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From enrid...@apache.org
Subject svn commit: r1197659 - /incubator/stanbol/site/trunk/content/stanbol/docs/trunk/reasoners.mdtext
Date Fri, 04 Nov 2011 16:55:48 GMT
Author: enridaga
Date: Fri Nov  4 16:55:47 2011
New Revision: 1197659

URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc?rev=1197659&view=rev
Log:
Documentation page for the reasoners module (STANBOL-373)

Added:
    incubator/stanbol/site/trunk/content/stanbol/docs/trunk/reasoners.mdtext

Added: incubator/stanbol/site/trunk/content/stanbol/docs/trunk/reasoners.mdtext
URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc/incubator/stanbol/site/trunk/content/stanbol/docs/trunk/reasoners.mdtext?rev=1197659&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- incubator/stanbol/site/trunk/content/stanbol/docs/trunk/reasoners.mdtext (added)
+++ incubator/stanbol/site/trunk/content/stanbol/docs/trunk/reasoners.mdtext Fri Nov  4 16:55:47
2011
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+Title: Reasoners
+
+Stanbol Reasoners is a component that provides a set of services to exploit automatic inference
engines.
+
+The module implements a common api for reasoning services, providing the possibility to plug
different reasoners and configurations in parallel.
+
+Actually the module includes OWLApi and Jena based abstract services, with concrete implementations
for Jena RDFS, OWL, OWLMini and HermiT reasoning service.
+
+The Reasoners module expose a REST endpoint at the following location:
+
+	http://localhost:8080/reasoners
+
+with the following preloaded services:
+
+* /rdfs, which is based on Jena RDFS reasoner and supports almost all of the RDFS entailments.
+* /owl, a Jena reasoner configured to support OWL (with some limitations)
+* /owlmini, another Jena configuration that partially supports OWL
+
+In addition, it is also available a service which uses the HermiT reasoner to exploit the
full OWL2 specification.
+
+Each reasoner can be accessed with one of three tasks:
+
+* check: to perform a consistency check. This service returns HTTP Status 200 if data is
consistent, 204 otherwise (at the current state of implementation the service does not include
an explanation about why the input is inconsistent. This feature is in our ÒtodoÓ list,
by the way)
+* classify: to materialize all inferred rdf:type statements.
+* enrich: to materialize all inferred statements.
+
+For example:
+
+	http://localhost:8080/reasoners/owl/check // expose the Jena owl service with task check,
or
+	http://localhost:8080/reasoners/owl2/classify // to use the HermiT service with task classify
+
+We can use the curl command line utility to ask the Jena OWL reasoning service to materialize
all inferences produced by loading the FOAF ontology:
+
+	$ curl -H "Accept: text/n3" "http://localhost:8080/stanbol/reasoners/owl/enrich?url=http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"
+	
+The above example performs a GET  asking for a <tt>text/n3</tt> representation
of the result. For example, the equivalency of <tt>foaf:Agent</tt> and <tt>dc:Agent</tt>
result in the <tt>rdfs:subClassOf</tt> statements for the <tt>foaf:Person</tt>
type:
+<pre>[...]
+&lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person&gt;
+      a       &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#Thing&gt; ,
+              &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#Class&gt; ,
+              &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#Resource&gt; ,
+              &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#Class&gt; ;
+      &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#label&gt;
+              "Person" ;
+      &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#subClassOf&gt;
+              &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person&gt; ,
+              &lt;http://purl.org/dc/terms/Agent&gt; ,
+              &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Agent&gt; ,
+              &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#Thing&gt; ,
+              &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#Resource&gt; ,
+              &lt;http://www.w3.org/2000/10/swap/pim/contact#Person&gt; ,
+              &lt;http://www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/wgs84_pos#SpatialThing&gt; ;
+      &lt;http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#disjointWith&gt;
+              &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Organization&gt; ,
+              &lt;http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Project&gt; ;
+[...]</pre>
+This behaviour is equivalent if we use the method POST with the header <tt>Content-type:
application/x-www-form-urlencoded</tt>. In addition, if the <tt>target</tt>
parameter is provided, the service saves the output in the given graph in the triple store
and does not return the RDF stream.
+
+## Differences between the reasoners
+Let's give some example on the differences between the available reasoners (to try the example
ontology snippets you can download them from <a href="https://github.com/enridaga/reasoners.examples/tree/master/enridaga.reasoners.examples"
target="_blank">here</a>).
+
+The first snippet uses rdfs:subClassOf to declare that any Article is a Document, which is
in turn a ContentItem. 
+<pre>
+&lt;!-- item_1 is an Article --&gt;
+&lt;ex:Article rdf:about="http://www.example.org/reasoners/item_1"/&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- An article is a kind of Document --&gt;
+&lt;rdf:Description rdf:about="http://www.example.org/reasoners/Article"&gt;
+	&lt;rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="http://www.example.org/reasoners/Document"/&gt;
+&lt;/rdf:Description&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- An document is a kind of content item --&gt;
+&lt;rdf:Description rdf:about="http://www.example.org/reasoners/Document"&gt;
+	&lt;rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="http://www.example.org/reasoners/ContentItem"/&gt;
+&lt;/rdf:Description&gt;
+</pre>
+<a href="https://raw.github.com/enridaga/reasoners.examples/master/enridaga.reasoners.examples/rdfs/subclass.xml"
target="_blank">download it</a>
+
+Giving it to the /rdfs reasoning service, we obtain as resulted inferred statement that item_1
is also a Document and a ContentItem. Another feature of RDFS is the definition of the domain
and range of a property.
+<pre style="overflow: auto">
+&lt;!-- Both enridaga and alexdma are authors of item_1 --&gt;
+&lt;rdf:Description rdf:about="http://www.example.org/reasoners/enridaga"&gt;
+	&lt;ex:author rdf:resource="http://www.example.org/reasoners/item_1"/&gt;
+&lt;/rdf:Description&gt;
+&lt;rdf:Description rdf:about="http://www.example.org/reasoners/alexdma"&gt;
+	&lt;ex:author rdf:resource="http://www.example.org/reasoners/item_1"/&gt;
+&lt;/rdf:Description&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- ex:author wants a person as subject, and a content-item as object --&gt;
+&lt;rdf:Description rdf:about="http://www.example.org/reasoners/author"&gt;
+	&lt;rdfs:domain rdf:resource="http://www.example.org/reasoners/Person"/&gt;
+	&lt;rdfs:range rdf:resource="http://www.example.org/reasoners/ContentItem"/&gt;
+&lt;/rdf:Description&gt;
+</pre>
+<a href="https://raw.github.com/enridaga/reasoners.examples/master/enridaga.reasoners.examples/rdfs/domain-range.xml"
target="_blank">download it</a>
+We will obtain, in this case, that both <tt>enridaga</tt> and <tt>alexdma</tt>
are <tt>Authors</tt>, and that <tt>item_1</tt> is a <tt>ContentItem</tt>.
RDFS semantics is considered also by other reasoners. The <tt>/rdfs</tt> service
is the less "expressive" of the four.
+
+The following snippet will work with <tt>/owl</tt>, <tt>/owlmini</tt>
and <tt>/owl2</tt> (but not with <tt>/rdfs</tt>):
+<pre style="overflow: auto">
+&lt;!-- ogrisel, enridaga and alexdma are developers --&gt;
+&lt;ex:Developer rdf:about="#enridaga" /&gt;
+&lt;ex:Developer rdf:about="#ogrisel" /&gt;
+&lt;ex:Developer rdf:about="#alexdma" /&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- We know:
+#alexdma #workedTogheter #enridaga and #ogrisel
+--&gt;
+&lt;rdf:Description rdf:about="#alexdma"&gt;
+&lt;workedTogheter rdf:resource="#ogrisel"/&gt;
+&lt;workedTogheter rdf:resource="#enridaga"/&gt;
+&lt;/rdf:Description&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- #workedTogheter is an owl:SymmetricProperty (well, this is an example...) --&gt;
+&lt;owl:SymmetricProperty rdf:about="#workedTogheter"/&gt;
+&lt;!-- #workedTogheter is also a owl:TransitiveProperty (well, this is an example...)
--&gt;
+&lt;owl:TransitiveProperty rdf:about="#workedTogheter"/&gt;
+</pre>
+<a href="https://raw.github.com/enridaga/reasoners.examples/master/enridaga.reasoners.examples/owlmini/symmetric.xml"
target="_blank">download it</a>
+The OWL vocabulary introduce logical capabilities, allowing more complex inferences to be
produced. In the above example we state that <tt>alexdma workedWith enridaga</tt>
and <tt>ogrisel</tt>. Since we declare the property <tt>workedTogheter</tt>
to be "Symmetric" and "Transitive", the result will include the following:
+<ul>
+<li><tt>enridaga workedWith alexdma</tt> (is symmetric)</li>
+<li><tt>ogrisel workedWith alexdma</tt></li>
+<li><tt>ogrisel workedWith enridaga</tt> (is transitive)</li>
+<li><tt>enridaga workedWith ogrisel</tt></li>
+</ul>
+
+Next snippet is inconsistent. This means that the OWL based reasoners will not return any
inference, but a 204 HTTP response:
+<pre style="overflow: auto">
+&lt;!-- enridaga is a person --&gt;
+&lt;ex:Person rdf:about="http://www.example.org/reasoners/enridaga" /&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- Persons and Organizations are disjoint --&gt;
+&lt;owl:Class rdf:about="http://www.example.org/reasoners/Person" /&gt;
+&lt;owl:Class rdf:about="http://www.example.org/reasoners/Organization"&gt;
+	&lt;owl:disjointWith rdf:resource="http://www.example.org/reasoners/Person" /&gt;
+&lt;/owl:Class&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- A Public Limited Company is a kind of Company, which is a kind of Organization
--&gt;
+&lt;owl:Class rdf:about="http://www.example.org/reasoners/PublicLimitedCompany"&gt;
+	&lt;rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="http://www.example.org/reasoners/Company" /&gt;
+&lt;/owl:Class&gt;
+&lt;owl:Class rdf:about="http://www.example.org/reasoners/Company"&gt;
+	&lt;rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="http://www.example.org/reasoners/Organization" /&gt;
+&lt;/owl:Class&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- enridaga cannot be a Public Limited Company --&gt;
+&lt;ex:PublicLimitedCompany rdf:about="http://www.example.org/reasoners/enridaga" /&gt;
+</pre>
+<a href="https://raw.github.com/enridaga/reasoners.examples/master/enridaga.reasoners.examples/owlmini/inconsistent-types.xml"
target="_blank">download it</a>
+The <tt>/owlmini</tt> implements the OWL language with some (more) limitations
then <tt>/owl</tt> (both are based on the Jena rule based reasoner, as said before).
+
+The following example shows the use of class restrictions, in particular the usage of <tt>owl:someValuesFrom</tt>:
+<pre style="overflow: auto">
+&lt;!-- john, is an developer, but we don't know anything else --&gt;
+&lt;ex:Developer rdf:about="#john"&gt;
+&lt;/ex:Developer&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- a #SoftwareCompany is a kind of #Organization --&gt;
+&lt;owl:Class rdf:about="SoftwareCompany"&gt;
+	&lt;rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#Organization" /&gt;
+&lt;/owl:Class&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- #Developers #worksAt some #SoftwareCompany (they are not the only one..., 
+	this is why we use owl:subClassOf) --&gt;
+&lt;owl:Class rdf:about="#Developer"&gt;
+	&lt;rdfs:subClassOf&gt;
+		&lt;owl:restriction&gt;
+			&lt;owl:onProperty rdf:resource="#worksAt" /&gt;
+			&lt;owl:someValuesFrom rdf:resource="#SoftwareCompany" /&gt;
+		&lt;/owl:restriction&gt;
+	&lt;/rdfs:subClassOf&gt;
+&lt;/owl:Class&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- Employers are all who #worksAt any kind of Organization (owl:equivalentClass)
--&gt;
+&lt;owl:Class rdf:about="#Employer"&gt;
+	&lt;owl:equivalentClass&gt;
+		&lt;owl:restriction&gt;
+			&lt;owl:onProperty rdf:resource="#worksAt" /&gt;
+			&lt;owl:someValuesFrom rdf:resource="#Organization" /&gt;
+		&lt;/owl:restriction&gt;
+	&lt;/owl:equivalentClass&gt;
+&lt;/owl:Class&gt;
+</pre>
+<a href="https://raw.github.com/enridaga/reasoners.examples/master/enridaga.reasoners.examples/owl/some-values-from.xml"
target="_blank">download it</a>
+
+We expect an OWL reasoner to state that John is an <tt>Employer</tt>. This example
does not work with <tt>/rdfs</tt> (it ignores the OWL semantics), and does not
work with <tt>/owlmini</tt>, because the Jena OWL(mini) reasoner omits the forward
entailments for <tt>owl:someValuesFrom restrictions</tt> (see [<a href="#ref4">4</a>]).
It works correctly if we use the service <tt>/owl</tt>.
+
+The <tt>/owl</tt> service support the most of the semantic of OWL. The HermiT
reasoner is based on <a href="http://owlapi.sourceforge.net/">OWLApi</a> and is
an example of a DL reasoner. It fully covers OWL and OWL2, which introduces lot of interesting
features. Here is an example:
+<pre style="overflow: auto">
+&lt;!-- any employer must have some features: firstname, familyname, email 
+	and worksAt (in one of the allowed places) --&gt;
+&lt;owl:Class rdf:about="#Employer"&gt;
+	&lt;owl:equivalentClass&gt;
+		&lt;owl:Class&gt;
+			&lt;owl:intersectionOf rdf:parseType="Collection"&gt;
+				&lt;rdf:Description rdf:about="#Person" /&gt;
+				&lt;owl:Restriction&gt;
+					&lt;owl:onProperty rdf:resource="#firstname" /&gt;
+					&lt;owl:someValuesFrom rdf:resource="&amp;rdfs;Literal" /&gt;
+				&lt;/owl:Restriction&gt;
+				&lt;owl:Restriction&gt;
+					&lt;owl:onProperty rdf:resource="#familyname" /&gt;
+					&lt;owl:someValuesFrom rdf:resource="&amp;rdfs;Literal" /&gt;
+				&lt;/owl:Restriction&gt;
+				&lt;owl:Restriction&gt;
+					&lt;owl:onProperty rdf:resource="#email" /&gt;
+					&lt;owl:someValuesFrom rdf:resource="&amp;rdfs;Literal" /&gt;
+				&lt;/owl:Restriction&gt;
+				&lt;!-- --&gt;
+				&lt;!-- Let's say that Employers can work only in #Rome , #Catania and 
+					#Bologna --&gt;
+				&lt;owl:Restriction&gt;
+					&lt;owl:onProperty rdf:resource="#worksAt" /&gt;
+					&lt;owl:someValuesFrom&gt;
+						&lt;owl:Class&gt;
+							&lt;owl:oneOf rdf:parseType="Collection"&gt;
+								&lt;owl:Thing rdf:about="#Rome" /&gt;
+								&lt;owl:Thing rdf:about="#Catania" /&gt;
+								&lt;owl:Thing rdf:about="#Bologna" /&gt;
+							&lt;/owl:oneOf&gt;
+						&lt;/owl:Class&gt;
+					&lt;/owl:someValuesFrom&gt;
+				&lt;/owl:Restriction&gt;
+			&lt;/owl:intersectionOf&gt;
+		&lt;/owl:Class&gt;
+	&lt;/owl:equivalentClass&gt;
+&lt;/owl:Class&gt;
+
+&lt;owl:DatatypeProperty rdf:about="#firstname" /&gt;
+&lt;owl:DatatypeProperty rdf:about="#familyname" /&gt;
+&lt;owl:DatatypeProperty rdf:about="#email" /&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- #worksAt has range #Place --&gt;
+&lt;owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="#worksAt"&gt;
+	&lt;rdfs:range rdf:resource="#Place" /&gt;
+&lt;/owl:ObjectProperty&gt;
+
+&lt;!-- all the following places are distinct (no synonyms here) --&gt;
+&lt;owl:AllDifferent&gt;
+	&lt;owl:distinctMembers rdf:parseType="Collection"&gt;
+		&lt;owl:Thing rdf:about="#Rome" /&gt;
+		&lt;owl:Thing rdf:about="#Catania" /&gt;
+		&lt;owl:Thing rdf:about="#Bologna" /&gt;
+		&lt;owl:Thing rdf:about="#Moricone" /&gt;
+	&lt;/owl:distinctMembers&gt;
+&lt;/owl:AllDifferent&gt;
+
+
+&lt;!-- enridaga, to be an employer, must fulfill the restrictions defined 
+	for the class #Employer. --&gt;
+&lt;Person rdf:about="#enridaga"&gt;
+	&lt;!-- If you comment one of the next 4 statement, you won't have #enridaga 
+		to result as #Employer. --&gt;
+	&lt;firstname&gt;Enrico&lt;/firstname&gt;
+	&lt;familyname&gt;Daga&lt;/familyname&gt;
+	&lt;email&gt;enridaga@example.org&lt;/email&gt;
+	&lt;worksAt rdf:resource="#Catania" /&gt;
+
+	&lt;!-- If you uncomment the two statements below you will obtain an inconsistency,

+		because #Moricone is not an allowed place for developers --&gt;
+	&lt;!-- &lt;worksAt rdf:resource="#Moricone" /&gt; &lt;rdf:type rdf:resource="#Employer"

+		/&gt; --&gt;
+&lt;/Person&gt;
+</pre>
+<a href="https://raw.github.com/enridaga/reasoners.examples/master/enridaga.reasoners.examples/owl2/class-restrictions-owl2.xml"
target="_blank">download it</a>
+
+The above differences depend on the semantic supported by the specific reasoner and from
the implementation, which limit the power of the system in favour of a better efficiency (is
the case of the <tt>/owlmini</tt> implementation of Jena, more efficient then
the respective <tt>/owl</tt>). If you need to work with RDFS semantic, and don't
need OWL for your inferences, just use the RDFS one.
+## Build and install
+Run Stanbol, for example:
+
+ % java -jar -Xmx1g org.apache.stanbol.launchers.full-0.9.0-incubating-SNAPSHOT.jar
+ 
+
+You must have the Ontonet and Rules modules already installed (they are if you have followed
the above example).
+Move to the /reasoners directory, then run
+
+ % mvn install -PinstallBundle -Dsling.url=<the path to your running Felix administration
console>
+
+for example
+
+ % mvn install -PinstallBundle http://localhost:8080/system/console
+
+### Add the HermiT reasoner
+
+To enable HermiT as OWL2 reasoner you can download and install it from the Stanbol (Incubating)
svn repository. The steps are the following:
+
+	$ svn co https://svn.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator/stanbol/trunk/reasoners/hermit stanbol-hermit
+	$ cd stanbol-hermit
+	$ mvn install -PinstallBundle -Dsling.url=http://localhost:8080/system/console // change
this to the path related to your Stanbol instance
+
+
+
+____
+_[Back to index](index.html)_
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