incubator-alois-commits mailing list archives

Site index · List index
Message view « Date » · « Thread »
Top « Date » · « Thread »
From Apache Wiki <wikidi...@apache.org>
Subject [Alois Wiki] Update of "IMF2011" by UrsLerch
Date Sun, 16 Jan 2011 22:48:57 GMT
Dear Wiki user,

You have subscribed to a wiki page or wiki category on "Alois Wiki" for change notification.

The "IMF2011" page has been changed by UrsLerch.
http://wiki.apache.org/alois/IMF2011?action=diff&rev1=24&rev2=25

--------------------------------------------------

  == Open Source Software ==
  [This brief introduction is an excerpt of the PhD of the author.]
  
- The idea of open source software - originated from a movement of computer hackers who have
developed software primarily in their leisure time for fun - is still wearing the halo of
being a project of unpaid volunteers. However, Free/Libre and Open Source Software (FLOSS)
is in an accelerated process of adaptation to the market. This development takes place along
a cycle of innovation, as is represented in economics by Schumpeter (1961) for example. Therefore,
various studies show that especially the big projects like the Linux operating system, the
office suite OpenOffice or the database MySQL is pursued by a majority of developers paid
for their contributions [eg Kroah-Hartman 2009].
+ The idea of open source software - originated from a movement of computer hackers who have
developed software primarily in their leisure time for fun - is still wearing the halo of
being a project of unpaid volunteers. However, Free/Libre and Open Source Software (FLOSS)
is in an accelerated process of adaptation to the market. This development takes place along
a cycle of innovation, as is represented in economics by Schumpeter [1] for example. Therefore,
various studies show that especially the big projects like the Linux operating system, the
office suite OpenOffice or the database MySQL is pursued by a majority of developers paid
for their contributions [2].
  
- In simple terms, Open Source Software (OSS) is defined on the one side by an open, community-oriented
development process. On the other hand, it is defined by an open license. The former means,
that OSS is less dependent on individual persons, highly decentralized, and only very limited
is planable. The latter usually means that OSS can be used free of charge. However, free of
charge is not a requirement of Open Source at all. The word "free" has to be understood in
the sense of "free speech" and not "free beer" [Richard Stallman]. In this sense, over time,
several business models established,b e it with the software itself or with services on top
of it.
+ In simple terms, Open Source Software (OSS) is defined on the one side by an open, community-oriented
development process. On the other hand, it is defined by an open license. The former means,
that OSS is less dependent on individual persons, highly decentralized, and only very limited
is planable. The latter usually means that OSS can be used free of charge. However, free of
charge is not a requirement of Open Source at all. The word "free" has to be understood in
the sense of "free speech" and not "free beer" [3]. In this sense, over time, several business
models established,b e it with the software itself or with services on top of it.
  
- While there are projects that are largely dominated by one company, it is more and more
realized that open source software can be developed better when there is a large degree of
independence. To achieve this, many projects founded independent non-profit organizations
that play a mediating role. The first project launched this was the Apache web server with
the Apache Software Foundation. The non-profit organization takes on the one hand the role
of the legal person, on the other hand, it is responsible for the infrastructure. The important
thing is, that the organization can preserve their independence from the cooperating companies.
At the Apache Software Foundation this has been solved in the way that only "private" people
can be members, but not organizations, while in principle every person has the same rights,
regardless of their financial contribution. In addition, the committees are elected democratically
by the members, and again every person has one voice (Fielding 1999). That a project's legal
independence is elementary for the participation of commercial organizations, showed, among
other things, the Eclipse project. The platform, originally developed by IBM internally for
its own use, has opened its source in an early stage to make it more interesting for partner
companies (O'Mahony et al. 2005). But it has been the later detachment of the project from
IBM through the transfer of rights to the independent Eclipse Foundation, that was able to
convince other companies to participate (Spaeth et al. 2008). Today, Eclipse is the de facto
standard in the field of Java development platforms and has a market share of well over 50%.
+ While there are projects that are largely dominated by one company, it is more and more
realized that open source software can be developed better when there is a large degree of
independence. To achieve this, many projects founded independent non-profit organizations
that play a mediating role. The first project launched this was the Apache web server with
the Apache Software Foundation. The non-profit organization takes on the one hand the role
of the legal person, on the other hand, it is responsible for the infrastructure. The important
thing is, that the organization can preserve their independence from the cooperating companies.
At the Apache Software Foundation this has been solved in the way that only "private" people
can be members, but not organizations, while in principle every person has the same rights,
regardless of their financial contribution. In addition, the committees are elected democratically
by the members, and again every person has one voice [4]. That a project's legal independence
is elementary for the participation of commercial organizations, showed, among other things,
the Eclipse project. The platform, originally developed by IBM internally for its own use,
has opened its source in an early stage to make it more interesting for partner companies
[5]. But it has been the later detachment of the project from IBM through the transfer of
rights to the independent Eclipse Foundation, that was able to convince other companies to
participate [6]. Today, Eclipse is the de facto standard in the field of Java development
platforms and has a market share of well over 50%.
  
- The recognition, that in the Internet age, that is, rapid access to worldwide information,
an isolated proceeding is no longer appropriate, has grown significantly in recent years over
the levels of management. In this context, the concept of interoperability is increasingly
become more important. Interoperability describes the ability of diverse systems and organizations
to work together (inter-operate). Open-source software alone, however, cannot fullfill this
demand. While it can actually guarantee the independence from a manufacturer by the disclosure
of the source code, this can not be said of the independence from the product and therefor
the full flexibility. That will only be possible by the means of cooperative innovations.
Jollans (2006) outlines this⁠ using the term "community innovation" respectively the concept
of "Open Computing".
+ The recognition, that in the Internet age, that is, rapid access to worldwide information,
an isolated proceeding is no longer appropriate, has grown significantly in recent years over
the levels of management. In this context, the concept of interoperability is increasingly
become more important. Interoperability describes the ability of diverse systems and organizations
to work together (inter-operate). Open-source software alone, however, cannot fullfill this
demand. While it can actually guarantee the independence from a manufacturer by the disclosure
of the source code, this can not be said of the independence from the product and therefor
the full flexibility. That will only be possible by the means of cooperative innovations.
Jollans [7] outlines this⁠ using the term "community innovation" respectively the concept
of "Open Computing".
  
  {{http://incubator.apache.org/alois/images/open computing.png}}
  
- [Figure 1. Open Compting (Jollans)]
+ [Figure 1. Open Compting [7]]
  
  By this he means the combination of the three components of open architecture, open standards
and open source, in which a full interoperability can be achieved. The goal of "Open Computing"
is the flexibility of a modular integration of function as well as independence from manufacturers,
both in hardware and in software. While for example Apple goes the opposite way, due to the
experiences of recent years and decades it can be predicted with good conscience, that software
will be successful mainly because of its openness.
  
  == What does Apache ALOIS stand for? ==
- Apache ALOIS [http://incubator.apache.org/alois/] is a message collection, message splitting
and message correlation software with reporting and alarming functionalities. ALOIS stands
for "Advanced Log Data Insight System" and is meant to be a fully implemented open source
security information and event management system (SIEM). While almost all other SIEM software,
be it closed or open source, concentrate on the technological part of security monitoring,
Apache ALOIS is aimed to monitor the security of the content. It intends to be pro-active
in the detection of potential loss and theft (data leakage), mistaken modification or unauthorized
access. Apache ALOIS works on log messages and thus contains all the basic functionality of
a conventional SIEM, as centralized collecting, normalizing, aggregation, analyzing and correlating
of all messages, as well as reporting all security related events. Therefore it can be used
in place of any other SIEM.
+ Apache ALOIS [8] is a message collection, message splitting and message correlation software
with reporting and alarming functionalities. ALOIS stands for "Advanced Log Data Insight System"
and is meant to be a fully implemented open source security information and event management
system (SIEM). While almost all other SIEM software, be it closed or open source, concentrate
on the technological part of security monitoring, Apache ALOIS is aimed to monitor the security
of the content. It intends to be pro-active in the detection of potential loss and theft (data
leakage), mistaken modification or unauthorized access. Apache ALOIS works on log messages
and thus contains all the basic functionality of a conventional SIEM, as centralized collecting,
normalizing, aggregation, analyzing and correlating of all messages, as well as reporting
all security related events. Therefore it can be used in place of any other SIEM.
  
- Since fall 2010 Apache ALOIS is an undergoing incubation at The Apache Software Foundation
(ASF). Incubation allows for a software system to reach a stability level equivalent to other
successful ASF projects, regarding infrastructure, communications, and decision making. The
ASF [http://www.apache.org] is made up of nearly 100 top level projects that cover a wide
range of technologies. While some of them are widely known by name, many more are in wide
use as part of popular internet services. The best-known project ist the HTTP-Server, which
hosts more than two third of all internet websites [http://greatstatistics.com/]. Apache projects
are defined by collaborative, consensus-based processes, an open, pragmatic software license
and a desire to create high quality software that leads the way in its field. This is known
as the "Apache way".
+ Since fall 2010 Apache ALOIS is an undergoing incubation at The Apache Software Foundation
(ASF). Incubation allows for a software system to reach a stability level equivalent to other
successful ASF projects, regarding infrastructure, communications, and decision making. The
ASF [9] is made up of nearly 100 top level projects that cover a wide range of technologies.
While some of them are widely known by name, many more are in wide use as part of popular
internet services. The best-known project ist the HTTP-Server, which hosts more than two third
of all internet websites [10]. Apache projects are defined by collaborative, consensus-based
processes, an open, pragmatic software license and a desire to create high quality software
that leads the way in its field. This is known as the "Apache way".
  
  While incubation status is not necessarily a reflection of the completeness or stability
of the code, it does indicate that the project has reached a stable phase and has the potential
to be fully endorsed by the ASF. In fact, Apache ALOIS has shown its functioning over several
years in production. Apache ALOIS is aimed to be totally free and open for all contributions.
The openness provided for other programming languages is certainly proof of this. The plug-ability
- an active field of work in progress - is meant to guarantee that individual needs can be
realized without stressing the whole system. Furthermore, the basic functionality of ALOIS
may be extended in directions not yet foreseen. In our opinion, the Linux kernel is a good
example that this can work very well.
  
@@ -80, +80 @@

  The Author would like to thank the open source community in general and especially the Apache
community for its great work and support. Also many thanks go to the Apache ALOIS team for
peer reviewing this paper.
  
  == References ==
- [...]
+  1. J.A.        Schumpeter, “Business cycles; a theoretical, historical, and     statistical
analysis of the capitalist process”. New York, London      :  McGraw-Hill Book, 1939.
+  1. G.          Kroah-Hartman, J. Corbet, A. McPherson, “Linux Kernel Development    
  :  How  Fast it is Going, Who is Doing It, What They are Doing, and     Who is  Sponsoring
It ”.        http://www.linuxfoundation.org/publications/  whowriteslinux.pdf
+  1. R.M.        Stallman, “Free Software, Free Society: Selected Essays of Richard   
  M.  Stallman ”. Boston : Free Software Foundation, 2002.
+  1. R.T.        Fielding, “Shared leadership in the Apache project ”. Commun.   ACM,
42(4), pp. 42-43, 1999.
+  1. S.  O'Mahony, C.D. Fernando and E. Mamas, “IBM and Eclipse ”.       Harvard : Harvard
 Business School , 2005.
+  1. S.          Spaeth, M. Stuermer and G. von Krogh, “Enabling Knowledge Creation   
   through  Outsiders: Towards a Push Model of Open Innovation ”.          International
Journal of  Technology Management.Volume 52, Numbers     3-4,  October 2010 , pp. 411-431(21),
2010.
+  1. A.          Jollans, “Open Source Beyond Linux : Collaborative Innovation for    
   your business ”. Linux@IBM Event 27.10.2006, Zürich , 2006.
+  1. http://incubator.apache.org/alois/
+  1. http://www.apache.org
+  1. http://greatstatistics.com/
  
  CategoryPapers
  

Mime
View raw message