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From "Kirill Shirokov (JIRA)" <j...@apache.org>
Subject [jira] [Updated] (IGNITE-6917) SQL: implement COPY command for efficient data loading
Date Fri, 26 Jan 2018 09:54:00 GMT

     [ https://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/IGNITE-6917?page=com.atlassian.jira.plugin.system.issuetabpanels:all-tabpanel
]

Kirill Shirokov updated IGNITE-6917:
------------------------------------
    Description: 
Inspired by Postgres [1]

Common use case - bulk data load through JDBC/ODBC interface. Currently it is only possible
to execute single commands one by one. We already can batch them to improve performance, but
there is still big room for improvement.

We should think of a completely new command - {{COPY}}. It will accept a file (or input stream
in general case) on the client side, then transfer data to the cluster, and then execute update
inside the cluster, e.g. through streamer.

First of all we need to create quick and dirty prototype to assess potential performance improvement.
It speedup is confirmed, we should build base implementation which will accept only files.
But at the same time we should understand how it will evolve in future: multiple file formats
(probably including Hadoop formarts, e.g. Parquet), escape characters, input streams, etc..

[1] [https://www.postgresql.org/docs/9.6/static/sql-copy.html]
h1. Proposed syntax

Curent implementation:
{noformat}
COPY 
    FROM "file.name"
    INTO <schema>.<table>
    [(col-name, ...)]
    FORMAT <format-name>     -- Only CSV format is supported in the current release
    [BATCH_SIZE <batch-size-in-bytes>]
{noformat}
We may want to gradually add features to this command in future to have something like this:
{noformat}
COPY
    FROM 'file.name' [CHARSET <charset-name>]
    INTO <schema>.<table> [CREATE [IF NOT EXISTS]]
    [(col-name [<data-type>] [NULLABLE] [ESCAPES], ...) [MATCH HEADER]]
    FORMAT (csv|tsv|...)

-- CSV format options:
    [FIELDSEP='column-separators-regexp']
    [LINESEP='row-separators-regexp']
    [QUOTE='quote-chars']
    [ESCAPE='escape-char']
    [NULL='null-sequence']
    [COMMENT='single-line-comment-start-char']
    [TRIM_LINES]
    [IMPORT_EMPTY_LINES]

    [ROWS <first>-<last>]
--or--
    [SKIP ROWS <num>] [MAX ROWS <num>]

    [COLS <first>-<last>]
--or--
    [SKIP COLS <num>] [MAX COLS <num>]

    [MATCH HEADER ROW]
    [(REPLACE|IGNORE|ABORT ON [<max-error-number>])) DUPLICATE KEYS]
    [BATCH (<num> ROWS | <num>[K|M|G|T|P])]
    [LOCK (TABLE|ROWS)]
    [NOLOGGING]
    [BACKEND (DIRECT | STREAMER)]
{noformat}

h1. Implementation decisions and notes

h2. Parsing

* We support CSV format described in RFC 4180.
* Custom row and column separators, quoting characters are currently hardcoded
* Escape sequences, line comment characters are currently not supported
* We may want to support fixed-length formats (via format descriptors) in future
* We may want to strip comments from lines (for example, starting with '#')
* We may want to allow user to either ignore empty lines or treat them as a special case of
record having all default values
* We may allow user to enable whitespace trimming from beginning and end of a line

h2. File handling

* File character set to be supported in future
* Skipped/imported row number (or first/last line or skip header option), skipped/imported
column number (or first/last column): to be supported in future
* Line start pattern (as in MySQL): no support planned
* We currently support only client-side import. No server-side file import.
* We may want to support client-side stdin import in future.
* We do not handle importing multiple files from single command
* We don't benefit from any kind of pre-sorting pre-partitioning data on client side.
* We don't include any any metadata, such as line number from client side.

h3. Transferring data

* We send file data via batches. In future we will support batch size (specified with rows
per batch or data block size 
per batch).
* We may want to implement data compression in future.
* We connect to single node in JDBC driver (no multi-node connections).

h3. Cache/tables/column handling

* We don't create table in the bulk load command
* We may want to have and option for reading header row, which contains column names to match
columns
* In future we may wish to support COLUMNS (col1, _, col2, _, col3) syntax, where '_' marker
means a skipped column (MySQL uses '@dummy' for this)

h3. Data types

* Data types are converted as if they were supplied to INSERT SQL command.
* We may want type conversion (automatic, custom using sql function, custom via Java code,
string auto-trimming) in future.
* We will support optional null sequence ("\N") later
* We may want to allow user to specify what to do if the same record exists (e.g., ignore
record, replace it, report error with a max. error counter before failing the command)
* We don't currently support any generated/autoincremented row IDs or any custom generators.
* We don't support any filtering/conditional expressions
* We don't support any files/recordsets/tables with multiple conversion errors generated during
import.

h3. Backend / Transactional / MVCC / other
* We may want an option to select how do we insert the data into cache: using cache.putAll(...),
for example, or via data streamer interface (see BACKEND option)
* We don't use transactions
* We don't create locks on rows or tables.
* We don't try to minimize any indexing overhead (it's up to the user)
* We may want to minimize WAL impact in future via NOLOGGING option.

h3. Miscellanea

* We don't supply an utility to load data
* We don't currently supply any java loaders (as in PG and MSSQL) that stream data (not neccessary
from file)
* Security-related questions are out of scope of this JIRA
* We don't have triggers and constraints in Apache Ignite

h1. Implementations from other vendors
h2. PostgreSQL
{noformat}
COPY table_name [ ( column_name [, ...] ) ]
    FROM { 'filename' | STDIN }
    [ [ WITH ]
          [ BINARY ]
          [ OIDS ]
          [ DELIMITER [ AS ] 'delimiter' ]
          [ NULL [ AS ] 'null string' ]
          [ CSV [ HEADER ]
                [ QUOTE [ AS ] 'quote' ]
                [ ESCAPE [ AS ] 'escape' ]
                [ FORCE NOT NULL column_name [, ...] ] ] ]
{noformat}
([https://www.postgresql.org/docs/9.2/static/sql-copy.html])
h3. Notes
 * Server-side file import
 * Client-side: only from STDIN
 * Protocol implementation: via special command in the protocol
 * Special bulk data loaders in implemented as part of JDBC driver package: org.postgresql.copy.CopyManager
 ([https://jdbc.postgresql.org/documentation/publicapi/org/postgresql/copy/CopyManager.html])
 * Custom loaders available (e.g., [https://github.com/bytefish/PgBulkInsert.git])

h2. MySQL
{noformat}
LOAD DATA [LOW_PRIORITY | CONCURRENT] [LOCAL] INFILE 'file_name'
    [REPLACE | IGNORE]
    INTO TABLE tbl_name
    [PARTITION (partition_name [, partition_name] ...)]
    [CHARACTER SET charset_name]
    [{FIELDS | COLUMNS}
        [TERMINATED BY 'string']
        [[OPTIONALLY] ENCLOSED BY 'char']
        [ESCAPED BY 'char']
    ]
    [LINES
        [STARTING BY 'string']
        [TERMINATED BY 'string']
    ]
    [IGNORE number {LINES | ROWS}]
    [(col_name_or_user_var
        [, col_name_or_user_var] ...)]
    [SET col_name={expr | DEFAULT},
        [, col_name={expr | DEFAULT}] ...]
{noformat}
([https://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.7/en/load-data.html])
h3. Notes
 * Both client- and server-side import
 * Protocol implementation via a hack: if result set returned with column count == -1, read
file name from server and send it immediately.

h2. Microsoft SQL Server
{noformat}
BULK INSERT
   [ database_name . [ schema_name ] . | schema_name . ] [ table_name | 
view_name ]
      FROM 'data_file'
     [ WITH
    (
   [ [ , ] BATCHSIZE = batch_size ]
   [ [ , ] CHECK_CONSTRAINTS ]
   [ [ , ] CODEPAGE = { 'ACP' | 'OEM' | 'RAW' | 'code_page' } ]
   [ [ , ] DATAFILETYPE =
      { 'char' | 'native'| 'widechar' | 'widenative' } ]
   [ [ , ] DATASOURCE = 'data_source_name' ]
   [ [ , ] ERRORFILE = 'file_name' ]
   [ [ , ] ERRORFILE_DATASOURCE = 'data_source_name' ]
   [ [ , ] FIRSTROW = first_row ]
   [ [ , ] FIRE_TRIGGERS ]
   [ [ , ] FORMATFILE_DATASOURCE = 'data_source_name' ]
   [ [ , ] KEEPIDENTITY ]
   [ [ , ] KEEPNULLS ]
   [ [ , ] KILOBYTES_PER_BATCH = kilobytes_per_batch ]
   [ [ , ] LASTROW = last_row ]
   [ [ , ] MAXERRORS = max_errors ]
   [ [ , ] ORDER ( { column [ ASC | DESC ] } [ ,...n ] ) ]
   [ [ , ] ROWS_PER_BATCH = rows_per_batch ]
   [ [ , ] ROWTERMINATOR = 'row_terminator' ]
   [ [ , ] TABLOCK ]

   -- input file format options
   [ [ , ] FORMAT = 'CSV' ]
   [ [ , ] FIELDQUOTE = 'quote_characters']
   [ [ , ] FORMATFILE = 'format_file_path' ]
   [ [ , ] FIELDTERMINATOR = 'field_terminator' ]
   [ [ , ] ROWTERMINATOR = 'row_terminator' ]
    )]
{noformat}
([https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/sql/t-sql/statements/bulk-insert-transact-sql])
h3. Notes
 * Server-side import
 * CLI utility to import from client side
 * Protocol implementation: Special packet types: column definition and row
 * Custom bulk data supplied in JDBC driver package: com.microsoft.sqlserver.jdbc.SqlServerBulkCopy.

h2. Oracle

There is no bulk load SQL command. Bulk loading external data can be achieved via:
 *  Oracle External Tables
([https://docs.oracle.com/en/database/oracle/oracle-database/12.2/sutil/oracle-external-tables-concepts.html])
 * SQL*Loader
([https://docs.oracle.com/database/121/SUTIL/GUID-8D037494-07FA-4226-B507-E1B2ED10C144.htm#SUTIL3311]).
* There is a separate utility for Oracle TimesTen in-memory database:
  [https://docs.oracle.com/database/121/TTREF/util.htm#TTREF324]


h2. Vertica DB

{noformat}
COPY [ [db-name.]schema-name.]target-table 
... [ ( { column-as-expression | column }
...... [ DELIMITER [ AS ] 'char' ] 
...... [ ENCLOSED [ BY ] 'char' ]
...... [ ENFORCELENGTH ]
...... [ ESCAPE [ AS ] 'char' | NO ESCAPE ]
...... [ FILLER datatype]
...... [ FORMAT 'format' ] 
...... [ NULL [ AS ] 'string' ]
...... [ TRIM 'byte' ]
... [, ... ] ) ]
... [ COLUMN OPTION ( column 
...... [ DELIMITER [ AS ] 'char' ]
...... [ ENCLOSED [ BY ] 'char' ]
...... [ ENFORCELENGTH ]
...... [ ESCAPE [ AS ] 'char' | NO ESCAPE ]
...... [ FORMAT 'format' ]
...... [ NULL [ AS ] 'string' ]
...... [ TRIM 'byte' ]
... [, ... ] ) ]
[ FROM { 
...STDIN 
...... [ BZIP | GZIP | LZO | UNCOMPRESSED ] 
...| 'pathToData' [ ON nodename | ON ANY NODE ] 
...... [ BZIP | GZIP | LZO | UNCOMPRESSED ] [, ...] 
...| LOCAL {STDIN | 'pathToData'} 
...... [ BZIP | GZIP | LZO | UNCOMPRESSED ] [, ...]
...| VERTICA source_database.[source_schema.]source_table[(source_column [,...]) ]
} ]

...[ NATIVE 
.....| NATIVE VARCHAR 
.....| FIXEDWIDTH COLSIZES (integer [,...]) 
.....| ORC 
.....| PARQUET 
...]
...[ WITH ]
......[ SOURCE source([arg=value [,...] ]) ]
......[ FILTER filter([arg=value [,...] ]) ] 
......[ PARSER parser([arg=value [,...] ]) ]
...[ DELIMITER [ AS ] 'char' ]
...[ TRAILING NULLCOLS ]
...[ NULL [ AS ] 'string' ]
...[ ESCAPE [ AS ] 'char' | NO ESCAPE ]
...[ ENCLOSED [ BY ] 'char' ]
...[ RECORD TERMINATOR 'string' ]
...[ SKIP records ]
...[ SKIP BYTES integer ]
...[ TRIM 'byte' ]
...[ REJECTMAX integer ]
...[ REJECTED DATA {'path' [ ON nodename ]  [, ...] | AS TABLE reject-table} ]
...[ EXCEPTIONS 'path' [ ON nodename ] [, ...] ]
...[ ENFORCELENGTH ]
...[ ERROR TOLERANCE ]
...[ ABORT ON ERROR ]
...[ [ STORAGE ] load-method ]
...[ STREAM NAME  'streamName']
...[ NO COMMIT ]
{noformat}

([https://my.vertica.com/docs/7.2.x/HTML/index.htm#Authoring/SQLReferenceManual/Statements/COPY/COPY.htm])

h2. Various solutions from vendors not mentioned above

* Apache Hive:
  [https://cwiki.apache.org/confluence/display/Hive/LanguageManual+DML#LanguageManualDML-Loadingfilesintotables]
* Apache HBase:
  [http://dwgeek.com/apache-hbase-bulk-load-csv-examples.html]
* SAP IQ:
  [https://help.sap.com/viewer/a898a5b484f21015a377cd1ccb6ee9b5/16.0.11.12/en-US/a6209de484f21015bcb2d858c21ab35e.html]
* VoltDB:
  [https://docs.voltdb.com/UsingVoltDB/clicsvloader.php]
* MemSQL:
  [https://docs.memsql.com/sql-reference/v6.0/load-data/]
  (creating pipelines and connecting them to LOAD DATA statement is also a notable feature)
* Sybase:
  [http://infocenter.sybase.com/help/index.jsp?topic=/com.sybase.help.sqlanywhere.12.0.1/dbreference/input-statement.html]
* IBM DB2:
  [https://www.ibm.com/support/knowledgecenter/en/SSEPGG_9.5.0/com.ibm.db2.luw.admin.cmd.doc/doc/r0008305.html]
* IBM Informix:
  [https://www.ibm.com/support/knowledgecenter/en/SSGU8G_12.1.0/com.ibm.sqls.doc/ids_sqs_0884.htm]
* Apache Derby (AKA Java DB, Apache DB):
  [https://db.apache.org/derby/docs/10.7/tools/ttoolsimporting.html]
* Google Cloud Spanner: 
  [https://cloud.google.com/spanner/docs/bulk-loading]

  was:
Inspired by Postgres [1]

Common use case - bulk data load through JDBC/ODBC interface. Currently it is only possible
to execute single commands one by one. We already can batch them to improve performance, but
there is still big room for improvement.

We should think of a completely new command - {{COPY}}. It will accept a file (or input stream
in general case) on the client side, then transfer data to the cluster, and then execute update
inside the cluster, e.g. through streamer.

First of all we need to create quick and dirty prototype to assess potential performance improvement.
It speedup is confirmed, we should build base implementation which will accept only files.
But at the same time we should understand how it will evolve in future: multiple file formats
(probably including Hadoop formarts, e.g. Parquet), escape characters, input streams, etc..

[1] [https://www.postgresql.org/docs/9.6/static/sql-copy.html]
h1. Proposed syntax

Curent implementation:
{noformat}
COPY 
    FROM "file.name"
    INTO <schema>.<table>
    [(col-name, ...)]
    FORMAT <format-name>     -- Only CSV format is supported in the current release
    [BATCH_SIZE <batch-size-in-bytes>]
{noformat}
We may want to gradually add features to this command in future to have something like this:
{noformat}
COPY
    FROM 'file.name' [CHARSET <charset-name>]
    INTO <schema>.<table> [CREATE [IF NOT EXISTS]]
    [(REPLACE|IGNORE|ABORT ON [<max-error-number>])) EXISTING ROWS]
    [(col-name [<data-type>] [NULLABLE] [ESCAPES], ...) [MATCH HEADER]]
    FORMAT (csv|tsv|...)

-- CSV format options:
    [FIELDSEP='column-separators-regexp']
    [LINESEP='row-separators-regexp']
    [QUOTE='quote-chars']
    [ESCAPE='escape-char']
    [NULL='null-sequence']
    [COMMENT='single-line-comment-start-char']
    [TRIM_LINES]
    [IMPORT_EMPTY_LINES]

    [ROWS <first>-<last>]
--or--
    [SKIP ROWS <num>] [MAX ROWS <num>]

    [COLS <first>-<last>]
--or--
    [SKIP COLS <num>] [MAX COLS <num>]

    [MATCH HEADER ROW]
    [BATCH (<num> ROWS | <num> (KB|MB|GB))]
    [LOCK (TABLE|ROWS)]
    [NOLOGGING]
    [BACKEND (DIRECT | STREAMER)]
{noformat}

h1. Implementation decisions and notes

h2. Parsing

* We support CSV format described in RFC 4180.
* Custom row and column separators, quoting characters are currently hardcoded
* Escape sequences, line comment characters are currently not supported
* We may want to support fixed-length formats (via format descriptors) in future
* We may want to strip comments from lines (for example, starting with '#')
* We may want to allow user to either ignore empty lines or treat them as a special case of
record having all default values
* We may allow user to enable whitespace trimming from beginning and end of a line

h2. File handling

* File character set to be supported in future
* Skipped/imported row number (or first/last line or skip header option), skipped/imported
column number (or first/last column): to be supported in future
* Line start pattern (as in MySQL): no support planned
* We currently support only client-side import. No server-side file import.
* We may want to support client-side stdin import in future.
* We do not handle importing multiple files from single command
* We don't benefit from any kind of pre-sorting pre-partitioning data on client side.
* We don't include any any metadata, such as line number from client side.

h3. Transferring data

* We send file data via batches. In future we will support batch size (specified with rows
per batch or data block size 
per batch).
* We may want to implement data compression in future.
* We connect to single node in JDBC driver (no multi-node connections).

h3. Cache/tables/column handling

* We don't create table in the bulk load command
* We may want to have and option for reading header row, which contains column names to match
columns
* In future we may wish to support COLUMNS (col1, _, col2, _, col3) syntax, where '_' marker
means a skipped column (MySQL uses '@dummy' for this)

h3. Data types

* Data types are converted as if they were supplied to INSERT SQL command.
* We may want type conversion (automatic, custom using sql function, custom via Java code,
string auto-trimming) in future.
* We will support optional null sequence ("\N") later
* We may want to allow user to specify what to do if the same record exists (e.g., ignore
record, replace it, report error with a max. error counter before failing the command)
* We don't currently support any generated/autoincremented row IDs or any custom generators.
* We don't support any filtering/conditional expressions
* We don't support any files/recordsets/tables with multiple conversion errors generated during
import.

h3. Backend / Transactional / MVCC / other
* We may want an option to select how do we insert the data into cache: using cache.putAll(...),
for example, or via data streamer interface (see BACKEND option)
* We don't use transactions
* We don't create locks on rows or tables.
* We don't try to minimize any indexing overhead (it's up to the user)
* We may want to minimize WAL impact in future via NOLOGGING option.

h3. Miscellanea

* We don't supply an utility to load data
* We don't currently supply any java loaders (as in PG and MSSQL) that stream data (not neccessary
from file)
* Security-related questions are out of scope of this JIRA
* We don't have triggers and constraints in Apache Ignite

h1. Implementations from other vendors
h2. PostgreSQL
{noformat}
COPY table_name [ ( column_name [, ...] ) ]
    FROM { 'filename' | STDIN }
    [ [ WITH ]
          [ BINARY ]
          [ OIDS ]
          [ DELIMITER [ AS ] 'delimiter' ]
          [ NULL [ AS ] 'null string' ]
          [ CSV [ HEADER ]
                [ QUOTE [ AS ] 'quote' ]
                [ ESCAPE [ AS ] 'escape' ]
                [ FORCE NOT NULL column_name [, ...] ] ] ]
{noformat}
([https://www.postgresql.org/docs/9.2/static/sql-copy.html])
h3. Notes
 * Server-side file import
 * Client-side: only from STDIN
 * Protocol implementation: via special command in the protocol
 * Special bulk data loaders in implemented as part of JDBC driver package: org.postgresql.copy.CopyManager
 ([https://jdbc.postgresql.org/documentation/publicapi/org/postgresql/copy/CopyManager.html])
 * Custom loaders available (e.g., [https://github.com/bytefish/PgBulkInsert.git])

h2. MySQL
{noformat}
LOAD DATA [LOW_PRIORITY | CONCURRENT] [LOCAL] INFILE 'file_name'
    [REPLACE | IGNORE]
    INTO TABLE tbl_name
    [PARTITION (partition_name [, partition_name] ...)]
    [CHARACTER SET charset_name]
    [{FIELDS | COLUMNS}
        [TERMINATED BY 'string']
        [[OPTIONALLY] ENCLOSED BY 'char']
        [ESCAPED BY 'char']
    ]
    [LINES
        [STARTING BY 'string']
        [TERMINATED BY 'string']
    ]
    [IGNORE number {LINES | ROWS}]
    [(col_name_or_user_var
        [, col_name_or_user_var] ...)]
    [SET col_name={expr | DEFAULT},
        [, col_name={expr | DEFAULT}] ...]
{noformat}
([https://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.7/en/load-data.html])
h3. Notes
 * Both client- and server-side import
 * Protocol implementation via a hack: if result set returned with column count == -1, read
file name from server and send it immediately.

h2. Microsoft SQL Server
{noformat}
BULK INSERT
   [ database_name . [ schema_name ] . | schema_name . ] [ table_name | 
view_name ]
      FROM 'data_file'
     [ WITH
    (
   [ [ , ] BATCHSIZE = batch_size ]
   [ [ , ] CHECK_CONSTRAINTS ]
   [ [ , ] CODEPAGE = { 'ACP' | 'OEM' | 'RAW' | 'code_page' } ]
   [ [ , ] DATAFILETYPE =
      { 'char' | 'native'| 'widechar' | 'widenative' } ]
   [ [ , ] DATASOURCE = 'data_source_name' ]
   [ [ , ] ERRORFILE = 'file_name' ]
   [ [ , ] ERRORFILE_DATASOURCE = 'data_source_name' ]
   [ [ , ] FIRSTROW = first_row ]
   [ [ , ] FIRE_TRIGGERS ]
   [ [ , ] FORMATFILE_DATASOURCE = 'data_source_name' ]
   [ [ , ] KEEPIDENTITY ]
   [ [ , ] KEEPNULLS ]
   [ [ , ] KILOBYTES_PER_BATCH = kilobytes_per_batch ]
   [ [ , ] LASTROW = last_row ]
   [ [ , ] MAXERRORS = max_errors ]
   [ [ , ] ORDER ( { column [ ASC | DESC ] } [ ,...n ] ) ]
   [ [ , ] ROWS_PER_BATCH = rows_per_batch ]
   [ [ , ] ROWTERMINATOR = 'row_terminator' ]
   [ [ , ] TABLOCK ]

   -- input file format options
   [ [ , ] FORMAT = 'CSV' ]
   [ [ , ] FIELDQUOTE = 'quote_characters']
   [ [ , ] FORMATFILE = 'format_file_path' ]
   [ [ , ] FIELDTERMINATOR = 'field_terminator' ]
   [ [ , ] ROWTERMINATOR = 'row_terminator' ]
    )]
{noformat}
([https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/sql/t-sql/statements/bulk-insert-transact-sql])
h3. Notes
 * Server-side import
 * CLI utility to import from client side
 * Protocol implementation: Special packet types: column definition and row
 * Custom bulk data supplied in JDBC driver package: com.microsoft.sqlserver.jdbc.SqlServerBulkCopy.

h2. Oracle

There is no bulk load SQL command. Bulk loading external data can be achieved via:
 *  Oracle External Tables
([https://docs.oracle.com/en/database/oracle/oracle-database/12.2/sutil/oracle-external-tables-concepts.html])
 * SQL*Loader
([https://docs.oracle.com/database/121/SUTIL/GUID-8D037494-07FA-4226-B507-E1B2ED10C144.htm#SUTIL3311]).
* There is a separate utility for Oracle TimesTen in-memory database:
  [https://docs.oracle.com/database/121/TTREF/util.htm#TTREF324]


h2. Vertica DB

{noformat}
COPY [ [db-name.]schema-name.]target-table 
... [ ( { column-as-expression | column }
...... [ DELIMITER [ AS ] 'char' ] 
...... [ ENCLOSED [ BY ] 'char' ]
...... [ ENFORCELENGTH ]
...... [ ESCAPE [ AS ] 'char' | NO ESCAPE ]
...... [ FILLER datatype]
...... [ FORMAT 'format' ] 
...... [ NULL [ AS ] 'string' ]
...... [ TRIM 'byte' ]
... [, ... ] ) ]
... [ COLUMN OPTION ( column 
...... [ DELIMITER [ AS ] 'char' ]
...... [ ENCLOSED [ BY ] 'char' ]
...... [ ENFORCELENGTH ]
...... [ ESCAPE [ AS ] 'char' | NO ESCAPE ]
...... [ FORMAT 'format' ]
...... [ NULL [ AS ] 'string' ]
...... [ TRIM 'byte' ]
... [, ... ] ) ]
[ FROM { 
...STDIN 
...... [ BZIP | GZIP | LZO | UNCOMPRESSED ] 
...| 'pathToData' [ ON nodename | ON ANY NODE ] 
...... [ BZIP | GZIP | LZO | UNCOMPRESSED ] [, ...] 
...| LOCAL {STDIN | 'pathToData'} 
...... [ BZIP | GZIP | LZO | UNCOMPRESSED ] [, ...]
...| VERTICA source_database.[source_schema.]source_table[(source_column [,...]) ]
} ]

...[ NATIVE 
.....| NATIVE VARCHAR 
.....| FIXEDWIDTH COLSIZES (integer [,...]) 
.....| ORC 
.....| PARQUET 
...]
...[ WITH ]
......[ SOURCE source([arg=value [,...] ]) ]
......[ FILTER filter([arg=value [,...] ]) ] 
......[ PARSER parser([arg=value [,...] ]) ]
...[ DELIMITER [ AS ] 'char' ]
...[ TRAILING NULLCOLS ]
...[ NULL [ AS ] 'string' ]
...[ ESCAPE [ AS ] 'char' | NO ESCAPE ]
...[ ENCLOSED [ BY ] 'char' ]
...[ RECORD TERMINATOR 'string' ]
...[ SKIP records ]
...[ SKIP BYTES integer ]
...[ TRIM 'byte' ]
...[ REJECTMAX integer ]
...[ REJECTED DATA {'path' [ ON nodename ]  [, ...] | AS TABLE reject-table} ]
...[ EXCEPTIONS 'path' [ ON nodename ] [, ...] ]
...[ ENFORCELENGTH ]
...[ ERROR TOLERANCE ]
...[ ABORT ON ERROR ]
...[ [ STORAGE ] load-method ]
...[ STREAM NAME  'streamName']
...[ NO COMMIT ]
{noformat}

([https://my.vertica.com/docs/7.2.x/HTML/index.htm#Authoring/SQLReferenceManual/Statements/COPY/COPY.htm])

h2. Various solutions from vendors not mentioned above

* Apache Hive:
  [https://cwiki.apache.org/confluence/display/Hive/LanguageManual+DML#LanguageManualDML-Loadingfilesintotables]
* Apache HBase:
  [http://dwgeek.com/apache-hbase-bulk-load-csv-examples.html]
* SAP IQ:
  [https://help.sap.com/viewer/a898a5b484f21015a377cd1ccb6ee9b5/16.0.11.12/en-US/a6209de484f21015bcb2d858c21ab35e.html]
* VoltDB:
  [https://docs.voltdb.com/UsingVoltDB/clicsvloader.php]
* MemSQL:
  [https://docs.memsql.com/sql-reference/v6.0/load-data/]
  (creating pipelines and connecting them to LOAD DATA statement is also a notable feature)
* Sybase:
  [http://infocenter.sybase.com/help/index.jsp?topic=/com.sybase.help.sqlanywhere.12.0.1/dbreference/input-statement.html]
* IBM DB2:
  [https://www.ibm.com/support/knowledgecenter/en/SSEPGG_9.5.0/com.ibm.db2.luw.admin.cmd.doc/doc/r0008305.html]
* IBM Informix:
  [https://www.ibm.com/support/knowledgecenter/en/SSGU8G_12.1.0/com.ibm.sqls.doc/ids_sqs_0884.htm]
* Apache Derby (AKA Java DB, Apache DB):
  [https://db.apache.org/derby/docs/10.7/tools/ttoolsimporting.html]
* Google Cloud Spanner: 
  [https://cloud.google.com/spanner/docs/bulk-loading]


> SQL: implement COPY command for efficient data loading
> ------------------------------------------------------
>
>                 Key: IGNITE-6917
>                 URL: https://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/IGNITE-6917
>             Project: Ignite
>          Issue Type: New Feature
>          Components: sql
>            Reporter: Vladimir Ozerov
>            Assignee: Kirill Shirokov
>            Priority: Major
>              Labels: iep-1
>
> Inspired by Postgres [1]
> Common use case - bulk data load through JDBC/ODBC interface. Currently it is only possible
to execute single commands one by one. We already can batch them to improve performance, but
there is still big room for improvement.
> We should think of a completely new command - {{COPY}}. It will accept a file (or input
stream in general case) on the client side, then transfer data to the cluster, and then execute
update inside the cluster, e.g. through streamer.
> First of all we need to create quick and dirty prototype to assess potential performance
improvement. It speedup is confirmed, we should build base implementation which will accept
only files. But at the same time we should understand how it will evolve in future: multiple
file formats (probably including Hadoop formarts, e.g. Parquet), escape characters, input
streams, etc..
> [1] [https://www.postgresql.org/docs/9.6/static/sql-copy.html]
> h1. Proposed syntax
> Curent implementation:
> {noformat}
> COPY 
>     FROM "file.name"
>     INTO <schema>.<table>
>     [(col-name, ...)]
>     FORMAT <format-name>     -- Only CSV format is supported in the current release
>     [BATCH_SIZE <batch-size-in-bytes>]
> {noformat}
> We may want to gradually add features to this command in future to have something like
this:
> {noformat}
> COPY
>     FROM 'file.name' [CHARSET <charset-name>]
>     INTO <schema>.<table> [CREATE [IF NOT EXISTS]]
>     [(col-name [<data-type>] [NULLABLE] [ESCAPES], ...) [MATCH HEADER]]
>     FORMAT (csv|tsv|...)
> -- CSV format options:
>     [FIELDSEP='column-separators-regexp']
>     [LINESEP='row-separators-regexp']
>     [QUOTE='quote-chars']
>     [ESCAPE='escape-char']
>     [NULL='null-sequence']
>     [COMMENT='single-line-comment-start-char']
>     [TRIM_LINES]
>     [IMPORT_EMPTY_LINES]
>     [ROWS <first>-<last>]
> --or--
>     [SKIP ROWS <num>] [MAX ROWS <num>]
>     [COLS <first>-<last>]
> --or--
>     [SKIP COLS <num>] [MAX COLS <num>]
>     [MATCH HEADER ROW]
>     [(REPLACE|IGNORE|ABORT ON [<max-error-number>])) DUPLICATE KEYS]
>     [BATCH (<num> ROWS | <num>[K|M|G|T|P])]
>     [LOCK (TABLE|ROWS)]
>     [NOLOGGING]
>     [BACKEND (DIRECT | STREAMER)]
> {noformat}
> h1. Implementation decisions and notes
> h2. Parsing
> * We support CSV format described in RFC 4180.
> * Custom row and column separators, quoting characters are currently hardcoded
> * Escape sequences, line comment characters are currently not supported
> * We may want to support fixed-length formats (via format descriptors) in future
> * We may want to strip comments from lines (for example, starting with '#')
> * We may want to allow user to either ignore empty lines or treat them as a special case
of record having all default values
> * We may allow user to enable whitespace trimming from beginning and end of a line
> h2. File handling
> * File character set to be supported in future
> * Skipped/imported row number (or first/last line or skip header option), skipped/imported
column number (or first/last column): to be supported in future
> * Line start pattern (as in MySQL): no support planned
> * We currently support only client-side import. No server-side file import.
> * We may want to support client-side stdin import in future.
> * We do not handle importing multiple files from single command
> * We don't benefit from any kind of pre-sorting pre-partitioning data on client side.
> * We don't include any any metadata, such as line number from client side.
> h3. Transferring data
> * We send file data via batches. In future we will support batch size (specified with
rows per batch or data block size 
> per batch).
> * We may want to implement data compression in future.
> * We connect to single node in JDBC driver (no multi-node connections).
> h3. Cache/tables/column handling
> * We don't create table in the bulk load command
> * We may want to have and option for reading header row, which contains column names
to match columns
> * In future we may wish to support COLUMNS (col1, _, col2, _, col3) syntax, where '_'
marker means a skipped column (MySQL uses '@dummy' for this)
> h3. Data types
> * Data types are converted as if they were supplied to INSERT SQL command.
> * We may want type conversion (automatic, custom using sql function, custom via Java
code, string auto-trimming) in future.
> * We will support optional null sequence ("\N") later
> * We may want to allow user to specify what to do if the same record exists (e.g., ignore
record, replace it, report error with a max. error counter before failing the command)
> * We don't currently support any generated/autoincremented row IDs or any custom generators.
> * We don't support any filtering/conditional expressions
> * We don't support any files/recordsets/tables with multiple conversion errors generated
during import.
> h3. Backend / Transactional / MVCC / other
> * We may want an option to select how do we insert the data into cache: using cache.putAll(...),
for example, or via data streamer interface (see BACKEND option)
> * We don't use transactions
> * We don't create locks on rows or tables.
> * We don't try to minimize any indexing overhead (it's up to the user)
> * We may want to minimize WAL impact in future via NOLOGGING option.
> h3. Miscellanea
> * We don't supply an utility to load data
> * We don't currently supply any java loaders (as in PG and MSSQL) that stream data (not
neccessary from file)
> * Security-related questions are out of scope of this JIRA
> * We don't have triggers and constraints in Apache Ignite
> h1. Implementations from other vendors
> h2. PostgreSQL
> {noformat}
> COPY table_name [ ( column_name [, ...] ) ]
>     FROM { 'filename' | STDIN }
>     [ [ WITH ]
>           [ BINARY ]
>           [ OIDS ]
>           [ DELIMITER [ AS ] 'delimiter' ]
>           [ NULL [ AS ] 'null string' ]
>           [ CSV [ HEADER ]
>                 [ QUOTE [ AS ] 'quote' ]
>                 [ ESCAPE [ AS ] 'escape' ]
>                 [ FORCE NOT NULL column_name [, ...] ] ] ]
> {noformat}
> ([https://www.postgresql.org/docs/9.2/static/sql-copy.html])
> h3. Notes
>  * Server-side file import
>  * Client-side: only from STDIN
>  * Protocol implementation: via special command in the protocol
>  * Special bulk data loaders in implemented as part of JDBC driver package: org.postgresql.copy.CopyManager
>  ([https://jdbc.postgresql.org/documentation/publicapi/org/postgresql/copy/CopyManager.html])
>  * Custom loaders available (e.g., [https://github.com/bytefish/PgBulkInsert.git])
> h2. MySQL
> {noformat}
> LOAD DATA [LOW_PRIORITY | CONCURRENT] [LOCAL] INFILE 'file_name'
>     [REPLACE | IGNORE]
>     INTO TABLE tbl_name
>     [PARTITION (partition_name [, partition_name] ...)]
>     [CHARACTER SET charset_name]
>     [{FIELDS | COLUMNS}
>         [TERMINATED BY 'string']
>         [[OPTIONALLY] ENCLOSED BY 'char']
>         [ESCAPED BY 'char']
>     ]
>     [LINES
>         [STARTING BY 'string']
>         [TERMINATED BY 'string']
>     ]
>     [IGNORE number {LINES | ROWS}]
>     [(col_name_or_user_var
>         [, col_name_or_user_var] ...)]
>     [SET col_name={expr | DEFAULT},
>         [, col_name={expr | DEFAULT}] ...]
> {noformat}
> ([https://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.7/en/load-data.html])
> h3. Notes
>  * Both client- and server-side import
>  * Protocol implementation via a hack: if result set returned with column count == -1,
read file name from server and send it immediately.
> h2. Microsoft SQL Server
> {noformat}
> BULK INSERT
>    [ database_name . [ schema_name ] . | schema_name . ] [ table_name | 
> view_name ]
>       FROM 'data_file'
>      [ WITH
>     (
>    [ [ , ] BATCHSIZE = batch_size ]
>    [ [ , ] CHECK_CONSTRAINTS ]
>    [ [ , ] CODEPAGE = { 'ACP' | 'OEM' | 'RAW' | 'code_page' } ]
>    [ [ , ] DATAFILETYPE =
>       { 'char' | 'native'| 'widechar' | 'widenative' } ]
>    [ [ , ] DATASOURCE = 'data_source_name' ]
>    [ [ , ] ERRORFILE = 'file_name' ]
>    [ [ , ] ERRORFILE_DATASOURCE = 'data_source_name' ]
>    [ [ , ] FIRSTROW = first_row ]
>    [ [ , ] FIRE_TRIGGERS ]
>    [ [ , ] FORMATFILE_DATASOURCE = 'data_source_name' ]
>    [ [ , ] KEEPIDENTITY ]
>    [ [ , ] KEEPNULLS ]
>    [ [ , ] KILOBYTES_PER_BATCH = kilobytes_per_batch ]
>    [ [ , ] LASTROW = last_row ]
>    [ [ , ] MAXERRORS = max_errors ]
>    [ [ , ] ORDER ( { column [ ASC | DESC ] } [ ,...n ] ) ]
>    [ [ , ] ROWS_PER_BATCH = rows_per_batch ]
>    [ [ , ] ROWTERMINATOR = 'row_terminator' ]
>    [ [ , ] TABLOCK ]
>    -- input file format options
>    [ [ , ] FORMAT = 'CSV' ]
>    [ [ , ] FIELDQUOTE = 'quote_characters']
>    [ [ , ] FORMATFILE = 'format_file_path' ]
>    [ [ , ] FIELDTERMINATOR = 'field_terminator' ]
>    [ [ , ] ROWTERMINATOR = 'row_terminator' ]
>     )]
> {noformat}
> ([https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/sql/t-sql/statements/bulk-insert-transact-sql])
> h3. Notes
>  * Server-side import
>  * CLI utility to import from client side
>  * Protocol implementation: Special packet types: column definition and row
>  * Custom bulk data supplied in JDBC driver package: com.microsoft.sqlserver.jdbc.SqlServerBulkCopy.
> h2. Oracle
> There is no bulk load SQL command. Bulk loading external data can be achieved via:
>  *  Oracle External Tables
> ([https://docs.oracle.com/en/database/oracle/oracle-database/12.2/sutil/oracle-external-tables-concepts.html])
>  * SQL*Loader
> ([https://docs.oracle.com/database/121/SUTIL/GUID-8D037494-07FA-4226-B507-E1B2ED10C144.htm#SUTIL3311]).
> * There is a separate utility for Oracle TimesTen in-memory database:
>   [https://docs.oracle.com/database/121/TTREF/util.htm#TTREF324]
> h2. Vertica DB
> {noformat}
> COPY [ [db-name.]schema-name.]target-table 
> ... [ ( { column-as-expression | column }
> ...... [ DELIMITER [ AS ] 'char' ] 
> ...... [ ENCLOSED [ BY ] 'char' ]
> ...... [ ENFORCELENGTH ]
> ...... [ ESCAPE [ AS ] 'char' | NO ESCAPE ]
> ...... [ FILLER datatype]
> ...... [ FORMAT 'format' ] 
> ...... [ NULL [ AS ] 'string' ]
> ...... [ TRIM 'byte' ]
> ... [, ... ] ) ]
> ... [ COLUMN OPTION ( column 
> ...... [ DELIMITER [ AS ] 'char' ]
> ...... [ ENCLOSED [ BY ] 'char' ]
> ...... [ ENFORCELENGTH ]
> ...... [ ESCAPE [ AS ] 'char' | NO ESCAPE ]
> ...... [ FORMAT 'format' ]
> ...... [ NULL [ AS ] 'string' ]
> ...... [ TRIM 'byte' ]
> ... [, ... ] ) ]
> [ FROM { 
> ...STDIN 
> ...... [ BZIP | GZIP | LZO | UNCOMPRESSED ] 
> ...| 'pathToData' [ ON nodename | ON ANY NODE ] 
> ...... [ BZIP | GZIP | LZO | UNCOMPRESSED ] [, ...] 
> ...| LOCAL {STDIN | 'pathToData'} 
> ...... [ BZIP | GZIP | LZO | UNCOMPRESSED ] [, ...]
> ...| VERTICA source_database.[source_schema.]source_table[(source_column [,...]) ]
> } ]
> ...[ NATIVE 
> .....| NATIVE VARCHAR 
> .....| FIXEDWIDTH COLSIZES (integer [,...]) 
> .....| ORC 
> .....| PARQUET 
> ...]
> ...[ WITH ]
> ......[ SOURCE source([arg=value [,...] ]) ]
> ......[ FILTER filter([arg=value [,...] ]) ] 
> ......[ PARSER parser([arg=value [,...] ]) ]
> ...[ DELIMITER [ AS ] 'char' ]
> ...[ TRAILING NULLCOLS ]
> ...[ NULL [ AS ] 'string' ]
> ...[ ESCAPE [ AS ] 'char' | NO ESCAPE ]
> ...[ ENCLOSED [ BY ] 'char' ]
> ...[ RECORD TERMINATOR 'string' ]
> ...[ SKIP records ]
> ...[ SKIP BYTES integer ]
> ...[ TRIM 'byte' ]
> ...[ REJECTMAX integer ]
> ...[ REJECTED DATA {'path' [ ON nodename ]  [, ...] | AS TABLE reject-table} ]
> ...[ EXCEPTIONS 'path' [ ON nodename ] [, ...] ]
> ...[ ENFORCELENGTH ]
> ...[ ERROR TOLERANCE ]
> ...[ ABORT ON ERROR ]
> ...[ [ STORAGE ] load-method ]
> ...[ STREAM NAME  'streamName']
> ...[ NO COMMIT ]
> {noformat}
> ([https://my.vertica.com/docs/7.2.x/HTML/index.htm#Authoring/SQLReferenceManual/Statements/COPY/COPY.htm])
> h2. Various solutions from vendors not mentioned above
> * Apache Hive:
>   [https://cwiki.apache.org/confluence/display/Hive/LanguageManual+DML#LanguageManualDML-Loadingfilesintotables]
> * Apache HBase:
>   [http://dwgeek.com/apache-hbase-bulk-load-csv-examples.html]
> * SAP IQ:
>   [https://help.sap.com/viewer/a898a5b484f21015a377cd1ccb6ee9b5/16.0.11.12/en-US/a6209de484f21015bcb2d858c21ab35e.html]
> * VoltDB:
>   [https://docs.voltdb.com/UsingVoltDB/clicsvloader.php]
> * MemSQL:
>   [https://docs.memsql.com/sql-reference/v6.0/load-data/]
>   (creating pipelines and connecting them to LOAD DATA statement is also a notable feature)
> * Sybase:
>   [http://infocenter.sybase.com/help/index.jsp?topic=/com.sybase.help.sqlanywhere.12.0.1/dbreference/input-statement.html]
> * IBM DB2:
>   [https://www.ibm.com/support/knowledgecenter/en/SSEPGG_9.5.0/com.ibm.db2.luw.admin.cmd.doc/doc/r0008305.html]
> * IBM Informix:
>   [https://www.ibm.com/support/knowledgecenter/en/SSGU8G_12.1.0/com.ibm.sqls.doc/ids_sqs_0884.htm]
> * Apache Derby (AKA Java DB, Apache DB):
>   [https://db.apache.org/derby/docs/10.7/tools/ttoolsimporting.html]
> * Google Cloud Spanner: 
>   [https://cloud.google.com/spanner/docs/bulk-loading]



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