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From i..@apache.org
Subject svn commit: r799133 [3/3] - in /websites/production/jena: ./ content/jena/ content/jena/about_jena/ content/jena/css/ content/jena/documentation/ content/jena/documentation/assembler/ content/jena/documentation/inference/ content/jena/documentation/io/...
Date Wed, 23 Nov 2011 00:40:45 GMT
Modified: websites/production/jena/content/jena/tutorials/index.html
==============================================================================
--- websites/production/jena/content/jena/tutorials/index.html (original)
+++ websites/production/jena/content/jena/tutorials/index.html Wed Nov 23 00:40:41 2011
@@ -20,7 +20,7 @@
 -->
 
   <link href="/jena/css/jena.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css">
-  <title>Apache Jena - An Introduction to RDF and the Jena RDF API</title>
+  <title>Apache Jena - Jena tutorials</title>
   <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8">
   <script src="/jena/js/jquery-1.6.4.min.js" type="text/javascript"></script>
   <script src="/jena/js/jena-navigation.js" type="text/javascript"></script>
@@ -86,7 +86,8 @@
 </ul>
 <h1 id="tutorials">Tutorials</h1>
 <ul>
-<li><a href="/jena/tutorials/index.html">RDF tutorial</a></li>
+<li><a href="/jena/tutorials/index.html">Tutorials index</a></li>
+<li><a href="/jena/tutorials/rdf_api.html">RDF tutorial</a></li>
 <li><a href="/jena/tutorials/sparql.html">SPARQL queries</a></li>
 <li><a href="/jena/tutorials/using_jena_with_eclipse.html">Using Jena with Eclipse</a></li>
 </ul>
@@ -97,7 +98,15 @@
 <li><a href="/jena/documentation/rdf/index.html">RDF</a></li>
 <li><a href="/jena/documentation/query/index.html">SPARQL (ARQ)</a></li>
 <li><a href="/jena/documentation/tdb/index.html">TDB</a></li>
-<li><a href="/jena/documentation/sdb/index.html">SDB</a></li>
+<li><a href="/jena/documentation/sdb/index.html">SDB</a><ul>
+<li><a href="/jena/documentation/sdb/installation.html">Installation</a></li>
+<li><a href="/jena/documentation/sdb/quickstart.html">Quick start</a></li>
+<li><a href="/jena/documentation/sdb/commands.html">Cmd line</a></li>
+<li><a href="/jena/documentation/sdb/javaapi.html">Java API</a></li>
+<li><a href="/jena/documentation/sdb/configuration.html">Config</a></li>
+<li><a href="/jena/documentation/sdb/databases_supported.html">Databases</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
 <li><a href="/jena/documentation/larq/index.html">LARQ</a></li>
 <li><a href="/jena/documentation/serving_data/index.html">Serving Data</a></li>
 <li><a href="/jena/documentation/ontology/index.html">Ontology</a></li>
@@ -123,6 +132,7 @@
 </li>
 <li><a href="/jena/documentation/tools/index.html">Tools</a><ul>
 <li><a href="/jena/documentation/tools/schemagen.html">schemagen</a></li>
+<li><a href="/jena/documentation/tools/eyeball-getting-started.html">eyeball</a></li>
 </ul>
 </li>
 </ul>
@@ -141,1256 +151,15 @@
   </div>
 
   <div id="content">
-    <h1 class="title">An Introduction to RDF and the Jena RDF API</h1>
-    <h2>Preface</h2>
-
-<p>This is a tutorial introduction to both W3C's Resource Description Framework
-(RDF) and Jena, a Java API for RDF.  It is written for the programmer who is
-unfamiliar with RDF and who learns best by prototyping, or, for other
-reasons, wishes to move quickly to implementation. Some familiarity
-with both XML and Java is assumed.</p>
-<p>Implementing too quickly, without first understanding the RDF data model,
-leads to frustration and disappointment. Yet studying the data model
-alone is dry stuff and often leads to tortuous metaphysical conundrums.  It
-is better to approach understanding both the data model and how to use it in
-parallel. Learn a bit of the data model and try it out. Then
-learn a bit more and try that out. Then the theory informs the practice
-and the practice the theory. The data model is quite simple, so this
-approach does not take long.</p>
-
-<p>RDF has an XML syntax and many who are familiar with XML will think of RDF
-in terms of that syntax. This is mistake. RDF should be
-understood in terms of its data model. RDF data can be represented in
-XML, but understanding the syntax is secondary to understanding the data
-model.</p>
-
-<p>An implementation of the Jena API, including the working source code for
-all the examples used in this tutorial can be downloaded from
-<a href="http://jena.sourceforge.net/downloads.html">
-http://jena.sourceforge.net/downloads.html</a>.</p>
-
-<p></p>
-
-<h2>Table of Contents</h2>
-
-<ol>
-  <li><a href="#ch-Introduction">Introduction</a></li>
-  <li><a href="#ch-Statements">Statements</a></li>
-  <li><a href="#ch-Writing RDF">Writing RDF</a></li>
-  <li><a href="#ch-Reading RDF">Reading RDF</a></li>
-  <li><a href="#ch-Prefixes">Controlling Prefixes</a></li>
-  <li><a href="#ch-Jena RDF Packages">Jena RDF Packages</a></li>
-  <li><a href="#ch-Navigating a Model">Navigating a Model</a></li>
-  <li><a href="#ch-Querying a Model">Querying a Model</a></li>
-  <li><a href="#ch-Operations on Models">Operations on Models</a></li>
-  <li><a href="#ch-Containers">Containers</a></li>
-  <li><a href="#ch-More about Literals and Datatypes">More about Literals and
-    Datatypes</a></li>
-  <li><a href="#ch-Glossary">Glossary</a></li>
-</ol>
-
-<h2><a id="ch-Introduction">Introduction</a></h2>
-
-<p>The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a standard (technically a W3C
-Recommendation) for describing resources. What is a resource?  That is
-rather a deep question and the precise definition is still the subject of
-debate.  For our purposes we can think of it as anything we can identify.
-You are a resource, as is your home page, this tutorial, the number one and
-the great white whale in Moby Dick.</p>
-
-<p>Our examples in this tutorial will be about people.  They use an <a
-href="http://www.w3.org/TR/vcard-rdf">RDF representation of VCARDS</a>.  RDF
-is best thought of in the form of node and arc diagrams.  A simple vcard
-might look like this in RDF:</p>
-
-<p align="center">
-<img border="0" src="figures/fig1.png" alt="figure 1" width="240" height="180"></p>
-
-<p>The <a href="#glos-Resource"><i>resource</i></a>, John Smith, is shown as
-an elipse and is identified by a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI)<font
-size="1"><sup><a href="#fn-01">1</a></sup></font>,  in this case
-"http://.../JohnSmith".  If you try to access that resource using your
-browser, you are unlikely to be successful; April the first jokes not
-withstanding, you would be rather surprised if your browser were able to
-deliver John Smith to your desk top. If you are unfamiliar with URI's,
-think of them simply as rather strange looking names.</p>
-
-<p>Resources have <a href="#glos-Property"><i>properties</i></a>.  In these
-examples we are interested in the sort of properties that would appear on
-John Smith's business card. Figure 1 shows only one property, John
-Smith's full name.  A property is represented by an arc, labeled with the
-name of a property.  The name of a property is also a URI, but as URI's are
-rather long and cumbersome, the diagram shows it in XML qname form.   The
-part before the ':' is called a namespace prefix and represents a
-namespace. The part after the ':' is called a local name and represents
-a name in that namespace. Properties are usually represented in this
-qname form when written as RDF XML and it is a convenient shorthand for
-representing them in diagrams and in text. Strictly, however,
-properties are identified by a URI. The nsprefix:localname form is a
-shorthand for the URI of the namespace concatenated with the localname.
-There is no requirement that the URI of a property resolve to anything when
-accessed by a browser.</p>
-
-<p>Each property has a value. In this case the value is a <a
-href="#glos-Literal"><i>literal</i></a>, which for now we can think of as a
-strings of characters<font size="1"><sup><a href="#fn-02">2</a></sup></font>.
-Literals are shown in rectangles.</p>
-
-<p>Jena is a Java API which can be used to create and manipulate RDF graphs
-like this one. Jena has object classes to represent graphs, resources,
-properties and literals. The interfaces representing resources,
-properties and literals are called Resource, Property and Literal
-respectively. In Jena, a graph is called a model and is represented by the Model
-interface.</p>
-
-<p>The code to create this graph, or model, is simple:</p>
-
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>// some definitions
-static String personURI    = "http://somewhere/JohnSmith";
-static String fullName     = "John Smith";
-
-// create an empty Model
-Model model = ModelFactory.createDefaultModel();
-
-// create the resource
-Resource johnSmith = model.createResource(personURI);
-
-// add the property
- johnSmith.addProperty(VCARD.FN, fullName);</code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-
-<p>It begins with some constant definitions and then creates an empty Model
-or model, using the <code>ModelFactory</code> method <code>createDefaultModel()</code>
-to create a memory-based model. Jena contains other implementations
-of the Model interface, e.g one which uses a relational database: these
-types of Model are also available from ModelFactory.</p>
-
-<p>The John Smith resource is then created and a property added to it.
-The property is provided by a "constant" class VCARD which holds objects
-representing all the definitions in the VCARD schema.  Jena provides constant
-classes for other well known schemas, such as RDF and RDF schema themselves,
-Dublin Core and DAML.</p>
-
-<p>The code to create the resource and add the property, can be more
-compactly written in a cascading style:</p>
-
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>Resource johnSmith =
-        model.createResource(personURI)
-             .addProperty(VCARD.FN, fullName);</code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-
-<p>The working code for this example can be found in the /src-examples directory of
-the Jena distribution as <a href="../../../src-examples/jena/examples/rdf/Tutorial01.java">tutorial 1</a>.  As
-an exercise, take this code and modify it to create a simple VCARD for
-yourself.</p>
-
-<p>Now let's add some more detail to the vcard, exploring some more features
-of RDF and Jena.</p>
-
-<p>In the first example, the property value was a literal. RDF
-properties can also take other resources as their value.  Using a common RDF
-technique, this example shows how to represent the different parts of John
-Smith's name:</p>
-
-<p align="center">
-<img border="0" src="figures/fig2.png" alt="figure 2" width="360" height="240"></p>
-
-<p>Here we have added a new property, vcard:N, to represent the structure of
-John Smith's name.  There are several things of interest about this
-Model. Note that the vcard:N property takes a resource as its value.
-Note also that the ellipse representing the compound name has no URI.
-It is known as an <i><a href="#glos-blank node">blank Node</a>.</i></p>
-
-<p>The Jena code to construct this example, is again very simple. First
-some declarations and the creation of the empty model.</p>
-
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>// some definitions
-String personURI    = "http://somewhere/JohnSmith";
-String givenName    = "John";
-String familyName   = "Smith";
-String fullName     = givenName + " " + familyName;
-
-// create an empty Model
-Model model = ModelFactory.createDefaultModel();
-
-// create the resource
-//   and add the properties cascading style
-Resource johnSmith
-  = model.createResource(personURI)
-         .addProperty(VCARD.FN, fullName)
-         .addProperty(VCARD.N,
-                      model.createResource()
-                           .addProperty(VCARD.Given, givenName)
-                           .addProperty(VCARD.Family, familyName));</code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-
-<p>The working code for this example can be found as <a
-href="../../../src-examples/jena/examples/rdf/Tutorial02.java">tutorial 2</a> in the /src-examples directory
-of the Jena distribution.</p>
-
-<h2><a id="ch-Statements">Statements</a></h2>
-
-<p>Each arc in an RDF Model is called a <i><a
-href="#glos-Statement">statement</a></i>. Each statement asserts a fact
-about a resource. A statement has three parts:</p>
-
-<ul>
-  <li>the <i><a href="#glos-Subject"> subject</a></i> is the resource from
-    which the arc leaves</li>
-  <li>the <i><a href="#glos-Predicate"> predicate</a></i> is the property
-    that labels the arc</li>
-  <li>the <i><a href="#glos-Object"> object</a></i> is the resource or
-    literal pointed to by the arc</li>
-</ul>
-
-<p>A statement is sometimes called a <a href="#glos-Triple">triple</a>,
-because of its three parts.</p>
-
-<p>An RDF Model is represented as a <i>set</i> of statements.  Each call of
-<code>addProperty</code> in tutorial2 added a another statement to the Model.
-(Because a Model is set of statements, adding a duplicate of a statement has no
-effect.)  The Jena model interface defines a <code>listStatements()</code>
-method which returns an <code>StmtIterator</code>, a subtype of Java's
-<code>Iterator</code> over all all the statements in a Model.
-<code>StmtIterator</code> has a method <code>nextStatement()</code>
-which returns the next statement from the iterator (the same one that
-<code>next()</code> would deliver, already cast to <code>Statement</code>).
-The <code>Statement</code> interface provides accessor
-methods to the subject, predicate and object of a statement.</p>
-
-<p>Now we will use that interface to extend tutorial2 to list all the
-statements created and print them out.  The complete code for this can be
-found in <a href="../../../src-examples/jena/examples/rdf/Tutorial03.java">tutorial 3</a>.</p>
-
-<blockquote>
-<pre><code>// list the statements in the Model
-StmtIterator iter = model.listStatements();
-
-// print out the predicate, subject and object of each statement
-while (iter.hasNext()) {
-    Statement stmt      = iter.nextStatement();  // get next statement
-    Resource  subject   = stmt.getSubject();     // get the subject
-    Property  predicate = stmt.getPredicate();   // get the predicate
-    RDFNode   object    = stmt.getObject();      // get the object
-
-System.out.print(subject.toString());
-    System.out.print(" " + predicate.toString() + " ");
-    if (object instanceof Resource) {
-       System.out.print(object.toString());
-    } else {
-        // object is a literal
-        System.out.print(" \"" + object.toString() + "\"");
-    }
-
-System.out.println(" .");
-} </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-
-<p>Since the object of a statement can be either a resource or a literal, the
-<code>getObject()</code> method returns an
-object typed as <code>RDFNode</code>, which is a
-common superclass of both <code>Resource</code>
-and <code>Literal</code>.  The underlying object
-is of the appropriate type, so the code uses <code>instanceof</code> to
-determine which and
-processes it accordingly.</p>
-
-<p>When run, this program should produce output resembling:</p>
-
-<pre><code>http://somewhere/JohnSmith http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#N anon:14df86:ecc3dee17b:-7fff .
-anon:14df86:ecc3dee17b:-7fff http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#Family  "Smith" .
-anon:14df86:ecc3dee17b:-7fff http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#Given  "John" .
-http://somewhere/JohnSmith http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#FN  "John Smith" .</code></pre>
-
-<p></p>
-
-<p>Now you know why it is clearer to draw Models.  If you look carefully, you
-will see that each line consists of three fields representing the subject,
-predicate and object of each statement.  There are four arcs in the Model, so
-there are four statements.  The "anon:14df86:ecc3dee17b:-7fff" is an internal
-identifier generated by Jena.  It is not a URI and should not be confused
-with one.  It is simply an internal label used by the Jena implementation.</p>
-
-<p>The W3C <a href="http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/RDFCore/">RDFCore Working
-Group</a> have defined a similar simple notation called <a
-href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-testcases/#ntriples">N-Triples</a>.  The name
-means "triple notation".  We will see in the next section that Jena has an
-N-Triples writer built in.</p>
-
-<h2><a id="ch-Writing RDF">Writing RDF</a></h2>
-
-<p>Jena has methods for reading and writing RDF as XML. These can be
-used to save an RDF model to a file and later read it back in again.</p>
-
-<p>Tutorial 3 created a model and wrote it out in triple form. <a
-href="../../../src-examples/jena/examples/rdf/Tutorial04.java">Tutorial 4</a> modifies tutorial 3 to write the
-model in RDF XML form to the standard output stream. The code again, is
-very simple: <code>model.write</code> can take an <code>OutputStream</code>
-argument.</p>
-
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>// now write the model in XML form to a file
-model.write(System.out);</code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-
-<p>The output should look something like this:</p>
-
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>&lt;rdf:RDF
-  xmlns:rdf='http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#'
-  xmlns:vcard='http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#'
- &gt;
-  &lt;rdf:Description rdf:about='http://somewhere/JohnSmith'&gt;
-    &lt;vcard:FN&gt;John Smith&lt;/vcard:FN&gt;
-    &lt;vcard:N rdf:nodeID=&quot;A0&quot;/&gt;
-  &lt;/rdf:Description&gt;
-  &lt;rdf:Description rdf:nodeID=&quot;A0&quot;&gt;
-    &lt;vcard:Given&gt;John&lt;/vcard:Given&gt;
-    &lt;vcard:Family&gt;Smith&lt;/vcard:Family&gt;
-  &lt;/rdf:Description&gt;
-&lt;/rdf:RDF&gt;</code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-
-<p></p>
-
-<p>The RDF specifications specify how to represent RDF as XML. The RDF
-XML syntax is quite complex.  The reader is referred to the <a
-href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-primer/">primer</a> being developed by the
-RDFCore WG for a more detailed introduction.  However, let's take a quick look
-at how to interpret the above.</p>
-
-<p>RDF is usually embedded in an &lt;rdf:RDF&gt; element.  The element is
-optional if there are other ways of know that some XML is RDF, but it is
-usually present.  The RDF element defines the two namespaces used in the
-document.  There is then an &lt;rdf:Description&gt; element which describes
-the resource whose URI is "http://somewhere/JohnSmith".  If the rdf:about
-attribute was missing, this element would represent a blank node.</p>
-
-<p>The &lt;vcard:FN&gt; element describes a property of the resource.  The
-property name is the "FN" in the vcard namespace.  RDF converts this to a URI
-reference by concatenating the URI reference for the namespace prefix and
-"FN", the local name part of the name.  This gives a URI reference of
-"http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#FN".  The value of the property
-is the literal "John Smith".</p>
-
-<p>The &lt;vcard:N&gt; element is a resource.  In this case the resource is
-represented by a relative URI reference.  RDF converts this to an absolute
-URI reference by concatenating it with the base URI of the current
-document.</p>
-
-<p>There is an error in this RDF XML; it does not exactly represent the Model
-we created.  The blank node in the Model has been given a URI reference.  It
-is no longer blank.  The RDF/XML syntax is not capable of representing all
-RDF Models; for example it cannot represent a blank node which is the object
-of two statements.  The 'dumb' writer we used to write this RDF/XML  makes no
-attempt to write correctly the subset of Models which can be written
-correctly.  It gives a URI to each blank node, making it no longer blank.</p>
-
-<p>Jena has an extensible interface which allows new writers for different
-serialization languages for RDF to be easily plugged in.  The above call
-invoked the standard 'dumb' writer.  Jena also includes a more sophisticated
-RDF/XML writer which can be invoked by specifying another argument to the
-<code>write()</code> method call:</p>
-
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>// now write the model in XML form to a file
-model.write(System.out, "RDF/XML-ABBREV");
- </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-
-<p>This writer, the so called PrettyWriter, takes advantage of features of
-the RDF/XML abbreviated syntax to write a Model more compactly.  It is also
-able to preserve blank nodes where that is possible.  It is however, not
-suitable for writing very large Models, as its performance is unlikely to be
-acceptable.  To write large files and preserve blank nodes, write in
-N-Triples format:</p>
-
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>// now write the model in XML form to a file
-model.write(System.out, "N-TRIPLE");
-  </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-
-<p>This will produce output similar to that of tutorial 3 which conforms to
-the N-Triples specification.</p>
-
-<h2><a id="ch-Reading RDF">Reading RDF</a></h2>
-
-<p><a href="../../../src-examples/jena/examples/rdf/Tutorial05.java">Tutorial 5</a> demonstrates reading the
-statements recorded in RDF XML form into a model. With this tutorial,
-we have provided a small database of vcards in RDF/XML form.  The following
-code will read it in and write it out. <em>Note that for this application to
-run, the input file must be in the current directory.</em></p>
-
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>
- // create an empty model
- Model model = ModelFactory.createDefaultModel();
-
-// use the FileManager to find the input file
- InputStream in = FileManager.get().open( inputFileName );
-if (in == null) {
-    throw new IllegalArgumentException(
-                                 "File: " + inputFileName + " not found");
-}
-
-// read the RDF/XML file
-model.read(in, null);
-
-// write it to standard out
-model.write(System.out);
-      </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-
-<p>The second argument to the <code>read()</code> method call is the URI which will
-be used for resolving relative URI's.  As there are no relative URI
-references in the test file, it is allowed to be empty. When run, <a
-href="../../../src-examples/jena/examples/rdf/Tutorial05.java"> tutorial 5</a> will produce XML output which
-looks like:</p>
-
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>&lt;rdf:RDF
-  xmlns:rdf='http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#'
-  xmlns:vcard='http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#'
- &gt;
-  &lt;rdf:Description rdf:nodeID=&quot;A0&quot;&gt;
-    &lt;vcard:Family&gt;Smith&lt;/vcard:Family&gt;
-    &lt;vcard:Given&gt;John&lt;/vcard:Given&gt;
-  &lt;/rdf:Description&gt;
-  &lt;rdf:Description rdf:about='http://somewhere/JohnSmith/'&gt;
-    &lt;vcard:FN&gt;John Smith&lt;/vcard:FN&gt;
-    &lt;vcard:N rdf:nodeID=&quot;A0&quot;/&gt;
-  &lt;/rdf:Description&gt;
-  &lt;rdf:Description rdf:about='http://somewhere/SarahJones/'&gt;
-    &lt;vcard:FN&gt;Sarah Jones&lt;/vcard:FN&gt;
-    &lt;vcard:N rdf:nodeID=&quot;A1&quot;/&gt;
-  &lt;/rdf:Description&gt;
-  &lt;rdf:Description rdf:about='http://somewhere/MattJones/'&gt;
-    &lt;vcard:FN&gt;Matt Jones&lt;/vcard:FN&gt;
-    &lt;vcard:N rdf:nodeID=&quot;A2&quot;/&gt;
-  &lt;/rdf:Description&gt;
-  &lt;rdf:Description rdf:nodeID=&quot;A3&quot;&gt;
-    &lt;vcard:Family&gt;Smith&lt;/vcard:Family&gt;
-    &lt;vcard:Given&gt;Rebecca&lt;/vcard:Given&gt;
-  &lt;/rdf:Description&gt;
-  &lt;rdf:Description rdf:nodeID=&quot;A1&quot;&gt;
-    &lt;vcard:Family&gt;Jones&lt;/vcard:Family&gt;
-    &lt;vcard:Given&gt;Sarah&lt;/vcard:Given&gt;
-  &lt;/rdf:Description&gt;
-  &lt;rdf:Description rdf:nodeID=&quot;A2&quot;&gt;
-    &lt;vcard:Family&gt;Jones&lt;/vcard:Family&gt;
-    &lt;vcard:Given&gt;Matthew&lt;/vcard:Given&gt;
-  &lt;/rdf:Description&gt;
-  &lt;rdf:Description rdf:about='http://somewhere/RebeccaSmith/'&gt;
-    &lt;vcard:FN&gt;Becky Smith&lt;/vcard:FN&gt;
-    &lt;vcard:N rdf:nodeID=&quot;A3&quot;/&gt;
-  &lt;/rdf:Description&gt;
-&lt;/rdf:RDF&gt;</code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-
-<h2 id="ch-Prefixes">Controlling Prefixes</h2>
-
-<h3>Explicit prefix definitions</h3>
-
-<p>In the previous section, we saw that the output XML declared a namespace
-prefix <code>vcard</code> and used that prefix to abbreviate URIs. While RDF
-uses only the full URIs, and not this shortened form, Jena provides ways
-of controlling the namespaces used on output with its <i>prefix mappings</i>.
-Here's a simple example.</p>
-<blockquote>
-<pre>
-<code>
- Model m = ModelFactory.createDefaultModel();
- String nsA = "http://somewhere/else#";
- String nsB = "http://nowhere/else#";
- Resource root = m.createResource( nsA + "root" );
- Property P = m.createProperty( nsA + "P" );
- Property Q = m.createProperty( nsB + "Q" );
- Resource x = m.createResource( nsA + "x" );
- Resource y = m.createResource( nsA + "y" );
- Resource z = m.createResource( nsA + "z" );
- m.add( root, P, x ).add( root, P, y ).add( y, Q, z );
- System.out.println( "# -- no special prefixes defined" );
- m.write( System.out );
- System.out.println( "# -- nsA defined" );
- m.setNsPrefix( "nsA", nsA );
- m.write( System.out );
- System.out.println( "# -- nsA and cat defined" );
- m.setNsPrefix( "cat", nsB );
- m.write( System.out );
-</code>
-</pre>
-</blockquote>
-
-<p>The output from this fragment is three lots of RDF/XML, with
-three different prefix mappings. First the default, with no
-prefixes other than the standard ones:</p>
-<blockquote>
-<pre>
-<code>
-# -- no special prefixes defined
-
-&lt;rdf:RDF
-    xmlns:j.0="http://nowhere/else#"
-    xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"
-    xmlns:j.1="http://somewhere/else#" &gt;
-  &lt;rdf:Description rdf:about="http://somewhere/else#root"&gt;
-    &lt;j.1:P rdf:resource="http://somewhere/else#x"/&gt;
-    &lt;j.1:P rdf:resource="http://somewhere/else#y"/&gt;
-  &lt;/rdf:Description&gt;
-  &lt;rdf:Description rdf:about="http://somewhere/else#y"&gt;
-    &lt;j.0:Q rdf:resource="http://somewhere/else#z"/&gt;
-  &lt;/rdf:Description&gt;
-&lt;/rdf:RDF&gt;
-</code>
-</pre>
-</blockquote>
-
-<p>We see that the rdf namespace is declared automatically, since it
-is required for tags such as <code>&lt;RDF:rdf&gt;</code> and
-<code>&lt;rdf:resource&gt;</code>. Namespace declarations are also
-needed for using the two properties P and Q, but since their
-namespaces have not been introduced to the model, they get invented
-namespace names: <code>j.0</code> and <code>j.1</code>.</p>
-<p>The method <code>setNsPrefix(String prefix, String URI)</code>
-declares that the namespace <code>URI</code> may be abbreviated
-by <code>prefix</code>. Jena requires that <code>prefix</code> be
-a legal XML namespace name, and that <code>URI</code> ends with a
-non-name character. The RDF/XML writer will turn these prefix
-declarations into XML namespace declarations and use them in its
-output:
-
-<blockquote>
-<pre>
-<code>
-# -- nsA defined
-
-&lt;rdf:RDF
-    xmlns:j.0="http://nowhere/else#"
-    xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"
-    xmlns:nsA="http://somewhere/else#" &gt;
-  &lt;rdf:Description rdf:about="http://somewhere/else#root"&gt;
-    &lt;nsA:P rdf:resource="http://somewhere/else#x"/&gt;
-    &lt;nsA:P rdf:resource="http://somewhere/else#y"/&gt;
-  &lt;/rdf:Description&gt;
-  &lt;rdf:Description rdf:about="http://somewhere/else#y"&gt;
-    &lt;j.0:Q rdf:resource="http://somewhere/else#z"/&gt;
-  &lt;/rdf:Description&gt;
-&lt;/rdf:RDF&gt;
-</code>
-</pre>
-</blockquote>
-
-The other namespace still gets the constructed name, but the nsA name
-is now used in the property tags. There's no need for the prefix name
-to have anything to do with the variables in the Jena code:
-
-<blockquote>
-<pre>
-<code>
-# -- nsA and cat defined
-
-&lt;rdf:RDF
-    xmlns:cat="http://nowhere/else#"
-    xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"
-    xmlns:nsA="http://somewhere/else#" &gt;
-  &lt;rdf:Description rdf:about="http://somewhere/else#root"&gt;
-    &lt;nsA:P rdf:resource="http://somewhere/else#x"/&gt;
-    &lt;nsA:P rdf:resource="http://somewhere/else#y"/&gt;
-  &lt;/rdf:Description&gt;
-  &lt;rdf:Description rdf:about="http://somewhere/else#y"&gt;
-    &lt;cat:Q rdf:resource="http://somewhere/else#z"/&gt;
-  &lt;/rdf:Description&gt;
-&lt;/rdf:RDF&gt;
-</code>
-</pre>
-</blockquote>
-
-Both prefixes are used for output, and no generated prefixes are needed.
-
-<h3>Implicit prefix definitions</h3>
-
-As well as prefix declarations provided by calls to <code>setNsPrefix</code>,
-Jena will remember the prefixes that were used in input to
-<code>model.read()</code>.
-
-<p>Take the output produced by the previous fragment, and paste it into
-some file, with URL <b>file:/tmp/fragment.rdf</b> say. Then run the
-code:
-
-<blockquote>
-<pre>
-<code>
-Model m2 = ModelFactory.createDefaultModel();
-m2.read( "file:/tmp/fragment.rdf" );
-m2.write( System.out );
-</code>
-</pre>
-</blockquote>
-
-You'll see that the prefixes from the input are preserved in the output.
-All the prefixes are written, even if they're not used anywhere. You can
-remove a prefix with <code>removeNsPrefix(String prefix)</code> if you
-don't want it in the output.
-
-<p>Since NTriples doesn't have any short way of writing URIs, it takes
-no notice of prefixes on output and doesn't provide any on input. The
-notation <b>N3</b>, also supported by Jena, does have short prefixed names,
-and records them on input and uses them on output.
-
-<p>Jena has further operations on the prefix mappings that a model holds,
-such as extracting a Java <code>Map</code> of the exiting mappings, or
-adding a whole group of mappings at once; see the documentation for
-<code>PrefixMapping</code> for details.
-
-<h2 id="ch-Jena RDF Packages">Jena RDF Packages</h2>
-
-<p>Jena is a Java API for semantic web applications.  The key RDF package for
-the application developer is
-<code>com.hp.hpl.jena.rdf.model</code>. The API has been defined
-in terms of interfaces so that application code can work with different
-implementations without change. This package contains interfaces for
-representing models, resources, properties, literals, statements and all the
-other key concepts of RDF, and a ModelFactory for creating models.  So that
-application code remains independent of
-the implementation, it is best if it uses interfaces wherever possible, not
-specific class implementations.</p>
-
-<p>The <code>com.hp.hpl.jena.tutorial</code> package contains the
-working source code for all the examples used in this tutorial.</p>
-
-<p>The <code>com.hp.hpl.jena...impl</code> packages contains
-implementation classes which may be common to many implementations. For
-example, they defines classes <code>ResourceImpl</code>,
-<code>PropertyImpl</code>, and <code>LiteralImpl</code> which may be
-used directly or subclassed by different implementations. Applications
-should rarely, if ever, use these classes directly. For example, rather
-than creating a new instance of <code>ResourceImpl</code>, it is better to
-use the <code>createResource</code> method of whatever model is being
-used. That way, if the model implementation has used an optimized
-implementation of <code>Resource</code>, then no conversions between the two
-types will be necessary.</p>
-
-<h2 id="ch-Navigating a Model">Navigating a Model</h2>
-
-<p>So far, this tutorial has dealt mainly with creating, reading and writing
-RDF Models. It is now time to deal with accessing information held in a
-Model.</p>
-
-<p>Given the URI of a resource, the resource object can be retrieved from a
-model using the <code>Model.getResource(String uri)</code> method. This
-method is defined to return a Resource object if one exists in the model, or
-otherwise to create a new one. For example, to retrieve the Adam Smith
-resource from the model read in from the file in tutorial 5:</p>
-
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>// retrieve the John Smith vcard resource from the model
-Resource vcard = model.getResource(johnSmithURI);</code>
-  </pre>
-</blockquote>
-
-<p>The Resource interface defines a number of methods for accessing the
-properties of a resource. The <code>Resource.getProperty(Property
-p)</code> method accesses a property of the resource. This method does
-not follow the usual Java accessor convention in that the type of the object
-returned is <code>Statement,</code> not the <code>Property</code> that you
-might have expected.  Returning the whole statement allows the application to
-access the value of the property using one of its accessor methods which
-return the object of the statement. For example to retrieve the
-resource which is the value of the <code>vcard:N</code> property:</p>
-
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>// retrieve the value of the N property
-Resource name = (Resource) vcard.getProperty(VCARD.N)
-                                .getObject();</code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-
-<p>In general, the object of a statement could be a resource or a literal, so
-the application code, knowing the value must be a resource, casts the
-returned object. One of the things that Jena tries to do is to provide
-type specific methods so the application does not have to cast and type
-checking can be done at compile time. The code fragment above, can be
-more conveniently written:</p>
-
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>// retrieve the value of the FN property
-Resource name = vcard.getProperty(VCARD.N)
-                     .getResource();</code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-
-<p>Similarly, the literal value of a property can be retrieved:</p>
-
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>// retrieve the given name property
-String fullName = vcard.getProperty(VCARD.FN)
-                        .getString();</code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-
-<p>In this example, the vcard resource has only one <code>vcard:FN</code> and
-one <code>vcard:N</code> property. RDF permits a resource to repeat a
-property; for example Adam might have more than one nickname.  Let's give him
-two:</p>
-
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>// add two nickname properties to vcard
-vcard.addProperty(VCARD.NICKNAME, "Smithy")
-     .addProperty(VCARD.NICKNAME, "Adman");</code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-
-<p>As noted before, Jena represents an RDF Model as <em>set </em>of
-statements, so adding a statement with the subject, predicate and object as
-one already in the Model will have no effect.  Jena does not define which of
-the two nicknames present in the Model will be returned.  The result of
-calling <code>vcard.getProperty(VCARD.NICKNAME)</code> is indeterminate. Jena
-will return one of the values, but there is no guarantee even that two
-consecutive calls will return the same value.</p>
-
-<p>If it is possible that a property may occur more than once, then the
-Resource.listProperties(Property p) method can be used to return an iterator
-which will list them all.  This method returns an iterator which returns
-objects of type <code>Statement</code>.  We can list the nicknames like
-this:</p>
-
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>// set up the output
-System.out.println("The nicknames of \""
-                      + fullName + "\" are:");
-// list the nicknames
-StmtIterator iter = vcard.listProperties(VCARD.NICKNAME);
-while (iter.hasNext()) {
-    System.out.println("    " + iter.nextStatement()
-                                    .getObject()
-                                    .toString());
-}</code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-
-<p>This code can be found in <a href="../../../src-examples/jena/examples/rdf/Tutorial06.java"> tutorial 6</a>.
-The statement iterator <code>iter</code> produces each and every statement
-with subject <code>vcard</code> and predicate <code>VCARD.NICKNAME</code>,
-so looping over it allows us to fetch each statement by using
-<code>nextStatement()</code>, get the object field, and convert it to
-a string.
-The code produces the following output when run:</p>
-
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>The nicknames of "John Smith" are:
-    Smithy
-    Adman</code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-
-<p>All the properties of a resource can be listed by using the
-<code>listProperties()</code> method without an argument.
-</p>
-
-<h2 id="ch-Querying a Model">Querying a Model</h2>
-
-<p>The previous section dealt with the case of navigating a model from a
-resource with a known URI. This section deals with searching a
-model. The core Jena API supports only a limited query primitive.  The
-more powerful query facilities of RDQL are described elsewhere.</p>
-
-<p>The <code>Model.listStatements()</code> method, which lists all the
-statements in a model, is perhaps the crudest way of querying a model.
-Its use is not recommended on very large Models.
-<code>Model.listSubjects()</code> is similar, but returns an iterator over
-all resources that have properties, <i>ie</i> are the subject of some
-statement.</p>
-
-<p><code>Model.listSubjectsWithProperty(Property p, RDFNode
-o)</code><code></code> will return an iterator over all the resources which
-have property <code>p</code> with value <code>o</code>. If we assume that
-only vcard resources
-will have <code>vcard:FN</code> property, and that in our data, all such
-resources have such a property, then we can find all the vcards like this:</p>
-
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>// list vcards
-ResIterator iter = model.listSubjectsWithProperty(VCARD.FN);
-while (iter.hasNext()) {
-    Resource r = iter.nextResource();
-    ...
-}</code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-
-<p>All these query methods are simply syntactic sugar over a primitive query
-method <code>model.listStatements(Selector s)</code>.  This method returns an
-iterator over all the statements in the model 'selected' by <code>s</code>.
-The selector interface is designed to be extensible, but for now, there is
-only one implementation of it, the class <code>SimpleSelector</code> from the
-package <code>com.hp.hpl.jena.rdf.model</code>.  Using
-<code>SimpleSelector </code>is one of the rare occasions in Jena when it is
-necessary to use a specific class rather than an interface.  The
-<code>SimpleSelector</code> constructor takes three arguments:</p>
-
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>Selector selector = new SimpleSelector(subject, predicate, object)
-  </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-
-<p>This selector will select all statements with a subject that matches
-<code>subject</code>, a predicate that matches <code>predicate</code> and an
-object that matches <code>object</code>.  If a <code>null</code> is supplied
-in any of the positions, it matches anything; otherwise they match corresponding
-equal resources or literals. (Two resources are equal if they have equal URIs
-or are the same blank node; two literals are the same if all their components
-are equal.) Thus:</p>
-
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>Selector selector = new SimpleSelector(null, null, null);
-  </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-
-<p>will select all the statements in a Model.</p>
-
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>Selector selector = new SimpleSelector(null, VCARD.FN, null);
-  </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-
-<p>will select all the statements with VCARD.FN as their predicate, whatever
-the subject or object. As a special shorthand,
-
-<blockquote><code>listStatements( S, P, O )
-</code></blockquote>
-
-is equivalent to
-
-<blockquote><code>listStatements( new SimpleSelector( S, P, O ) )
-</code></blockquote>
-
-<p>
-The following code, which can be found in full in <a
-href="../../../src-examples/jena/examples/rdf/Tutorial07.java">tutorial 7</a> lists the full names on all the
-vcards in the database.</p>
-
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>// select all the resources with a VCARD.FN property
-ResIterator iter = model.listSubjectsWithProperty(VCARD.FN);
-if (iter.hasNext()) {
-    System.out.println("The database contains vcards for:");
-    while (iter.hasNext()) {
-        System.out.println("  " + iter.nextStatement()
-                                      .getProperty(VCARD.FN)
-                                      .getString());
-    }
-} else {
-    System.out.println("No vcards were found in the database");
-}
-            </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-
-<p>This should produce output similar to the following:</p>
-
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>The database contains vcards for:
-  Sarah Jones
-  John Smith
-  Matt Jones
-  Becky Smith
-  </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-
-<p>Your next exercise is to modify this code to use <code>SimpleSelector
-</code>instead of <code>listSubjectsWithProperty</code>.</p>
-
-<p>Lets see how to implement some finer control over the statements selected.
-<code>SimpleSelector</code> can be subclassed and its selects method modified
-to perform further filtering:</p>
-
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>// select all the resources with a VCARD.FN property
-// whose value ends with "Smith"
-StmtIterator iter = model.listStatements(
-    new SimpleSelector(null, VCARD.FN, (RDFNode) null) {
-        public boolean selects(Statement s)
-            {return s.getString().endsWith("Smith");}
-    });</code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-
-<p>This sample code uses a neat Java technique of overridding a method
-definition inline when creating an instance of the class.  Here the
-<code>selects(...)</code> method checks to ensure that the full name ends
-with "Smith".  It is important to note that filtering based on the subject,
-predicate and object arguments takes place before the
-<code>selects(...)</code> method is called, so the extra test will only be
-applied to matching statements.</p>
-
-<p>The full code can be found in <a href="../../../src-examples/jena/examples/rdf/Tutorial08.java">tutorial
-8</a> and produces output like this:</p>
-
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>The database contains vcards for:
-  John Smith
-  Becky Smith</code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-
-<p></p>
-
-<p>You might think that:</p>
-
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>// do all filtering in the selects method
-StmtIterator iter = model.listStatements(
-  new
-      SimpleSelector(null, null, (RDFNode) null) {
-          public boolean selects(Statement s) {
-              return (subject == null   || s.getSubject().equals(subject))
-                  &amp;&amp; (predicate == null || s.getPredicate().equals(predicate))
-                  &amp;&amp; (object == null    || s.getObject().equals(object))
-          }
-     }
- });</code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-
-<p>is equivalent to:</p>
-
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>StmtIterator iter =
-  model.listStatements(new SimpleSelector(subject, predicate, object)</code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-
-<p>Whilst functionally they may be equivalent, the first form will list all
-the statements in the Model and test each one individually, whilst the second
-allows indexes maintained by the implementation to improve performance.  Try
-it on a large Model and see for yourself, but make a cup of coffee first.</p>
-
-<h2 id="ch-Operations on Models">Operations on Models</h2>
-
-<p>Jena provides three operations for manipulating Models as a whole.  These
-are the common set operations of union, intersection and difference.</p>
-
-<p>The union of two Models is the union of the sets of statements which
-represent each Model.  This is one of the key operations that the design of
-RDF supports.  It enables data from disparate data sources to be merged.
-Consider the following two Models:</p>
-
-<p style="text-align: center">
-<img alt="figure 4" src="figures/fig4.png" width="240" height="240">and
-<img alt="figure 5" src="figures/fig5.png" width="240" height="240"></p>
-
-<p>When these are merged, the two http://...JohnSmith nodes are merged into
-one and the duplicate <code>vcard:FN</code> arc is dropped to produce:</p>
-
-<p style="text-align: center">
-<img alt="figure 6" src="figures/fig6.png" width="540" height="240"></p>
-
-<p>Lets look at the code to do this (the full code is in <a
-href="../../../src-examples/jena/examples/rdf/Tutorial09.java">tutorial 9</a>) and see what happens.</p>
-
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>// read the RDF/XML files
-model1.read(new InputStreamReader(in1), "");
-model2.read(new InputStreamReader(in2), "");
-
-// merge the Models
-Model model = model1.union(model2);
-
-// print the Model as RDF/XML
-model.write(system.out, "RDF/XML-ABBREV");</code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-
-<p>The output produced by the pretty writer looks like this:</p>
-
-<blockquote>
-  <pre>&lt;rdf:RDF
-    xmlns:rdf=&quot;<a href="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#">http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#</a>&quot;
-    xmlns:vcard=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#&quot;&gt;
-  &lt;rdf:Description rdf:about=&quot;http://somewhere/JohnSmith/&quot;&gt;
-    &lt;vcard:EMAIL&gt;
-      &lt;vcard:internet&gt;
-        &lt;rdf:value&gt;John@somewhere.com&lt;/rdf:value&gt;
-      &lt;/vcard:internet&gt;
-    &lt;/vcard:EMAIL&gt;
-    &lt;vcard:N rdf:parseType=&quot;Resource&quot;&gt;
-      &lt;vcard:Given&gt;John&lt;/vcard:Given&gt;
-      &lt;vcard:Family&gt;Smith&lt;/vcard:Family&gt;
-    &lt;/vcard:N&gt;
-    &lt;vcard:FN&gt;John Smith&lt;/vcard:FN&gt;
-  &lt;/rdf:Description&gt;
-&lt;/rdf:RDF&gt;</pre>
-  <pre><code> </code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-
-<p>Even if you are unfamiliar with the details of the RDF/XML syntax, it
-should be reasonably clear that the Models have merged as expected.  The
-intersection and difference of the Models can be computed in a similar
-manner, using the methods <code>.intersection(Model)</code> and
-<code>.difference(Model)</code>; see the
-<a href="../../javadoc/com/hp/hpl/jena/rdf/model/Model.html#difference(com.hp.hpl.jena.rdf.model.Model)">difference</a>
-and
-<a href="../../javadoc/com/hp/hpl/jena/rdf/model/Model.html#intersection(com.hp.hpl.jena.rdf.model.Model)">intersection</a>
-Javadocs for more details.
-</p>
-
-<h2 id="ch-Containers">Containers</h2>
-
-<p>RDF defines a special kind of resources for representing collections of
-things. These resources are called <i>containers</i>. The members of a
-container can be either literals or resources. There are three kinds of
-container:</p>
-
-<ul>
-  <li>a BAG is an unordered collection</li>
-  <li>an ALT is an unordered collection intended to represent
-  alternatives</li>
-  <li>a SEQ is an ordered collection</li>
+    <h1 class="title">Jena tutorials</h1>
+    <p>The following tutorials take a step-by-step approach to explaining aspects of
+RDF and linked-data applications programming in Jena. For a more task-oriented
+description, please see the <a href="/jena/getting_started/">getting started</a> guide.</p>
+<ul>
+<li><a href="rdf_api.html">RDF core API tutorial</a></li>
+<li><a href="sparql.html">SPARQL tutorial</a></li>
+<li><a href="using_jena_with_eclipse.html">Using Jena with Eclipse</a></li>
 </ul>
-
-<p>A container is represented by a resource. That resource will have an
-rdf:type property whose value should be one of rdf:Bag, rdf:Alt or rdf:Seq,
-or a subclass of one of these, depending on the type of the container.
-The first member of the container is the value of the container's rdf:_1
-property; the second member of the container is the value of the container's
-rdf:_2 property and so on. The rdf:_nnn properties are known as the
-<i>ordinal properties</i>.</p>
-
-<p>For example, the Model for a simple bag containing the vcards of the
-Smith's might look like this:</p>
-
-<p align="center">
-<img border="0" src="figures/fig3.png" alt="figure 3" width="720" height="420"></p>
-
-<p align="left">Whilst the members of the bag are represented by the
-properties rdf:_1, rdf:_2 etc the ordering of the properties is not
-significant. We could switch the values of the rdf:_1 and rdf:_2
-properties and the resulting Model would represent the same information.</p>
-
-<p align="left">Alt's are intended to represent alternatives. For
-example, lets say a resource represented a software product. It might
-have a property to indicate where it might be obtained from. The value
-of that property might be an Alt collection containing various sites from
-which it could be downloaded. Alt's are unordered except that the
-rdf:_1 property has special significance. It represents the default
-choice.</p>
-
-<p align="left">Whilst containers can be handled using the basic machinery of
-resources and properties, Jena has explicit interfaces and implementation
-classes to handle them. It is not a good idea to have an object
-manipulating a container, and at the same time to modify the state of that
-container using the lower level methods.</p>
-
-<p align="left">Let's modify tutorial 8 to create this bag:</p>
-
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>// create a bag
-Bag smiths = model.createBag();
-
-// select all the resources with a VCARD.FN property
-// whose value ends with "Smith"
-StmtIterator iter = model.listStatements(
-    new SimpleSelector(null, VCARD.FN, (RDFNode) null) {
-        public boolean selects(Statement s) {
-                return s.getString().endsWith("Smith");
-        }
-    });
-// add the Smith's to the bag
-while (iter.hasNext()) {
-    smiths.add(iter.nextStatement().getSubject());
-}</code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-
-<p>If we write out this Model, it contains something like the following:</p>
-
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>&lt;rdf:RDF
-  xmlns:rdf='http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#'
-  xmlns:vcard='http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#'
- &gt;
-...
-  &lt;rdf:Description rdf:nodeID=&quot;A3&quot;&gt;
-    &lt;rdf:type rdf:resource='http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#Bag'/&gt;
-    &lt;rdf:_1 rdf:resource='http://somewhere/JohnSmith/'/&gt;
-    &lt;rdf:_2 rdf:resource='http://somewhere/RebeccaSmith/'/&gt;
-  &lt;/rdf:Description&gt;
-&lt;/rdf:RDF&gt;</code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-
-<p>which represents the Bag resource.</p>
-
-<p>The container interface provides an iterator to list the contents of a
-container:</p>
-
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>// print out the members of the bag
-NodeIterator iter2 = smiths.iterator();
-if (iter2.hasNext()) {
-    System.out.println("The bag contains:");
-    while (iter2.hasNext()) {
-        System.out.println("  " +
-            ((Resource) iter2.next())
-                            .getProperty(VCARD.FN)
-                            .getString());
-    }
-} else {
-    System.out.println("The bag is empty");
-}</code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-
-<p>which produces the following output:</p>
-
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>The bag contains:
-  John Smith
-  Becky Smith</code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-
-<p>Executable example code can be found in <a href="../../../src-examples/jena/examples/rdf/Tutorial10.java">
-tutorial 10</a>, which glues together the fragments above into a complete
-example.</p>
-
-<p>The Jena classes offer methods for manipulating containers including
-adding new members, inserting new members into the middle of a container and
-removing existing members.  The Jena container classes currently ensure that
-the the list of ordinal properties used starts at rdf:_1 and is contiguous.
-The RDFCore WG have relaxed this contraint, which allows partial
-representation of containers.  This therefore is an area of Jena may be
-changed in the future.</p>
-
-<h2 id="ch-More about Literals and Datatypes">More about Literals and Datatypes</h2>
-
-<p>RDF literals are not just simple strings.  Literals may have a language
-tag to indicate the language of the literal.  The literal "chat" with an
-English language tag is considered different to the literal "chat" with a
-French language tag.  This rather strange behaviour is an artefact of the
-original RDF/XML syntax.</p>
-
-<p>Further there are really two sorts of Literals.  In one, the string
-component is just that, an ordinary string.  In the other the string
-component is expected to be a well balanced fragment of XML.  When an RDF
-Model is written as RDF/XML a special construction using a
-parseType='Literal' attribute is used to represent it.</p>
-
-<p>In Jena, these attributes of a literal may be set when the literal is
-constructed, e.g. in <a href="../../../src-examples/jena/examples/rdf/Tutorial11.java">tutorial 11</a>:</p>
-
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>// create the resource
-Resource r = model.createResource();
-
-// add the property
-r.addProperty(RDFS.label, model.createLiteral("chat", "en"))
- .addProperty(RDFS.label, model.createLiteral("chat", "fr"))
- .addProperty(RDFS.label, model.createLiteral("&lt;em&gt;chat&lt;/em&gt;", true));
-
-// write out the Model
-model.write(system.out);</code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-
-<p>produces</p>
-
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>&lt;rdf:RDF
-  xmlns:rdf='http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#'
-  xmlns:rdfs='http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#'
- &gt;
-  &lt;rdf:Description rdf:nodeID=&quot;A0&quot;&gt;
-    &lt;rdfs:label xml:lang='en'&gt;chat&lt;/rdfs:label&gt;
-    &lt;rdfs:label xml:lang='fr'&gt;chat&lt;/rdfs:label&gt;
-    &lt;rdfs:label rdf:parseType='Literal'&gt;&lt;em&gt;chat&lt;/em&gt;&lt;/rdfs:label&gt;
-  &lt;/rdf:Description&gt;
-&lt;/rdf:RDF&gt;</code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-
-<p>For two literals to be considered equal, they must either both be XML
-literals or both be simple literals.  In addition, either both must have no
-language tag, or if language tags are present they must be equal.  For simple
-literals the strings must be equal.  XML literals have two notions of
-equality.  The simple notion is that the conditions previously mentioned are
-true and the strings are also equal.  The other notion is that they can be
-equal if the cannonicalization of their strings is equal.</p>
-
-<p>Jena's interfaces also support typed literals. The old-fashioned way
-(shown below) treats typed literals as shorthand for strings: typed
-values are converted in the usual Java way to strings and these strings
-are stored in the Model. For example, try (noting that for
-simple literals, we can omit the <code>model.createLiteral</code>(...)
-call):</p>
-
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>// create the resource
-Resource r = model.createResource();
-
-// add the property
-r.addProperty(RDFS.label, "11")
- .addProperty(RDFS.label, 11);
-
-// write out the Model
-model.write(system.out, "N-TRIPLE");</code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-
-<p>The output produced is:</p>
-
-<blockquote>
-  <pre><code>_:A... &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#label&gt; "11" .</code></pre>
-</blockquote>
-
-<p>Since both literals are really just the string "11", then only one
-statement is added.</p>
-
-<p>The RDFCore WG has defined mechanisms for supporting datatypes in RDF.
-Jena suports these using the <i>typed literal</i> mechanisms; they are
-not discussed in this tutorial.</p>
-
-<h2 id="ch-Glossary">Glossary</h2>
-
-<dl>
-
-<dt>Blank Node
-<dd>Represents a resource, but does not indicate a URI for the
-resource.  Blank nodes act like existentially qualified variables in first
-order logic.
-
-<dt>Dublin Core
-<dd>A standard for metadata about web resources. Further
-information can be found at the <a href="http://purl.oclc.org/dc/">Dublin Core
-web site</a>.
-
-<dt>Literal
-<dd>A string of characters which can be the value of a property.
-
-<dt>Object
-<dd>The part of a triple which is the value of the statement
-
-<dt>Predicate
-<dd>The property part of a triple.
-
-<dt>Property
-<dd>A property is an attribute of a resource. For example
-DC.title is a property, as is RDF.type.
-
-<dt>Resource
-<dd>Some entity. It could be a web resource such as web page, or
-it could be a concrete physical thing such as a tree or a car. It could be an
-abstract idea such as chess or football. Resources are named by URI's.
-
-<dt>Statement
-<dd>An arc in an RDF Model, normally interpreted as a fact.
-
-<dt>Subject
-<dd>The resource which is the source of an arc in an RDF Model
-
-<dt>Triple
-<dd>A structure containing a subject, a predicate and an object.
-Another term for a statement.
-
-</dl>
-
-<h2>Footnotes</h2>
-
-<ol>
-  <li><a id="fn-01"></a>The identifier of an RDF resource can
-    include a fragment identifier, e.g.
-    http://hostname/rdf/tutorial/#ch-Introduction, so, strictly speaking, an
-    RDF resource is identified by a URI reference.</li>
-  <li><a id="fn-02"></a>As well as being a string of characters,
-    literals also have an optional language encoding to represent the
-    language of the string. For example the literal "two" might have a
-    language encoding of "en" for English and the literal "deux" might have a
-    language encoding of "fr" for France.</li>
-</ol>
   </div>
 
   <div id="footer">

Modified: websites/production/jena/content/jena/tutorials/sparql.html
==============================================================================
--- websites/production/jena/content/jena/tutorials/sparql.html (original)
+++ websites/production/jena/content/jena/tutorials/sparql.html Wed Nov 23 00:40:41 2011
@@ -20,7 +20,7 @@
 -->
 
   <link href="/jena/css/jena.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css">
-  <title>Apache Jena - SPARQL tutorial</title>
+  <title>Apache Jena - SPARQL Tutorial</title>
   <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8">
   <script src="/jena/js/jquery-1.6.4.min.js" type="text/javascript"></script>
   <script src="/jena/js/jena-navigation.js" type="text/javascript"></script>
@@ -86,7 +86,8 @@
 </ul>
 <h1 id="tutorials">Tutorials</h1>
 <ul>
-<li><a href="/jena/tutorials/index.html">RDF tutorial</a></li>
+<li><a href="/jena/tutorials/index.html">Tutorials index</a></li>
+<li><a href="/jena/tutorials/rdf_api.html">RDF tutorial</a></li>
 <li><a href="/jena/tutorials/sparql.html">SPARQL queries</a></li>
 <li><a href="/jena/tutorials/using_jena_with_eclipse.html">Using Jena with Eclipse</a></li>
 </ul>
@@ -97,7 +98,15 @@
 <li><a href="/jena/documentation/rdf/index.html">RDF</a></li>
 <li><a href="/jena/documentation/query/index.html">SPARQL (ARQ)</a></li>
 <li><a href="/jena/documentation/tdb/index.html">TDB</a></li>
-<li><a href="/jena/documentation/sdb/index.html">SDB</a></li>
+<li><a href="/jena/documentation/sdb/index.html">SDB</a><ul>
+<li><a href="/jena/documentation/sdb/installation.html">Installation</a></li>
+<li><a href="/jena/documentation/sdb/quickstart.html">Quick start</a></li>
+<li><a href="/jena/documentation/sdb/commands.html">Cmd line</a></li>
+<li><a href="/jena/documentation/sdb/javaapi.html">Java API</a></li>
+<li><a href="/jena/documentation/sdb/configuration.html">Config</a></li>
+<li><a href="/jena/documentation/sdb/databases_supported.html">Databases</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
 <li><a href="/jena/documentation/larq/index.html">LARQ</a></li>
 <li><a href="/jena/documentation/serving_data/index.html">Serving Data</a></li>
 <li><a href="/jena/documentation/ontology/index.html">Ontology</a></li>
@@ -123,6 +132,7 @@
 </li>
 <li><a href="/jena/documentation/tools/index.html">Tools</a><ul>
 <li><a href="/jena/documentation/tools/schemagen.html">schemagen</a></li>
+<li><a href="/jena/documentation/tools/eyeball-getting-started.html">eyeball</a></li>
 </ul>
 </li>
 </ul>
@@ -141,8 +151,48 @@
   </div>
 
   <div id="content">
-    <h1 class="title">SPARQL tutorial</h1>
-    <p>Coming soon.</p>
+    <h1 class="title">SPARQL Tutorial</h1>
+    <p>The objective of this SPARQL tutorial is to give a fast course in
+SPARQL. The tutorial covers the major features of the query
+language through examples but does not aim to be complete.</p>
+<p>If you are looking for a short introduction to SPARQL and Jena try
+<a href="http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/xml/library/j-sparql/">Search RDF data with SPARQL</a></p>
+<p>SPARQL is a
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/">query language</a> and a
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-protocol/">protocol</a> for accessing
+RDF designed by the
+<a href="http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/DataAccess/">W3C RDF Data Access Working Group</a>. </p>
+<p>As a query language, SPARQL is "data-oriented" in that it only
+queries the information held in the models; there is no inference
+in the query language itself.  Of course, the Jena model may be
+'smart' in that it provides the impression that certain triples
+exist by creating them on-demand, including OWL reasoning.  SPARQL
+does not do anything other than take the description of what the
+application wants, in the form of a query, and returns that
+information, in the form of a set of bindings or an RDF graph.</p>
+<h2 id="sparql_tutorial">SPARQL tutorial</h2>
+<ol>
+<li><a href="sparql_data.html">Preliminaries: data!</a></li>
+<li><a href="sparql_query1.html">Executing a simple query</a></li>
+<li><a href="sparql_basic_patterns.html">Basic patterns</a></li>
+<li><a href="sparql_filters.html">Value constraints</a></li>
+<li><a href="sparql_optionals.html">Optional information</a></li>
+<li><a href="sparql_union.html">Alternatives</a></li>
+<li><a href="sparql_datasets.html">Named Graphs</a></li>
+<li><a href="sparql_results.html">Results</a></li>
+</ol>
+<h2 id="other_material">Other Material</h2>
+<ul>
+<li>The
+    <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/">SPARQL query language definition document</a>
+    itself contains many examples.</li>
+<li><a href="http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/xml/library/j-sparql/">Search RDF data with SPARQL</a>
+    (by Phil McCarthy) - article published on IBM developer works about
+    SPARQL and Jena.</li>
+<li><a href="http://www.ilrt.bris.ac.uk/people/cmdjb/2005/04-sparql/">SPARQL reference card</a>
+    (by <a href="http://www.ilrt.bristol.ac.uk/people/cmdjb/">Dave Beckett</a>)</li>
+</ul>
+<p>Detailed <a href="/jena/documentation/sparql">ARQ documentation</a></p>
   </div>
 
   <div id="footer">

Modified: websites/production/jena/content/jena/tutorials/using_jena_with_eclipse.html
==============================================================================
--- websites/production/jena/content/jena/tutorials/using_jena_with_eclipse.html (original)
+++ websites/production/jena/content/jena/tutorials/using_jena_with_eclipse.html Wed Nov 23 00:40:41 2011
@@ -86,7 +86,8 @@
 </ul>
 <h1 id="tutorials">Tutorials</h1>
 <ul>
-<li><a href="/jena/tutorials/index.html">RDF tutorial</a></li>
+<li><a href="/jena/tutorials/index.html">Tutorials index</a></li>
+<li><a href="/jena/tutorials/rdf_api.html">RDF tutorial</a></li>
 <li><a href="/jena/tutorials/sparql.html">SPARQL queries</a></li>
 <li><a href="/jena/tutorials/using_jena_with_eclipse.html">Using Jena with Eclipse</a></li>
 </ul>
@@ -97,7 +98,15 @@
 <li><a href="/jena/documentation/rdf/index.html">RDF</a></li>
 <li><a href="/jena/documentation/query/index.html">SPARQL (ARQ)</a></li>
 <li><a href="/jena/documentation/tdb/index.html">TDB</a></li>
-<li><a href="/jena/documentation/sdb/index.html">SDB</a></li>
+<li><a href="/jena/documentation/sdb/index.html">SDB</a><ul>
+<li><a href="/jena/documentation/sdb/installation.html">Installation</a></li>
+<li><a href="/jena/documentation/sdb/quickstart.html">Quick start</a></li>
+<li><a href="/jena/documentation/sdb/commands.html">Cmd line</a></li>
+<li><a href="/jena/documentation/sdb/javaapi.html">Java API</a></li>
+<li><a href="/jena/documentation/sdb/configuration.html">Config</a></li>
+<li><a href="/jena/documentation/sdb/databases_supported.html">Databases</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
 <li><a href="/jena/documentation/larq/index.html">LARQ</a></li>
 <li><a href="/jena/documentation/serving_data/index.html">Serving Data</a></li>
 <li><a href="/jena/documentation/ontology/index.html">Ontology</a></li>
@@ -123,6 +132,7 @@
 </li>
 <li><a href="/jena/documentation/tools/index.html">Tools</a><ul>
 <li><a href="/jena/documentation/tools/schemagen.html">schemagen</a></li>
+<li><a href="/jena/documentation/tools/eyeball-getting-started.html">eyeball</a></li>
 </ul>
 </li>
 </ul>



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