Thanks for the detailed answers Dan, what you said makes sense. I think my biggest worry right now is making the correct preditions of my data storage space based on the measurements with the current cluster. Other than that I should be fairly comfortable with the rest of the HW specs.
Thanks for the observation Mohit, I'll keep a closer eye to this disk parameter which I do see in the specs all the time.
Todd, your link explains questions I have had for quite some time .... I have found that indeed I am dominated by metadata like one of the example shows.
Since we're on this subject, I want to ask you guys another question. I have my monitoring data sources within an enclosed network, so my Cassandra cluster will also be in that enclosed network (by enclosed network I mean any communication or data transfer in and out of the network must go through a gateway). The problem is I need to make the data available outside!
Do any of you guys have some suggestions for doing that? My first thought was to have an internal 3 node cluster taking in the insertion load and then, in the period of low load do a major compaction and then ship the data out to an external Cassandra node used only for reading. This outside node would have to have a lot of disk (hold the data for 1 year) and be optimised for reading - I was thinking of having an SSD caching layer between my bulk storage and Cassandra. Only hot data will go in this layer....somehow!
So my questions:
1) Is my method unheard of or does it sound reasonable?
2) What is the best way to transfer data from the cluster inside the enclosed network to the node outside? I heard some time in the past that there is a tool that does bulk transfers of data but I'm not sure how that can be done...a script that calls this tool on a certain trigger..........any ideas?
3) Is this intermediate SSD cache thing doable...or I should just stick to the normal RAID array of disks and the indexes and in memory caching of columns that Cassandra offers?
This may help determining your data storage requirements ...
On 10/25/11 11:22 AM, "Mohit Anchlia" <firstname.lastname@example.org> wrote:
>On Tue, Oct 25, 2011 at 11:18 AM, Dan Hendry <email@example.com>
>>> 2. ... So I am going to use rotational disk for the commit log and an
>>> for data. Does this make sense?
>> Yes, just keep in mind however that the primary characteristic of SSDs
>> lower seek times which translates into faster random access. We have a
>> similar Cassandra use case (time series data and comparable volumes) and
>> decided the random read performance boost (unquantified in our case to
>> fair) was not worth the price and we went with more, larger, cheaper
>>> 3. What's the best way to find out how big my commitlog disk and my
>>> disk has to be? The Cassandra hardware page says the Commitlog disk
>>> shouldn't be big but still I need to choose a size!
>> As of Cassandra 1.0, the commit log has an explicit size bound
>> to 4GB I believe). In 0.8, I dont think I have ever seen my commit log
>> beyond that point but the limit should be the ammount of data you insert
>> within the maximum CF timed flush period (³memtable_flush_after²
>> to be safe, maximumum across all CFs). Any modern drive should be
>> sufficient. As for the size of your data disks, that is largely
>> dependent, and you should be able to judge best based on your currnet
>>> 4. I also noticed RAID 0 configuration is recommended for the data file
>>> directory. Can anyone explain why?
>> In comparison to RAID1/RAID1+0? For any RF > 1, Cassadra already takes
>> of redundancy by replicating the data across multiple nodes. Your
>> applications choice of replication factor and read/write consistencies
>> should be specified to tollerate a node failing (for any reason: disk
>> failure, network failure, a disgruntled employee taking a sledge hammer
>> the box, etc). As such, what is the point of waisting your disks
>> data on a single machine to minimize the chances of one particular type
>> failure when it should not matter anyways?
>It all boils down to operations cost vs hardware cost. Also consider
>MTBF and how equipped you are to handle disk failures which are more
>common than others.
>> From: Alexandru Sicoe [mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org]
>> Sent: October-25-11 8:23
>> To: email@example.com
>> Subject: Cassandra cluster HW spec (commit log directory vs data file
>> Hi everyone,
>> I am currently in the process of writing a hardware proposal for a
>> cluster for storing a lot of monitoring time series data. My workload is
>> write intensive and my data set is extremely varied in types of
>> and insertion rate for these variables (I will have to handle an order
>> million variables coming in, each at very different rates - the
>> them will come at very low rates but there are many that will come at
>> rates constant rates and a few coming in with huge spikes in rates).
>> variables correspond to all basic C++ types and arrays of these types.
>> highest insertion rates are received for basic types, out of which U32
>> variables seem to be the most prevalent (e.g. I recorded 2 million U32
>> were inserted in 8 mins of operation while 600.000 doubles and 170.000
>> strings were inserted during the same time. Note this measurement was
>> for a subset of the total data currently taken in).
>> At the moment I am partitioning the data in Cassandra in 75 CFs (each CF
>> corresponds to a logical partitioning of the set of variables mentioned
>> before - but this partitioning is not related with the amount of data or
>> rates...it is somewhat random). These 75 CFs account for ~1 million of
>> variables I need to store. I have a 3 node Cassandra 0.8.5 cluster (each
>> node is a 4 real core with 4 GB RAM and split commit log directory and
>> file directory between two RAID arrays with HDDs). I can handle the
>> this configuration but the average CPU usage of the Cassandra nodes is
>> slightly above 50%. As I will need to add 12 more CFs (corresponding to
>> another ~ 1 million variables) plus potentially other data later, it is
>> clear that I need better hardware (also for the retrieval part).
>> I am looking at Dell servers (Power Edge etc)
>> 1. Is anyone using Dell HW for their Cassandra clusters? How do they
>> Anybody care to share their configurations or tips for buying, what to
>> 2. Obviously I am going to keep to the advice on the
>> http://wiki.apache.org/cassandra/CassandraHardware and split the
>> and data on separate disks. I was going to use SSD for commitlog but
>> did some more research and found out that it doesn't make sense to use
>> for sequential appends because it won't have a performance advantage
>> respect to rotational media. So I am going to use rotational disk for
>> commit log and an SSD for data. Does this make sense?
>> 3. What's the best way to find out how big my commitlog disk and my data
>> disk has to be? The Cassandra hardware page says the Commitlog disk
>> shouldn't be big but still I need to choose a size!
>> 4. I also noticed RAID 0 configuration is recommended for the data file
>> directory. Can anyone explain why?
>> Sorry for the huge email.....
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