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From jamesbog...@apache.org
Subject [31/49] incubator-juneau git commit: Separate RDF and JAX-RS support into separate projects.
Date Sun, 22 Jan 2017 00:39:30 GMT
http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-juneau/blob/e4dfdf81/juneau-core-test/src/test/java/org/apache/juneau/urlencoding/Common_UonTest.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/juneau-core-test/src/test/java/org/apache/juneau/urlencoding/Common_UonTest.java b/juneau-core-test/src/test/java/org/apache/juneau/urlencoding/Common_UonTest.java
new file mode 100755
index 0000000..768eaec
--- /dev/null
+++ b/juneau-core-test/src/test/java/org/apache/juneau/urlencoding/Common_UonTest.java
@@ -0,0 +1,450 @@
+// ***************************************************************************************************************************
+// * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file *
+// * distributed with this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file        *
+// * to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance            *
+// * with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at                                                              *
+// *                                                                                                                         *
+// *  http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0                                                                             *
+// *                                                                                                                         *
+// * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software distributed under the License is distributed on an  *
+// * "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the        *
+// * specific language governing permissions and limitations under the License.                                              *
+// ***************************************************************************************************************************
+package org.apache.juneau.urlencoding;
+
+import static org.apache.juneau.TestUtils.*;
+import static org.apache.juneau.serializer.SerializerContext.*;
+import static org.junit.Assert.*;
+
+import java.net.*;
+import java.net.URI;
+import java.util.*;
+
+import org.apache.juneau.*;
+import org.apache.juneau.annotation.*;
+import org.apache.juneau.json.*;
+import org.apache.juneau.serializer.*;
+import org.apache.juneau.testbeans.*;
+import org.junit.*;
+
+@SuppressWarnings({"serial","javadoc"})
+public class Common_UonTest {
+	UonParser p = UonParser.DEFAULT;
+	UonParser pe = UonParser.DEFAULT_DECODING;
+
+	//====================================================================================================
+	// Trim nulls from beans
+	//====================================================================================================
+	@Test
+	public void testTrimNullsFromBeans() throws Exception {
+		UonSerializer s = new UonSerializer.Encoding();
+		A t1 = A.create(), t2;
+
+		s.setProperty(SERIALIZER_trimNullProperties, false);
+		String r = s.serialize(t1);
+		assertEquals("$o(s1=%00,s2=s2)", r);
+		t2 = pe.parse(r, A.class);
+		assertEqualObjects(t1, t2);
+
+		s.setProperty(SERIALIZER_trimNullProperties, true);
+		r = s.serialize(t1);
+		assertEquals("$o(s2=s2)", r);
+		t2 = p.parse(r, A.class);
+		assertEqualObjects(t1, t2);
+	}
+
+	public static class A {
+		public String s1, s2;
+
+		public static A create() {
+			A t = new A();
+			t.s2 = "s2";
+			return t;
+		}
+	}
+
+	//====================================================================================================
+	// Trim empty maps
+	//====================================================================================================
+	@Test
+	public void testTrimEmptyMaps() throws Exception {
+		UonSerializer s = UonSerializer.DEFAULT_SIMPLE_ENCODING.clone();
+		B t1 = B.create(), t2;
+		String r;
+
+		s.setProperty(SERIALIZER_trimEmptyMaps, false);
+		r = s.serialize(t1);
+		assertEquals("(f1=(),f2=(f2a=%00,f2b=(s2=s2)))", r);
+		t2 = pe.parse(r, B.class);
+		assertEqualObjects(t1, t2);
+
+		s.setProperty(SERIALIZER_trimEmptyMaps, true);
+		r = s.serialize(t1);
+		assertEquals("(f2=(f2a=%00,f2b=(s2=s2)))", r);
+		t2 = pe.parse(r, B.class);
+		assertNull(t2.f1);
+	}
+
+	public static class B {
+		public TreeMap<String,A> f1, f2;
+
+		public static B create() {
+			B t = new B();
+			t.f1 = new TreeMap<String,A>();
+			t.f2 = new TreeMap<String,A>(){{put("f2a",null);put("f2b",A.create());}};
+			return t;
+		}
+	}
+
+	//====================================================================================================
+	// Trim empty lists
+	//====================================================================================================
+	@Test
+	public void testTrimEmptyLists() throws Exception {
+		UonSerializer s = new UonSerializer.Encoding();
+		C t1 = C.create(), t2;
+		String r;
+
+		s.setProperty(SERIALIZER_trimEmptyCollections, false);
+		r = s.serialize(t1);
+		assertEquals("$o(f1=$a(),f2=$a(%00,$o(s2=s2)))", r);
+		t2 = pe.parse(r, C.class);
+		assertEqualObjects(t1, t2);
+
+		s.setProperty(SERIALIZER_trimEmptyCollections, true);
+		r = s.serialize(t1);
+		assertEquals("$o(f2=$a(%00,$o(s2=s2)))", r);
+		t2 = pe.parse(r, C.class);
+		assertNull(t2.f1);
+	}
+
+	public static class C {
+		public List<A> f1, f2;
+
+		public static C create() {
+			C t = new C();
+			t.f1 = new LinkedList<A>();
+			t.f2 = new LinkedList<A>(){{add(null);add(A.create());}};
+			return t;
+		}
+	}
+
+	//====================================================================================================
+	// Trim empty arrays
+	//====================================================================================================
+	@Test
+	public void testTrimEmptyArrays() throws Exception {
+		UonSerializer s = new UonSerializer.Encoding();
+		D t1 = D.create(), t2;
+		String r;
+
+		s.setProperty(SERIALIZER_trimEmptyCollections, false);
+		r = s.serialize(t1);
+		assertEquals("$o(f1=$a(),f2=$a(%00,$o(s2=s2)))", r);
+		t2 = pe.parse(r, D.class);
+		assertEqualObjects(t1, t2);
+
+		s.setProperty(SERIALIZER_trimEmptyCollections, true);
+		r = s.serialize(t1);
+		assertEquals("$o(f2=$a(%00,$o(s2=s2)))", r);
+		t2 = pe.parse(r, D.class);
+		assertNull(t2.f1);
+	}
+
+	public static class D {
+		public A[] f1, f2;
+
+		public static D create() {
+			D t = new D();
+			t.f1 = new A[]{};
+			t.f2 = new A[]{null, A.create()};
+			return t;
+		}
+	}
+
+	//====================================================================================================
+	// @BeanProperty.properties annotation.
+	//====================================================================================================
+	@Test
+	public void testBeanPropertyProperies() throws Exception {
+		UonSerializer s = UonSerializer.DEFAULT;
+		UonSerializer ss = UonSerializer.DEFAULT_SIMPLE;
+		String ue = ss.serialize(new E1());
+		assertEquals("(x1=(f1=1),x2=(f1=1),x3=((f1=1)),x4=((f1=1)),x5=((f1=1)),x6=((f1=1)))", ue);
+		ue = s.serialize(new E1());
+		assertEquals("$o(x1=$o(f1=$n(1)),x2=$o(f1=$n(1)),x3=$a($o(f1=$n(1))),x4=$a($o(f1=$n(1))),x5=$a($o(f1=$n(1))),x6=$a($o(f1=$n(1))))", ue);
+	}
+
+	public static class E1 {
+		@BeanProperty(properties="f1") public E2 x1 = new E2();
+		@BeanProperty(properties="f1") public Map<String,Integer> x2 = new LinkedHashMap<String,Integer>() {{
+			put("f1",1); put("f2",2);
+		}};
+		@BeanProperty(properties="f1") public E2[] x3 = {new E2()};
+		@BeanProperty(properties="f1") public List<E2> x4 = new LinkedList<E2>() {{
+			add(new E2());
+		}};
+		@BeanProperty(properties="f1") public ObjectMap[] x5 = {new ObjectMap().append("f1",1).append("f2",2)};
+		@BeanProperty(properties="f1") public List<ObjectMap> x6 = new LinkedList<ObjectMap>() {{
+			add(new ObjectMap().append("f1",1).append("f2",2));
+		}};
+	}
+
+	public static class E2 {
+		public int f1 = 1;
+		public int f2 = 2;
+	}
+
+	//====================================================================================================
+	// @BeanProperty.properties annotation on list of beans.
+	//====================================================================================================
+	@Test
+	public void testBeanPropertyPropertiesOnListOfBeans() throws Exception {
+		UonSerializer s = UonSerializer.DEFAULT;
+		List<F> l = new LinkedList<F>();
+		F t = new F();
+		t.x1.add(new F());
+		l.add(t);
+		String xml = s.serialize(l);
+		assertEquals("$a($o(x1=$a($o(x2=$n(2))),x2=$n(2)))", xml);
+	}
+
+	public static class F {
+		@BeanProperty(properties="x2") public List<F> x1 = new LinkedList<F>();
+		public int x2 = 2;
+	}
+
+	//====================================================================================================
+	// Test URIAttr - Test that URLs and URIs are serialized and parsed correctly.
+	//====================================================================================================
+	@Test
+	public void testURIAttr() throws Exception {
+		UonSerializer s = UonSerializer.DEFAULT;
+		UonParser p = UonParser.DEFAULT;
+
+		G t = new G();
+		t.uri = new URI("http://uri");
+		t.f1 = new URI("http://f1");
+		t.f2 = new URL("http://f2");
+
+		String r = s.serialize(t);
+		t = p.parse(r, G.class);
+		assertEquals("http://uri", t.uri.toString());
+		assertEquals("http://f1", t.f1.toString());
+		assertEquals("http://f2", t.f2.toString());
+	}
+
+	public static class G {
+		public URI uri;
+		public URI f1;
+		public URL f2;
+	}
+
+	//====================================================================================================
+	// Test URIs with URI_CONTEXT and URI_AUTHORITY
+	//====================================================================================================
+	@Test
+	public void testUris() throws Exception {
+		WriterSerializer s = new UonSerializer();
+		TestURI t = new TestURI();
+		String r;
+		String expected;
+
+		s.setProperty(SERIALIZER_relativeUriBase, null);
+		r = s.serialize(t);
+		expected = ""
+			+"$o("
+			+"f0=f0/x0,"
+			+"f1=f1/x1,"
+			+"f2=/f2/x2,"
+			+"f3=http://www.apache.org/f3/x3,"
+			+"f4=f4/x4,"
+			+"f5=/f5/x5,"
+			+"f6=http://www.apache.org/f6/x6,"
+			+"f7=http://www.apache.org/f7/x7,"
+			+"f8=f8/x8,"
+			+"f9=f9/x9,"
+			+"fa=http://www.apache.org/fa/xa#MY_LABEL,"
+			+"fb=http://www.apache.org/fb/xb?label~=MY_LABEL&foo~=bar,"
+			+"fc=http://www.apache.org/fc/xc?foo~=bar&label~=MY_LABEL,"
+			+"fd=http://www.apache.org/fd/xd?label2~=MY_LABEL&foo~=bar,"
+			+"fe=http://www.apache.org/fe/xe?foo~=bar&label2~=MY_LABEL"
+			+")";
+		assertEquals(expected, r);
+
+		s.setProperty(SERIALIZER_relativeUriBase, "");  // Same as null.
+		r = s.serialize(t);
+		assertEquals(expected, r);
+
+		s.setProperty(SERIALIZER_relativeUriBase, "/cr");
+		r = s.serialize(t);
+		expected = ""
+			+"$o("
+			+"f0=/cr/f0/x0,"
+			+"f1=/cr/f1/x1,"
+			+"f2=/f2/x2,"
+			+"f3=http://www.apache.org/f3/x3,"
+			+"f4=/cr/f4/x4,"
+			+"f5=/f5/x5,"
+			+"f6=http://www.apache.org/f6/x6,"
+			+"f7=http://www.apache.org/f7/x7,"
+			+"f8=/cr/f8/x8,"
+			+"f9=/cr/f9/x9,"
+			+"fa=http://www.apache.org/fa/xa#MY_LABEL,"
+			+"fb=http://www.apache.org/fb/xb?label~=MY_LABEL&foo~=bar,"
+			+"fc=http://www.apache.org/fc/xc?foo~=bar&label~=MY_LABEL,"
+			+"fd=http://www.apache.org/fd/xd?label2~=MY_LABEL&foo~=bar,"
+			+"fe=http://www.apache.org/fe/xe?foo~=bar&label2~=MY_LABEL"
+			+")";
+		assertEquals(expected, r);
+
+		s.setProperty(SERIALIZER_relativeUriBase, "/cr/");  // Same as above
+		r = s.serialize(t);
+		assertEquals(expected, r);
+
+		s.setProperty(SERIALIZER_relativeUriBase, "/");
+		r = s.serialize(t);
+		expected = ""
+			+"$o("
+			+"f0=/f0/x0,"
+			+"f1=/f1/x1,"
+			+"f2=/f2/x2,"
+			+"f3=http://www.apache.org/f3/x3,"
+			+"f4=/f4/x4,"
+			+"f5=/f5/x5,"
+			+"f6=http://www.apache.org/f6/x6,"
+			+"f7=http://www.apache.org/f7/x7,"
+			+"f8=/f8/x8,"
+			+"f9=/f9/x9,"
+			+"fa=http://www.apache.org/fa/xa#MY_LABEL,"
+			+"fb=http://www.apache.org/fb/xb?label~=MY_LABEL&foo~=bar,"
+			+"fc=http://www.apache.org/fc/xc?foo~=bar&label~=MY_LABEL,"
+			+"fd=http://www.apache.org/fd/xd?label2~=MY_LABEL&foo~=bar,"
+			+"fe=http://www.apache.org/fe/xe?foo~=bar&label2~=MY_LABEL"
+			+")";
+		assertEquals(expected, r);
+
+		s.setProperty(SERIALIZER_relativeUriBase, null);
+
+		s.setProperty(SERIALIZER_absolutePathUriBase, "http://foo");
+		r = s.serialize(t);
+		expected = ""
+			+"$o("
+			+"f0=f0/x0,"
+			+"f1=f1/x1,"
+			+"f2=http://foo/f2/x2,"
+			+"f3=http://www.apache.org/f3/x3,"
+			+"f4=f4/x4,"
+			+"f5=http://foo/f5/x5,"
+			+"f6=http://www.apache.org/f6/x6,"
+			+"f7=http://www.apache.org/f7/x7,"
+			+"f8=f8/x8,"
+			+"f9=f9/x9,"
+			+"fa=http://www.apache.org/fa/xa#MY_LABEL,"
+			+"fb=http://www.apache.org/fb/xb?label~=MY_LABEL&foo~=bar,"
+			+"fc=http://www.apache.org/fc/xc?foo~=bar&label~=MY_LABEL,"
+			+"fd=http://www.apache.org/fd/xd?label2~=MY_LABEL&foo~=bar,"
+			+"fe=http://www.apache.org/fe/xe?foo~=bar&label2~=MY_LABEL"
+			+")";
+		assertEquals(expected, r);
+
+		s.setProperty(SERIALIZER_absolutePathUriBase, "http://foo/");
+		r = s.serialize(t);
+		assertEquals(expected, r);
+
+		s.setProperty(SERIALIZER_absolutePathUriBase, "");  // Same as null.
+		r = s.serialize(t);
+		expected = ""
+			+"$o("
+			+"f0=f0/x0,"
+			+"f1=f1/x1,"
+			+"f2=/f2/x2,"
+			+"f3=http://www.apache.org/f3/x3,"
+			+"f4=f4/x4,"
+			+"f5=/f5/x5,"
+			+"f6=http://www.apache.org/f6/x6,"
+			+"f7=http://www.apache.org/f7/x7,"
+			+"f8=f8/x8,"
+			+"f9=f9/x9,"
+			+"fa=http://www.apache.org/fa/xa#MY_LABEL,"
+			+"fb=http://www.apache.org/fb/xb?label~=MY_LABEL&foo~=bar,"
+			+"fc=http://www.apache.org/fc/xc?foo~=bar&label~=MY_LABEL,"
+			+"fd=http://www.apache.org/fd/xd?label2~=MY_LABEL&foo~=bar,"
+			+"fe=http://www.apache.org/fe/xe?foo~=bar&label2~=MY_LABEL"
+			+")";
+		assertEquals(expected, r);
+	}
+
+	//====================================================================================================
+	// Validate that you cannot update properties on locked serializer.
+	//====================================================================================================
+	@Test
+	public void testLockedSerializer() throws Exception {
+		UonSerializer s = new UonSerializer().lock();
+		try {
+			s.setProperty(JsonSerializerContext.JSON_simpleMode, true);
+			fail("Locked exception not thrown");
+		} catch (LockedException e) {}
+		try {
+			s.setProperty(SerializerContext.SERIALIZER_addBeanTypeProperties, true);
+			fail("Locked exception not thrown");
+		} catch (LockedException e) {}
+		try {
+			s.setProperty(BeanContext.BEAN_beanMapPutReturnsOldValue, true);
+			fail("Locked exception not thrown");
+		} catch (LockedException e) {}
+	}
+
+	//====================================================================================================
+	// Recursion
+	//====================================================================================================
+	@Test
+	public void testRecursion() throws Exception {
+		WriterSerializer s = new UonSerializer();
+
+		R1 r1 = new R1();
+		R2 r2 = new R2();
+		R3 r3 = new R3();
+		r1.r2 = r2;
+		r2.r3 = r3;
+		r3.r1 = r1;
+
+		// No recursion detection
+		try {
+			s.serialize(r1);
+			fail("Exception expected!");
+		} catch (Exception e) {
+			String msg = e.getLocalizedMessage();
+			assertTrue(msg.contains("It's recommended you use the SerializerContext.SERIALIZER_detectRecursions setting to help locate the loop."));
+		}
+
+		// Recursion detection, no ignore
+		s.setProperty(SERIALIZER_detectRecursions, true);
+		try {
+			s.serialize(r1);
+			fail("Exception expected!");
+		} catch (Exception e) {
+			String msg = e.getLocalizedMessage();
+			assertTrue(msg.contains("[0]root:org.apache.juneau.urlencoding.Common_UonTest$R1"));
+			assertTrue(msg.contains("->[1]r2:org.apache.juneau.urlencoding.Common_UonTest$R2"));
+			assertTrue(msg.contains("->[2]r3:org.apache.juneau.urlencoding.Common_UonTest$R3"));
+			assertTrue(msg.contains("->[3]r1:org.apache.juneau.urlencoding.Common_UonTest$R1"));
+		}
+
+		s.setProperty(SERIALIZER_ignoreRecursions, true);
+		assertEquals("$o(name=foo,r2=$o(name=bar,r3=$o(name=baz)))", s.serialize(r1));
+	}
+
+	public static class R1 {
+		public String name = "foo";
+		public R2 r2;
+	}
+	public static class R2 {
+		public String name = "bar";
+		public R3 r3;
+	}
+	public static class R3 {
+		public String name = "baz";
+		public R1 r1;
+	}
+}

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-juneau/blob/e4dfdf81/juneau-core-test/src/test/java/org/apache/juneau/urlencoding/Common_UrlEncodingTest.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/juneau-core-test/src/test/java/org/apache/juneau/urlencoding/Common_UrlEncodingTest.java b/juneau-core-test/src/test/java/org/apache/juneau/urlencoding/Common_UrlEncodingTest.java
new file mode 100755
index 0000000..0f0a30f
--- /dev/null
+++ b/juneau-core-test/src/test/java/org/apache/juneau/urlencoding/Common_UrlEncodingTest.java
@@ -0,0 +1,442 @@
+// ***************************************************************************************************************************
+// * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file *
+// * distributed with this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file        *
+// * to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance            *
+// * with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at                                                              *
+// *                                                                                                                         *
+// *  http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0                                                                             *
+// *                                                                                                                         *
+// * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software distributed under the License is distributed on an  *
+// * "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the        *
+// * specific language governing permissions and limitations under the License.                                              *
+// ***************************************************************************************************************************
+package org.apache.juneau.urlencoding;
+
+import static org.apache.juneau.TestUtils.*;
+import static org.apache.juneau.serializer.SerializerContext.*;
+import static org.junit.Assert.*;
+
+import java.net.*;
+import java.net.URI;
+import java.util.*;
+
+import org.apache.juneau.*;
+import org.apache.juneau.annotation.*;
+import org.apache.juneau.json.*;
+import org.apache.juneau.serializer.*;
+import org.apache.juneau.testbeans.*;
+import org.junit.*;
+
+@SuppressWarnings({"serial","javadoc"})
+public class Common_UrlEncodingTest {
+	UrlEncodingParser p = UrlEncodingParser.DEFAULT;
+
+	//====================================================================================================
+	// Trim nulls from beans
+	//====================================================================================================
+	@Test
+	public void testTrimNullsFromBeans() throws Exception {
+		UrlEncodingSerializer s = new UrlEncodingSerializer();
+		A t1 = A.create(), t2;
+
+		s.setProperty(SERIALIZER_trimNullProperties, false);
+		String r = s.serialize(t1);
+		assertEquals("s1=%00&s2=s2", r);
+		t2 = p.parse(r, A.class);
+		assertEqualObjects(t1, t2);
+
+		s.setProperty(SERIALIZER_trimNullProperties, true);
+		r = s.serialize(t1);
+		assertEquals("s2=s2", r);
+		t2 = p.parse(r, A.class);
+		assertEqualObjects(t1, t2);
+	}
+
+	public static class A {
+		public String s1, s2;
+
+		public static A create() {
+			A t = new A();
+			t.s2 = "s2";
+			return t;
+		}
+	}
+
+	//====================================================================================================
+	// Trim empty maps
+	//====================================================================================================
+	@Test
+	public void testTrimEmptyMaps() throws Exception {
+		UrlEncodingSerializer s = UrlEncodingSerializer.DEFAULT_SIMPLE.clone();
+		B t1 = B.create(), t2;
+		String r;
+
+		s.setProperty(SERIALIZER_trimEmptyMaps, false);
+		r = s.serialize(t1);
+		assertEquals("f1=()&f2=(f2a=%00,f2b=(s2=s2))", r);
+		t2 = p.parse(r, B.class);
+		assertEqualObjects(t1, t2);
+
+		s.setProperty(SERIALIZER_trimEmptyMaps, true);
+		r = s.serialize(t1);
+		assertEquals("f2=(f2a=%00,f2b=(s2=s2))", r);
+		t2 = p.parse(r, B.class);
+		assertNull(t2.f1);
+	}
+
+	public static class B {
+		public TreeMap<String,A> f1, f2;
+
+		public static B create() {
+			B t = new B();
+			t.f1 = new TreeMap<String,A>();
+			t.f2 = new TreeMap<String,A>(){{put("f2a",null);put("f2b",A.create());}};
+			return t;
+		}
+	}
+
+	//====================================================================================================
+	// Trim empty lists
+	//====================================================================================================
+	@Test
+	public void testTrimEmptyLists() throws Exception {
+		UrlEncodingSerializer s = new UrlEncodingSerializer();
+		C t1 = C.create(), t2;
+		String r;
+
+		s.setProperty(SERIALIZER_trimEmptyCollections, false);
+		r = s.serialize(t1);
+		assertEquals("f1=$a()&f2=$a(%00,$o(s2=s2))", r);
+		t2 = p.parse(r, C.class);
+		assertEqualObjects(t1, t2);
+
+		s.setProperty(SERIALIZER_trimEmptyCollections, true);
+		r = s.serialize(t1);
+		assertEquals("f2=$a(%00,$o(s2=s2))", r);
+		t2 = p.parse(r, C.class);
+		assertNull(t2.f1);
+	}
+
+	public static class C {
+		public List<A> f1, f2;
+
+		public static C create() {
+			C t = new C();
+			t.f1 = new LinkedList<A>();
+			t.f2 = new LinkedList<A>(){{add(null);add(A.create());}};
+			return t;
+		}
+	}
+
+	//====================================================================================================
+	// Trim empty arrays
+	//====================================================================================================
+	@Test
+	public void testTrimEmptyArrays() throws Exception {
+		UrlEncodingSerializer s = new UrlEncodingSerializer();
+		D t1 = D.create(), t2;
+		String r;
+
+		s.setProperty(SERIALIZER_trimEmptyCollections, false);
+		r = s.serialize(t1);
+		assertEquals("f1=$a()&f2=$a(%00,$o(s2=s2))", r);
+		t2 = p.parse(r, D.class);
+		assertEqualObjects(t1, t2);
+
+		s.setProperty(SERIALIZER_trimEmptyCollections, true);
+		r = s.serialize(t1);
+		assertEquals("f2=$a(%00,$o(s2=s2))", r);
+		t2 = p.parse(r, D.class);
+		assertNull(t2.f1);
+	}
+
+	public static class D {
+		public A[] f1, f2;
+
+		public static D create() {
+			D t = new D();
+			t.f1 = new A[]{};
+			t.f2 = new A[]{null, A.create()};
+			return t;
+		}
+	}
+
+	//====================================================================================================
+	// @BeanProperty.properties annotation.
+	//====================================================================================================
+	@Test
+	public void testBeanPropertyProperies() throws Exception {
+		UrlEncodingSerializer s = UrlEncodingSerializer.DEFAULT;
+		UrlEncodingSerializer ss = UrlEncodingSerializer.DEFAULT_SIMPLE;
+		String ue = ss.serialize(new E1());
+		assertEquals("x1=(f1=1)&x2=(f1=1)&x3=((f1=1))&x4=((f1=1))&x5=((f1=1))&x6=((f1=1))", ue);
+		ue = s.serialize(new E1());
+		assertEquals("x1=$o(f1=$n(1))&x2=$o(f1=$n(1))&x3=$a($o(f1=$n(1)))&x4=$a($o(f1=$n(1)))&x5=$a($o(f1=$n(1)))&x6=$a($o(f1=$n(1)))", ue);
+	}
+
+	public static class E1 {
+		@BeanProperty(properties="f1") public E2 x1 = new E2();
+		@BeanProperty(properties="f1") public Map<String,Integer> x2 = new LinkedHashMap<String,Integer>() {{
+			put("f1",1); put("f2",2);
+		}};
+		@BeanProperty(properties="f1") public E2[] x3 = {new E2()};
+		@BeanProperty(properties="f1") public List<E2> x4 = new LinkedList<E2>() {{
+			add(new E2());
+		}};
+		@BeanProperty(properties="f1") public ObjectMap[] x5 = {new ObjectMap().append("f1",1).append("f2",2)};
+		@BeanProperty(properties="f1") public List<ObjectMap> x6 = new LinkedList<ObjectMap>() {{
+			add(new ObjectMap().append("f1",1).append("f2",2));
+		}};
+	}
+
+	public static class E2 {
+		public int f1 = 1;
+		public int f2 = 2;
+	}
+
+	//====================================================================================================
+	// @BeanProperty.properties annotation on list of beans.
+	//====================================================================================================
+	@Test
+	public void testBeanPropertyPropertiesOnListOfBeans() throws Exception {
+		UrlEncodingSerializer s = UrlEncodingSerializer.DEFAULT;
+		List<F> l = new LinkedList<F>();
+		F t = new F();
+		t.x1.add(new F());
+		l.add(t);
+		ObjectMap m = new ObjectMap().append("t", l);
+		String xml = s.serialize(m);
+		assertEquals("t=$a($o(x1=$a($o(x2=$n(2))),x2=$n(2)))", xml);
+		xml = s.serialize(l);
+		assertEquals("$n(0)=$o(x1=$a($o(x2=$n(2))),x2=$n(2))", xml);
+	}
+
+	public static class F {
+		@BeanProperty(properties="x2") public List<F> x1 = new LinkedList<F>();
+		public int x2 = 2;
+	}
+
+	//====================================================================================================
+	// Test URIAttr - Test that URLs and URIs are serialized and parsed correctly.
+	//====================================================================================================
+	@Test
+	public void testURIAttr() throws Exception {
+		UrlEncodingSerializer s = UrlEncodingSerializer.DEFAULT;
+		UrlEncodingParser p = UrlEncodingParser.DEFAULT;
+
+		G t = new G();
+		t.uri = new URI("http://uri");
+		t.f1 = new URI("http://f1");
+		t.f2 = new URL("http://f2");
+
+		String r = s.serialize(t);
+		t = p.parse(r, G.class);
+		assertEquals("http://uri", t.uri.toString());
+		assertEquals("http://f1", t.f1.toString());
+		assertEquals("http://f2", t.f2.toString());
+	}
+
+	public static class G {
+		public URI uri;
+		public URI f1;
+		public URL f2;
+	}
+
+	//====================================================================================================
+	// Test URIs with URI_CONTEXT and URI_AUTHORITY
+	//====================================================================================================
+	@Test
+	public void testUris() throws Exception {
+		WriterSerializer s = new UrlEncodingSerializer();
+		TestURI t = new TestURI();
+		String r;
+		String expected = "";
+
+		s.setProperty(SERIALIZER_relativeUriBase, null);
+		r = s.serialize(t);
+		expected = ""
+			+"f0=f0/x0"
+			+"&f1=f1/x1"
+			+"&f2=/f2/x2"
+			+"&f3=http://www.apache.org/f3/x3"
+			+"&f4=f4/x4"
+			+"&f5=/f5/x5"
+			+"&f6=http://www.apache.org/f6/x6"
+			+"&f7=http://www.apache.org/f7/x7"
+			+"&f8=f8/x8"
+			+"&f9=f9/x9"
+			+"&fa=http://www.apache.org/fa/xa%23MY_LABEL"
+			+"&fb=http://www.apache.org/fb/xb?label=MY_LABEL%26foo=bar"
+			+"&fc=http://www.apache.org/fc/xc?foo=bar%26label=MY_LABEL"
+			+"&fd=http://www.apache.org/fd/xd?label2=MY_LABEL%26foo=bar"
+			+"&fe=http://www.apache.org/fe/xe?foo=bar%26label2=MY_LABEL";
+		assertEquals(expected, r);
+
+		s.setProperty(SERIALIZER_relativeUriBase, "");  // Same as null.
+		r = s.serialize(t);
+		assertEquals(expected, r);
+
+		s.setProperty(SERIALIZER_relativeUriBase, "/cr");
+		r = s.serialize(t);
+		expected = ""
+			+"f0=/cr/f0/x0"
+			+"&f1=/cr/f1/x1"
+			+"&f2=/f2/x2"
+			+"&f3=http://www.apache.org/f3/x3"
+			+"&f4=/cr/f4/x4"
+			+"&f5=/f5/x5"
+			+"&f6=http://www.apache.org/f6/x6"
+			+"&f7=http://www.apache.org/f7/x7"
+			+"&f8=/cr/f8/x8"
+			+"&f9=/cr/f9/x9"
+			+"&fa=http://www.apache.org/fa/xa%23MY_LABEL"
+			+"&fb=http://www.apache.org/fb/xb?label=MY_LABEL%26foo=bar"
+			+"&fc=http://www.apache.org/fc/xc?foo=bar%26label=MY_LABEL"
+			+"&fd=http://www.apache.org/fd/xd?label2=MY_LABEL%26foo=bar"
+			+"&fe=http://www.apache.org/fe/xe?foo=bar%26label2=MY_LABEL";
+		assertEquals(expected, r);
+
+		s.setProperty(SERIALIZER_relativeUriBase, "/cr/");  // Same as above
+		r = s.serialize(t);
+		assertEquals(expected, r);
+
+		s.setProperty(SERIALIZER_relativeUriBase, "/");
+		r = s.serialize(t);
+		expected = ""
+			+"f0=/f0/x0"
+			+"&f1=/f1/x1"
+			+"&f2=/f2/x2"
+			+"&f3=http://www.apache.org/f3/x3"
+			+"&f4=/f4/x4"
+			+"&f5=/f5/x5"
+			+"&f6=http://www.apache.org/f6/x6"
+			+"&f7=http://www.apache.org/f7/x7"
+			+"&f8=/f8/x8"
+			+"&f9=/f9/x9"
+			+"&fa=http://www.apache.org/fa/xa%23MY_LABEL"
+			+"&fb=http://www.apache.org/fb/xb?label=MY_LABEL%26foo=bar"
+			+"&fc=http://www.apache.org/fc/xc?foo=bar%26label=MY_LABEL"
+			+"&fd=http://www.apache.org/fd/xd?label2=MY_LABEL%26foo=bar"
+			+"&fe=http://www.apache.org/fe/xe?foo=bar%26label2=MY_LABEL";
+		assertEquals(expected, r);
+
+		s.setProperty(SERIALIZER_relativeUriBase, null);
+
+		s.setProperty(SERIALIZER_absolutePathUriBase, "http://foo");
+		r = s.serialize(t);
+		expected = ""
+			+"f0=f0/x0"
+			+"&f1=f1/x1"
+			+"&f2=http://foo/f2/x2"
+			+"&f3=http://www.apache.org/f3/x3"
+			+"&f4=f4/x4"
+			+"&f5=http://foo/f5/x5"
+			+"&f6=http://www.apache.org/f6/x6"
+			+"&f7=http://www.apache.org/f7/x7"
+			+"&f8=f8/x8"
+			+"&f9=f9/x9"
+			+"&fa=http://www.apache.org/fa/xa%23MY_LABEL"
+			+"&fb=http://www.apache.org/fb/xb?label=MY_LABEL%26foo=bar"
+			+"&fc=http://www.apache.org/fc/xc?foo=bar%26label=MY_LABEL"
+			+"&fd=http://www.apache.org/fd/xd?label2=MY_LABEL%26foo=bar"
+			+"&fe=http://www.apache.org/fe/xe?foo=bar%26label2=MY_LABEL";
+		assertEquals(expected, r);
+
+		s.setProperty(SERIALIZER_absolutePathUriBase, "http://foo/");
+		r = s.serialize(t);
+		assertEquals(expected, r);
+
+		s.setProperty(SERIALIZER_absolutePathUriBase, "");  // Same as null.
+		r = s.serialize(t);
+		expected = ""
+			+"f0=f0/x0"
+			+"&f1=f1/x1"
+			+"&f2=/f2/x2"
+			+"&f3=http://www.apache.org/f3/x3"
+			+"&f4=f4/x4"
+			+"&f5=/f5/x5"
+			+"&f6=http://www.apache.org/f6/x6"
+			+"&f7=http://www.apache.org/f7/x7"
+			+"&f8=f8/x8"
+			+"&f9=f9/x9"
+			+"&fa=http://www.apache.org/fa/xa%23MY_LABEL"
+			+"&fb=http://www.apache.org/fb/xb?label=MY_LABEL%26foo=bar"
+			+"&fc=http://www.apache.org/fc/xc?foo=bar%26label=MY_LABEL"
+			+"&fd=http://www.apache.org/fd/xd?label2=MY_LABEL%26foo=bar"
+			+"&fe=http://www.apache.org/fe/xe?foo=bar%26label2=MY_LABEL";
+		assertEquals(expected, r);
+	}
+
+	//====================================================================================================
+	// Validate that you cannot update properties on locked serializer.
+	//====================================================================================================
+	@Test
+	public void testLockedSerializer() throws Exception {
+		UrlEncodingSerializer s = new UrlEncodingSerializer().lock();
+		try {
+			s.setProperty(JsonSerializerContext.JSON_simpleMode, true);
+			fail("Locked exception not thrown");
+		} catch (LockedException e) {}
+		try {
+			s.setProperty(SerializerContext.SERIALIZER_addBeanTypeProperties, true);
+			fail("Locked exception not thrown");
+		} catch (LockedException e) {}
+		try {
+			s.setProperty(BeanContext.BEAN_beanMapPutReturnsOldValue, true);
+			fail("Locked exception not thrown");
+		} catch (LockedException e) {}
+	}
+
+	//====================================================================================================
+	// Recursion
+	//====================================================================================================
+	@Test
+	public void testRecursion() throws Exception {
+		WriterSerializer s = new UrlEncodingSerializer();
+
+		R1 r1 = new R1();
+		R2 r2 = new R2();
+		R3 r3 = new R3();
+		r1.r2 = r2;
+		r2.r3 = r3;
+		r3.r1 = r1;
+
+		// No recursion detection
+		try {
+			s.serialize(r1);
+			fail("Exception expected!");
+		} catch (Exception e) {
+			String msg = e.getLocalizedMessage();
+			assertTrue(msg.contains("It's recommended you use the SerializerContext.SERIALIZER_detectRecursions setting to help locate the loop."));
+		}
+
+		// Recursion detection, no ignore
+		s.setProperty(SERIALIZER_detectRecursions, true);
+		try {
+			s.serialize(r1);
+			fail("Exception expected!");
+		} catch (Exception e) {
+			String msg = e.getLocalizedMessage();
+			assertTrue(msg.contains("[0]root:org.apache.juneau.urlencoding.Common_UrlEncodingTest$R1"));
+			assertTrue(msg.contains("->[1]r2:org.apache.juneau.urlencoding.Common_UrlEncodingTest$R2"));
+			assertTrue(msg.contains("->[2]r3:org.apache.juneau.urlencoding.Common_UrlEncodingTest$R3"));
+			assertTrue(msg.contains("->[3]r1:org.apache.juneau.urlencoding.Common_UrlEncodingTest$R1"));
+		}
+
+		s.setProperty(SERIALIZER_ignoreRecursions, true);
+		assertEquals("name=foo&r2=$o(name=bar,r3=$o(name=baz))", s.serialize(r1));
+	}
+
+	public static class R1 {
+		public String name = "foo";
+		public R2 r2;
+	}
+	public static class R2 {
+		public String name = "bar";
+		public R3 r3;
+	}
+	public static class R3 {
+		public String name = "baz";
+		public R1 r1;
+	}
+}

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-juneau/blob/e4dfdf81/juneau-core-test/src/test/java/org/apache/juneau/urlencoding/DTOs.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/juneau-core-test/src/test/java/org/apache/juneau/urlencoding/DTOs.java b/juneau-core-test/src/test/java/org/apache/juneau/urlencoding/DTOs.java
new file mode 100755
index 0000000..6e3728f
--- /dev/null
+++ b/juneau-core-test/src/test/java/org/apache/juneau/urlencoding/DTOs.java
@@ -0,0 +1,141 @@
+// ***************************************************************************************************************************
+// * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file *
+// * distributed with this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file        *
+// * to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance            *
+// * with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at                                                              *
+// *                                                                                                                         *
+// *  http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0                                                                             *
+// *                                                                                                                         *
+// * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software distributed under the License is distributed on an  *
+// * "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the        *
+// * specific language governing permissions and limitations under the License.                                              *
+// ***************************************************************************************************************************
+package org.apache.juneau.urlencoding;
+
+import java.util.*;
+
+import org.apache.juneau.annotation.*;
+import org.apache.juneau.urlencoding.annotation.*;
+
+@SuppressWarnings("javadoc")
+public class DTOs {
+
+	@Bean(sort=true)
+	public static class A {
+		public String a;
+		public int b;
+		public boolean c;
+
+		public static A create() {
+			A t = new A();
+			t.a = "a";
+			t.b = 1;
+			t.c = true;
+			return t;
+		}
+
+	}
+
+	@SuppressWarnings("serial")
+	@Bean(sort=true)
+	public static class B {
+		public String[] f01;
+		public List<String> f02;
+		public int[] f03;
+		public List<Integer> f04;
+		public String[][] f05;
+		public List<String[]> f06;
+		public A[] f07;
+		public List<A> f08;
+		public A[][] f09;
+		public List<List<A>> f10;
+
+		private String[] f11;
+		private List<String> f12;
+		private int[] f13;
+		private List<Integer> f14;
+		private String[][] f15;
+		private List<String[]> f16;
+		private A[] f17;
+		private List<A> f18;
+		private A[][] f19;
+		private List<List<A>> f20;
+
+		public String[] getF11() { return f11; }
+		public List<String> getF12() { return f12; }
+		public int[] getF13() { return f13; }
+		public List<Integer> getF14() { return f14; }
+		public String[][] getF15() { return f15; }
+		public List<String[]> getF16() { return f16; }
+		public A[] getF17() { return f17; }
+		public List<A> getF18() { return f18; }
+		public A[][] getF19() { return f19; }
+		public List<List<A>> getF20() { return f20; }
+
+		public void setF11(String[] f11) { this.f11 = f11; }
+		public void setF12(List<String> f12) { this.f12 = f12; }
+		public void setF13(int[] f13) { this.f13 = f13; }
+		public void setF14(List<Integer> f14) { this.f14 = f14; }
+		public void setF15(String[][] f15) { this.f15 = f15; }
+		public void setF16(List<String[]> f16) { this.f16 = f16; }
+		public void setF17(A[] f17) { this.f17 = f17; }
+		public void setF18(List<A> f18) { this.f18 = f18; }
+		public void setF19(A[][] f19) { this.f19 = f19; }
+		public void setF20(List<List<A>> f20) { this.f20 = f20; }
+
+		static B create() {
+			B t = new B();
+			t.f01 = new String[]{"a","b"};
+			t.f02 = new ArrayList<String>(){{add("c");add("d");}};
+			t.f03 = new int[]{1,2};
+			t.f04 = new ArrayList<Integer>(){{add(3);add(4);}};
+			t.f05 = new String[][]{{"e","f"},{"g","h"}};
+			t.f06 = new ArrayList<String[]>(){{add(new String[]{"i","j"});add(new String[]{"k","l"});}};
+			t.f07 = new A[]{A.create(),A.create()};
+			t.f08 = new ArrayList<A>(){{add(A.create());add(A.create());}};
+			t.f09 = new A[][]{{A.create()},{A.create()}};
+			t.f10 = new ArrayList<List<A>>(){{add(Arrays.asList(A.create()));add(Arrays.asList(A.create()));}};
+			t.setF11(new String[]{"a","b"});
+			t.setF12(new ArrayList<String>(){{add("c");add("d");}});
+			t.setF13(new int[]{1,2});
+			t.setF14(new ArrayList<Integer>(){{add(3);add(4);}});
+			t.setF15(new String[][]{{"e","f"},{"g","h"}});
+			t.setF16(new ArrayList<String[]>(){{add(new String[]{"i","j"});add(new String[]{"k","l"});}});
+			t.setF17(new A[]{A.create(),A.create()});
+			t.setF18(new ArrayList<A>(){{add(A.create());add(A.create());}});
+			t.setF19(new A[][]{{A.create()},{A.create()}});
+			t.setF20(new ArrayList<List<A>>(){{add(Arrays.asList(A.create()));add(Arrays.asList(A.create()));}});
+			return t;
+		}
+	}
+
+	@UrlEncoding(expandedParams=true)
+	@Bean(sort=true)
+	public static class C extends B {
+		@SuppressWarnings("serial")
+		static C create() {
+			C t = new C();
+			t.f01 = new String[]{"a","b"};
+			t.f02 = new ArrayList<String>(){{add("c");add("d");}};
+			t.f03 = new int[]{1,2};
+			t.f04 = new ArrayList<Integer>(){{add(3);add(4);}};
+			t.f05 = new String[][]{{"e","f"},{"g","h"}};
+			t.f06 = new ArrayList<String[]>(){{add(new String[]{"i","j"});add(new String[]{"k","l"});}};
+			t.f07 = new A[]{A.create(),A.create()};
+			t.f08 = new ArrayList<A>(){{add(A.create());add(A.create());}};
+			t.f09 = new A[][]{{A.create()},{A.create()}};
+			t.f10 = new ArrayList<List<A>>(){{add(Arrays.asList(A.create()));add(Arrays.asList(A.create()));}};
+			t.setF11(new String[]{"a","b"});
+			t.setF12(new ArrayList<String>(){{add("c");add("d");}});
+			t.setF13(new int[]{1,2});
+			t.setF14(new ArrayList<Integer>(){{add(3);add(4);}});
+			t.setF15(new String[][]{{"e","f"},{"g","h"}});
+			t.setF16(new ArrayList<String[]>(){{add(new String[]{"i","j"});add(new String[]{"k","l"});}});
+			t.setF17(new A[]{A.create(),A.create()});
+			t.setF18(new ArrayList<A>(){{add(A.create());add(A.create());}});
+			t.setF19(new A[][]{{A.create()},{A.create()}});
+			t.setF20(new ArrayList<List<A>>(){{add(Arrays.asList(A.create()));add(Arrays.asList(A.create()));}});
+			return t;
+		}
+	}
+}

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-juneau/blob/e4dfdf81/juneau-core-test/src/test/java/org/apache/juneau/urlencoding/UonParserReaderTest.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/juneau-core-test/src/test/java/org/apache/juneau/urlencoding/UonParserReaderTest.java b/juneau-core-test/src/test/java/org/apache/juneau/urlencoding/UonParserReaderTest.java
new file mode 100755
index 0000000..ee37cb0
--- /dev/null
+++ b/juneau-core-test/src/test/java/org/apache/juneau/urlencoding/UonParserReaderTest.java
@@ -0,0 +1,218 @@
+// ***************************************************************************************************************************
+// * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file *
+// * distributed with this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file        *
+// * to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance            *
+// * with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at                                                              *
+// *                                                                                                                         *
+// *  http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0                                                                             *
+// *                                                                                                                         *
+// * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software distributed under the License is distributed on an  *
+// * "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the        *
+// * specific language governing permissions and limitations under the License.                                              *
+// ***************************************************************************************************************************
+package org.apache.juneau.urlencoding;
+
+import static org.junit.Assert.*;
+
+import java.io.*;
+
+import org.apache.juneau.*;
+import org.junit.*;
+
+@SuppressWarnings({"javadoc","resource"})
+public class UonParserReaderTest {
+
+	//====================================================================================================
+	// Basic tests
+	//====================================================================================================
+	@Test
+	public void testBasic() throws Exception {
+
+		UonReader r;
+		String s, in;
+		r = r("f", true);
+		assertEquals('f', r.read());
+		assertEquals(-1, r.read());
+
+		r = r("%66", true);
+		assertEquals('f', r.read());
+		assertEquals(-1, r.read());
+
+		r = r("%7D", true);
+		assertEquals('}', r.read());
+		assertEquals(-1, r.read());
+
+		r = r("%7D%7D", true);
+		assertEquals('}', r.read());
+		assertEquals('}', r.read());
+		assertEquals(-1, r.read());
+
+		r = r("%00%00", true);
+		r.mark();
+		assertEquals(0, r.read());
+		assertEquals(0, r.read());
+		assertEquals("\u0000\u0000", r.getMarked());
+		assertEquals(-1, r.read());
+
+		in = escape("\u0080");
+		r = r(in, true);
+		assertEquals('\u0080', r.read());
+		assertEquals(-1, r.read());
+
+		in = escape("\u0800");
+		r = r(in, true);
+		assertEquals('\u0800', r.read());
+		assertEquals(-1, r.read());
+
+		in = escape("\uffff");
+		r = r(in, true);
+		assertEquals('\uffff', r.read());
+		assertEquals(-1, r.read());
+
+		// 2-byte codepoint
+		s = "¢";
+		r = r(escape(s), true);
+		assertEquals(s.codePointAt(0), r.read());
+		assertEquals(-1, r.read());
+
+		// 3-byte codepoint
+		s = "€";
+		r = r(escape(s), true);
+		assertEquals(s.codePointAt(0), r.readCodePoint());
+		assertEquals(-1, r.read());
+
+		// 4-byte codepoint
+		s = "𤭢";
+		r = r(escape(s), true);
+		assertEquals(s.codePointAt(0), r.readCodePoint());
+		assertEquals(-1, r.read());
+
+		s = "𤭢𤭢";
+		r = r(escape(s), true);
+		assertEquals(s.codePointAt(0), r.readCodePoint());
+		assertEquals(s.codePointAt(2), r.readCodePoint());
+		assertEquals(-1, r.read());
+
+		// Multiple codepoints
+		s = "¢€𤭢¢€𤭢";
+		in = escape(s);
+		r = r(in, true);
+		assertEquals(s.codePointAt(0), r.readCodePoint());
+		assertEquals(s.codePointAt(1), r.readCodePoint());
+		assertEquals(s.codePointAt(2), r.readCodePoint());
+		assertEquals(s.codePointAt(4), r.readCodePoint());
+		assertEquals(s.codePointAt(5), r.readCodePoint());
+		assertEquals(s.codePointAt(6), r.readCodePoint());
+		assertEquals(-1, r.read());
+
+		// Multiple codepoints read in small chunks.
+		s = "¢€𤭢¢€𤭢";
+		String s2;
+		int i;
+		in = escape(s);
+		r = r(in, true);
+		char[] buff = new char[2];
+		i = r.read(buff, 0, buff.length);
+		s2 = new String(buff, 0, i);
+		assertEquals("¢", s2);
+		i = r.read(buff, 0, buff.length);
+		s2 = new String(buff, 0, i);
+		assertEquals("€", s2);
+		i = r.read(buff, 0, buff.length);
+		s2 = new String(buff, 0, i);
+		assertEquals("𤭢", s2);
+		i = r.read(buff, 0, buff.length);
+		s2 = new String(buff, 0, i);
+		assertEquals("¢", s2);
+		i = r.read(buff, 0, buff.length);
+		s2 = new String(buff, 0, i);
+		assertEquals("€", s2);
+		i = r.read(buff, 0, buff.length);
+		s2 = new String(buff, 0, i);
+		assertEquals("𤭢", s2);
+		i = r.read(buff, 0, buff.length);
+		assertEquals(-1, i);
+
+		// Multiple codepoints read in slightly larger chunks.
+		s = "¢€𤭢¢€𤭢";
+		in = escape(s);
+		r = r(in, true);
+		buff = new char[3];
+		i = r.read(buff, 0, buff.length);
+		s2 = new String(buff, 0, i);
+		assertEquals("¢€", s2);
+		i = r.read(buff, 0, buff.length);
+		s2 = new String(buff, 0, i);
+		assertEquals("𤭢", s2);
+		i = r.read(buff, 0, buff.length);
+		s2 = new String(buff, 0, i);
+		assertEquals("¢€", s2);
+		i = r.read(buff, 0, buff.length);
+		s2 = new String(buff, 0, i);
+		assertEquals("𤭢", s2);
+		i = r.read(buff, 0, buff.length);
+		assertEquals(-1, i);
+
+		s = "¢€𤭢¢€𤭢";
+		in = escape(s);
+		r = r(in, true);
+		buff = new char[4];
+		i = r.read(buff, 0, buff.length);
+		s2 = new String(buff, 0, i);
+		assertEquals("¢€𤭢", s2);
+		i = r.read(buff, 0, buff.length);
+		s2 = new String(buff, 0, i);
+		assertEquals("¢€𤭢", s2);
+		i = r.read(buff, 0, buff.length);
+		assertEquals(-1, i);
+
+		// Reader that only returns 1 character at a time;
+		s = "x¢€𤭢x¢€𤭢";
+		in = "x" + escape("¢€𤭢") + "x" + escape("¢€𤭢");
+		r = new UonReader(new SlowStringReader(in), true);
+		assertEquals(s.codePointAt(0), r.readCodePoint());
+		assertEquals(s.codePointAt(1), r.readCodePoint());
+		assertEquals(s.codePointAt(2), r.readCodePoint());
+		assertEquals(s.codePointAt(3), r.readCodePoint());
+		assertEquals(s.codePointAt(5), r.readCodePoint());
+		assertEquals(s.codePointAt(6), r.readCodePoint());
+		assertEquals(s.codePointAt(7), r.readCodePoint());
+		assertEquals(s.codePointAt(8), r.readCodePoint());
+		assertEquals(-1, r.readCodePoint());
+	}
+
+	private String escape(String s) throws UnsupportedEncodingException {
+		StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
+		byte[] b = s.getBytes("UTF-8");
+		for (int i = 0; i < b.length; i++)
+			sb.append('%').append(TestUtils.toHex(b[i]));
+		return sb.toString();
+	}
+
+	private UonReader r(String in, boolean decodeChars) {
+		return new UonReader(in, decodeChars);
+	}
+
+	private static class SlowStringReader extends Reader {
+
+		String s;
+		int i = 0;
+
+		SlowStringReader(String s) {
+			this.s = s;
+		}
+
+		@Override /* Reader */
+		public int read(char[] cbuf, int off, int len) throws IOException {
+			if (i >= s.length())
+				return -1;
+			cbuf[off] = s.charAt(i++);
+			return 1;
+		}
+
+		@Override /* Reader */
+		public void close() throws IOException {
+		}
+
+	}
+}
\ No newline at end of file

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-juneau/blob/e4dfdf81/juneau-core-test/src/test/java/org/apache/juneau/urlencoding/UonParserTest.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/juneau-core-test/src/test/java/org/apache/juneau/urlencoding/UonParserTest.java b/juneau-core-test/src/test/java/org/apache/juneau/urlencoding/UonParserTest.java
new file mode 100755
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--- /dev/null
+++ b/juneau-core-test/src/test/java/org/apache/juneau/urlencoding/UonParserTest.java
@@ -0,0 +1,542 @@
+// ***************************************************************************************************************************
+// * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file *
+// * distributed with this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file        *
+// * to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance            *
+// * with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at                                                              *
+// *                                                                                                                         *
+// *  http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0                                                                             *
+// *                                                                                                                         *
+// * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software distributed under the License is distributed on an  *
+// * "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the        *
+// * specific language governing permissions and limitations under the License.                                              *
+// ***************************************************************************************************************************
+package org.apache.juneau.urlencoding;
+
+import static org.junit.Assert.*;
+
+import java.util.*;
+
+import org.apache.juneau.parser.*;
+import org.junit.*;
+
+@SuppressWarnings({"rawtypes","unchecked","javadoc"})
+public class UonParserTest {
+
+	static UonParser p = UonParser.DEFAULT;
+	static UonParser pe = UonParser.DEFAULT_DECODING;
+
+	//====================================================================================================
+	// Basic test
+	//====================================================================================================
+	@Test
+	public void testBasic() throws Exception {
+
+		String t;
+		Map m;
+
+		// Simple string
+		// Top level
+		t = "a";
+		assertEquals("a", p.parse(t, String.class));
+		assertEquals("a", p.parse(t, Object.class));
+		assertEquals("a", pe.parse(t, String.class));
+		t = "(a)";
+		assertEquals("a", p.parse(t, String.class));
+		assertEquals("a", p.parse(t, Object.class));
+		t = "$s(a)";
+		assertEquals("a", p.parse(t, String.class));
+
+		// 2nd level
+		t = "$o(a=a)";
+		assertEquals("a", p.parse(t, Map.class).get("a"));
+		assertEquals("a", pe.parse(t, Map.class).get("a"));
+
+		t = "(a=a)";
+		assertEquals("a", p.parse(t, Map.class).get("a"));
+		assertEquals("a", pe.parse(t, Map.class).get("a"));
+
+		// Simple map
+		// Top level
+		t = "$o(a=b,c=$n(123),d=$b(false),e=$b(true),f=%00)";
+		m = p.parse(t, Map.class);
+		assertEquals("b", m.get("a"));
+		assertTrue(m.get("c") instanceof Number);
+		assertEquals(123, m.get("c"));
+		assertTrue(m.get("d") instanceof Boolean);
+		assertEquals(Boolean.FALSE, m.get("d"));
+		assertTrue(m.get("e") instanceof Boolean);
+		assertEquals(Boolean.TRUE, m.get("e"));
+		m = pe.parse(t, Map.class);
+		assertNull(m.get("f"));
+
+		t = "(a=true)";
+		m = p.parseMap(t, HashMap.class, String.class, Boolean.class);
+		assertTrue(m.get("a") instanceof Boolean);
+		assertEquals("true", m.get("a").toString());
+
+		// null
+		// Top level
+		t = "%00";
+		assertEquals("%00", p.parse(t, Object.class));
+		assertNull(pe.parse(t, Object.class));
+
+		// 2nd level
+		t = "$o(%00=%00)";
+		m = p.parse(t, Map.class);
+		assertEquals("%00", m.get("%00"));
+		m = pe.parse(t, Map.class);
+		assertTrue(m.containsKey(null));
+		assertNull(m.get(null));
+
+		t = "(%00=%00)";
+		m = p.parse(t, Map.class);
+		assertEquals("%00", m.get("%00"));
+		m = pe.parse(t, Map.class);
+		assertTrue(m.containsKey(null));
+		assertNull(m.get(null));
+
+		t = "(\u0000=\u0000)";
+		m = p.parse(t, Map.class);
+		assertTrue(m.containsKey(null));
+		assertNull(m.get(null));
+		m = pe.parse(t, Map.class);
+		assertTrue(m.containsKey(null));
+		assertNull(m.get(null));
+
+		// 3rd level
+		t = "$o(%00=$o(%00=%00))";
+		m = p.parse(t, Map.class);
+		assertEquals("%00", ((Map)m.get("%00")).get("%00"));
+		m = pe.parse(t, Map.class);
+		assertTrue(((Map)m.get(null)).containsKey(null));
+		assertNull(((Map)m.get(null)).get(null));
+
+		// Empty array
+		// Top level
+		t = "$a()";
+		List l = (List)p.parse(t, Object.class);
+		assertTrue(l.isEmpty());
+		t = "()";
+		l = p.parse(t, List.class);
+		assertTrue(l.isEmpty());
+
+		// 2nd level in map
+		t = "$o(x=$a())";
+		m = p.parseMap(t, HashMap.class, String.class, List.class);
+		assertTrue(m.containsKey("x"));
+		assertTrue(((List)m.get("x")).isEmpty());
+		m = (Map)p.parse(t, Object.class);
+		assertTrue(m.containsKey("x"));
+		assertTrue(((List)m.get("x")).isEmpty());
+		t = "(x=())";
+		m = p.parseMap(t, HashMap.class, String.class, List.class);
+		assertTrue(m.containsKey("x"));
+		assertTrue(((List)m.get("x")).isEmpty());
+
+		// Empty 2 dimensional array
+		t = "$a($a())";
+		l = (List)p.parse(t, Object.class);
+		assertTrue(l.size() == 1);
+		l = (List)l.get(0);
+		assertTrue(l.isEmpty());
+		t = "(())";
+		l = p.parseCollection(t, LinkedList.class, List.class);
+		assertTrue(l.size() == 1);
+		l = (List)l.get(0);
+		assertTrue(l.isEmpty());
+
+		// Array containing empty string
+		// Top level
+		t = "$a(())";
+		l = (List)p.parse(t, Object.class);
+		assertTrue(l.size() == 1);
+		assertEquals("", l.get(0));
+		t = "(())";
+		l = p.parseCollection(t, List.class, String.class);
+		assertTrue(l.size() == 1);
+		assertEquals("", l.get(0));
+
+		// 2nd level
+		t = "$o(()=$a(()))";
+		m = (Map)p.parse(t, Object.class);
+		assertEquals("", ((List)m.get("")).get(0));
+		t = "(=(()))";
+		m = p.parseMap(t, HashMap.class, String.class, List.class);
+		assertEquals("", ((List)m.get("")).get(0));
+
+		// Array containing 3 empty strings
+		t = "$a(,,)";
+		l = (List)p.parse(t, Object.class);
+		assertTrue(l.size() == 3);
+		assertEquals("", l.get(0));
+		assertEquals("", l.get(1));
+		assertEquals("", l.get(2));
+		t = "(,,)";
+		l = p.parseCollection(t, List.class, Object.class);
+		assertTrue(l.size() == 3);
+		assertEquals("", l.get(0));
+		assertEquals("", l.get(1));
+		assertEquals("", l.get(2));
+
+		// String containing \u0000
+		// Top level
+		t = "$s(\u0000)";
+		assertEquals("\u0000", p.parse(t, Object.class));
+		t = "(\u0000)";
+		assertEquals("\u0000", p.parse(t, String.class));
+		assertEquals("\u0000", p.parse(t, Object.class));
+
+		// 2nd level
+		t = "$o((\u0000)=(\u0000))";
+		m = (Map)p.parse(t, Object.class);
+		assertTrue(m.size() == 1);
+		assertEquals("\u0000", m.get("\u0000"));
+		t = "((\u0000)=(\u0000))";
+		m = p.parseMap(t, HashMap.class, String.class, String.class);
+		assertTrue(m.size() == 1);
+		assertEquals("\u0000", m.get("\u0000"));
+		m = p.parseMap(t, HashMap.class, String.class, Object.class);
+		assertTrue(m.size() == 1);
+		assertEquals("\u0000", m.get("\u0000"));
+
+		// Boolean
+		// Top level
+		t = "$b(false)";
+		Boolean b = (Boolean)p.parse(t, Object.class);
+		assertEquals(Boolean.FALSE, b);
+		b = p.parse(t, Boolean.class);
+		assertEquals(Boolean.FALSE, b);
+		t = "false";
+		b = p.parse(t, Boolean.class);
+		assertEquals(Boolean.FALSE, b);
+
+		// 2nd level
+		t = "$o(x=$b(false))";
+		m = (Map)p.parse(t, Object.class);
+		assertEquals(Boolean.FALSE, m.get("x"));
+		t = "(x=$b(false))";
+		m = p.parseMap(t, HashMap.class, String.class, Object.class);
+		assertEquals(Boolean.FALSE, m.get("x"));
+		t = "(x=false)";
+		m = p.parseMap(t, HashMap.class, String.class, Boolean.class);
+		assertEquals(Boolean.FALSE, m.get("x"));
+
+		// Number
+		// Top level
+		t = "$n(123)";
+		Integer i = (Integer)p.parse(t, Object.class);
+		assertEquals(123, i.intValue());
+		i = p.parse(t, Integer.class);
+		assertEquals(123, i.intValue());
+		Double d = p.parse(t, Double.class);
+		assertEquals(123, d.intValue());
+		Float f = p.parse(t, Float.class);
+		assertEquals(123, f.intValue());
+		t = "123";
+		i = p.parse(t, Integer.class);
+		assertEquals(123, i.intValue());
+
+		// 2nd level
+		t = "$o(x=$n(123))";
+		m = (Map)p.parse(t, Object.class);
+		assertEquals(123, ((Integer)m.get("x")).intValue());
+		t = "(x=123)";
+		m = p.parseMap(t, HashMap.class, String.class, Number.class);
+		assertEquals(123, ((Integer)m.get("x")).intValue());
+		m = p.parseMap(t, HashMap.class, String.class, Double.class);
+		assertEquals(123, ((Double)m.get("x")).intValue());
+
+		// Unencoded chars
+		// Top level
+		t = "x;/?:@-_.!*'";
+		assertEquals("x;/?:@-_.!*'", p.parse(t, Object.class));
+		assertEquals("x;/?:@-_.!*'", pe.parse(t, Object.class));
+
+		// 2nd level
+		t = "$o(x;/?:@-_.!*'=x;/?:@-_.!*')";
+		m = (Map)p.parse(t, Object.class);
+		assertEquals("x;/?:@-_.!*'", m.get("x;/?:@-_.!*'"));
+		m = p.parseMap(t, HashMap.class, String.class, Object.class);
+		assertEquals("x;/?:@-_.!*'", m.get("x;/?:@-_.!*'"));
+		m = p.parseMap(t, HashMap.class, String.class, String.class);
+		assertEquals("x;/?:@-_.!*'", m.get("x;/?:@-_.!*'"));
+
+		// Encoded chars
+		// Top level
+		t = "x{}|\\^[]`<>#%\"&+";
+		assertEquals("x{}|\\^[]`<>#%\"&+", p.parse(t, Object.class));
+		assertEquals("x{}|\\^[]`<>#%\"&+", p.parse(t, String.class));
+		try {
+			assertEquals("x{}|\\^[]`<>#%\"&+", pe.parse(t, Object.class));
+			fail("Expected parse exception from invalid hex sequence.");
+		} catch (ParseException e) {
+			// Good.
+		}
+		t = "x%7B%7D%7C%5C%5E%5B%5D%60%3C%3E%23%25%22%26%2B";
+		assertEquals("x{}|\\^[]`<>#%\"&+", pe.parse(t, Object.class));
+		assertEquals("x{}|\\^[]`<>#%\"&+", pe.parse(t, String.class));
+
+		// 2nd level
+		t = "$o(x{}|\\^[]`<>#%\"&+=x{}|\\^[]`<>#%\"&+)";
+		m = (Map)p.parse(t, Object.class);
+		assertEquals("x{}|\\^[]`<>#%\"&+", m.get("x{}|\\^[]`<>#%\"&+"));
+		try {
+			m = (Map)pe.parse(t, Object.class);
+			fail("Expected parse exception from invalid hex sequence.");
+		} catch (ParseException e) {
+			// Good.
+		}
+		t = "$o(x%7B%7D%7C%5C%5E%5B%5D%60%3C%3E%23%25%22%26%2B=x%7B%7D%7C%5C%5E%5B%5D%60%3C%3E%23%25%22%26%2B)";
+		m = (Map)pe.parse(t, Object.class);
+		assertEquals("x{}|\\^[]`<>#%\"&+", m.get("x{}|\\^[]`<>#%\"&+"));
+
+		// Special chars
+		// Top level
+		t = "x~$~,~(~)";
+		assertEquals("x$,()", p.parse(t, Object.class));
+		t = "(x~$~,~(~))";
+		assertEquals("x$,()", p.parse(t, Object.class));
+		t = "$s(x~$~,~(~))";
+		assertEquals("x$,()", p.parse(t, Object.class));
+
+		// 2nd level
+		// Note behavior on serializeParams() is different since 2nd-level is top level.
+		t = "$o(x~$~,~(~)=x~$~,~(~))";
+		m = (Map)p.parse(t, Object.class);
+		assertEquals("x$,()", m.get("x$,()"));
+		t = "$o((x~$~,~(~))=(x~$~,~(~)))";
+		m = (Map)p.parse(t, Object.class);
+		assertEquals("x$,()", m.get("x$,()"));
+		t = "$o($s(x~$~,~(~))=$s(x~$~,~(~)))";
+		m = (Map)p.parse(t, Object.class);
+		assertEquals("x$,()", m.get("x$,()"));
+
+		// Equals sign
+		// Gets encoded at top level, and encoded+escaped at 2nd level.
+		// Top level
+		t = "x=";
+		assertEquals("x=", p.parse(t, Object.class));
+		t = "x%3D";
+		assertEquals("x=", pe.parse(t, Object.class));
+
+		// 2nd level
+		t = "$o(x~==x~=)";
+		m = (Map)p.parse(t, Object.class);
+		assertEquals("x=", m.get("x="));
+		t = "$o((x~=)=(x~=))";
+		m = (Map)p.parse(t, Object.class);
+		assertEquals("x=", m.get("x="));
+		t = "$o($s(x~=)=$s(x~=))";
+		m = (Map)p.parse(t, Object.class);
+		assertEquals("x=", m.get("x="));
+		t = "(x~==x~=)";
+		m = p.parseMap(t, HashMap.class, String.class, Object.class);
+		assertEquals("x=", m.get("x="));
+		t = "((x~=)=(x~=))";
+		m = p.parseMap(t, HashMap.class, String.class, Object.class);
+		assertEquals("x=", m.get("x="));
+		t = "($s(x~=)=$s(x~=))";
+		m = p.parseMap(t, HashMap.class, String.class, Object.class);
+		assertEquals("x=", m.get("x="));
+		t = "$o(x~%3D=x~%3D)";
+		m = (Map)pe.parse(t, Object.class);
+		assertEquals("x=", m.get("x="));
+		t = "$o((x~%3D)=(x~%3D))";
+		m = (Map)pe.parse(t, Object.class);
+		assertEquals("x=", m.get("x="));
+		t = "$o($s(x~%3D)=$s(x~%3D))";
+		m = (Map)pe.parse(t, Object.class);
+		assertEquals("x=", m.get("x="));
+		t = "(x~%3D=x~%3D)";
+		m = pe.parseMap(t, HashMap.class, String.class, Object.class);
+		assertEquals("x=", m.get("x="));
+		t = "((x~%3D)=(x~%3D))";
+		m = pe.parseMap(t, HashMap.class, String.class, Object.class);
+		assertEquals("x=", m.get("x="));
+		t = "($s(x~%3D)=$s(x~%3D))";
+		m = pe.parseMap(t, HashMap.class, String.class, Object.class);
+		assertEquals("x=", m.get("x="));
+
+		// String starting with parenthesis
+		// Top level
+		t = "~(~)";
+		assertEquals("()", p.parse(t, Object.class));
+		assertEquals("()", p.parse(t, String.class));
+
+		t = "(~(~))";
+		assertEquals("()", p.parse(t, Object.class));
+		assertEquals("()", p.parse(t, String.class));
+		t = "$s(~(~))";
+		assertEquals("()", p.parse(t, Object.class));
+		assertEquals("()", p.parse(t, String.class));
+
+		// 2nd level
+		t = "$o((~(~))=(~(~)))";
+		m = (Map)p.parse(t, Object.class);
+		assertEquals("()", m.get("()"));
+		t = "((~(~))=(~(~)))";
+		m = p.parseMap(t, HashMap.class, String.class, Object.class);
+		assertEquals("()", m.get("()"));
+		t = "($s(~(~))=$s(~(~)))";
+		m = p.parseMap(t, HashMap.class, String.class, Object.class);
+		assertEquals("()", m.get("()"));
+
+		// String starting with $
+		// Top level
+		t = "($a)";
+		assertEquals("$a", p.parse(t, Object.class));
+		t = "($a)";
+		assertEquals("$a", p.parse(t, Object.class));
+
+		// 2nd level
+		t = "$o(($a)=($a))";
+		m = (Map)p.parse(t, Object.class);
+		assertEquals("$a", m.get("$a"));
+		t = "(($a)=($a))";
+		m = p.parseMap(t, HashMap.class, String.class, Object.class);
+		assertEquals("$a", m.get("$a"));
+
+		// Blank string
+		// Top level
+		t = "";
+		assertEquals("", p.parse(t, Object.class));
+		assertEquals("", pe.parse(t, Object.class));
+
+		// 2nd level
+		t = "$o(=)";
+		m = (Map)p.parse(t, Object.class);
+		assertEquals("", m.get(""));
+		t = "(=)";
+		m = p.parseMap(t, HashMap.class, String.class, Object.class);
+		assertEquals("", m.get(""));
+
+		// 3rd level
+		t = "$o(=$o(=))";
+		m = (Map)p.parse(t, Object.class);
+		assertEquals("", ((Map)m.get("")).get(""));
+		t = "(=(=))";
+		m = p.parseMap(t, HashMap.class, String.class, HashMap.class);
+		assertEquals("", ((Map)m.get("")).get(""));
+
+		// Newline character
+		// Top level
+		t = "(%0A)";
+		assertEquals("\n", pe.parse(t, Object.class));
+		assertEquals("%0A", p.parse(t, Object.class));
+
+		// 2nd level
+		t = "$o((%0A)=(%0A))";
+		m = (Map)pe.parse(t, Object.class);
+		assertEquals("\n", m.get("\n"));
+		m = (Map)p.parse(t, Object.class);
+		assertEquals("%0A", m.get("%0A"));
+
+		// 3rd level
+		t = "$o((%0A)=$o((%0A)=(%0A)))";
+		m = (Map)pe.parse(t, Object.class);
+		assertEquals("\n", ((Map)m.get("\n")).get("\n"));
+	}
+
+	//====================================================================================================
+	// Unicode character test
+	//====================================================================================================
+	@Test
+	public void testUnicodeChars() throws Exception {
+		String t;
+		Map m;
+
+		// 2-byte UTF-8 character
+		// Top level
+		t = "¢";
+		assertEquals("¢", p.parse(t, Object.class));
+		assertEquals("¢", p.parse(t, String.class));
+		t = "%C2%A2";
+		assertEquals("¢", pe.parse(t, Object.class));
+		assertEquals("¢", pe.parse(t, String.class));
+
+		// 2nd level
+		t = "$o(¢=¢)";
+		m = (Map)p.parse(t, Object.class);
+		assertEquals("¢", m.get("¢"));
+		t = "$o(%C2%A2=%C2%A2)";
+		m = (Map)pe.parse(t, Object.class);
+		assertEquals("¢", m.get("¢"));
+
+		// 3rd level
+		t = "$o(¢=$o(¢=¢))";
+		m = (Map)p.parse(t, Object.class);
+		assertEquals("¢", ((Map)m.get("¢")).get("¢"));
+		t = "$o(%C2%A2=$o(%C2%A2=%C2%A2))";
+		m = (Map)pe.parse(t, Object.class);
+		assertEquals("¢", ((Map)m.get("¢")).get("¢"));
+
+		// 3-byte UTF-8 character
+		// Top level
+		t = "€";
+		assertEquals("€", p.parse(t, Object.class));
+		assertEquals("€", p.parse(t, String.class));
+		t = "%E2%82%AC";
+		assertEquals("€", pe.parse(t, Object.class));
+		assertEquals("€", pe.parse(t, String.class));
+
+		// 2nd level
+		t = "$o(€=€)";
+		m = (Map)p.parse(t, Object.class);
+		assertEquals("€", m.get("€"));
+		t = "$o(%E2%82%AC=%E2%82%AC)";
+		m = (Map)pe.parse(t, Object.class);
+		assertEquals("€", m.get("€"));
+
+		// 3rd level
+		t = "$o(€=$o(€=€))";
+		m = (Map)p.parse(t, Object.class);
+		assertEquals("€", ((Map)m.get("€")).get("€"));
+		t = "$o(%E2%82%AC=$o(%E2%82%AC=%E2%82%AC))";
+		m = (Map)pe.parse(t, Object.class);
+		assertEquals("€", ((Map)m.get("€")).get("€"));
+
+		// 4-byte UTF-8 character
+		// Top level
+		t = "𤭢";
+		assertEquals("𤭢", p.parse(t, Object.class));
+		assertEquals("𤭢", p.parse(t, String.class));
+		t = "%F0%A4%AD%A2";
+		assertEquals("𤭢", pe.parse(t, Object.class));
+		assertEquals("𤭢", pe.parse(t, String.class));
+
+		// 2nd level
+		t = "$o(𤭢=𤭢)";
+		m = (Map)p.parse(t, Object.class);
+		assertEquals("𤭢", m.get("𤭢"));
+		t = "$o(%F0%A4%AD%A2=%F0%A4%AD%A2)";
+		m = (Map)pe.parse(t, Object.class);
+		assertEquals("𤭢", m.get("𤭢"));
+
+		// 3rd level
+		t = "$o(𤭢=$o(𤭢=𤭢))";
+		m = (Map)p.parse(t, Object.class);
+		assertEquals("𤭢", ((Map)m.get("𤭢")).get("𤭢"));
+		t = "$o(%F0%A4%AD%A2=$o(%F0%A4%AD%A2=%F0%A4%AD%A2))";
+		m = (Map)pe.parse(t, Object.class);
+		assertEquals("𤭢", ((Map)m.get("𤭢")).get("𤭢"));
+	}
+
+	//====================================================================================================
+	// Test simple bean
+	//====================================================================================================
+	@Test
+	public void testSimpleBean() throws Exception {
+		UonParser p = UonParser.DEFAULT;
+		A t;
+
+		String s = "(f1=foo,f2=123)";
+		t = p.parse(s, A.class);
+		assertEquals("foo", t.f1);
+		assertEquals(123, t.f2);
+	}
+
+	public static class A {
+		public String f1;
+		public int f2;
+	}
+}
\ No newline at end of file

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-juneau/blob/e4dfdf81/juneau-core-test/src/test/java/org/apache/juneau/urlencoding/UonSerializerTest.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/juneau-core-test/src/test/java/org/apache/juneau/urlencoding/UonSerializerTest.java b/juneau-core-test/src/test/java/org/apache/juneau/urlencoding/UonSerializerTest.java
new file mode 100755
index 0000000..3787f90
--- /dev/null
+++ b/juneau-core-test/src/test/java/org/apache/juneau/urlencoding/UonSerializerTest.java
@@ -0,0 +1,461 @@
+// ***************************************************************************************************************************
+// * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file *
+// * distributed with this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file        *
+// * to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance            *
+// * with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at                                                              *
+// *                                                                                                                         *
+// *  http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0                                                                             *
+// *                                                                                                                         *
+// * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software distributed under the License is distributed on an  *
+// * "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the        *
+// * specific language governing permissions and limitations under the License.                                              *
+// ***************************************************************************************************************************
+package org.apache.juneau.urlencoding;
+
+import static org.junit.Assert.*;
+
+import org.apache.juneau.*;
+import org.junit.*;
+
+@SuppressWarnings("javadoc")
+public class UonSerializerTest {
+
+	static UonSerializer s = UonSerializer.DEFAULT_ENCODING;
+	static UonSerializer ss = UonSerializer.DEFAULT_SIMPLE_ENCODING;
+	static UonSerializer su = UonSerializer.DEFAULT;
+	static UonSerializer ssu = UonSerializer.DEFAULT_SIMPLE;
+	static UonSerializer sr = UonSerializer.DEFAULT_READABLE;
+
+
+	//====================================================================================================
+	// Basic test
+	//====================================================================================================
+	@Test
+	public void testBasic() throws Exception {
+
+		Object t;
+
+		// Simple string
+		// Top level
+		t = "a";
+		assertEquals("a", s.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("a", ss.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("a", su.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("a", ssu.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("a", sr.serialize(t));
+
+		// 2nd level
+		t = new ObjectMap("{a:'a'}");
+		assertEquals("$o(a=a)", s.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(a=a)", ss.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$o(a=a)", su.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(a=a)", ssu.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$o(\n\ta=a\n)", sr.serialize(t));
+
+		// Simple map
+		// Top level
+		t = new ObjectMap("{a:'b',c:123,d:false,e:true,f:null}");
+		assertEquals("$o(a=b,c=$n(123),d=$b(false),e=$b(true),f=%00)", s.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(a=b,c=123,d=false,e=true,f=%00)", ss.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$o(a=b,c=$n(123),d=$b(false),e=$b(true),f=\u0000)", su.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(a=b,c=123,d=false,e=true,f=\u0000)", ssu.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$o(\n\ta=b,\n\tc=$n(123),\n\td=$b(false),\n\te=$b(true),\n\tf=\u0000\n)", sr.serialize(t));
+
+		// 2nd level
+		t = new ObjectMap("{a:{a:'b',c:123,d:false,e:true,f:null}}");
+		assertEquals("$o(a=$o(a=b,c=$n(123),d=$b(false),e=$b(true),f=%00))", s.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(a=(a=b,c=123,d=false,e=true,f=%00))", ss.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$o(a=$o(a=b,c=$n(123),d=$b(false),e=$b(true),f=\u0000))", su.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(a=(a=b,c=123,d=false,e=true,f=\u0000))", ssu.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$o(\n\ta=$o(\n\t\ta=b,\n\t\tc=$n(123),\n\t\td=$b(false),\n\t\te=$b(true),\n\t\tf=\u0000\n\t)\n)", sr.serialize(t));
+
+		// Simple map with primitives as literals
+		t = new ObjectMap("{a:'b',c:'123',d:'false',e:'true',f:'null'}");
+		assertEquals("$o(a=b,c=123,d=false,e=true,f=null)", s.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(a=b,c=123,d=false,e=true,f=null)", ss.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$o(a=b,c=123,d=false,e=true,f=null)", su.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(a=b,c=123,d=false,e=true,f=null)", ssu.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$o(\n\ta=b,\n\tc=123,\n\td=false,\n\te=true,\n\tf=null\n)", sr.serialize(t));
+
+		// null
+		// Note that serializeParams is always encoded.
+		// Top level
+		t = null;
+		assertEquals("%00", s.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("%00", ss.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("\u0000", su.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("\u0000", ssu.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("\u0000", sr.serialize(t));
+
+		// 2nd level
+		t = new ObjectMap("{null:null}");
+		assertEquals("$o(%00=%00)", s.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(%00=%00)", ss.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$o(\u0000=\u0000)", su.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(\u0000=\u0000)", ssu.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$o(\n\t\u0000=\u0000\n)", sr.serialize(t));
+
+		// 3rd level
+		t = new ObjectMap("{null:{null:null}}");
+		assertEquals("$o(%00=$o(%00=%00))", s.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(%00=(%00=%00))", ss.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$o(\u0000=$o(\u0000=\u0000))", su.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(\u0000=(\u0000=\u0000))", ssu.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$o(\n\t\u0000=$o(\n\t\t\u0000=\u0000\n\t)\n)", sr.serialize(t));
+
+		// Empty array
+		// Top level
+		t = new String[0];
+		assertEquals("$a()", s.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("()", ss.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$a()", su.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("()", ssu.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$a()", sr.serialize(t));
+
+		// 2nd level in map
+		t = new ObjectMap("{x:[]}");
+		assertEquals("$o(x=$a())", s.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(x=())", ss.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$o(x=$a())", su.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(x=())", ssu.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$o(\n\tx=$a()\n)", sr.serialize(t));
+
+		// Empty 2 dimensional array
+		t = new String[1][0];
+		assertEquals("$a($a())", s.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(())", ss.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$a($a())", su.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(())", ssu.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$a(\n\t$a()\n)", sr.serialize(t));
+
+		// Array containing empty string
+		// Top level
+		t = new String[]{""};
+		assertEquals("$a(())", s.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(())", ss.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$a(())", su.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(())", ssu.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$a(\n\t()\n)", sr.serialize(t));
+
+		// 2nd level
+		t = new ObjectMap("{x:['']}");
+		assertEquals("$o(x=$a(()))", s.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(x=(()))", ss.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$o(x=$a(()))", su.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(x=(()))", ssu.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$o(\n\tx=$a(\n\t\t()\n\t)\n)", sr.serialize(t));
+
+		// Array containing 3 empty strings
+		t = new String[]{"","",""};
+		assertEquals("$a(,,)", s.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(,,)", ss.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$a(,,)", su.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(,,)", ssu.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$a(\n\t(),\n\t(),\n\t()\n)", sr.serialize(t));
+
+		// String containing \u0000
+		// Top level
+		t = "\u0000";
+		assertEquals("(%00)", s.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(%00)", ss.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(\u0000)", su.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(\u0000)", ssu.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(\u0000)", sr.serialize(t));
+
+		// 2nd level
+		t = new ObjectMap("{'\u0000':'\u0000'}");
+		assertEquals("$o((%00)=(%00))", s.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("((%00)=(%00))", ss.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$o((\u0000)=(\u0000))", su.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("((\u0000)=(\u0000))", ssu.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$o(\n\t(\u0000)=(\u0000)\n)", sr.serialize(t));
+
+		// Boolean
+		// Top level
+		t = false;
+		assertEquals("$b(false)", s.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("false", ss.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$b(false)", su.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("false", ssu.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$b(false)", sr.serialize(t));
+
+		// 2nd level
+		t = new ObjectMap("{x:false}");
+		assertEquals("$o(x=$b(false))", s.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(x=false)", ss.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$o(x=$b(false))", su.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(x=false)", ssu.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$o(\n\tx=$b(false)\n)", sr.serialize(t));
+
+		// Number
+		// Top level
+		t = 123;
+		assertEquals("$n(123)", s.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("123", ss.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$n(123)", su.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("123", ssu.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$n(123)", sr.serialize(t));
+
+		// 2nd level
+		t = new ObjectMap("{x:123}");
+		assertEquals("$o(x=$n(123))", s.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(x=123)", ss.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$o(x=$n(123))", su.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(x=123)", ssu.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$o(\n\tx=$n(123)\n)", sr.serialize(t));
+
+		// Unencoded chars
+		// Top level
+		t = "x;/?:@-_.!*'";
+		assertEquals("x;/?:@-_.!*'", s.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("x;/?:@-_.!*'", ss.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("x;/?:@-_.!*'", su.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("x;/?:@-_.!*'", ssu.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("x;/?:@-_.!*'", sr.serialize(t));
+
+		// 2nd level
+		t = new ObjectMap("{x:'x;/?:@-_.!*\\''}");
+		assertEquals("$o(x=x;/?:@-_.!*')", s.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(x=x;/?:@-_.!*')", ss.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$o(x=x;/?:@-_.!*')", su.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(x=x;/?:@-_.!*')", ssu.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$o(\n\tx=x;/?:@-_.!*'\n)", sr.serialize(t));
+
+		// Encoded chars
+		// Top level
+		t = "x{}|\\^[]`<>#%\"&+";
+		assertEquals("x%7B%7D%7C%5C%5E%5B%5D%60%3C%3E%23%25%22%26%2B", s.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("x%7B%7D%7C%5C%5E%5B%5D%60%3C%3E%23%25%22%26%2B", ss.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("x{}|\\^[]`<>#%\"&+", su.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("x{}|\\^[]`<>#%\"&+", ssu.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("x{}|\\^[]`<>#%\"&+", sr.serialize(t));
+
+		// 2nd level
+		t = new ObjectMap("{'x{}|\\\\^[]`<>#%\"&+':'x{}|\\\\^[]`<>#%\"&+'}");
+		assertEquals("$o(x%7B%7D%7C%5C%5E%5B%5D%60%3C%3E%23%25%22%26%2B=x%7B%7D%7C%5C%5E%5B%5D%60%3C%3E%23%25%22%26%2B)", s.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(x%7B%7D%7C%5C%5E%5B%5D%60%3C%3E%23%25%22%26%2B=x%7B%7D%7C%5C%5E%5B%5D%60%3C%3E%23%25%22%26%2B)", ss.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$o(x{}|\\^[]`<>#%\"&+=x{}|\\^[]`<>#%\"&+)", su.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(x{}|\\^[]`<>#%\"&+=x{}|\\^[]`<>#%\"&+)", ssu.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$o(\n\tx{}|\\^[]`<>#%\"&+=x{}|\\^[]`<>#%\"&+\n)", sr.serialize(t));
+
+		// Escaped chars
+		// Top level
+		t = "x$,()~";
+		assertEquals("x$,()~", s.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("x$,()~", ss.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("x$,()~", su.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("x$,()~", ssu.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("x$,()~", sr.serialize(t));
+
+		// 2nd level
+		// Note behavior on serializeParams() is different since 2nd-level is top level.
+		t = new ObjectMap("{'x$,()~':'x$,()~'}");
+		assertEquals("$o(x$~,~(~)~~=x$~,~(~)~~)", s.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(x$~,~(~)~~=x$~,~(~)~~)", ss.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$o(x$~,~(~)~~=x$~,~(~)~~)", su.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(x$~,~(~)~~=x$~,~(~)~~)", ssu.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$o(\n\tx$~,~(~)~~=x$~,~(~)~~\n)", sr.serialize(t));
+
+		// 3rd level
+		// Note behavior on serializeParams().
+		t = new ObjectMap("{'x$,()~':{'x$,()~':'x$,()~'}}");
+		assertEquals("$o(x$~,~(~)~~=$o(x$~,~(~)~~=x$~,~(~)~~))", s.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(x$~,~(~)~~=(x$~,~(~)~~=x$~,~(~)~~))", ss.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$o(x$~,~(~)~~=$o(x$~,~(~)~~=x$~,~(~)~~))", su.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(x$~,~(~)~~=(x$~,~(~)~~=x$~,~(~)~~))", ssu.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$o(\n\tx$~,~(~)~~=$o(\n\t\tx$~,~(~)~~=x$~,~(~)~~\n\t)\n)", sr.serialize(t));
+
+		// Equals sign
+		// Gets encoded at top level, and encoded+escaped at 2nd level.
+		// Top level
+		t = "x=";
+		assertEquals("x=", s.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("x=", ss.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("x=", su.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("x=", ssu.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("x=", sr.serialize(t));
+
+		// 2nd level
+		t = new ObjectMap("{'x=':'x='}");
+		assertEquals("$o(x~==x~=)", s.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(x~==x~=)", ss.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$o(x~==x~=)", su.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(x~==x~=)", ssu.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$o(\n\tx~==x~=\n)", sr.serialize(t));
+
+		// 3rd level
+		t = new ObjectMap("{'x=':{'x=':'x='}}");
+		assertEquals("$o(x~==$o(x~==x~=))", s.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(x~==(x~==x~=))", ss.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$o(x~==$o(x~==x~=))", su.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(x~==(x~==x~=))", ssu.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$o(\n\tx~==$o(\n\t\tx~==x~=\n\t)\n)", sr.serialize(t));
+
+		// String starting with parenthesis
+		// Top level
+		t = "()";
+		assertEquals("(~(~))", s.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(~(~))", ss.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(~(~))", su.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(~(~))", ssu.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(~(~))", sr.serialize(t));
+
+		// 2nd level
+		t = new ObjectMap("{'()':'()'}");
+		assertEquals("$o((~(~))=(~(~)))", s.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("((~(~))=(~(~)))", ss.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$o((~(~))=(~(~)))", su.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("((~(~))=(~(~)))", ssu.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$o(\n\t(~(~))=(~(~))\n)", sr.serialize(t));
+
+		// String starting with $
+		// Top level
+		t = "$a";
+		assertEquals("($a)", s.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("($a)", ss.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("($a)", su.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("($a)", ssu.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("($a)", sr.serialize(t));
+
+		// 2nd level
+		t = new ObjectMap("{$a:'$a'}");
+		assertEquals("$o(($a)=($a))", s.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(($a)=($a))", ss.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$o(($a)=($a))", su.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(($a)=($a))", ssu.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$o(\n\t($a)=($a)\n)", sr.serialize(t));
+
+		// Blank string
+		// Top level
+		t = "";
+		assertEquals("", s.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("", ss.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("", su.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("", ssu.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("", sr.serialize(t));
+
+		// 2nd level
+		t = new ObjectMap("{'':''}");
+		assertEquals("$o(=)", s.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(=)", ss.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$o(=)", su.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(=)", ssu.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$o(\n\t()=()\n)", sr.serialize(t));
+
+		// 3rd level
+		t = new ObjectMap("{'':{'':''}}");
+		assertEquals("$o(=$o(=))", s.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(=(=))", ss.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$o(=$o(=))", su.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(=(=))", ssu.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$o(\n\t()=$o(\n\t\t()=()\n\t)\n)", sr.serialize(t));
+
+		// Newline character
+		// Top level
+		t = "\n";
+		assertEquals("%0A", s.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("%0A", ss.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("\n", su.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("\n", ssu.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(\n)", sr.serialize(t));
+
+		// 2nd level
+		t = new ObjectMap("{'\n':'\n'}");
+		assertEquals("$o(%0A=%0A)", s.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(%0A=%0A)", ss.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$o(\n=\n)", su.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(\n=\n)", ssu.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$o(\n\t(\n)=(\n)\n)", sr.serialize(t));
+
+		// 3rd level
+		t = new ObjectMap("{'\n':{'\n':'\n'}}");
+		assertEquals("$o(%0A=$o(%0A=%0A))", s.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(%0A=(%0A=%0A))", ss.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$o(\n=$o(\n=\n))", su.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(\n=(\n=\n))", ssu.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$o(\n\t(\n)=$o(\n\t\t(\n)=(\n)\n\t)\n)", sr.serialize(t));
+	}
+
+	//====================================================================================================
+	// Unicode characters test
+	//====================================================================================================
+	@Test
+	public void testUnicodeChars() throws Exception {
+		Object t;
+
+		// 2-byte UTF-8 character
+		// Top level
+		t = "¢";
+		assertEquals("%C2%A2", s.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("%C2%A2", ss.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("¢", su.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("¢", ssu.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("¢", sr.serialize(t));
+
+		// 2nd level
+		t = new ObjectMap("{'¢':'¢'}");
+		assertEquals("$o(%C2%A2=%C2%A2)", s.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(%C2%A2=%C2%A2)", ss.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$o(¢=¢)", su.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(¢=¢)", ssu.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$o(\n\t¢=¢\n)", sr.serialize(t));
+
+		// 3rd level
+		t = new ObjectMap("{'¢':{'¢':'¢'}}");
+		assertEquals("$o(%C2%A2=$o(%C2%A2=%C2%A2))", s.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(%C2%A2=(%C2%A2=%C2%A2))", ss.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$o(¢=$o(¢=¢))", su.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(¢=(¢=¢))", ssu.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$o(\n\t¢=$o(\n\t\t¢=¢\n\t)\n)", sr.serialize(t));
+
+		// 3-byte UTF-8 character
+		// Top level
+		t = "€";
+		assertEquals("%E2%82%AC", s.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("%E2%82%AC", ss.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("€", su.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("€", ssu.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("€", sr.serialize(t));
+
+		// 2nd level
+		t = new ObjectMap("{'€':'€'}");
+		assertEquals("$o(%E2%82%AC=%E2%82%AC)", s.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(%E2%82%AC=%E2%82%AC)", ss.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$o(€=€)", su.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(€=€)", ssu.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$o(\n\t€=€\n)", sr.serialize(t));
+
+		// 3rd level
+		t = new ObjectMap("{'€':{'€':'€'}}");
+		assertEquals("$o(%E2%82%AC=$o(%E2%82%AC=%E2%82%AC))", s.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(%E2%82%AC=(%E2%82%AC=%E2%82%AC))", ss.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$o(€=$o(€=€))", su.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(€=(€=€))", ssu.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$o(\n\t€=$o(\n\t\t€=€\n\t)\n)", sr.serialize(t));
+
+		// 4-byte UTF-8 character
+		// Top level
+		t = "𤭢";
+		assertEquals("%F0%A4%AD%A2", s.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("%F0%A4%AD%A2", ss.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("𤭢", su.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("𤭢", ssu.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("𤭢", sr.serialize(t));
+
+		// 2nd level
+		t = new ObjectMap("{'𤭢':'𤭢'}");
+		assertEquals("$o(%F0%A4%AD%A2=%F0%A4%AD%A2)", s.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(%F0%A4%AD%A2=%F0%A4%AD%A2)", ss.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$o(𤭢=𤭢)", su.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(𤭢=𤭢)", ssu.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$o(\n\t𤭢=𤭢\n)", sr.serialize(t));
+
+		// 3rd level
+		t = new ObjectMap("{'𤭢':{'𤭢':'𤭢'}}");
+		assertEquals("$o(%F0%A4%AD%A2=$o(%F0%A4%AD%A2=%F0%A4%AD%A2))", s.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(%F0%A4%AD%A2=(%F0%A4%AD%A2=%F0%A4%AD%A2))", ss.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$o(𤭢=$o(𤭢=𤭢))", su.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("(𤭢=(𤭢=𤭢))", ssu.serialize(t));
+		assertEquals("$o(\n\t𤭢=$o(\n\t\t𤭢=𤭢\n\t)\n)", sr.serialize(t));
+	}
+}
\ No newline at end of file


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