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From Apache Wiki <>
Subject [Httpd Wiki] Update of "NonRootPortBinding" by GuillermoGrandes
Date Sat, 30 Apr 2011 22:50:58 GMT
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The "NonRootPortBinding" page has been changed by GuillermoGrandes.
The comment on this change is: Alternative method (NAT).


  == What you need ==
  You need two things:
   * an operating system with POSIX capabilities;
@@ -15, +14 @@

  We suppose that you have Apache installed, and that the httpd binary is {{{/usr/sbin/httpd}}}.
Some distributions put it in another location (Debian, for instance, uses {{{/usr/sbin/apache2}}}).
  == First step: add capabilities to the httpd binary ==
  The capabilities are added per file. This is why we need to modify the httpd binary itself.
The capability we need to add is {{{CAP_NET_BIND_SERVICE}}}, which is explicitly defined as
the capacity for an executable to bind to a port less than 1024.
  You need to be root to do that, so first, be root. Then, add the capability to the httpd
@@ -23, +21 @@

  root@myhost # setcap cap_net_bind_service=+ep /usr/sbin/httpd
  Check that the capability is added:
  root@myhost # getcap /usr/sbin/httpd
  /usr/sbin/httpd = cap_net_bind_service+ep
  == Second step: preparing your environment ==
  NOTE: this section assumes a Fedora, Red Hat or derivate distribution. Adapt instructions
below accordingly.
  Login as root. Choose a user with which you want to run Apache (create one if needed). It
can be a system only user (ie, no shell), but for testing purposes:
@@ -46, +41 @@

  root@myhost # cp -a /etc/httpd ~test/
  root@myhost # chown -R test ~test/httpd
  Then login as {{{test}}}. Modify the environment:
@@ -55, +49 @@

  test@myhost $ rm -f logs run
  test@myhost $ mkdir logs run
+ Now, test that you can run it:
- Now, test that you can run it:
  test@myhost $ pwd
  test@myhost $ httpd -d $(pwd) -DNO_DETACH
  Apache will then run in the foreground. If it quits immediately, check the console output,
or {{{logs/error_log}}}: fix errors (very probably a permission problem) and try again.
  You're done!
  == Reverting ==
  Use {{{setcap}}} again, to remove the capability:
  root@myhost # setcap cap_net_bind_service=-ep /usr/sbin/httpd
  == Caveats ==
   * with this setup, _any_ nonprivileged user can now run Apache on privileged ports. So,
be very careful about what you do. Additionally, you can further restrict execution of the
httpd binary, either using standard credentials ({{{chmod}}}, {{{chown}}} et al) or, even
better, ACLs;
   * if you upgrade Apache, changes you have made to httpd will be lost, you'll need to do
them again...
+ == Alternative method (iptables/linux): NAT ==
+ You can use nat based method to redirect traffic from port 80 to 8080.
+ {{{
+ root@myhost # iptables -t nat -A PREROUTING -d <ip> -p tcp --dport 80 -m addrtype
--dst-type LOCAL -j DNAT --to-destination <ip>:8080
+ root@myhost # iptables -t nat -A OUTPUT     -d <ip> -p tcp --dport 80 -m addrtype
--dst-type LOCAL -j DNAT --to-destination <ip>:8080
+ }}}
+ Obviously the configuration of your apache server to listen on port 8080

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