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From "Poore, Joshua C." <>
Subject RE: [DISCUSS] Accept SensSoft into the Incubator
Date Tue, 24 May 2016 19:19:29 GMT
Hi Ted!

DARPA XDATA is ending next March. We currently have support on another DARPA contract that
is good through next year, excluding potential options. We also have some commercial contracts
that will leverage these open source projects. Some of this funding can be used for community
support and open source product support, as well.

SensSoft is also being backed heavily by Draper. Currently this means that our programs offices
are aggressively pursuing new contracts that leverage this project. We are also working with
internal leadership on internal research and development funding for SensSoft. This is how
we are working to make sure that SensSoft survives and thrives beyond the XDATA program that
spawned it.

To summarize, Draper is a soft money operation (we’re a not-for-profit). However, we are
pushing hard to support the community around SensSoft wherever possible and are considering
options for how to fold in overhead earned on dollars brought in for SensSoft projects to
support the SensSoft community. Draper believes that inclusion into the Apache Foundation
will help increase our visibility, and help harden these projects in ways that will help generate
more revenue to continually support and build upon the project.



Joshua C. Poore, Ph.D.
Senior Member of the Technical Staff
555 Technology Square, Rm. 2242
Cambridge, MA 02139-3563
Phone: (617) 258-4023<tel:%28617%29%20258-4023>
Cell: (617) 352-1700<tel:%28617%29%20258-4023>
Participate in Operation XDATA:!

From: Ted Dunning []
Sent: Tuesday, May 24, 2016 9:44 AM
Cc: Poore, Joshua C. <>
Subject: Re: [DISCUSS] Accept SensSoft into the Incubator

This looks like an excellent project.

How likely is it that it will be able to survive a hypothetical loss of DARPA funding?

On Mon, May 23, 2016 at 3:00 PM, lewis john mcgibbney <<>>
Hi general@,
I would like to open a DISCUSS thread on the topic of accepting The
Software as a Sensor™ (SensSoft <>)
Project into the Incubator. I am CC'ing Joshua Poore from the Charles Stark
Draper Laboratory, Inc. who we have been working with to build community
around a kick-ass set of software projects under the SensSoft umbrella.
At this stage we would very much appreciate critical feedback from general@
We are also open to mentors who may have an interest in the project
The proposal is pasted below.
Thanks in advance,

= SensSoft Proposal =

== Abstract ==
The Software as a Sensor™ (SensSoft) Project offers an open-source (ALv2.0)
software tool usability testing platform. It includes a number of
components that work together to provide a platform for collecting data
about user interactions with software tools, as well as archiving,
analyzing and visualizing that data. Additional components allow for
conducting web-based experiments in order to capture this data within a
larger experimental framework for formal user testing. These components
currently support Java Script-based web applications, although the schema
for “logging” user interactions can support mobile and desktop
applications, as well. Collectively, the Software as a Sensor Project
provides an open source platform for assessing how users interacted with
technology, not just collecting what they interacted with.

== Proposal ==
The Software as a Sensor™ Project is a next-generation platform for
analyzing how individuals and groups of people make use of software tools
to perform tasks or interact with other systems. It is composed of a number
of integrated components:
 * User Analytic Logging Engine (User ALE) refers to a simple Application
Program Interface (API) and backend infrastructure. User ALE provides
“instrumentation” for software tools, such that each user interaction
within the application can be logged, and sent as a JSON message to an
Elasticsearch/Logstash/Kibana (Elastic Stack) backend.
   * The API provides a robust schema that makes user activities human
readable, and provides an interpretive context for understanding that
activity’s functional relevance within the application. The schema provides
highly granular information best suited for advanced analytics. This
hierarchical schema is as follows:
     * Element Group: App features that share function (e.g., map group)
     * Element Sub: Specific App feature (e.g., map tiles)
     * Element Type: Category of feature (e.g., map)
     * Element ID: [attribute] id
     * Activity: Human imposed label (e.g., “search”)
     * Action: Event class (e.g., zoom, hover, click)
   * The API can either be manually embedded in the app source code, or
implemented automatically by inserting a script tag in the source code.
   * Users can either setup up their own Elastic stack instance, or use
Vagrant, a virtualization environment, to deploy a fully configured Elastic
stack instance to ship and ingest user activity logs and visualize their
log data with Kibana.
   * RESTful APIs allow other services to access logs directly from
   * User ALE allows adopters to own the data they collect from users
outright, and utilize it as they see fit.
 * Distill is an analytics stack for processing user activity logs
collected through User ALE. Distill is fully implemented in Python,
dependent on graph-tool to support graph analytics and other external
python libraries to query Elasticsearch. The two principle functions of
Distill are segmentation and graph analytics:
   * Segmentation allows for partitioning of the available data along
multiple axes. Subsets of log data can be selected via their attributes in
User ALE (e.g. Element Group or Activity), and by users/sessions.  Distill
also has the capability to ingest and segment data by additional attributes
collected through other channels (e.g. survey data, demographics).This
allows adopters to focus their analysis of log data on precisely the
attributes of their app (or users) they care most about.
   * Distill’s usage metrics are derived from a probabilistic
representation of the time series of users’ interactions with the elements
of the application. A directed network is constructed from the
representation, and metrics from graph theory (e.g. betweenness centrality,
in/out-degree of nodes) are derived from the structure. These metrics
provide adopters ways of understanding how different facets of the app are
used together, and they capture canonical usage patterns of their
application. This broad analytic framework provides adopters a way to
develop and utilize their own metrics
 * The Test Application Portal (TAP) provides a single, user-friendly
interface to Software as a Sensor™ Project components, including
visualization functionality for Distill Outputs leveraging Django, React,
and D3.js. It has two key functions:
   * It allows adopters to register apps, providing metadata regarding
location, app name, version, etc., as well as permissions regarding who can
access user data. This information is propagated to all other components of
the larger system.
   * The portal also stages visualization libraries that make calls to
Distill. This allows adopters to analyze their data as they wish to; it’s
“dashboard” feel provides a way to customize their views with
adopter-generated widgets (e.g., D3 libraries) beyond what is included in
the initial open source offering.
 * The Subject Tracking and Online User Testing (STOUT) application is an
optional component that turns Software as a Sensor™ Technology into a
research/experimentation enterprise. Designed for psychologists and HCI/UX
researchers, STOUT allows comprehensive human subjects data protection,
tracking, and tasking for formal research on software tools. STOUT is
primarily python, with Django back-end for authentication, permissions, and
tracking, MongoDB for databasing, and D3 for visualization. STOUT includes
a number of key features:
   * Participants can register in studies of software tools using their own
preferred credentials. As part of registration, participants can be
directed through human subjects review board compliant consent forms before
study enrollment.
   * STOUT stores URLs to web/network accessible software tools as well as
URLs to third party survey services (e.g., surveymonkey), this allows
adopters to pair software tools with tasks, and collect survey data and
comments from participants prior to, during, or following testing with
software tools.
   * STOUT tracks participants’ progress internally, and by appending a
unique identifier, and task identifier to URLs. This information can be
passed to other processes (e.g., User ALE) allowing for disambiguation
between participants and tasks in experiments on the open web.
   * STOUT supports between and within-subjects experimental designs, with
random assignment to experimental conditions. This allows for testing
across different versions of applications.
   * STOUT can also use Django output (e.g., task complete) to automate
other processes, such as automated polling applications serving 3rd party
form data APIs (e.g.,SurveyMonkey), and python or R scripts to provide
automated post-processing on task or survey data.
   * STOUT provides adopters a comprehensive dashboard view of data
collected and post-processed through its extensions; in addition to user
enrollment, task completion, and experiment progress metrics, STOUT allows
adopters to visualize distributions of scores collected from task and
survey data.

Each component is available through its own repository to support organic
growth for each component, as well as growth of the whole platform’s

== Background and Rationale ==
Any tool that people use to accomplish a task can be instrumented; once
instrumented, those tools can be used to report how they were used to
perform that task. Software tools are ubiquitous interfaces for people to
interact with data and other technology that can be instrumented for such a
purpose. Tools are different than web pages or simple displays, however;
they are not simply archives for information. Rather, they are ways of
interfacing with and manipulating data and other technology. There are
numerous consumer solutions for understanding how people move through web
pages and displays (e.g., Google Analytics, Adobe Omniture). There are far
fewer options for understanding how software tools are used. This requires
understanding how users integrate a tool’s functionality into usage
strategies to perform tasks, how users sequence the functionality provided
them, and deeper knowledge of how users understand the features of software
as a cohesive tool. The Software as a Sensor™ Project is designed to
address this gap, providing the public an agile, cost-efficient solution
for improving software tool design, implementation, and usability.

== Software as a Sensor™ Project Overview ==


Figure 1. User ALE Elastic Back End Schema, with Transfer Protocols.

Funded through the DARPA XDATA program and other sources, the Software as a
Sensor™ Project provides an open source (ALv2.0) solution for instrumenting
software tools developed for the web so that when users interact with it,
their behavior is captured. User behavior, or user activities, are captured
and time-stamped through a simple application program interface (API)
called User Analytic Logging Engine (User ALE). User ALE’s key
differentiator is the schema that it uses to collect information about user
activities; it provides sufficient context to understand activities within
the software tool’s overall functionality. User ALE captures each user
initiated action, or event (e.g., hover, click, etc.), as a nested action
within a specific element (e.g., map object, drop down item, etc.), which
are in turn nested within element groups (e.g., map, drop down list) (see
Figure 1). This information schema provides sufficient context to
understand and disambiguate user events from one another. In turn, this
enables myriad analysis possibilities at different levels of tool design
and more utility to end-user than commercial services currently offer.
Once instrumented with User ALE, software tools become human signal sensors
in their own right. Most importantly, the data that User ALE collects is
owned outright by adopters and can be made available to other processes
through scalable Elastic infrastructure and easy-to-manage Restful APIs.
Distill is the analytic framework of the Software as a Sensor™ Project,
providing (at release) segmentation and graph analysis metrics describing
users’ interactions with the application to adopters. The segmentation
features allow adopters to focus their analyses of user activity data based
on desired data attributes (e.g., certain interactions, elements, etc.), as
well as attributes describing the software tool users, if that data was
also collected. Distill’s usage and usability metrics are derived from a
representation of users’ sequential interactions with the application as a
directed graph. This provides an extensible framework for providing insight
as to how users integrate the functional components of the application to
accomplish tasks.


Figure 2. Software as a Sensor™ System Architecture with all components.

The Test Application Portal (TAP) provides a single point of interface for
adopters of the Software as a Sensor™ project. Through the Portal, adopters
can register their applications, providing version data and permissions to
others for accessing data. The Portal ensures that all components of the
Software as a Sensor™ Project have the same information. The Portal also
hosts a number of python D3 visualization libraries, providing adopters
with a customizable “dashboard” with which to analyze and view user
activity data, calling analytic processes from Distill.
Finally, the Subject Tracking and Online User Testing (STOUT) application,
provides support for HCI/UX researchers that want to collect data from
users in systematic ways or within experimental designs. STOUT supports
user registration, anonymization, user tracking, tasking (see Figure 3),
and data integration from a variety of services. STOUT allows adopters to
perform human subject review board compliant research studies, and both
between- and within-subjects designs. Adopters can add tasks, surveys and
questionnaires through 3rd party services (e.g., SurveyMonkey). STOUT
tracks users’ progress by passing a unique user IDs to other services,
allowing researchers to trace progress by passing a unique user IDs to
other services, allowing researchers to trace form data and User ALE logs
to specific users and task sets (see Figure 4).


Figure 3. STOUT assigns participants subjects to experimental conditions
and ensures the correct task sequence. STOUT’s Django back end provides
data on task completion, this can be used to drive other automation,
including unlocking different task sequences and/or achievements.


Figure 4. STOUT User Tracking. Anonymized User IDs (hashes) are
concatenated with unique Task IDs. This “Session ID” is appended to URLs
(see Highlighted region), custom variable fields, and User ALE, to provide
and integrated user testing data collection service.

STOUT also provides for data polling from third party services (e.g.,
SurveyMonkey) and integration with python or R scripts for statistical
processing of data collected through STOUT. D3 visualization libraries
embedded in STOUT allow adopters to view distributions of quantitative data
collected from form data (see Figure 5).


Figure 5. STOUT Visualization. STOUT gives experimenters direct and
continuous access to automatically processed research data.

== Insights from User Activity Logs ==

The Software as a Sensor™ Project provides data collection and analytic
services for user activities collected during interaction with software
tools. However, the Software as a Sensor™ Project emerged from years of
research focused on the development of novel, reliable methods for
measuring individuals’ cognitive state in a variety of contexts.
Traditional approaches to assessment in a laboratory setting include
surveys, questionnaires, and physiology (Poore et al., 2016). Research
performed as part of the Software as a Sensor™ project has shown that the
same kind of insights derived from these standard measurement approaches
can also be derived from users’ behavior. Additionally, we have explored
insights that can only be gained by analyzing raw behavior collected
through software interactions (Mariano et al., 2015). The signal processing
and algorithmic approaches resulting from this research have been
integrated into the Distill analytics stack. This means that adopters will
not be left to discern for themselves how to draw insights from the data
they gather about their software tools, although they will have the freedom
to explore their own methods as well.
Insights from user activities provided by Distill’s analytics framework
fall under two categories, broadly classified as functional workflow and
usage statistics:
Functional workflow insights tell adopters how user activities are
connected, providing them with representations of how users integrate the
application’s features together in time. These insights are informative for
understanding the step-by-step process by which users interact with certain
facets of a tool. For example, questions like “how are my users,
constructing plots?” are addressable through workflow analysis. Workflows
provide granular understanding of process level mechanics and can be
modeled probabilistically through a directed graph representation of the
data, and by identification of meaningful sub-sequences of user activities
actually observed in the population. Metrics derived provide insight about
the structure and temporal features of these mechanics, and can help
highlight efficiency problems within workflows. For example, workflow
analysis could help identify recursive, repetitive behaviors, and might be
used to define what “floundering” looks like for that particular tool.
Functional workflow analysis can also support analyses with more breadth.
Questions like, “how are my users integrating my tools’ features into a
cohesive whole? Are they relying on the tool as a whole or just using very
specific parts of it?” Adopters will be able to explore how users think
about software as cohesive tools and examine if users are relying on
certain features as central navigation or analytic features. This allows
for insights into whether tools are designed well enough for users to
understand that they need to rely on multiple features together.
Through segmentation, adopters can select the subset of the data -software
element, action, user demographics, geographic location, etc.- they want to
analyze. This will allow them to compare, for example, specific user
populations against one another in terms of how they integrate software
functionality. Importantly, the graph-based analytics approach provides a
flexible representation of the time series data that can capture and
quantify canonical usage patterns, enabling direct comparisons between
users based on attributes of interest. Other modeling approaches have been
utilized to explore similar insights and may be integrated at a later date
(Mariano, et al., 2015).
Usage statistics derive metrics from simple frequentist approaches to
understanding, coarsely, how much users are actually using applications.
This is different from simple “traffic” metrics, however, which assess how
many users are navigating to a page or tool. Rather usage data provides
insight on how much raw effort (e.g., number of activities) is being
expended while users are interacting with the application. This provides
deeper insight into discriminating “visitors” from “users” of software
tools. Moreover, given the information schema User ALE provides, adopters
will be able to delve into usage metrics related to specific facets of
their application.
Given these insights, different sets of adopters—software developers,
HCI/UX researchers, and project managers—may utilize The Software as a
Sensor™ Project for a variety different use cases, which may include:
 * Testing to see if users are interacting with software tools in expected
or unexpected ways.
 * Understanding how much users are using different facets of different
features in service of planning future developments.
 * Gaining additional context for translating user/customer comments into
actionable software fixes.
 * Understanding which features users have trouble integrating to guide
decisions on how to allocate resources to further documentation.
 * Understanding the impact that new developments have on usability from
version to version.
 * Market research on how users make use of competitors’ applications to
guide decisions on how to build discriminating software tools.
 * General research on Human Computer Interaction in service of refining UX
and design principles.
 * Psychological science research using software as data collection
platforms for cognitive tasks.

== Differentiators ==

The Software as a Sensor™ Project is ultimately designed to address the
wide gaps between current best practices in software user testing and
trends toward agile software development practices. Like much of the
applied psychological sciences, user testing methods generally borrow
heavily from basic research methods. These methods are designed to make
data collection systematic and remove extraneous influences on test
conditions. However, this usually means removing what we test from dynamic,
noisy—real-life—environments. The Software as a Sensor™ Project is designed
to allow for the same kind of systematic data collection that we expect in
the laboratory, but in real-life software environments, by making software
environments data collection platforms. In doing so, we aim to not only
collect data from more realistic environments, and use-cases, but also to
integrate the test enterprise into agile software development process.
Our vision for The Software as a Sensor™ Project is that it provides
software developers, HCI/UX researchers, and project managers a mechanism
for continuous, iterative usability testing for software tools in a way
that supports the flow (and schedule) of modern software development
practices—Iterative, Waterfall, Spiral, and Agile. This is enabled by a few
discriminating facets:


Figure 6. Version to Version Testing for Agile, Iterative Software
Development Methods. The Software as a Sensor™ Project enables new methods
for collecting large amounts of data on software tools, deriving insights
rapidly to inject into subsequent iterations

 * Insights enabling software tool usability assessment and improvement can
be inferred directly from interactions with the tool in “real-world”
environments. This is a sea-change in thinking compared to canonical
laboratory approaches that seek to artificially isolate extraneous
influences on the user and the software. The Software as a Sensor™ Project
enables large scale, remote, opportunities for data collection with minimal
investment and no expensive lab equipment (or laboratory training). This
allows adopters to see how users will interact with their technology in
their places of work, at home, etc.

 * Insights are traceable to the software itself. Traditionally laboratory
measures—questionnaires, interviews, and physiology—collect data that is
convenient for making inferences about psychological states. However, it is
notoriously difficult to translate this data into actionable “get-well”
strategies in technology development. User ALE’s information schema is
specifically designed to dissect user interaction within the terminology of
application design, providing a familiar nomenclature for software
developers to interpret findings with.

 * Granular data collection enables advanced modeling and analytics. User
ALE’s information schema dissects user interaction by giving context to
activity within the functional architecture of software tools. Treating
each time-series of user activity as a set of events nested within
functional components provides sufficient information for a variety of
modeling approaches that can be used to understand user states (e.g.,
engagement and cognitive load), user workflows (e.g., sub-sequences), and
users’ mental models of how software tool features can be integrated (in
time) to perform tasks. In contrast, commercial services such as Google
Analytics and Adobe Analytics (Omniture) provide very sparse options for
describing events. They generally advocate for using “boiler plate” event
sets that are more suited to capturing count data for interactions with
specific content (e.g., videos, music, banners) and workflows through
“marketplace” like pages. User ALE provides content agnostic approaches for
capturing user activities by letting adopters label them in domain specific
ways that give them context. This provides a means by which identical user
activities (e.g. click, select, etc.) can be disambiguated from each other
based on which functional sub-component of the tool they have been assigned

 * Adopter-generated content, analytics and data ownership. The Software as
a Sensor™ Project is a set of open-source products built from other
open-source products. This project will allow adopters to generate their
own content easily, using open source analytics and visualization
capabilities. By design, we also allow adopters to collect and manage their
own data with support from widely used open source data architectures
(e.g., Elastic). This means that adopters will not have to pay for
additional content that they can develop themselves to make use of the
service, and do not have to expose their data to third party commercial
services. This is useful for highly proprietary software tools that are
designed to make use of sensitive data, or are themselves sensitive.

== Current Status ==

All components of the Software as a Sensor™ Project were originally
designed and developed by Draper as part of DARPA’s XDATA project, although
User ALE is being used on other funded R&D projects, including DARPA
RSPACE, AFRL project, and Draper internally funded projects.
Currently, only User ALE is publically available, however, the Portal,
Distill, and STOUT will be publically available in the May/June 2016
time-frame. The last major release of User ALE was May, 2015. All
components are currently maintained in separate repositories through GitHub
Currently, only software tools developed with Javascript are supported.
However, we are currently working on pythonQT implementations for User ALE
that will support many desktop applications.

== Meritocracy ==
The current developers are familiar with meritocratic open source
development at Apache. Apache was chosen specifically because we want to
encourage this style of development for the project.

== Community ==
The Software as a Sensor™ Project is new and our community is not yet
established. However, community building and publicity is a major thrust.
Our technology is generating interest within industry, particularly in the
HCI/UX community, both Aptima and Charles River Analytics, for example are
interested in being adopters. We have also begun publicizing the project to
software development companies and universities, recently hosting a public
focus group for Boston, MA area companies.
We are also developing communities of interested within the DoD and
Intelligence community. The NGA Xperience Lab has expressed interest in
becoming a transition partner as has the Navy’s HCIL group. We are also
aggressively pursuing adopters at AFRL’s Human Performance Wing, Analyst
Test Bed.
During incubation, we will explicitly seek to increase our adoption,
including academic research, industry, and other end users interested in
usability research.

== Core Developers ==
The current set of core developers is relatively small, but includes Draper
full-time staff. Community management will very likely be distributed
across a few full-time staff that have been with the project for at least 2
years. Core personnel can be found on our website:

== Alignment ==
The Software as a Sensor™ Project is currently Copyright (c) 2015, 2016 The
Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc. All rights reserved and licensed
under Apache v2.0.

== Known Risks ==

=== Orphaned products ===
There are currently no orphaned products. Each component of The Software as
a Sensor™ Project has roughly 1-2 dedicated staff, and there is substantial
collaboration between projects.

=== Inexperience with Open Source ===
Draper has a number of open source software projects available through<>.

== Relationships with Other Apache Products ==
Software as a Sensor™ Project does not currently have any dependences on
Apache Products. We are also interested in coordinating with other projects
including Usergrid, and others involving data processing at large scales,
time-series analysis and ETL processes.

== Developers ==
The Software as a Sensor™ Project is primarily funded through contract
work. There are currently no “dedicated” developers, however, the same core
team does work will continue work on the project across different contracts
that support different features. We do intend to maintain a core set of key
personnel engaged in community development and maintenance—in the future
this may mean dedicated developers funded internally to support the
project, however, the project is tied to business development strategy to
maintain funding into various facets of the project.

== Documentation ==
Documentation is available through Github; each repository under the
Software as a Sensor™ Project has documentation available through wiki’s
attached to the repositories.

== Initial Source ==
Current source resides at Github:
 * (User ALE)
 * (Distill)
 * (STOUT and Extensions)

== External Dependencies ==
Each component of the Software as a Sensor™ Project has its own
dependencies. Documentation will be available for integrating them.

=== User ALE ===
 * Elasticsearch:
 * Logstash:
 * Kibana (optional):
=== STOUT ===
 * Django:
   * django-axes
   * django-custom-user
   * django-extensions
 * Elasticsearch:
 * Gunicorn:
 * MySQL-python:
 * Numpy:
 * Pandas:
 * psycopg2:
 * pycrypto:
 * pymongo:
 * python-dateutil:
 * pytz:
 * requests:
 * six:
 * urllib3:
 * mongoDB:
 * R (optional):
=== Distill ===
 * Flask:
 * Elasticsearch-dsl:
 * graph-tool:
 * OpenMp:
 * pandas:
 * numpy:
 * scipy:
=== Portal ===
 * Django:
 * React:
 * D3.js:

=== GNU GPL 2 ===

=== LGPL 2.1 ===

=== Apache 2.0 ===

=== GNU GPL ===

== Required Resources ==
 * Mailing Lists

 * Git Repos

 * Issue Tracking
   * JIRA SensSoft (SENSSOFT)

 * Continuous Integration
   * Jenkins builds on

 * Web
   * wiki at

== Initial Committers ==
The following is a list of the planned initial Apache committers (the
active subset of the committers for the current repository on Github).

 * Joshua Poore (<>)
 * Laura Mariano (<>)
 * Clayton Gimenez (<>)
 * Alex Ford (<>)
 * Steve York (<>)
 * Fei Sun (<>)
 * Michelle Beard (<>)
 * Robert Foley (<>)
 * Kyle Finley (<>)
 * Lewis John McGibbney (<>)

== Affiliations ==
 * Draper
   * Joshua Poore (<>)
   * Laura Mariano (<>)
   * Clayton Gimenez (<>)
   * Alex Ford (<>)
   * Steve York (<>)
   * Fei Sun (<>)
   * Michelle Beard (<>)
   * Robert Foley (<>)
   * Kyle Finley (<>)

   * Lewis John McGibbney (<>)

== Sponsors ==

=== Champion ===
 * Lewis McGibbney (NASA/JPL)

=== Nominated Mentors ===
 * Paul Ramirez (NASA/JPL)
 * Lewis John McGibbney (NASA/JPL)
 * Chris Mattmann (NASA/JPL)

== Sponsoring Entity ==
The Apache Incubator

== References ==

Mariano, L. J., Poore, J. C., Krum, D. M., Schwartz, J. L., Coskren, W. D.,
& Jones, E. M. (2015). Modeling Strategic Use of Human Computer Interfaces
with Novel Hidden Markov Models. [Methods]. Frontiers in Psychology, 6.
doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00919
Poore, J., Webb, A., Cunha, M., Mariano, L., Chapell, D., Coskren, M., &
Schwartz, J. (2016). Operationalizing Engagement with Multimedia as User
Coherence with Context. IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing, PP(99),
1-1. doi: 10.1109/taffc.2015.2512867

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