httpd-docs mailing list archives

Site index · List index
Message view « Date » · « Thread »
Top « Date » · « Thread »
From Apache Wiki <wikidi...@apache.org>
Subject [Httpd Wiki] Update of "PerformanceScalingOut" by jmcg
Date Tue, 18 Jan 2011 00:58:42 GMT
Dear Wiki user,

You have subscribed to a wiki page or wiki category on "Httpd Wiki" for change notification.

The "PerformanceScalingOut" page has been changed by jmcg.
The comment on this change is: wikifying Performance Scaling Out PDF, fixing some typos, converting
to en_US.
http://wiki.apache.org/httpd/PerformanceScalingOut?action=diff&rev1=1&rev2=2

--------------------------------------------------

  
  See also: http://wiki.apache.org/httpd/PerformanceScalingUp
  
+ = Introduction =
+  
+ Building out a web server infrastructure is a large and multifaceted challenge.
+ The server infrastructure for any large web site is necessarily customized for
+ the needs and requirements of that site, thus it is very difficult to make valid
+ general statements about scaling technologies. This paper and its accompanying
+ ApacheCon presentation give a general overview of the field, touching upon
+ approaches and technologies rather than discussing them in depth.
+ 
+ 
+ == Why Would You Scale Out? ==
+ 
+ Scaling Out is a business decision. You may scale out because you cannot meet
+ your performance goals with a single web server. Alternatively, you may scale
+ out to meet reliability and uptime goals. There are many approaches to scaling
+ out, with varying price tags. So whatever your motivation, to scale out your
+ web infrastructure you will have to justify added expenses for server hardware,
+ network equipment, possibly software licenses and maintenance contracts, and
+ most certainly system administration time and resources.
+ 
+ 
+ = Building Out: Load Balancing =
+ 
+ Scaling Out means adding more servers. The primary issue that arises when
+ servers are added is how to direct client transactions to multiple hosts. The user
+ does not know and does not need to know that multiple servers are in use. They
+ just want to point their browser to `www.example.com` and spend a lot of money
+ on your products or services. In this section we will review several techniques
+ to distribute client transactions across your hosts.
+ 
+ 
+ == Load Balancing with DNS ==
+ 
+ You have a great deal of control over where your users direct their transactions
+ by using the Domain Name Service (DNS) for your site. This seems obvious,
+ but it is critical to scaling. When your users connect to `www.example.com`,
+ they don’t care to which IP address this resolves. If you can manipulate this
+ resolution, you can send the user to whichever physical server you prefer, which
+ can be of great benefit to the infrastructure
+ 
+ 
+ === Distinct Servers for Distinct Services ===
+ 
+ One way to distribute transaction load across multiple physical servers is to give
+ each server a separate task. For your `www.example.com` site, use an
+ `images.example.com` server to serve static image content, a `secure.example.com`
+ server to handle SSL transactions, etc. This approach allows you to tune each server
+ for its specialized task. The downside is that this approach does not scale by
+ itself: once, for instance, your secure server runs out of processing headroom,
+ you will have to add more machines using one of the techniques described below.
+ 
+ 
+ === DNS Round-Robin ===
+ If you operate multiple servers that perform identical functions, you can
+ distribute client transactions among them using Domain Name Server
+ Round-Robin. The principle behind this technique is that a single server hostname
+ resolves to a different IP address from your server pool for each DNS resolution
+ request. For instance, if you have three web servers with the IP addresses
+ 
+ {{{
+ 10.11.0.113
+ 10.11.0.114
+ 10.11.0.115
+ }}}
+ 
+ and you have your name server return each of those addresses in turn for
+ queries to your web server name (`www.scalingout.org`), roughly one third of
+ all clients will connect to each of your web servers. Since popular name server
+ implementations like bind implement this technique by default, it is very simple
+ to implement without any resource requirements besides control over your DNS zone.
+ 
+ How "roughly" this works depends on many factors, over few of which you
+ have any control. Client-side resolvers cache query responses, as do intermediate
+ nameservers at ISPs and corporations. Large ISPs and corporations represent
+ many potential users, all of whom would be directed to the same web server for
+ as long as their nameserver caches the original lookup. However, across your
+ entire user population these discrepancies may even out. You can help this
+ process by reducing the cache timeout for query results in your zone file. An
+ example zone file that uses DNS Round-Robin is shown in Appendix A.
+ 
+ DNS Round-Robin as a load balancing approach is often disparaged because
+ of its simplicity: it does not take into account the load on the servers, and
+ can not compensate for server outage. If a server goes down for any reason,
+ one third of all clients will still be directed to the nonfunctional server. If these
+ considerations are important to you, consider one of the more sophisticated load
+ balancing approaches described below. However, do not dismiss DNS Round-
+ Robin out of hand. Depending on your requirements, it may be all you need.
+ 
+ 
+ == Peer-based Load Balancing ==
+ 
+ You can turn a collection of individual servers into a cluster by using load
+ balancing techniques. In this section we will discuss Microsoft's approach.
+ 
+ 
+ === Windows Network Load Balancing ===
+ 
+ Windows Load Balancing Service (WLBS) technology has been available since
+ Windows NT Server 4.0, Enterprise Edition and is now included in Windows
+ Server 2003 under the name Network Load Balancing (NLB). Using Network
+ Load Balancing, you can turn up to 32 servers into a cluster. The service work
+ by having every machine assume the same IP address, and the same MAC address,
+ on the clustered interface(s). Incoming connections arrive at all members
+ of the cluster simultaneously from the network switch. The NLB software
+ communicates between cluster members over a unicast or multicast backchannel
+ and is responsible for the load balancing decisions. It sits between the network
+ card driver and the TCP/IP stack, and regulates which cluster member gets to
+ answer each incoming request. Cluster members whose NLB module doesn't
+ communicate with the other members get removed from the pool. This allows
+ NLB to provide High Availability as well as load balancing functionality.
+ 
+ Because it operates below the TCP/IP layer, Network Load Balancing should
+ be compatible with any service that runs on the server machines. Each cluster
+ member has to be configured exactly the same. Please see your Windows Server
+ 2003 documentation for details.
+ 
+ 
+ == Load Balancing Appliance ==
+ 
+ The market for dedicated load balancing appliances is now quite crowded, with
+ offerings from vendors like Cisco, F5, Juniper, Foundry and many others vying
+ for your attention. These products can be pricey, but are powerful solutions for
+ load balancing your server farm.
+ 
+ 
+ === How a Load Balancer Works ===
+ 
+ Load balancing appliances or application switches sit between the web servers
+ and the outbound network connection and intelligently distribute traffic across
+ multiple web servers. They typically keep track of the load and availability of the
+ servers, and adjust their load balancing decisions accordingly. Many of these
+ products can operate on several layers of the network stack and can inspect
+ incoming requests to make load balancing decisions based on source address,
+ requested URI, cookies submitted etc.
+ 
+ 
+ === Linux Virtual Server ===
+ 
+ The Linux Virtual Server project is an open source load balancing and high
+ availability implementation. Its core module, IP Virtual Server, is included in
+ the kernel as of version 2.6.10. Auxiliary software like `ipvsadm` is only an install
+ away. If you are considering rolling your own load balancing solution, consider
+ Linux Virtual Server.
+ 
+ The primary disadvantage of Linux Virtual Server is that it does not come
+ as a nice, shiny plug-and-play box with a support contract. Instead, it looks
+ more like an Erector Set (also known as ''Meccano'') of bits and pieces that
+ you get to integrate yourself.
+ However, this disadvantage can also be a strength: it allows you to build a
+ solution that best fits your needs. However, the absence of a 24x7 support plan
+ may upset your decision makers. You can find an example configuration for
+ Linux Virtual Server in Appendix B.
+ 
+ 
+ == Load Balancing with Tomcat ==
+ The Tomcat application server and its `mod_jk` Apache HTTP Server connector
+ provide load balancing functionality that allows running a number of Tomcat
+ instances behind a single web server.
+ 
+ This approach to Scaling Out is important for both performance and reliability
+ reasons. On the performance side, the web server can distribute resource
+ intensive application traffic among multiple application servers. From a reliability
+ point of view, it becomes possible to selectively take down Tomcat instances
+ for maintenance, without affecting overall availability of your application. Or,
+ you can periodically stop-start Tomcat instances to prevent the build up of is-
+ sues like memory leaks. Additionally, in the event a Tomcat instance crashes,
+ the load balancing `mod_jk` worker will automatically take it out of the pool until
+ it becomes available again.
+ 
+ The load balancing functionality in `mod_jk` uses a round-robin algorithm to
+ assign requests to its workers. It maintains sticky sessions based on the Tomcat
+ session cookies, so requests that belong to the same application session will
+ always be routed to the same Tomcat instance.
+ A complete example of a Tomcat/`mod_jk` load balancing configuration is
+ available in Appendix C. You can also load balance a number of Tomcat servers
+ using the mod proxy balancer module that comes with Apache 2.2. This approach
+ is discussed in Section 2.5.
+ 
+ 
+ === Session Replication in a Tomcat Cluster ===
+ 
+ Sticky sessions allow for session persistence across a load balancer by having it
+ always route traffic that carries a specific session cookie to the same back-end
+ Tomcat server. However, when one of the back-end servers crashes or is taken
+ out of service for maintenance, the sessions it is serving at that moment are lost.
+ This is highly undesirable if these sessions represent customers' shopping carts
+ or banking transactions. Tomcat clustering and session replication prevents
+ session loss by copying session information from any cluster member to all the
+ other members as soon as a session is created.
+ 
+ Clustering works over IP multicast. There are specific requirements for the
+ environment and session objects, which must be serializable. These require-
+ ments are discussed in the Tomcat documentation. An example configuration
+ is discussed in Appendix C.
+ 
+ 
+ == Load Balancing with Apache 2.2 ==
+ 
+ Version 2.2 of the Apache HTTP Server includes a load balancing proxy module,
+ mod proxy balancer. This add-on to mod proxy can balance incoming requests
+ between multiple back-end servers. It can persist connections to a particular
+ back-end based on a configurable Cookie key like `JSESSIONID` or `PHPSESSIONID`.
+ The configuration looks as follows:
+ 
+ {{{
+ Listen 80
+ LogLevel debug
+ TransferLog logs/access_log
+ 
+ LoadModule proxy_module modules/mod_proxy.so
+ LoadModule proxy_http_module modules/mod_proxy_http.so
+ LoadModule proxy_balancer_module modules/mod_proxy_balancer.so
+ 
+ ProxyPass / balancer://mycluster/
+ ProxyPassReverse / http://localhost:16180
+ ProxyPassReverse / http://localhost:16280
+ 
+ <Proxy balancer://mycluster>
+    BalancerMember http://1.2.3.4:80
+    BalancerMember http://1.2.3.5:80
+ </Proxy>
+ }}}
+ 
+ The configuration above will equally distribute requests between two back-
+ end web servers. If your back-end servers are running Tomcat, you can enable
+ sticky sessions as follows:
+ 
+ {{{
+ ...
+ <Proxy balancer://tccluster>
+     BalancerMember http://localhost:15180 route=tc1
+     BalancerMember http://localhost:15280 route=tc2
+     BalancerMember http://localhost:15380 route=tc3
+ </Proxy>
+ 
+ <Location />
+     ProxyPass balancer://tccluster/ stickysession=JSESSIONID
+     Require all granted
+ </Location>
+ }}}
+ 
+ The `server.xml` file of each Tomcat server has to be edited to include a
+ `jvmRoute` attribute in the Engine element. For instance, in the first Tomcat,
+ you have:
+ 
+ {{{
+ <!-- ... -->
+ <Server port="15105" shutdown="SHUTDOWN">
+ <!-- ... -->
+     <Service name="Catalina">
+         <Connector port="15180" maxHttpHeaderSize="8192"
+             maxThreads="150" minSpareThreads="25" maxSpareThreads="75"
+             enableLookups="false" redirectPort="8443" acceptCount="100"
+             connectionTimeout="20000" disableUploadTimeout="true" />
+     <!-- ... -->
+         <Engine name="Catalina" defaultHost="localhost" jvmRoute="tc1">
+     <!-- ... -->
+         </Engine>
+     </Service>
+ </Server>
+ }}}
+ 
+ The `mod_proxy_balancer` module also contains a small management application,
+ which you can enable using the following configuration snippet:
+ 
+ {{{
+ <Location /balancer-manager>
+     SetHandler balancer-manager
+     # Your access control directives here
+     Order Allow,deny
+     Allow from all
+     # ...
+ </Location>
+ 
+ The management feature requires the presence of `mod_status` in addition
+ to `mod_proxy_balancer`. As you can see, the load balancing reverse proxy in
+ Apache HTTP Server 2.2 is quite easy to set up. For more information about
+ the configuration options, please see the `mod_proxy` documentation. More
+ information on the algorithms for the load balancing decision can be found in
+ the mod proxy balancer documentation.
+ 
+ 
+ = Building Out: Separate Tiers =
+ 
+ Most web applications can be separated into multiple distinct tiers:
+ # Web server tier(Apache, IIS, Sun ONE)
+ # Application server tier (Tomcat, PHP, WebLogic, etc.)
+ # Database server tier (MySQL, Oracle, Postgres, etc.)
+ Every tier has distinct and particular performance requirements. Moving
+ each tier to their own hardware allows you to tune and scale them individually.
+ The fact that all of the individual applications communicate with each other
+ over TCP/IP already makes this move even easier.
+ 
+ 
+ == The Web Server Tier ==
+ 
+ The '''Web Server''' tier communicates directly with the users. It is responsible for
+ maintaining connection with a wide variety of client browsers across potentially
+ slow and far-flung connections. This causes a markedly different load on the
+ operating system TCP stack than the long-lived, local, high speed connections
+ between web and application server, and between application server and the
+ database. The web tier can also be configured to serve the application's static
+ content: HTML pages, images, JavaScript, etc. It passes only the requests for
+ dynamically generated content (PHP scripts, JavaServer Pages, RSS feeds) on
+ to the application tier. The type of server used for this tier typically has one or
+ two CPUs and enough memory to fit the requisite number of httpd processes.
+ Storage is not a concern.
+ 
+ 
+ == The Application Server Tier ==
+ 
+ The '''Application Server''' tier generates all dynamic content. It receives requests
+ from the web tier and maintains connections to the database tier. The
+ operating system can be tuned specifically to run an application server platform
+ such as a Java virtual machine. The type of server used for this tier may
+ have multiple CPUs as required to run application threads. These servers have
+ more memory than the web servers as required by the application platform, but
+ storage is not important on this tier.
+ 
+ 
+ == The Database Server Tier ==
+ The '''Database Server''' tier stores all application data. The application server
+ tier connects to the database tier using the JDBC protocol or native database
+ libraries. Database access can be a considerable bottleneck for application performance,
+ so performance is an important consideration for this tier. The type
+ of server used for this tier should have sufficient CPU power and RAM to run the
+ database application, and come with scalable, redundant storage like a RAID-5
+ array.
+ 
+ 
+ = Designing Your Site for Scaling Out =
+ 
+ 
+ == Designing for a Load Balancer ==
+ 
+ A Load Balancer introduces an additional moving part to your web server infrastructure.
+ While most load balancer solutions do their best to appear transparent
+ to the application, you may find some issues that you can solve by properly
+ designing your application.
+ 
+ The main issue arises with session persistence. The HTTP protocol is inherently
+ stateless, which is great for a load balancer: it can consider each incoming
+ request for itself and make a completely independent load balancing decision
+ based on its criteria. Session persistence potentially complicates this issue, especially
+ if a user's session exists only on the server that initially created it. If a
+ subsequent request from that user is directed to a different back-end server, the
+ session is lost. Most load balancing solutions solve this problem by consistently
+ directing requests from a particular IP address to the same back-end server.
+ Some can inspect incoming HTTP requests and make load balancing decisions
+ based on session cookies.
+ 
+ These load balancer based fixes should be enough under most circumstances,
+ but your requirements may be more stringent: what if the user reconnects after
+ his lunch break and the load balancer has timed out because of inactivity from
+ the user's IP address? Or the user reconnects from a different IP address (let's
+ say she leaves one Starbucks and reconnects from the one across the street)?
+ Or the server that holds the user's session goes offline because of a crash or
+ maintenance? If it is important to you to maintain user sessions under circumstances
+ like these, you should build session persistence into your application.
+ Users sessions are likely to cause more reads than writes. You could write session
+ information to your back-end database, or use a special, fast database with
+ a write-through cache just for session maintenance.
+ 
+ 
+ = Conclusion =
+ Scaling out your web site is a mixed blessing. While you get to serve more
+ transactions and, presumably, do more business, the additional hardware, software
+ and network segments will also give you more intricacies to oversee. You
+ get to manage, maintain en secure a farm of servers instead of just one. The
+ configuration of your servers, and application software and content design will
+ be highly influenced by the infrastructure design decisions you make, and they
+ will be heavily intertwined. However, with judicious planning, scaling out can
+ be an efficient and effective solution to increased site demands.
+ 
+ 
+ = DNS Round-Robin Zone File =
+ 
+ The following is a very basic DNS Zone file that uses Round-Robin DNS to
+ balance three web servers.
+ 
+ {{{
+ scalingout.org. 86400 IN SOA   ns.scalingout.org. sctemme.scalingout.org. (
+            2006051401 ; Serial
+            86400      ; refresh (1 day)
+            7200       ; retry (2 hours)
+            8640000    ; expire (10 days)
+            86400 )    ; minimum (1 day)
+ 
+ scalingout.org.       IN NS    bagheera.scalingout.org.
+ 
+ gw                    IN A     10.11.0.1
+ bagheera              IN A     10.11.0.2
+ 
+ ; ...
+ 
+ mail                  IN CNAME bagheera
+ ns                    IN CNAME bagheera
+ 
+ 
+ www                  IN A     10.11.0.113
+                      IN A     10.11.0.114
+                      IN A     10.11.0.115
+ }}}
+ 
+ 
+ = Linux Virtual Server Configuration =
+ 
+ This example uses a Linux Virtual Server director running `Ubuntu 5.10` (The
+ Breezy Badger). The outside interface of the Director has IP address `10.0.0.1`,
+ its inside interface is on `192.168.1.1`. Two back-end web servers are connected
+ to an internal interface of the Director. Their Ethernet interfaces are configured
+ for `192.168.1.2` and `192.168.1.3` respectively, and both have `192.168.1.1` for
+ default gateway. On the Director machine, the file `/etc/ipvsadm.rules` has the
+ following information:
+ 
+ {{{
+ # ipvsadm.rules
+ -A -t 10.0.0.1:80 -s rr
+ -a -t 10.0.0.1:80 -r 192.168.1.2:8080 -m -w 1
+ -a -t 10.0.0.1:80 -r 192.168.1.3:8080 -m -w 1
+ }}}
+ 
+ and the file `/etc/defaults/ipvsadm` looks as follows:
+ 
+ {{{
+ # Do not edit! Use ’dpkg-reconfigure ipvsadm’.
+ AUTO="true"
+ DAEMON="none"
+ }}}
+ 
+ The tool mentioned in the comment has interactive menus for the two variables.
+ This is all the configuration necessary to run Linux Virtual Server in
+ NAT mode: a reboot or the command `/etc/init.d/ipvsadm start` issued as
+ `root` starts the load balancer.
+ 
+ 
+ = Example Tomcat 5.5 Load Balancing Configuration =
+ 
+ This example uses an Apache HTTP server with the `mod_jk` module, and three
+ Tomcat instances load balanced with sticky sessions. Note that the example
+ does not cover any access control or authorization. It is recommended that you
+ restrict access to the `mod_jk` status Worker.
+ 
+ The following is an `httpd.conf` snippet that sets up `mod_jk`:
+ 
+ {{{
+ # Load the mod_jk module. You would obviously use the
+ # path to your own httpd installation.
+ LoadModule jk_module /Volumes/Files/asf/httpd-r415210w/modules/mod_jk.so
+ 
+ # Mount your web applications. We are using the
+ # examples that come with Tomcat
+ JKMount /servlets-examples/* loadbalancer
+ JKMount /*.jsp loadbalancer
+ 
+ # The mod_jk Manager application. Please implement appropriate
+ # access control on production systems.
+ JkMount /jkmanager/* jkstatus
+ 
+ # Log mod_jk activity. You probably want a less verbose log level
+ JKLogFile logs/jk_log
+ JKLogLevel debug
+ 
+ # The JKWorkerProperty directive is new as of mod_jk 1.2.7. It allows
+ # you to specify mod_jk worker configuration directives in httpd.conf
+ # instead of a separate workers.properties file
+ JKWorkerProperty worker.list=loadbalancer,jkstatus
+ 
+ # Define three Tomcat instance workers
+ JKWorkerProperty worker.tc1.port=15109
+ JKWorkerProperty worker.tc1.host=localhost
+ JKWorkerProperty worker.tc1.type=ajp13
+ JKWorkerProperty worker.tc1.lbfactor=1
+ 
+ JKWorkerProperty worker.tc2.port=15209
+ JKWorkerProperty worker.tc2.host=localhost
+ JKWorkerProperty worker.tc2.type=ajp13
+ JKWorkerProperty worker.tc2.lbfactor=1
+ 
+ JKWorkerProperty worker.tc3.port=15309
+ JKWorkerProperty worker.tc3.host=localhost
+ JKWorkerProperty worker.tc3.type=ajp13
+ JKWorkerProperty worker.tc3.lbfactor=1
+ 
+ # Define a load balancer worker that uses the three
+ # Tomcat instances
+ JKWorkerProperty worker.loadbalancer.type=lb
+ JKWorkerProperty worker.loadbalancer.balance_workers=tc1, tc2, tc3
+ 
+ # Define the mod_jk status worker
+ JKWorkerProperty worker.jkstatus.type=status
+ }}}
+ 
+ In the server.xml configuration file of each Tomcat, you need to set the
+ jvmRoute attribute of the Engine element to match the corresponding worker
+ name. For instance for the first Tomcat instance:
+ 
+ {{{
+ ...
+     <Engine name="Catalina" defaultHost="localhost" jvmRoute="tc1">
+ ...
+ }}}
+ 
+ If you don’t set this attribute, sticky sessions will not work!
+ 
+ 
+ == Session Replication in a Tomcat Cluster ==
+ 
+ The default `server.xml` configuration file that comes with Tomcat contains an
+ example clustering configuration. This example is commented out. To enable
+ clustering, find the `<Cluster> ... </Cluster>` element in the configuration
+ file and uncomment the entire element. If your test Tomcats are running on
+ the same host, change the `tcpListenPort` attribute of the Receiver element to a
+ unique value for every instance. For instance:
+ 
+ {{{
+     <Cluster className="org.apache.catalina.cluster.tcp.SimpleTcpCluster"
+         managerClassName="org.apache.catalina.cluster.session.DeltaManager"
+         expireSessionsOnShutdown="false"
+         useDirtyFlag="true"
+         notifyListenersOnReplication="true">
+ 
+ <!-- ... -->
+ 
+     <Receiver
+         className="org.apache.catalina.cluster.tcp.ReplicationListener"
+         tcpListenAddress="auto"
+         tcpListenPort="15101"
+ 
+ <!-- ... -->
+ }}}
+ 
+ The second Tomcat instance gets `tcpListenPort="15201"`, the third `15301`
+ etc. Every web application that uses session replication has to have a distributable
+ element in its `web.xml` file. For instance, to make the Tomcat Servlet
+ examples distributable, edit `webapps/servlets-examples/WEB-INF/web.xml` for
+ every cluster member and add `<distributable />` to the `<web-app>` container.
+ 
+ 
+ == Testing your Deployment ==
+ 
+ To test the deployment as described above, place an `index.html` file in the
+ `webapps/ROOT` directory of every Tomcat instance with some distinctive text like
+ "This is Tomcat 1" (and 2, and 3 respectively). Subsequent requests from a
+ client to your load balancing Apache should show you the index pages from all
+ your back-end serves in succession.
+ 
+ Testing sessions, sticky sessions and replication is not as simple. Browsers
+ very efficiently manage session cookies in a fashion completely transparent to the
+ user, so it is not easy to observe the exact behavior between client and server.
+ For this reason, it is often better to use a command-line client like `curl(1)`. For
+ instance, you can test session behavior using the following command:
+ 
+ {{{
+ $ curl -i -b /tmp/cookiejar -c /tmp/cookiejar \
+ > http://localhost:15080/servlets-examples/servlet/SessionExample
+ }}}
+ 
+ The first time you invoke this command, you will see a Set-Cookie: header
+ appear in the response, and the generated HTML page will display the session
+ ID. The last element of the session ID should be the `jvmRoute` value of the
+ Tomcat instance that received the request. Subsequent requests will show the
+ same session ID in the page, since requests will be routed to the same instance
+ using the sticky session. Store some data in the session by invoking:
+ 
+ {{{
+ $ curl -i -b /tmp/cookiejar -c /tmp/cookiejar \
+ > http://localhost:15080/servlets-examples/servlet/SessionExample\
+ > ?dataname=foo\&datavalue=bar
+ }}}
+ 
+ The value ''foo = bar'' shoud now appear under The following data is in your
+ session in the generated HTML page. Shut the receiving Tomcat down by calling
+ its `bin/shutdown.sh` script, and try the request again. If you didn't configure
+ clustering, you will receive a response from a different Tomcat instance with a
+ new session ID. If you did configure clustering, however, the new Tomcat will
+ have replicated the session data from the first one and you should see the same
+ session ID, and the same key/value pair stored in the session.
+ 

---------------------------------------------------------------------
To unsubscribe, e-mail: docs-unsubscribe@httpd.apache.org
For additional commands, e-mail: docs-help@httpd.apache.org


Mime
View raw message