><li><a href="debugging.html">Troubleshooting, Debugging and Profiling</a></li><li><a href="connect-console.html">Programmatically connect to the console</a></li><li><a href="writing-tests.html">Writing integration tests</a></li><li><a href="creating-bundles.html">Creating bundles</a></li><li><a href="shell-syntax.html">Shell syntax</a></li><li><a href="github-contribu
 tions.html">Github Contributions</a></li></ul><h3 id="Commandscommandscommands"><a href="../commands/commands.html">Commands</a></h3>
                       </div>
                     </div>
                   </div>
@@ -101,245 +101,11 @@
               </td>
               <td height="100%" width="100%">
                 <div class="wiki-content">
-<h1 id="Securityframework">Security framework</h1><p>Karaf supports <a href="http://download.oracle.com/javase/6/docs/technotes/guides/security/jaas/JAASRefGuide.html">JAAS</a> with some enhancements to allow JAAS to work nicely in an OSGi environment.  This framework also features an OSGi keystore manager with the ability to deploy new keystores or truststores at runtime.  </p><h2 id="Overview">Overview</h2><p>This feature allows runtime deployment of JAAS based configuration for use in various parts of the application. This<br/>includes the remote console login, which uses the <tt>karaf</tt> realm, but which is configured with a dummy login module<br/>by default. These realms can also be used by the NMR, JBI components or the JMX server to authenticate users logging in<br/>or sending messages into the bus.</p><p>In addition to JAAS realms, you can also deploy keystores and truststores to secure the remote shell console, setting up HTTPS connectors or using certificates for
  WS-Security.</p><p>A very simple XML schema for spring has been defined, allowing the deployment of a new realm or a new keystore very easily.</p><h2 id="Schema">Schema</h2><p>To override or deploy a new realm, you can use the following XSD which is supported by a Spring namespace handler and can thus be defined in a Spring xml configuration file.</p><p>Following is the XML Schema to use when defining Karaf realms:</p><div class="syntax"><pre name='code' class='brush: xml; gutter: false;'><code>&lt;?xml version=&quot;1.0&quot; encoding=&quot;UTF-8&quot;?&gt;
-&lt;!--
-
-    Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
-    contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
-    this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
-    The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
-    (the &quot;License&quot;); you may not use this file except in compliance with
-    the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
-
-       http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
-
-    Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
-    distributed under the License is distributed on an &quot;AS IS&quot; BASIS,
-    WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
-    See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
-    limitations under the License.
-
---&gt;
-&lt;xs:schema elementFormDefault='qualified'
-           targetNamespace='http://karaf.apache.org/xmlns/jaas/v1.1.0'
-           xmlns:xs='http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema'
-           xmlns:bp=&quot;http://www.osgi.org/xmlns/blueprint/v1.0.0&quot;
-           xmlns:tns='http://karaf.apache.org/xmlns/jaas/v1.1.0'&gt;
-
-    &lt;xs:import namespace=&quot;http://www.osgi.org/xmlns/blueprint/v1.0.0&quot;/&gt;
-
-    &lt;xs:element name=&quot;config&quot;&gt;
-        &lt;xs:complexType&gt;
-            &lt;xs:sequence&gt;
-                &lt;xs:element name=&quot;module&quot; minOccurs=&quot;0&quot; maxOccurs=&quot;unbounded&quot;&gt;
-                    &lt;xs:complexType mixed=&quot;true&quot;&gt;
-                        &lt;xs:attribute name=&quot;name&quot; use=&quot;optional&quot; type=&quot;xs:string&quot;/&gt;
-                        &lt;xs:attribute name=&quot;className&quot; use=&quot;required&quot; type=&quot;xs:string&quot;/&gt;
-                        &lt;xs:attribute name=&quot;flags&quot; default=&quot;required&quot;&gt;
-                            &lt;xs:simpleType&gt;
-                                &lt;xs:restriction base=&quot;xs:NMTOKEN&quot;&gt;
-                                    &lt;xs:enumeration value=&quot;required&quot;/&gt;
-                                    &lt;xs:enumeration value=&quot;requisite&quot;/&gt;
-                                    &lt;xs:enumeration value=&quot;sufficient&quot;/&gt;
-                                    &lt;xs:enumeration value=&quot;optional&quot;/&gt;
-                                &lt;/xs:restriction&gt;
-                            &lt;/xs:simpleType&gt;
-                        &lt;/xs:attribute&gt;
-                    &lt;/xs:complexType&gt;
-                &lt;/xs:element&gt;
-            &lt;/xs:sequence&gt;
-            &lt;xs:attribute name=&quot;name&quot; use=&quot;required&quot; type=&quot;xs:string&quot;/&gt;
-            &lt;xs:attribute name=&quot;rank&quot; use=&quot;optional&quot; default=&quot;0&quot; type=&quot;xs:int&quot;/&gt;
-        &lt;/xs:complexType&gt;
-    &lt;/xs:element&gt;
-
-    &lt;xs:element name=&quot;keystore&quot;&gt;
-        &lt;xs:complexType&gt;
-            &lt;xs:attribute name=&quot;name&quot; use=&quot;required&quot; type=&quot;xs:string&quot;/&gt;
-            &lt;xs:attribute name=&quot;rank&quot; use=&quot;optional&quot; default=&quot;0&quot; type=&quot;xs:int&quot;/&gt;
-            &lt;xs:attribute name=&quot;path&quot; use=&quot;required&quot; type=&quot;xs:string&quot;/&gt;
-            &lt;xs:attribute name=&quot;keystorePassword&quot; use=&quot;optional&quot; type=&quot;xs:string&quot;/&gt;
-            &lt;xs:attribute name=&quot;keyPasswords&quot; use=&quot;optional&quot; type=&quot;xs:string&quot;/&gt;
-        &lt;/xs:complexType&gt;
-    &lt;/xs:element&gt;
-
-&lt;/xs:schema&gt;</code></pre></div><p>You can find the schema at the following <a href="http://karaf.apache.org/xmlns/jaas/v1.1.0">location</a>.</p><p>Here are two examples using this schema:</p><div class="syntax"><pre name='code' class='brush: xml; gutter: false;'><code>
-&lt;?xml version=&quot;1.0&quot; encoding=&quot;UTF-8&quot;?&gt; 
-&lt;blueprint xmlns=&quot;http://www.osgi.org/xmlns/blueprint/v1.0.0&quot;
-           xmlns:jaas=&quot;http://karaf.apache.org/xmlns/jaas/v1.0.0&quot;
-           xmlns:ext=&quot;http://aries.apache.org/blueprint/xmlns/blueprint-ext/v1.0.0&quot;&gt;
-
-    &lt;!-- Bean to allow the $[karaf.base] property to be correctly resolved --&gt;
-    &lt;ext:property-placeholder placeholder-prefix=&quot;$[&quot; placeholder-suffix=&quot;]&quot;/&gt;
-
-    &lt;type-converters&gt;
-        &lt;bean class=&quot;org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.properties.PropertiesConverter&quot;/&gt;
-    &lt;/type-converters&gt; 
-
-    &lt;jaas:config name=&quot;myrealm&quot;&gt;
-        &lt;jaas:module className=&quot;org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.properties.PropertiesLoginModule&quot; 
-                     flags=&quot;required&quot;&gt;
-            users = $[karaf.base]/etc/users.properties
-        &lt;/jaas:module&gt;
-    &lt;/jaas:config&gt;
-
-&lt;/blueprint&gt;</code></pre></div><div class="syntax"><pre name='code' class='brush: xml; gutter: false;'><code>
-&lt;jaas:keystore xmlns:jaas=&quot;http://karaf.apache.org/xmlns/jaas/v1.1.0&quot;
-               name=&quot;ks&quot;
-               rank=&quot;1&quot;
-               path=&quot;classpath:privatestore.jks&quot;
-               keystorePassword=&quot;keyStorePassword&quot;
-               keyPasswords=&quot;myalias=myAliasPassword&quot;&gt;
-&lt;/jaas:keystore&gt;</code></pre></div><p>The <tt>id</tt> attribute is the blueprint id of the bean, but it will be used by default as the name of the realm if no<br/><tt>name</tt> attribute is specified. Additional attributes on the <tt>config</tt> elements are a <tt>rank</tt>, which is an integer.<br/>When the LoginContext looks for a realm for authenticating a given user, the realms registered in the OSGi registry are<br/>matched against the required name. If more than one realm is found, the one with the highest rank will be used, thus<br/>allowing the override of some realms with new values.  The last attribute is <tt>publish</tt> which can be set to false to<br/>not publish the realm in the OSGi registry, thereby disabling the use of this realm.</p><p>Each realm can contain one or more module definitions. Each module identifies a LoginModule and the <tt>className</tt><br/>attribute must be set to the class name of the login module to use. Note that this login module 
 must be available from<br/>the bundle classloader, so either it has to be defined in the bundle itself, or the needed package needs to be correctly<br/>imported. The <tt>flags</tt> attribute can take one of four values that are explained on the <a href="http://svn.apache.org/repos/asf/karaf/tags/karaf-2.0.0/jaas/boot/src/main/java/org/apache/karaf/jaas/boot/ProxyLoginModule.java">JAAS documentation</a>.<br/>The content of the <tt>module</tt> element is parsed as a properties file and will be used to further configure the login module.</p><p>Deploying such a code will lead to a <a href="http://svn.apache.org/repos/asf/karaf/tags/karaf-2.0.0/jaas/config/src/main/java/org/apache/karaf/jaas/config/JaasRealm.java">JaasRealm</a> object in the OSGi registry, which will then be used when using the JAAS login module.</p><h3 id="Configurationoverrideanduseoftherankattribute">Configuration override and use of the <tt>rank</tt> attribute</h3><p>The <tt>rank</tt> attribute on the <tt>con
 fig</tt> element is tied to the ranking of the underlying OSGi service.  When the JAAS<br/>framework performs an authentication, it will use the realm name to find a matching JAAS configuration.  If multiple<br/>configurations are used, the one with the highest <tt>rank</tt> attribute will be used.<br/>So if you want to override the default security configuration in Karaf (which is used by the ssh shell, web console and<br/>JMX layer), you need to deploy a JAAS configuration with the name <tt>name="karaf"</tt> and <tt>rank="1"</tt>.</p><div class="syntax"><pre name='code' class='brush: xml; gutter: false;'><code>
-&lt;?xml version=&quot;1.0&quot; encoding=&quot;UTF-8&quot;?&gt;
-&lt;blueprint xmlns=&quot;http://www.osgi.org/xmlns/blueprint/v1.0.0&quot;
-           xmlns:jaas=&quot;http://karaf.apache.org/xmlns/jaas/v1.1.0&quot;
-           xmlns:ext=&quot;http://aries.apache.org/blueprint/xmlns/blueprint-ext/v1.0.0&quot;&gt;
-
-    &lt;!-- Bean to allow the $[karaf.base] property to be correctly resolved --&gt;
-    &lt;ext:property-placeholder placeholder-prefix=&quot;$[&quot; placeholder-suffix=&quot;]&quot;/&gt;
-
-    &lt;type-converters&gt;
-        &lt;bean class=&quot;org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.properties.PropertiesConverter&quot;/&gt;
-    &lt;/type-converters&gt; 
-
-    &lt;jaas:config name=&quot;karaf&quot; rank=&quot;1&quot;&gt;
-        &lt;jaas:module className=&quot;org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.properties.PropertiesLoginModule&quot;
-                     flags=&quot;required&quot;&gt;
-            users = $[karaf.base]/etc/users.properties
-            ...
-        &lt;/jaas:module&gt;
-    &lt;/jaas:config&gt;
-
-&lt;/blueprint&gt;</code></pre></div><h2 id="Architecture">Architecture</h2><p>Due to constraints in the JAAS specification, one class has to be available for all bundles.<br/>This class is called <a href="http://svn.apache.org/repos/asf/karaf/tags/karaf-2.0.0/jaas/boot/src/main/java/org/apache/karaf/jaas/boot/ProxyLoginModule.java">ProxyLoginModule</a> and is a LoginModule that acts as a proxy for an OSGi defines LoginModule.  If you plan to integrate this feature into another OSGi runtime, this class must be made available from the system classloader and the related package be part of the boot delegation classpath (or be deployed as a fragment attached to the system bundle).</p><p>The xml schema defined above allows the use of a simple xml (leveraging spring xml extensibility) to configure and<br/>register a JAAS configuration for a given realm.  This configuration will be made available into the OSGi registry as a<br/><a href="http://svn.apache.org/repos/asf/karaf/tags/ka
 raf-2.0.0/jaas/config/src/main/java/org/apache/karaf/jaas/config/JaasRealm.java">JaasRealm</a> and the OSGi specific Configuration will look for such services.<br/>Then the proxy login module will be able to use the information provided by the realm to actually load the class from<br/>the bundle containing the real login module.</p><h2 id="Availablerealms">Available realms</h2><p>Karaf comes with several login modules to handle authentication needs for your environment.</p><h3 id="PropertiesLoginModule">PropertiesLoginModule</h3><p>This login module is the one configured by default. It uses a properties text file to load the users, passwords and roles.</p><div class="table-wrap"><table class="confluenceTable"><tr><th class="confluenceTh"> Name             </th><th class="confluenceTh"> Description </th></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>users</tt>          </td><td class="confluenceTd"> location of the properties file </td></tr></table></div><p>This file uses the <a href
 ="http://download.oracle.com/javase/6/docs/api/java/util/Properties.html#load(java.io.Reader)">properties file format</a>.<br/>The format of the properties is as follows, with each line defining a user, its password and associated roles:</p><pre>
+<h1 id="Securityframework">Security framework</h1><p>Karaf supports <a href="http://download.oracle.com/javase/6/docs/technotes/guides/security/jaas/JAASRefGuide.html">JAAS</a> with some enhancements to allow JAAS to work nicely in an OSGi environment.  This framework also features an OSGi keystore manager with the ability to deploy new keystores or truststores at runtime.  </p><h2 id="Overview">Overview</h2><p>This feature allows runtime deployment of JAAS based configuration for use in various parts of the application. This<br/>includes the remote console login, which uses the <tt>karaf</tt> realm, but which is configured with a dummy login module<br/>by default. These realms can also be used by the NMR, JBI components or the JMX server to authenticate users logging in<br/>or sending messages into the bus.</p><p>In addition to JAAS realms, you can also deploy keystores and truststores to secure the remote shell console, setting up HTTPS connectors or using certificates for
  WS-Security.</p><p>A very simple XML schema for spring has been defined, allowing the deployment of a new realm or a new keystore very easily.</p><h2 id="Schema">Schema</h2><p>To override or deploy a new realm, you can use the following XSD which is supported by a Spring namespace handler and can thus be defined in a Spring xml configuration file.</p><p>Following is the XML Schema to use when defining Karaf realms:</p><div class="syntax"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="cp">&lt;?xml version=&quot;1.0&quot; encoding=&quot;UTF-8&quot;?&gt;</span>&#x000A;<span class="c">&lt;!--</span>&#x000A;&#x000A;<span class="c">    Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more</span>&#x000A;<span class="c">    contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with</span>&#x000A;<span class="c">    this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.</span>&#x000A;<span class="c">    The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apach
 e License, Version 2.0</span>&#x000A;<span class="c">    (the &quot;License&quot;); you may not use this file except in compliance with</span>&#x000A;<span class="c">    the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at</span>&#x000A;&#x000A;<span class="c">       http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0</span>&#x000A;&#x000A;<span class="c">    Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software</span>&#x000A;<span class="c">    distributed under the License is distributed on an &quot;AS IS&quot; BASIS,</span>&#x000A;<span class="c">    WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.</span>&#x000A;<span class="c">    See the License for the specific language governing permissions and</span>&#x000A;<span class="c">    limitations under the License.</span>&#x000A;&#x000A;<span class="c">--&gt;</span>&#x000A;<span class="nt">&lt;xs:schema</span> <span class="na">elementFormDefault=</span><span class="s">&#39;qualified&#39;</span>&
 #x000A;           <span class="na">targetNamespace=</span><span class="s">&#39;http://karaf.apache.org/xmlns/jaas/v1.1.0&#39;</span>&#x000A;           <span class="na">xmlns:xs=</span><span class="s">&#39;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&#39;</span>&#x000A;           <span class="na">xmlns:bp=</span><span class="s">&quot;http://www.osgi.org/xmlns/blueprint/v1.0.0&quot;</span>&#x000A;           <span class="na">xmlns:tns=</span><span class="s">&#39;http://karaf.apache.org/xmlns/jaas/v1.1.0&#39;</span><span class="nt">&gt;</span>&#x000A;&#x000A;    <span class="nt">&lt;xs:import</span> <span class="na">namespace=</span><span class="s">&quot;http://www.osgi.org/xmlns/blueprint/v1.0.0&quot;</span><span class="nt">/&gt;</span>&#x000A;&#x000A;    <span class="nt">&lt;xs:element</span> <span class="na">name=</span><span class="s">&quot;config&quot;</span><span class="nt">&gt;</span>&#x000A;        <span class="nt">&lt;xs:complexType&gt;</span>&#x000A;            <span class="nt">&l
 t;xs:sequence&gt;</span>&#x000A;                <span class="nt">&lt;xs:element</span> <span class="na">name=</span><span class="s">&quot;module&quot;</span> <span class="na">minOccurs=</span><span class="s">&quot;0&quot;</span> <span class="na">maxOccurs=</span><span class="s">&quot;unbounded&quot;</span><span class="nt">&gt;</span>&#x000A;                    <span class="nt">&lt;xs:complexType</span> <span class="na">mixed=</span><span class="s">&quot;true&quot;</span><span class="nt">&gt;</span>&#x000A;                        <span class="nt">&lt;xs:attribute</span> <span class="na">name=</span><span class="s">&quot;name&quot;</span> <span class="na">use=</span><span class="s">&quot;optional&quot;</span> <span class="na">type=</span><span class="s">&quot;xs:string&quot;</span><span class="nt">/&gt;</span>&#x000A;                        <span class="nt">&lt;xs:attribute</span> <span class="na">name=</span><span class="s">&quot;className&quot;</span> <span class="na">use=</
 span><span class="s">&quot;required&quot;</span> <span class="na">type=</span><span class="s">&quot;xs:string&quot;</span><span class="nt">/&gt;</span>&#x000A;                        <span class="nt">&lt;xs:attribute</span> <span class="na">name=</span><span class="s">&quot;flags&quot;</span> <span class="na">default=</span><span class="s">&quot;required&quot;</span><span class="nt">&gt;</span>&#x000A;                            <span class="nt">&lt;xs:simpleType&gt;</span>&#x000A;                                <span class="nt">&lt;xs:restriction</span> <span class="na">base=</span><span class="s">&quot;xs:NMTOKEN&quot;</span><span class="nt">&gt;</span>&#x000A;                                    <span class="nt">&lt;xs:enumeration</span> <span class="na">value=</span><span class="s">&quot;required&quot;</span><span class="nt">/&gt;</span>&#x000A;                                    <span class="nt">&lt;xs:enumeration</span> <span class="na">value=</span><span class="s">&quo
 t;requisite&quot;</span><span class="nt">/&gt;</span>&#x000A;                                    <span class="nt">&lt;xs:enumeration</span> <span class="na">value=</span><span class="s">&quot;sufficient&quot;</span><span class="nt">/&gt;</span>&#x000A;                                    <span class="nt">&lt;xs:enumeration</span> <span class="na">value=</span><span class="s">&quot;optional&quot;</span><span class="nt">/&gt;</span>&#x000A;                                <span class="nt">&lt;/xs:restriction&gt;</span>&#x000A;                            <span class="nt">&lt;/xs:simpleType&gt;</span>&#x000A;                        <span class="nt">&lt;/xs:attribute&gt;</span>&#x000A;                    <span class="nt">&lt;/xs:complexType&gt;</span>&#x000A;                <span class="nt">&lt;/xs:element&gt;</span>&#x000A;            <span class="nt">&lt;/xs:sequence&gt;</span>&#x000A;            <span class="nt">&lt;xs:attribute</span> <span class="na">name=</span><span class="s
 ">&quot;name&quot;</span> <span class="na">use=</span><span class="s">&quot;required&quot;</span> <span class="na">type=</span><span class="s">&quot;xs:string&quot;</span><span class="nt">/&gt;</span>&#x000A;            <span class="nt">&lt;xs:attribute</span> <span class="na">name=</span><span class="s">&quot;rank&quot;</span> <span class="na">use=</span><span class="s">&quot;optional&quot;</span> <span class="na">default=</span><span class="s">&quot;0&quot;</span> <span class="na">type=</span><span class="s">&quot;xs:int&quot;</span><span class="nt">/&gt;</span>&#x000A;        <span class="nt">&lt;/xs:complexType&gt;</span>&#x000A;    <span class="nt">&lt;/xs:element&gt;</span>&#x000A;&#x000A;    <span class="nt">&lt;xs:element</span> <span class="na">name=</span><span class="s">&quot;keystore&quot;</span><span class="nt">&gt;</span>&#x000A;        <span class="nt">&lt;xs:complexType&gt;</span>&#x000A;            <span class="nt">&lt;xs:attribute</span> <span class="na">na
 me=</span><span class="s">&quot;name&quot;</span> <span class="na">use=</span><span class="s">&quot;required&quot;</span> <span class="na">type=</span><span class="s">&quot;xs:string&quot;</span><span class="nt">/&gt;</span>&#x000A;            <span class="nt">&lt;xs:attribute</span> <span class="na">name=</span><span class="s">&quot;rank&quot;</span> <span class="na">use=</span><span class="s">&quot;optional&quot;</span> <span class="na">default=</span><span class="s">&quot;0&quot;</span> <span class="na">type=</span><span class="s">&quot;xs:int&quot;</span><span class="nt">/&gt;</span>&#x000A;            <span class="nt">&lt;xs:attribute</span> <span class="na">name=</span><span class="s">&quot;path&quot;</span> <span class="na">use=</span><span class="s">&quot;required&quot;</span> <span class="na">type=</span><span class="s">&quot;xs:string&quot;</span><span class="nt">/&gt;</span>&#x000A;            <span class="nt">&lt;xs:attribute</span> <span class="na">name=</span><
 span class="s">&quot;keystorePassword&quot;</span> <span class="na">use=</span><span class="s">&quot;optional&quot;</span> <span class="na">type=</span><span class="s">&quot;xs:string&quot;</span><span class="nt">/&gt;</span>&#x000A;            <span class="nt">&lt;xs:attribute</span> <span class="na">name=</span><span class="s">&quot;keyPasswords&quot;</span> <span class="na">use=</span><span class="s">&quot;optional&quot;</span> <span class="na">type=</span><span class="s">&quot;xs:string&quot;</span><span class="nt">/&gt;</span>&#x000A;        <span class="nt">&lt;/xs:complexType&gt;</span>&#x000A;    <span class="nt">&lt;/xs:element&gt;</span>&#x000A;&#x000A;<span class="nt">&lt;/xs:schema&gt;</span>&#x000A;</pre></div>&#x000A;</div><p>You can find the schema at the following <a href="http://karaf.apache.org/xmlns/jaas/v1.1.0">location</a>.</p><p>Here are two examples using this schema:</p><div class="syntax"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="cp">&lt;?xml version=
 &quot;1.0&quot; encoding=&quot;UTF-8&quot;?&gt;</span> &#x000A;<span class="nt">&lt;blueprint</span> <span class="na">xmlns=</span><span class="s">&quot;http://www.osgi.org/xmlns/blueprint/v1.0.0&quot;</span>&#x000A;           <span class="na">xmlns:jaas=</span><span class="s">&quot;http://karaf.apache.org/xmlns/jaas/v1.0.0&quot;</span>&#x000A;           <span class="na">xmlns:ext=</span><span class="s">&quot;http://aries.apache.org/blueprint/xmlns/blueprint-ext/v1.0.0&quot;</span><span class="nt">&gt;</span>&#x000A;&#x000A;    <span class="c">&lt;!-- Bean to allow the $[karaf.base] property to be correctly resolved --&gt;</span>&#x000A;    <span class="nt">&lt;ext:property-placeholder</span> <span class="na">placeholder-prefix=</span><span class="s">&quot;$[&quot;</span> <span class="na">placeholder-suffix=</span><span class="s">&quot;]&quot;</span><span class="nt">/&gt;</span>&#x000A;&#x000A;    <span class="nt">&lt;type-converters&gt;</span>&#x000A;        <span class="nt
 ">&lt;bean</span> <span class="na">class=</span><span class="s">&quot;org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.properties.PropertiesConverter&quot;</span><span class="nt">/&gt;</span>&#x000A;    <span class="nt">&lt;/type-converters&gt;</span> &#x000A;&#x000A;    <span class="nt">&lt;jaas:config</span> <span class="na">name=</span><span class="s">&quot;myrealm&quot;</span><span class="nt">&gt;</span>&#x000A;        <span class="nt">&lt;jaas:module</span> <span class="na">className=</span><span class="s">&quot;org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.properties.PropertiesLoginModule&quot;</span> &#x000A;                     <span class="na">flags=</span><span class="s">&quot;required&quot;</span><span class="nt">&gt;</span>&#x000A;            users = $[karaf.base]/etc/users.properties&#x000A;        <span class="nt">&lt;/jaas:module&gt;</span>&#x000A;    <span class="nt">&lt;/jaas:config&gt;</span>&#x000A;&#x000A;<span class="nt">&lt;/blueprint&gt;</span>&#x000A;</pre></div>&#x000A;</div><div clas
 s="syntax"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="nt">&lt;jaas:keystore</span> <span class="na">xmlns:jaas=</span><span class="s">&quot;http://karaf.apache.org/xmlns/jaas/v1.1.0&quot;</span>&#x000A;               <span class="na">name=</span><span class="s">&quot;ks&quot;</span>&#x000A;               <span class="na">rank=</span><span class="s">&quot;1&quot;</span>&#x000A;               <span class="na">path=</span><span class="s">&quot;classpath:privatestore.jks&quot;</span>&#x000A;               <span class="na">keystorePassword=</span><span class="s">&quot;keyStorePassword&quot;</span>&#x000A;               <span class="na">keyPasswords=</span><span class="s">&quot;myalias=myAliasPassword&quot;</span><span class="nt">&gt;</span>&#x000A;<span class="nt">&lt;/jaas:keystore&gt;</span>&#x000A;</pre></div>&#x000A;</div><p>The <tt>id</tt> attribute is the blueprint id of the bean, but it will be used by default as the name of the realm if no<br/><tt>name</tt> attribute is spe
 cified. Additional attributes on the <tt>config</tt> elements are a <tt>rank</tt>, which is an integer.<br/>When the LoginContext looks for a realm for authenticating a given user, the realms registered in the OSGi registry are<br/>matched against the required name. If more than one realm is found, the one with the highest rank will be used, thus<br/>allowing the override of some realms with new values.  The last attribute is <tt>publish</tt> which can be set to false to<br/>not publish the realm in the OSGi registry, thereby disabling the use of this realm.</p><p>Each realm can contain one or more module definitions. Each module identifies a LoginModule and the <tt>className</tt><br/>attribute must be set to the class name of the login module to use. Note that this login module must be available from<br/>the bundle classloader, so either it has to be defined in the bundle itself, or the needed package needs to be correctly<br/>imported. The <tt>flags</tt> attribute can take
  one of four values that are explained on the <a href="http://svn.apache.org/repos/asf/karaf/tags/karaf-2.0.0/jaas/boot/src/main/java/org/apache/karaf/jaas/boot/ProxyLoginModule.java">JAAS documentation</a>.<br/>The content of the <tt>module</tt> element is parsed as a properties file and will be used to further configure the login module.</p><p>Deploying such a code will lead to a <a href="http://svn.apache.org/repos/asf/karaf/tags/karaf-2.0.0/jaas/config/src/main/java/org/apache/karaf/jaas/config/JaasRealm.java">JaasRealm</a> object in the OSGi registry, which will then be used when using the JAAS login module.</p><h3 id="Configurationoverrideanduseoftherankattribute">Configuration override and use of the <tt>rank</tt> attribute</h3><p>The <tt>rank</tt> attribute on the <tt>config</tt> element is tied to the ranking of the underlying OSGi service.  When the JAAS<br/>framework performs an authentication, it will use the realm name to find a matching JAAS configuration.  If 
 multiple<br/>configurations are used, the one with the highest <tt>rank</tt> attribute will be used.<br/>So if you want to override the default security configuration in Karaf (which is used by the ssh shell, web console and<br/>JMX layer), you need to deploy a JAAS configuration with the name <tt>name="karaf"</tt> and <tt>rank="1"</tt>.</p><div class="syntax"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="cp">&lt;?xml version=&quot;1.0&quot; encoding=&quot;UTF-8&quot;?&gt;</span>&#x000A;<span class="nt">&lt;blueprint</span> <span class="na">xmlns=</span><span class="s">&quot;http://www.osgi.org/xmlns/blueprint/v1.0.0&quot;</span>&#x000A;           <span class="na">xmlns:jaas=</span><span class="s">&quot;http://karaf.apache.org/xmlns/jaas/v1.1.0&quot;</span>&#x000A;           <span class="na">xmlns:ext=</span><span class="s">&quot;http://aries.apache.org/blueprint/xmlns/blueprint-ext/v1.0.0&quot;</span><span class="nt">&gt;</span>&#x000A;&#x000A;    <span class="c">&lt;!-- Bean to
  allow the $[karaf.base] property to be correctly resolved --&gt;</span>&#x000A;    <span class="nt">&lt;ext:property-placeholder</span> <span class="na">placeholder-prefix=</span><span class="s">&quot;$[&quot;</span> <span class="na">placeholder-suffix=</span><span class="s">&quot;]&quot;</span><span class="nt">/&gt;</span>&#x000A;&#x000A;    <span class="nt">&lt;type-converters&gt;</span>&#x000A;        <span class="nt">&lt;bean</span> <span class="na">class=</span><span class="s">&quot;org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.properties.PropertiesConverter&quot;</span><span class="nt">/&gt;</span>&#x000A;    <span class="nt">&lt;/type-converters&gt;</span> &#x000A;&#x000A;    <span class="nt">&lt;jaas:config</span> <span class="na">name=</span><span class="s">&quot;karaf&quot;</span> <span class="na">rank=</span><span class="s">&quot;1&quot;</span><span class="nt">&gt;</span>&#x000A;        <span class="nt">&lt;jaas:module</span> <span class="na">className=</span><span class="s">&qu
 ot;org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.properties.PropertiesLoginModule&quot;</span>&#x000A;                     <span class="na">flags=</span><span class="s">&quot;required&quot;</span><span class="nt">&gt;</span>&#x000A;            users = $[karaf.base]/etc/users.properties&#x000A;            ...&#x000A;        <span class="nt">&lt;/jaas:module&gt;</span>&#x000A;    <span class="nt">&lt;/jaas:config&gt;</span>&#x000A;&#x000A;<span class="nt">&lt;/blueprint&gt;</span>&#x000A;</pre></div>&#x000A;</div><h2 id="Architecture">Architecture</h2><p>Due to constraints in the JAAS specification, one class has to be available for all bundles.<br/>This class is called <a href="http://svn.apache.org/repos/asf/karaf/tags/karaf-2.0.0/jaas/boot/src/main/java/org/apache/karaf/jaas/boot/ProxyLoginModule.java">ProxyLoginModule</a> and is a LoginModule that acts as a proxy for an OSGi defines LoginModule.  If you plan to integrate this feature into another OSGi runtime, this class must be made avai
 lable from the system classloader and the related package be part of the boot delegation classpath (or be deployed as a fragment attached to the system bundle).</p><p>The xml schema defined above allows the use of a simple xml (leveraging spring xml extensibility) to configure and<br/>register a JAAS configuration for a given realm.  This configuration will be made available into the OSGi registry as a<br/><a href="http://svn.apache.org/repos/asf/karaf/tags/karaf-2.0.0/jaas/config/src/main/java/org/apache/karaf/jaas/config/JaasRealm.java">JaasRealm</a> and the OSGi specific Configuration will look for such services.<br/>Then the proxy login module will be able to use the information provided by the realm to actually load the class from<br/>the bundle containing the real login module.</p><h2 id="Availablerealms">Available realms</h2><p>Karaf comes with several login modules to handle authentication needs for your environment.</p><h3 id="PropertiesLoginModule">PropertiesLoginM
 odule</h3><p>This login module is the one configured by default. It uses a properties text file to load the users, passwords and roles.</p><div class="table-wrap"><table class="confluenceTable"><tr><th class="confluenceTh"> Name             </th><th class="confluenceTh"> Description </th></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>users</tt>          </td><td class="confluenceTd"> location of the properties file </td></tr></table></div><p>This file uses the <a href="http://download.oracle.com/javase/6/docs/api/java/util/Properties.html#load(java.io.Reader)">properties file format</a>.<br/>The format of the properties is as follows, with each line defining a user, its password and associated roles:</p><pre>
 user=password[,role][,role]...
-</pre><div class="syntax"><pre name='code' class='brush: xml; gutter: false;'><code>
-&lt;jaas:config name=&quot;karaf&quot;&gt;
-    &lt;jaas:module className=&quot;org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.properties.PropertiesLoginModule&quot; 
-                 flags=&quot;required&quot;&gt;
-        users = $[karaf.base]/etc/users.properties
-    &lt;/jaas:module&gt;
-&lt;/jaas:config&gt;</code></pre></div><p>Note for windows users: Do not forget the typeconverter from the first config snippet. It makes sure that windows paths are handled correctly.</p><h3 id="OsgiConfigLoginModule">OsgiConfigLoginModule</h3><p>The OsgiConfigLoginModule uses the OSGi ConfigurationAdmin service to provide the users, passwords and roles.</p><div class="table-wrap"><table class="confluenceTable"><tr><th class="confluenceTh"> Name           </th><th class="confluenceTh"> Description </th></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>pid</tt>          </td><td class="confluenceTd"> the PID of the configuration containing user definitions </td></tr></table></div><p>The format of the configuration is the same than for the <tt>PropertiesLoginModule</tt>.</p><h3 id="JDBCLoginModule">JDBCLoginModule</h3><p>The JDBCLoginModule uses a database to load the users, passwords and roles from a provided data source <em>(normal or XA)</em>.<br/>The data source and the queries for 
 password and role retrieval are configurable using the following parameters.</p><div class="table-wrap"><table class="confluenceTable"><tr><th class="confluenceTh"> Name                   </th><th class="confluenceTh"> Description </th></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>datasource</tt>           </td><td class="confluenceTd"> The datasource as on OSGi ldap filter or as JDNI name</td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>query.password</tt>       </td><td class="confluenceTd"> The SQL query that retries the password of the user </td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>query.role</tt>           </td><td class="confluenceTd"> The SQL query that retries the roles of the user </td></tr></table></div><p><u>Passing a data source as an OSGi ldap filter</u></p><p>To use an OSGi ldap filter, the prefix osgi: needs to be provided, as shown below:</p><div class="syntax"><pre name='code' class='brush: xml; gutter: false;'><code>
-&lt;jaas:config name=&quot;karaf&quot;&gt;
-    &lt;jaas:module className=&quot;org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.jdbc.JDBCLoginModule&quot; 
-                 flags=&quot;required&quot;&gt;
-        datasource = osgi:javax.sql.DataSource/(osgi.jndi.service.name=jdbc/karafdb)
-        query.password = SELECT PASSWORD FROM USERS WHERE USERNAME=?
-        query.role = SELECT ROLE FROM ROLES WHERE USERNAME=?
-    &lt;/jaas:module&gt;
-&lt;/jaas:config&gt;</code></pre></div><p><u>Passing a data source as a JNDI name</u></p><p>To use an JNDI name, the prefix jndi: needs to be provided. The example below assumes the use of Aries jndi to expose<br/>services via JNDI.</p><div class="syntax"><pre name='code' class='brush: xml; gutter: false;'><code>
-&lt;jaas:config name=&quot;karaf&quot;&gt;
-    &lt;jaas:module className=&quot;org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.jdbc.JDBCLoginModule&quot; 
-                 flags=&quot;required&quot;&gt;
-        datasource = jndi:aries:services/javax.sql.DataSource/(osgi.jndi.service.name=jdbc/karafdb)
-        query.password = SELECT PASSWORD FROM USERS WHERE USERNAME=?
-        query.role = SELECT ROLE FROM ROLES WHERE USERNAME=?
-    &lt;/jaas:module&gt;
-&lt;/jaas:config&gt;</code></pre></div><h3 id="LDAPLoginModule">LDAPLoginModule</h3><p>The LDAPLoginModule uses LDAP to load the users and roles and bind the users on the LDAP to check passwords.</p><p>The LDAPLoginModule supports the following parameters:</p><div class="table-wrap"><table class="confluenceTable"><tr><th class="confluenceTh"> Name                      </th><th class="confluenceTh"> Description </th></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>connection.url</tt>          </td><td class="confluenceTd"> The LDAP connection URL, e.g. ldap://hostname </td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>connection.username</tt>     </td><td class="confluenceTd"> Admin username to connect to the LDAP. This parameter is optional, if it's not provided, the LDAP connection will be anonymous. </td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>connection.password</tt>     </td><td class="confluenceTd"> Admin password to connect to the LDAP. Only used if the <tt>connection.username</tt> is s
 pecified. </td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>user.base.dn</tt>            </td><td class="confluenceTd"> The LDAP base DN used to looking for user, e.g. ou=user,dc=apache,dc=org </td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>user.filter</tt>             </td><td class="confluenceTd"> The LDAP filter used to looking for user, e.g. (uid=%u) where %u will be replaced by the username. </td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>user.search.subtree</tt>     </td><td class="confluenceTd"> If "true", the user lookup will be recursive (SUBTREE). If "false", the user lookup will be performed only at the first level (ONELEVEL). </td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>role.base.dn</tt>            </td><td class="confluenceTd"> The LDAP base DN used to looking for roles, e.g. ou=role,dc=apache,dc=org </td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>role.filter</tt>             </td><td class="confluenceTd"> The LDAP filter used to looking for user's role, e.g. (member:=uid=%u) </td
 ></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>role.name.attribute</tt>     </td><td class="confluenceTd"> The LDAP role attribute containing the role string used by Karaf, e.g. cn </td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>role.search.subtree</tt>     </td><td class="confluenceTd"> If "true", the role lookup will be recursive (SUBTREE). If "false", the role lookup will be performed only at the first level (ONELEVEL). </td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>authentication</tt>          </td><td class="confluenceTd"> Define the authentication backend used on the LDAP server. The default is simple. </td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>initial.context.factory</tt> </td><td class="confluenceTd"> Define the initial context factory used to connect to the LDAP server. The default is com.sun.jndi.ldap.LdapCtxFactory </td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>ssl</tt>                     </td><td class="confluenceTd"> If "true" or if the protocol on the <tt>connection.url</tt> 
 is <tt>ldaps</tt>, an SSL connection will be used </td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>ssl.provider</tt>            </td><td class="confluenceTd"> The provider name to use for SSL </td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>ssl.protocol</tt>            </td><td class="confluenceTd"> The protocol name to use for SSL (SSL for example)</td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>ssl.algorithm</tt>           </td><td class="confluenceTd"> The algorithm to use for the KeyManagerFactory and TrustManagerFactory  (PKIX for example) </td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>ssl.keystore</tt>            </td><td class="confluenceTd"> The key store name to use for SSL.  The key store must be deployed using a <tt>jaas:keystore</tt> configuration.  </td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>ssl.keyalias</tt>            </td><td class="confluenceTd"> The key alias to use for SSL </td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>ssl.truststore</tt>          </td><td class="confluenceTd"
 > The trust store name to use for SSL.  The trust store must be deployed using a <tt>jaas:keystore</tt> configuration.  </td></tr></table></div><p>A example of LDAPLoginModule usage follows:</p><div class="syntax"><pre name='code' class='brush: xml; gutter: false;'><code>
-&lt;jaas:config name=&quot;karaf&quot;&gt;
-  &lt;jaas:module className=&quot;org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.ldap.LDAPLoginModule&quot; flags=&quot;required&quot;&gt;
-        connection.url = ldap://localhost:389
-        user.base.dn = ou=user,dc=apache,dc=org
-        user.filter = (cn=%u)
-        user.search.subtree = true
-        role.base.dn = ou=group,dc=apache,dc=org
-        role.filter = (member:=uid=%u)
-        role.name.attribute = cn
-        role.search.subtree = true
-        authentication = simple
-  &lt;/jaas:module&gt;
-&lt;/jaas:config&gt;</code></pre></div><p>If you wish to use an SSL connection, the following configuration can be used as an example:</p><div class="syntax"><pre name='code' class='brush: xml; gutter: false;'><code>
-&lt;ext:property-placeholder /&gt;
-
-&lt;jaas:config name=&quot;karaf&quot; rank=&quot;1&quot;&gt;
-    &lt;jaas:module className=&quot;org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.ldap.LDAPLoginModule&quot; flags=&quot;required&quot;&gt;
-        connection.url = ldaps://localhost:10636
-        user.base.dn = ou=users,ou=system
-        user.filter = (uid=%u)
-        user.search.subtree = true
-        role.base.dn = ou=groups,ou=system
-        role.filter = (uniqueMember=uid=%u)
-        role.name.attribute = cn
-        role.search.subtree = true
-        authentication = simple
-        ssl.protocol=SSL
-        ssl.truststore=ks
-        ssl.algorithm=PKIX
-    &lt;/jaas:module&gt;
-&lt;/jaas:config&gt;
-
-&lt;jaas:keystore name=&quot;ks&quot;
-               path=&quot;file:///${karaf.home}/etc/trusted.ks&quot;
-               keystorePassword=&quot;secret&quot; /&gt;</code></pre></div><h2 id="Encryptionservice">Encryption service</h2><p>The <a href="http://svn.apache.org/repos/asf/karaf/trunk/jaas/modules/src/main/java/org/apache/karaf/jaas/modules/EncryptionService.java">EncryptionService</a> is a service registered in the OSGi registry providing means to encrypt and check encrypted passwords.  This service acts as a factory for <a href="http://svn.apache.org/repos/asf/karaf/trunk/jaas/modules/src/main/java/org/apache/karaf/jaas/modules/Encryption.java">Encryption</a> objects actually performing the encryption.</p><p>This service is used in all Karaf login modules to support encrypted passwords.</p><h3 id="Configuringproperties">Configuring properties</h3><p>Each login module supports the following additional set of properties:</p><div class="table-wrap"><table class="confluenceTable"><tr><th class="confluenceTh"> Name                   </th><th class="confluenceTh"> Description <
 /th></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>encryption.name</tt>      </td><td class="confluenceTd"> Name of the encryption service registered in OSGi (cf. paragraph <a href="#Jasypt.html">below</a>) </td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>encryption.enabled</tt>   </td><td class="confluenceTd"> Boolean used to turn on encryption </td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>encryption.prefix</tt>    </td><td class="confluenceTd"> Prefix for encrypted passwords </td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>encryption.suffix</tt>    </td><td class="confluenceTd"> Suffix for encrypted passwords </td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>encryption.algorithm</tt> </td><td class="confluenceTd"> Name of an algorithm to be used for hashing, like "MD5" or "SHA-1" </td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>encryption.encoding</tt>  </td><td class="confluenceTd"> Encrypted passwords encoding (can be <tt>hexadecimal</tt> or <tt>base64</tt>) </td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt
 >role.policy</tt>          </td><td class="confluenceTd"> A policy for identifying roles (can be <tt>prefix</tt> or <tt>group</tt>) <a href="#Rolediscoverypolicies.html">below</a>) </td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>role.discriminator</tt>   </td><td class="confluenceTd"> A discriminator value to be used by the role policy </td></tr></table></div><p>A simple example follows:</p><div class="syntax"><pre name='code' class='brush: xml; gutter: false;'><code>
-&lt;jaas:config name=&quot;karaf&quot;&gt;
-    &lt;jaas:module className=&quot;org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.properties.PropertiesLoginModule&quot; 
-                 flags=&quot;required&quot;&gt;
-        users = $[karaf.base]/etc/users.properties
-        encryption.enabled = true
-        encryption.algorithm = MD5
-        encryption.encoding = hexadecimal
-    &lt;/jaas:module&gt;
-&lt;/jaas:config&gt;</code></pre></div><h3 id="Prefixandsuffix">Prefix and suffix</h3><p>The login modules have the ability to support both encrypted and plain passwords at the same time.  In some cases, some login modules may be able to encrypt the passwords on the fly and save them back in an encrypted form.</p><h3 id="Jasypt">Jasypt</h3><p>Karaf default installation comes with a simple encryption service which usually fullfill simple needs. However, in some<br/>cases, you may want to install the <a href="http://www.jasypt.org/">Jasypt</a> library which provides stronger encryption algorithms<br/>and more control over them.</p><p>To install the Jasypt library, the easiest way is to install the available feature:</p><pre>
+</pre><div class="syntax"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="nt">&lt;jaas:config</span> <span class="na">name=</span><span class="s">&quot;karaf&quot;</span><span class="nt">&gt;</span>&#x000A;    <span class="nt">&lt;jaas:module</span> <span class="na">className=</span><span class="s">&quot;org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.properties.PropertiesLoginModule&quot;</span> &#x000A;                 <span class="na">flags=</span><span class="s">&quot;required&quot;</span><span class="nt">&gt;</span>&#x000A;        users = $[karaf.base]/etc/users.properties&#x000A;    <span class="nt">&lt;/jaas:module&gt;</span>&#x000A;<span class="nt">&lt;/jaas:config&gt;</span>&#x000A;</pre></div>&#x000A;</div><p>Note for windows users: Do not forget the typeconverter from the first config snippet. It makes sure that windows paths are handled correctly.</p><h3 id="OsgiConfigLoginModule">OsgiConfigLoginModule</h3><p>The OsgiConfigLoginModule uses the OSGi ConfigurationAdmin service to provide t
 he users, passwords and roles.</p><div class="table-wrap"><table class="confluenceTable"><tr><th class="confluenceTh"> Name           </th><th class="confluenceTh"> Description </th></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>pid</tt>          </td><td class="confluenceTd"> the PID of the configuration containing user definitions </td></tr></table></div><p>The format of the configuration is the same than for the <tt>PropertiesLoginModule</tt>.</p><h3 id="JDBCLoginModule">JDBCLoginModule</h3><p>The JDBCLoginModule uses a database to load the users, passwords and roles from a provided data source <em>(normal or XA)</em>.<br/>The data source and the queries for password and role retrieval are configurable using the following parameters.</p><div class="table-wrap"><table class="confluenceTable"><tr><th class="confluenceTh"> Name                   </th><th class="confluenceTh"> Description </th></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>datasource</tt>           </td><td class="confluence
 Td"> The datasource as on OSGi ldap filter or as JDNI name</td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>query.password</tt>       </td><td class="confluenceTd"> The SQL query that retries the password of the user </td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>query.role</tt>           </td><td class="confluenceTd"> The SQL query that retries the roles of the user </td></tr></table></div><p><u>Passing a data source as an OSGi ldap filter</u></p><p>To use an OSGi ldap filter, the prefix osgi: needs to be provided, as shown below:</p><div class="syntax"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="nt">&lt;jaas:config</span> <span class="na">name=</span><span class="s">&quot;karaf&quot;</span><span class="nt">&gt;</span>&#x000A;    <span class="nt">&lt;jaas:module</span> <span class="na">className=</span><span class="s">&quot;org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.jdbc.JDBCLoginModule&quot;</span> &#x000A;                 <span class="na">flags=</span><span class="s">&quot;required&quot;</span><s
 pan class="nt">&gt;</span>&#x000A;        datasource = osgi:javax.sql.DataSource/(osgi.jndi.service.name=jdbc/karafdb)&#x000A;        query.password = SELECT PASSWORD FROM USERS WHERE USERNAME=?&#x000A;        query.role = SELECT ROLE FROM ROLES WHERE USERNAME=?&#x000A;    <span class="nt">&lt;/jaas:module&gt;</span>&#x000A;<span class="nt">&lt;/jaas:config&gt;</span>&#x000A;</pre></div>&#x000A;</div><p><u>Passing a data source as a JNDI name</u></p><p>To use an JNDI name, the prefix jndi: needs to be provided. The example below assumes the use of Aries jndi to expose<br/>services via JNDI.</p><div class="syntax"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="nt">&lt;jaas:config</span> <span class="na">name=</span><span class="s">&quot;karaf&quot;</span><span class="nt">&gt;</span>&#x000A;    <span class="nt">&lt;jaas:module</span> <span class="na">className=</span><span class="s">&quot;org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.jdbc.JDBCLoginModule&quot;</span> &#x000A;                 <span 
 class="na">flags=</span><span class="s">&quot;required&quot;</span><span class="nt">&gt;</span>&#x000A;        datasource = jndi:aries:services/javax.sql.DataSource/(osgi.jndi.service.name=jdbc/karafdb)&#x000A;        query.password = SELECT PASSWORD FROM USERS WHERE USERNAME=?&#x000A;        query.role = SELECT ROLE FROM ROLES WHERE USERNAME=?&#x000A;    <span class="nt">&lt;/jaas:module&gt;</span>&#x000A;<span class="nt">&lt;/jaas:config&gt;</span>&#x000A;</pre></div>&#x000A;</div><h3 id="LDAPLoginModule">LDAPLoginModule</h3><p>The LDAPLoginModule uses LDAP to load the users and roles and bind the users on the LDAP to check passwords.</p><p>The LDAPLoginModule supports the following parameters:</p><div class="table-wrap"><table class="confluenceTable"><tr><th class="confluenceTh"> Name                      </th><th class="confluenceTh"> Description </th></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>connection.url</tt>          </td><td class="confluenceTd"> The LDAP connection UR
 L, e.g. ldap://hostname </td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>connection.username</tt>     </td><td class="confluenceTd"> Admin username to connect to the LDAP. This parameter is optional, if it's not provided, the LDAP connection will be anonymous. </td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>connection.password</tt>     </td><td class="confluenceTd"> Admin password to connect to the LDAP. Only used if the <tt>connection.username</tt> is specified. </td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>user.base.dn</tt>            </td><td class="confluenceTd"> The LDAP base DN used to looking for user, e.g. ou=user,dc=apache,dc=org </td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>user.filter</tt>             </td><td class="confluenceTd"> The LDAP filter used to looking for user, e.g. (uid=%u) where %u will be replaced by the username. </td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>user.search.subtree</tt>     </td><td class="confluenceTd"> If "true", the user lookup will be recursive (
 SUBTREE). If "false", the user lookup will be performed only at the first level (ONELEVEL). </td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>role.base.dn</tt>            </td><td class="confluenceTd"> The LDAP base DN used to looking for roles, e.g. ou=role,dc=apache,dc=org </td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>role.filter</tt>             </td><td class="confluenceTd"> The LDAP filter used to looking for user's role, e.g. (member:=uid=%u) </td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>role.name.attribute</tt>     </td><td class="confluenceTd"> The LDAP role attribute containing the role string used by Karaf, e.g. cn </td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>role.search.subtree</tt>     </td><td class="confluenceTd"> If "true", the role lookup will be recursive (SUBTREE). If "false", the role lookup will be performed only at the first level (ONELEVEL). </td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>authentication</tt>          </td><td class="confluenceTd"> Define the authentic
 ation backend used on the LDAP server. The default is simple. </td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>initial.context.factory</tt> </td><td class="confluenceTd"> Define the initial context factory used to connect to the LDAP server. The default is com.sun.jndi.ldap.LdapCtxFactory </td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>ssl</tt>                     </td><td class="confluenceTd"> If "true" or if the protocol on the <tt>connection.url</tt> is <tt>ldaps</tt>, an SSL connection will be used </td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>ssl.provider</tt>            </td><td class="confluenceTd"> The provider name to use for SSL </td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>ssl.protocol</tt>            </td><td class="confluenceTd"> The protocol name to use for SSL (SSL for example)</td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>ssl.algorithm</tt>           </td><td class="confluenceTd"> The algorithm to use for the KeyManagerFactory and TrustManagerFactory  (PKIX for example) </td
 ></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>ssl.keystore</tt>            </td><td class="confluenceTd"> The key store name to use for SSL.  The key store must be deployed using a <tt>jaas:keystore</tt> configuration.  </td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>ssl.keyalias</tt>            </td><td class="confluenceTd"> The key alias to use for SSL </td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>ssl.truststore</tt>          </td><td class="confluenceTd"> The trust store name to use for SSL.  The trust store must be deployed using a <tt>jaas:keystore</tt> configuration.  </td></tr></table></div><p>A example of LDAPLoginModule usage follows:</p><div class="syntax"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="nt">&lt;jaas:config</span> <span class="na">name=</span><span class="s">&quot;karaf&quot;</span><span class="nt">&gt;</span>&#x000A;  <span class="nt">&lt;jaas:module</span> <span class="na">className=</span><span class="s">&quot;org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.ldap.LDAPLoginModule&quot
 ;</span> <span class="na">flags=</span><span class="s">&quot;required&quot;</span><span class="nt">&gt;</span>&#x000A;        connection.url = ldap://localhost:389&#x000A;        user.base.dn = ou=user,dc=apache,dc=org&#x000A;        user.filter = (cn=%u)&#x000A;        user.search.subtree = true&#x000A;        role.base.dn = ou=group,dc=apache,dc=org&#x000A;        role.filter = (member:=uid=%u)&#x000A;        role.name.attribute = cn&#x000A;        role.search.subtree = true&#x000A;        authentication = simple&#x000A;  <span class="nt">&lt;/jaas:module&gt;</span>&#x000A;<span class="nt">&lt;/jaas:config&gt;</span>&#x000A;</pre></div>&#x000A;</div><p>If you wish to use an SSL connection, the following configuration can be used as an example:</p><div class="syntax"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="nt">&lt;ext:property-placeholder</span> <span class="nt">/&gt;</span>&#x000A;&#x000A;<span class="nt">&lt;jaas:config</span> <span class="na">name=</span><span class="s"
 >&quot;karaf&quot;</span> <span class="na">rank=</span><span class="s">&quot;1&quot;</span><span class="nt">&gt;</span>&#x000A;    <span class="nt">&lt;jaas:module</span> <span class="na">className=</span><span class="s">&quot;org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.ldap.LDAPLoginModule&quot;</span> <span class="na">flags=</span><span class="s">&quot;required&quot;</span><span class="nt">&gt;</span>&#x000A;        connection.url = ldaps://localhost:10636&#x000A;        user.base.dn = ou=users,ou=system&#x000A;        user.filter = (uid=%u)&#x000A;        user.search.subtree = true&#x000A;        role.base.dn = ou=groups,ou=system&#x000A;        role.filter = (uniqueMember=uid=%u)&#x000A;        role.name.attribute = cn&#x000A;        role.search.subtree = true&#x000A;        authentication = simple&#x000A;        ssl.protocol=SSL&#x000A;        ssl.truststore=ks&#x000A;        ssl.algorithm=PKIX&#x000A;    <span class="nt">&lt;/jaas:module&gt;</span>&#x000A;<span class="nt">&lt;/jaas:
 config&gt;</span>&#x000A;&#x000A;<span class="nt">&lt;jaas:keystore</span> <span class="na">name=</span><span class="s">&quot;ks&quot;</span>&#x000A;               <span class="na">path=</span><span class="s">&quot;file:///${karaf.home}/etc/trusted.ks&quot;</span>&#x000A;               <span class="na">keystorePassword=</span><span class="s">&quot;secret&quot;</span> <span class="nt">/&gt;</span>&#x000A;</pre></div>&#x000A;</div><h2 id="Encryptionservice">Encryption service</h2><p>The <a href="http://svn.apache.org/repos/asf/karaf/trunk/jaas/modules/src/main/java/org/apache/karaf/jaas/modules/EncryptionService.java">EncryptionService</a> is a service registered in the OSGi registry providing means to encrypt and check encrypted passwords.  This service acts as a factory for <a href="http://svn.apache.org/repos/asf/karaf/trunk/jaas/modules/src/main/java/org/apache/karaf/jaas/modules/Encryption.java">Encryption</a> objects actually performing the encryption.</p><p>This service
  is used in all Karaf login modules to support encrypted passwords.</p><h3 id="Configuringproperties">Configuring properties</h3><p>Each login module supports the following additional set of properties:</p><div class="table-wrap"><table class="confluenceTable"><tr><th class="confluenceTh"> Name                   </th><th class="confluenceTh"> Description </th></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>encryption.name</tt>      </td><td class="confluenceTd"> Name of the encryption service registered in OSGi (cf. paragraph <a href="#Jasypt.html">below</a>) </td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>encryption.enabled</tt>   </td><td class="confluenceTd"> Boolean used to turn on encryption </td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>encryption.prefix</tt>    </td><td class="confluenceTd"> Prefix for encrypted passwords </td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>encryption.suffix</tt>    </td><td class="confluenceTd"> Suffix for encrypted passwords </td></tr><tr><td class="conflue
 nceTd"> <tt>encryption.algorithm</tt> </td><td class="confluenceTd"> Name of an algorithm to be used for hashing, like "MD5" or "SHA-1" </td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>encryption.encoding</tt>  </td><td class="confluenceTd"> Encrypted passwords encoding (can be <tt>hexadecimal</tt> or <tt>base64</tt>) </td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>role.policy</tt>          </td><td class="confluenceTd"> A policy for identifying roles (can be <tt>prefix</tt> or <tt>group</tt>) <a href="#Rolediscoverypolicies.html">below</a>) </td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>role.discriminator</tt>   </td><td class="confluenceTd"> A discriminator value to be used by the role policy </td></tr></table></div><p>A simple example follows:</p><div class="syntax"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="nt">&lt;jaas:config</span> <span class="na">name=</span><span class="s">&quot;karaf&quot;</span><span class="nt">&gt;</span>&#x000A;    <span class="nt">&lt;jaas:module</span> <spa
 n class="na">className=</span><span class="s">&quot;org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.properties.PropertiesLoginModule&quot;</span> &#x000A;                 <span class="na">flags=</span><span class="s">&quot;required&quot;</span><span class="nt">&gt;</span>&#x000A;        users = $[karaf.base]/etc/users.properties&#x000A;        encryption.enabled = true&#x000A;        encryption.algorithm = MD5&#x000A;        encryption.encoding = hexadecimal&#x000A;    <span class="nt">&lt;/jaas:module&gt;</span>&#x000A;<span class="nt">&lt;/jaas:config&gt;</span>&#x000A;</pre></div>&#x000A;</div><h3 id="Prefixandsuffix">Prefix and suffix</h3><p>The login modules have the ability to support both encrypted and plain passwords at the same time.  In some cases, some login modules may be able to encrypt the passwords on the fly and save them back in an encrypted form.</p><h3 id="Jasypt">Jasypt</h3><p>Karaf default installation comes with a simple encryption service which usually fullfill simple n
 eeds. However, in some<br/>cases, you may want to install the <a href="http://www.jasypt.org/">Jasypt</a> library which provides stronger encryption algorithms<br/>and more control over them.</p><p>To install the Jasypt library, the easiest way is to install the available feature:</p><pre>
 karaf@root> features:install jasypt-encryption
-</pre><p>It will download and install the required bundles and also register an <tt>EncryptionService</tt> for Jasypt in the OSGi registry.</p><p>When configuring a login module to use Jasypt, you need to specify the <tt>encryption.name</tt> property and set it to a value of <tt>jasypt</tt> to make sure the Jasypt encryption service will be used. </p><p>In addition to the standard properties above, the Jasypt service provides the following parameters:</p><div class="table-wrap"><table class="confluenceTable"><tr><th class="confluenceTh"> Name                     </th><th class="confluenceTh"> Description </th></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>providerName</tt>           </td><td class="confluenceTd"> Name of the <tt>java.security.Provider</tt> name to use for obtaining the digest algorithm </td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>providerClassName</tt>      </td><td class="confluenceTd"> Class name for the security provider to be used for obtaining the digest algorit
 hm </td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>iterations</tt>             </td><td class="confluenceTd"> Number of times the hash function will be applied recursively </td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>saltSizeBytes</tt>          </td><td class="confluenceTd"> Size of the salt to be used to compute the digest </td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>saltGeneratorClassName</tt> </td><td class="confluenceTd"> Class name of the salt generator </td></tr></table></div><p>A typical realm definition using Jasypt encryption service would look like:</p><div class="syntax"><pre name='code' class='brush: xml; gutter: false;'><code>
-&lt;jaas:config name=&quot;karaf&quot;&gt;
-    &lt;jaas:module className=&quot;org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.properties.PropertiesLoginModule&quot; 
-                 flags=&quot;required&quot;&gt;
-        users = $[karaf.base]/etc/users.properties
-        encryption.enabled = true
-        encryption.name = jasypt
-        encryption.algorithm = SHA-256
-        encryption.encoding = base64
-        encryption.iterations = 100000
-        encryption.saltSizeBytes = 16
-    &lt;/jaas:module&gt;
-&lt;/jaas:config&gt;</code></pre></div><h2 id="Rolediscoverypolicies">Role discovery policies</h2><p>The JAAS specification does not provide means to distinguish between User and Role Principals without referring to the<br/>specification classes. In order to provide means to the application developer to decouple the application from Karaf<br/>JAAS implementation role policies have been created.</p><p>A role policy is a convention that can be adopted by the application in order to identify Roles, without depending from the implementation. Each role policy can be cofigured by setting a "role.policy" and "role.discriminator" property to the login module configuration. Currently, Karaf provides two policies that can be applied to all Karaf Login Modules.</p><ol><li>Prefixed Roles</li><li>Grouped Roles</li></ol><p><u>Prefixed Roles</u><br/>When the prefixed role policy is used the login module applies a configurable prefix <em>(property role.discriminator)</em> to<br/>the role, s
 o that the application can identify the role's principals by its prefix. Example:</p><div class="syntax"><pre name='code' class='brush: xml; gutter: false;'><code>
-&lt;jaas:config name=&quot;karaf&quot;&gt;
-    &lt;jaas:module className=&quot;org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.properties.PropertiesLoginModule&quot; 
-                 flags=&quot;required&quot;&gt;
-        users = $[karaf.base]/etc/users.properties
-        role.policy = prefix
-        role.discriminator = ROLE_
-    &lt;/jaas:module&gt;
-&lt;/jaas:config&gt;</code></pre></div><p>The application can identify the role principals using a snippet like this:</p><div class="syntax"><pre name='code' class='brush: java; gutter: false;'><code>
-LoginContext ctx = new LoginContext(&quot;karaf&quot;, handler);
-ctx.login();
-authenticated = true;
-subject = ctx.getSubject();
-for (Principal p : subject.getPrincipals()) {
-   	if (p.getName().startsWith(&quot;ROLE_&quot;)) {
-   	   	roles.add((p.getName().substring(&quot;ROLE_&quot;.length())));
-   	}
-}</code></pre></div><p><u>Grouped Roles</u><br/>When the group role policy is used the login module provides all roles as members of a group with a configurable name <em>(property role.discriminator)</em>. Example:</p><div class="syntax"><pre name='code' class='brush: xml; gutter: false;'><code>
-&lt;jaas:config name=&quot;karaf&quot;&gt;
-    &lt;jaas:module className=&quot;org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.properties.PropertiesLoginModule&quot; 
-                 flags=&quot;required&quot;&gt;
-        users = $[karaf.base]/etc/users.properties
-        role.policy = group
-        role.discriminator = ROLES
-    &lt;/jaas:module&gt;
-&lt;/jaas:config&gt;</code></pre></div><div class="syntax"><pre name='code' class='brush: java; gutter: false;'><code>
-LoginContext ctx = new LoginContext(&quot;karaf&quot;, handler);
-ctx.login();
-authenticated = true;
-subject = ctx.getSubject();
-for (Principal p : subject.getPrincipals()) {
-    if ((p instanceof Group) &amp;&amp; (&quot;ROLES&quot;.equalsIgnoreCase(p.getName()))) {
-        Group g = (Group) p;
-        Enumeration&lt;? extends Principal&gt; members = g.members();
-        while (members.hasMoreElements()) {
-            Principal member = members.nextElement();
-            roles.add(member.getName());
-        }
-    }
-}</code></pre></div><h2 id="Defaultrolepolicies">Default role policies</h2><p>The previous section describes how to leverage role policies. However, Karaf provides a default role policy, based on the following class names:</p><ul><li>org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.UserPrincipal</li><li>org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.RolePrincipal</li><li>org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.GroupPrincipal</li></ul><p>It allows you to directly handling the role class:</p><div class="syntax"><pre name='code' class='brush: java; gutter: false;'><code>
-String rolePrincipalClass = &quot;org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.RolePrincipal&quot;;
-
-for (Principal p : subject.getPrincipals()) {
-	if (p.getClass().getName().equals(rolePrincipalClass)) {
-		roles.add(p.getName());
-	}
-}</code></pre></div>
+</pre><p>It will download and install the required bundles and also register an <tt>EncryptionService</tt> for Jasypt in the OSGi registry.</p><p>When configuring a login module to use Jasypt, you need to specify the <tt>encryption.name</tt> property and set it to a value of <tt>jasypt</tt> to make sure the Jasypt encryption service will be used. </p><p>In addition to the standard properties above, the Jasypt service provides the following parameters:</p><div class="table-wrap"><table class="confluenceTable"><tr><th class="confluenceTh"> Name                     </th><th class="confluenceTh"> Description </th></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>providerName</tt>           </td><td class="confluenceTd"> Name of the <tt>java.security.Provider</tt> name to use for obtaining the digest algorithm </td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>providerClassName</tt>      </td><td class="confluenceTd"> Class name for the security provider to be used for obtaining the digest algorit
 hm </td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>iterations</tt>             </td><td class="confluenceTd"> Number of times the hash function will be applied recursively </td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>saltSizeBytes</tt>          </td><td class="confluenceTd"> Size of the salt to be used to compute the digest </td></tr><tr><td class="confluenceTd"> <tt>saltGeneratorClassName</tt> </td><td class="confluenceTd"> Class name of the salt generator </td></tr></table></div><p>A typical realm definition using Jasypt encryption service would look like:</p><div class="syntax"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="nt">&lt;jaas:config</span> <span class="na">name=</span><span class="s">&quot;karaf&quot;</span><span class="nt">&gt;</span>&#x000A;    <span class="nt">&lt;jaas:module</span> <span class="na">className=</span><span class="s">&quot;org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.properties.PropertiesLoginModule&quot;</span> &#x000A;                 <span class="na">flags=</span><s
 pan class="s">&quot;required&quot;</span><span class="nt">&gt;</span>&#x000A;        users = $[karaf.base]/etc/users.properties&#x000A;        encryption.enabled = true&#x000A;        encryption.name = jasypt&#x000A;        encryption.algorithm = SHA-256&#x000A;        encryption.encoding = base64&#x000A;        encryption.iterations = 100000&#x000A;        encryption.saltSizeBytes = 16&#x000A;    <span class="nt">&lt;/jaas:module&gt;</span>&#x000A;<span class="nt">&lt;/jaas:config&gt;</span>&#x000A;</pre></div>&#x000A;</div><h2 id="Rolediscoverypolicies">Role discovery policies</h2><p>The JAAS specification does not provide means to distinguish between User and Role Principals without referring to the<br/>specification classes. In order to provide means to the application developer to decouple the application from Karaf<br/>JAAS implementation role policies have been created.</p><p>A role policy is a convention that can be adopted by the application in order to identify Rol
 es, without depending from the implementation. Each role policy can be cofigured by setting a "role.policy" and "role.discriminator" property to the login module configuration. Currently, Karaf provides two policies that can be applied to all Karaf Login Modules.</p><ol><li>Prefixed Roles</li><li>Grouped Roles</li></ol><p><u>Prefixed Roles</u><br/>When the prefixed role policy is used the login module applies a configurable prefix <em>(property role.discriminator)</em> to<br/>the role, so that the application can identify the role's principals by its prefix. Example:</p><div class="syntax"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="nt">&lt;jaas:config</span> <span class="na">name=</span><span class="s">&quot;karaf&quot;</span><span class="nt">&gt;</span>&#x000A;    <span class="nt">&lt;jaas:module</span> <span class="na">className=</span><span class="s">&quot;org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.properties.PropertiesLoginModule&quot;</span> &#x000A;                 <span class="na">f
 lags=</span><span class="s">&quot;required&quot;</span><span class="nt">&gt;</span>&#x000A;        users = $[karaf.base]/etc/users.properties&#x000A;        role.policy = prefix&#x000A;        role.discriminator = ROLE_&#x000A;    <span class="nt">&lt;/jaas:module&gt;</span>&#x000A;<span class="nt">&lt;/jaas:config&gt;</span>&#x000A;</pre></div>&#x000A;</div><p>The application can identify the role principals using a snippet like this:</p><div class="syntax"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="n">LoginContext</span> <span class="n">ctx</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="k">new</span> <span class="n">LoginContext</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="s">&quot;karaf&quot;</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">handler</span><span class="o">);</span>&#x000A;<span class="n">ctx</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="na">login</span><span class="o">();</span>&#x000A;<span class="n">authenticated</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="kc">true
 </span><span class="o">;</span>&#x000A;<span class="n">subject</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">ctx</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="na">getSubject</span><span class="o">();</span>&#x000A;<span class="k">for</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">Principal</span> <span class="n">p</span> <span class="o">:</span> <span class="n">subject</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="na">getPrincipals</span><span class="o">())</span> <span class="o">{</span>&#x000A;   	<span class="k">if</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">p</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="na">getName</span><span class="o">().</span><span class="na">startsWith</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="s">&quot;ROLE_&quot;</span><span class="o">))</span> <span class="o">{</span>&#x000A;   	   	<span class="n">roles</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="na">add</span><span class="o">((</span><span class="n">p</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="na">
 getName</span><span class="o">().</span><span class="na">substring</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="s">&quot;ROLE_&quot;</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="na">length</span><span class="o">())));</span>&#x000A;   	<span class="o">}</span>&#x000A;<span class="o">}</span>&#x000A;</pre></div>&#x000A;</div><p><u>Grouped Roles</u><br/>When the group role policy is used the login module provides all roles as members of a group with a configurable name <em>(property role.discriminator)</em>. Example:</p><div class="syntax"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="nt">&lt;jaas:config</span> <span class="na">name=</span><span class="s">&quot;karaf&quot;</span><span class="nt">&gt;</span>&#x000A;    <span class="nt">&lt;jaas:module</span> <span class="na">className=</span><span class="s">&quot;org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.properties.PropertiesLoginModule&quot;</span> &#x000A;                 <span class="na">flags=</span><span class="s">&quot;required&quot;</span><s
 pan class="nt">&gt;</span>&#x000A;        users = $[karaf.base]/etc/users.properties&#x000A;        role.policy = group&#x000A;        role.discriminator = ROLES&#x000A;    <span class="nt">&lt;/jaas:module&gt;</span>&#x000A;<span class="nt">&lt;/jaas:config&gt;</span>&#x000A;</pre></div>&#x000A;</div><div class="syntax"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="n">LoginContext</span> <span class="n">ctx</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="k">new</span> <span class="n">LoginContext</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="s">&quot;karaf&quot;</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">handler</span><span class="o">);</span>&#x000A;<span class="n">ctx</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="na">login</span><span class="o">();</span>&#x000A;<span class="n">authenticated</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="kc">true</span><span class="o">;</span>&#x000A;<span class="n">subject</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">ctx</span><span class="o">.</
 span><span class="na">getSubject</span><span class="o">();</span>&#x000A;<span class="k">for</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">Principal</span> <span class="n">p</span> <span class="o">:</span> <span class="n">subject</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="na">getPrincipals</span><span class="o">())</span> <span class="o">{</span>&#x000A;    <span class="k">if</span> <span class="o">((</span><span class="n">p</span> <span class="k">instanceof</span> <span class="n">Group</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="o">&amp;&amp;</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="s">&quot;ROLES&quot;</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="na">equalsIgnoreCase</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="n">p</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="na">getName</span><span class="o">())))</span> <span class="o">{</span>&#x000A;        <span class="n">Group</span> <span class="n">g</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">Group</span>
 <span class="o">)</span> <span class="n">p</span><span class="o">;</span>&#x000A;        <span class="n">Enumeration</span><span class="o">&lt;?</span> <span class="kd">extends</span> <span class="n">Principal</span><span class="o">&gt;</span> <span class="n">members</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">g</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="na">members</span><span class="o">();</span>&#x000A;        <span class="k">while</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">members</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="na">hasMoreElements</span><span class="o">())</span> <span class="o">{</span>&#x000A;            <span class="n">Principal</span> <span class="n">member</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">members</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="na">nextElement</span><span class="o">();</span>&#x000A;            <span class="n">roles</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="na">add</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="n">member</s
 pan><span class="o">.</span><span class="na">getName</span><span class="o">());</span>&#x000A;        <span class="o">}</span>&#x000A;    <span class="o">}</span>&#x000A;<span class="o">}</span>&#x000A;</pre></div>&#x000A;</div><h2 id="Defaultrolepolicies">Default role policies</h2><p>The previous section describes how to leverage role policies. However, Karaf provides a default role policy, based on the following class names:</p><ul><li>org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.UserPrincipal</li><li>org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.RolePrincipal</li><li>org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.GroupPrincipal</li></ul><p>It allows you to directly handling the role class:</p><div class="syntax"><div class="highlight"><pre><span class="n">String</span> <span class="n">rolePrincipalClass</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="s">&quot;org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.RolePrincipal&quot;</span><span class="o">;</span>&#x000A;&#x000A;<span class="k">for</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">Pr
 incipal</span> <span class="n">p</span> <span class="o">:</span> <span class="n">subject</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="na">getPrincipals</span><span class="o">())</span> <span class="o">{</span>&#x000A;	<span class="k">if</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">p</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="na">getClass</span><span class="o">().</span><span class="na">getName</span><span class="o">().</span><span class="na">equals</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="n">rolePrincipalClass</span><span class="o">))</span> <span class="o">{</span>&#x000A;		<span class="n">roles</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="na">add</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="n">p</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="na">getName</span><span class="o">());</span>&#x000A;	<span class="o">}</span>&#x000A;<span class="o">}</span>&#x000A;</pre></div>&#x000A;</div>
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