Author: colm Date: Tue Aug 23 13:29:51 2005 New Revision: 239460 URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewcvs?rev=239460&view=rev Log: Update transformation Added: httpd/httpd/trunk/docs/manual/caching.html (with props) httpd/httpd/trunk/docs/manual/caching.html.en (with props) httpd/httpd/trunk/docs/manual/caching.xml.meta (with props) Modified: httpd/httpd/trunk/docs/manual/index.html.en httpd/httpd/trunk/docs/manual/index.xml.de httpd/httpd/trunk/docs/manual/index.xml.es httpd/httpd/trunk/docs/manual/index.xml.fr httpd/httpd/trunk/docs/manual/index.xml.ja httpd/httpd/trunk/docs/manual/index.xml.ko httpd/httpd/trunk/docs/manual/index.xml.meta httpd/httpd/trunk/docs/manual/index.xml.pt-br httpd/httpd/trunk/docs/manual/mod/mod_cache.xml.ja httpd/httpd/trunk/docs/manual/mod/mod_cache.xml.ko httpd/httpd/trunk/docs/manual/mod/mod_cache.xml.meta Added: httpd/httpd/trunk/docs/manual/caching.html URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewcvs/httpd/httpd/trunk/docs/manual/caching.html?rev=239460&view=auto ============================================================================== --- httpd/httpd/trunk/docs/manual/caching.html (added) +++ httpd/httpd/trunk/docs/manual/caching.html Tue Aug 23 13:29:51 2005 @@ -0,0 +1,3 @@ +URI: caching.html.en +Content-Language: en +Content-type: text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1 Propchange: httpd/httpd/trunk/docs/manual/caching.html ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ svn:eol-style = native Added: httpd/httpd/trunk/docs/manual/caching.html.en URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewcvs/httpd/httpd/trunk/docs/manual/caching.html.en?rev=239460&view=auto ============================================================================== --- httpd/httpd/trunk/docs/manual/caching.html.en (added) +++ httpd/httpd/trunk/docs/manual/caching.html.en Tue Aug 23 13:29:51 2005 @@ -0,0 +1,668 @@ + + + +Caching Guide - Apache HTTP Server + + + + + +
<-
+
+Apache > HTTP Server > Documentation > Version 2.1

Caching Guide

+
+

Available Languages:  en 

+
+ +

This document supplements the mod_cache, + mod_disk_cache, mod_mem_cache, + mod_file_cache and htcacheclean reference documentation. + It describes how to use Apache's caching features to accelerate web and + proxy serving, while avoiding common problems and misconfigurations.

+
+
+
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+
+

Introduction

+ + +

As of Apache HTTP server version 2.2 mod_cache and + mod_file_cache are no longer marked experimental and are + considered suitable for production use. These caching architectures provide + a powerful means to accelerate HTTP handling, both as a webserver and as a + proxy.

+ +

mod_cache and its provider modules + mod_mem_cache and mod_disk_cache + provide intelligent, HTTP-aware caching. The content itself is stored + in the cache, and mod_cache aims to honour all of the various HTTP + headers and options that control the cachability of content. It can + handle both local and proxied content. mod_cache + is aimed at both simple and complex caching configurations, where + you are dealing with proxied content, dynamic local content or + have a need to speed up access to local files which change with + time.

+ +

mod_file_cache on the other hand presents a more + basic, but sometimes useful, form of caching. Rather than maintain + the complexity of actively ensuring the cachability of URLs, + mod_file_cache offers file-handle and memory-mapping + tricks to keep a cache of files as they were when Apache was last + started. As such mod_file_cache is aimed at improving + the access time to local static files which do not change very + often.

+ +

As mod_file_cache presents a relatively simple + caching implementation, apart from the specific sections on CacheFile and MMapStatic, the explanations + in this guide cover the mod_cache caching + architecture.

+ +

To get the most from this document, you should be familiar with + the basics of HTTP, and have read the Users' Guides to + Mapping URLs to the Filesystem and + Content negotiation.

+ +
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+
+

Caching Overview

+ + + + + +

There are two main stages in mod_cache which can + occur in the lifetime of a request. First, mod_cache + is a URL mapping module, which means that if a URL has been cached, + and the cached version of that URL has not expired, the request will + be served directly by mod_cache.

+ +

This means that any other stages with might ordinarily happen in the + process of serving a request, for example being handled by + mod_proxy, or mod_rewrite won't happen. + But then this is the point of caching content in the first place.

+ +

If the URL is not found within the cache, mod_cache + will add a filter to the request handling. After + Apache has located the content by the usual means, the filter will be run + as the content is served. If the content is determined to be cacheable, + the content will be saved to the cache for future serving.

+ +

If the URL is found within the cache, but also found to have expired, + the filter is added anyway, but mod_cache will create + a conditional request to the backend, to determine if the cached version + is still current. If the cached version is still current, its + meta-information will be updated and the request will be served from the + cache. If the cached version is no longer current, the cached version + will be deleted and the filter will save the updated content to the cache + as it is served.

+ +

Improving Cache Hits

+ + + + +

When caching locally generated content, ensuring that + UseCanonicalName is set to + On can dramatically improve the ratio of cache hits. This + is because the hostname of the virtual-host serving the content forms + a part of the cache key. With the setting set to On + virtual-hosts with multiple server names or aliases will not produce + differently cached entities, and instead content will be cached as + per the canonical hostname.

+ +

Because caching is performed within the URL to filename translation + phase, cached documents will only be served in response to URL requests. + Ordinarily this is of little consequence, but there is one circumstance + in which it matters: If you are using Server + Side Includes;

+ +
+<!-- The following include can be cached -->
+<!--#include virtual="/footer.html" --> 
+
+<!-- The following include can not be cached -->
+<!--#include file="/path/to/footer.html" -->
+ +

If you are using Server Side Includes, and want the benefit of speedy + serves from the cache, you should use virtual include + types.

+
+ + +

Expiry Periods

+ + + +

The default expiry period for cached entities is one hour, however + this can be easily over-ridden by using the CacheDefaultExpire directive. This + default is only used when the original source of the content does not + specify an expire time or time of last modification.

+ +

If a response does not include an Expires header but does + include a Last-Modified header, mod_cache + can infer an expiry period based on the use of the CacheLastModifiedFactor directive.

+ +

For local content, mod_expires may be used to + fine-tune the expiry period.

+ +

The maximum expiry period may also be controlled by using the + CacheMaxExpire.

+
+ + + +

A Brief Guide to Conditional Requests

+ + + +

When content expires from the cache and is re-requested from the + backend or content provider, rather than pass on the original request, + Aoache will use a conditional request instead.

+ +

HTTP offers a number of headers which allow a client, or cache + to discern between different versions of the same content. For + example if a resource was served with an "Etag:" header, it is + possible to make a conditional request with an "If-Match:" + header. If a resource was served with a "Last-Modified:" header + it is possible to make a conditional request with an + "If-Modified-Since:" header, and so on.

+ +

When such a conditional request is made, the response differs + depending on whether the content matches the conditions. If a request is + made with an "If-Modified-Since:" header, and the content has not been + modified since the time indicated in the request then a terse "304 Not + Modified" response is issued.

+ +

If the content has changed, then it is served as if the request were + not conditional to begin with.

+ +

The benefits of conditional requests in relation to caching are + twofold. Firstly, when making such a request to the backend, if the + content from the backend matches the content in the store, this can be + determined easily and without the overhead of transferring the entire + resource.

+ +

Secondly, conditional requests are usually less strenuous on the + backend. For static files, typically all that is involved is a call + to stat() or similar system call, to see if the file has + changed in size or modification time. As such, even if Apache is + caching local content, even expired content may still be served faster + from the cache if it has not changed. As long as reading from the cache + store is faster than reading from the backend (e.g. an in-memory cache + compared to reading from disk).

+
+ + +

What Can be Cached?

+ + + +

As mentioned already, the two styles of caching in Apache work + differently, mod_file_cache caching maintains file + contents as they were when Apache was started. When a request is + made for a file that is cached by this module, it is intercepted + and the cached file is served.

+ +

mod_cache caching on the other hand is more + complex. When serving a request, if it has not been cached + previously, the caching module will determine if the content + is cacheable. The conditions for determining cachability of + a response are;

+ +
    +
  1. Caching must be enabled for this URL. See the CacheEnable and CacheDisable directives.
  2. + +
  3. The response must have a HTTP status code of 200, 203, 300, 301 or + 410.
  4. + +
  5. The request must be a HTTP GET request.
  6. + +
  7. If the request contains an "Authorization:" header, the response + will not be cached.
  8. + +
  9. If the response contains an "Authorization:" header, it must + also contain an "s-maxage", "must-revalidate" or "public" option + in the "Cache-Control:" header.
  10. + +
  11. If the URL included a query string (e.g. from a HTML form GET + method) it will not be cached unless the response includes an + "Expires:" header, as per RFC2616 section 13.9.
  12. + +
  13. If the response has a status of 200 (OK), the response must + also include at least one of the "Etag", "Last-Modified" or + the "Expires" headers, unless the + CacheIgnoreNoLastMod + directive has been used to require otherwise.
  14. + +
  15. If the response includes the "private" option in a "Cache-Control:" + header, it will not be stored unless the + CacheStorePrivate has been + used to require otherwise.
  16. + +
  17. Likewise, if the response includes the "no-store" option in a + "Cache-Control:" header, it will not be stored unless the + CacheStoreNoStore has been + used.
  18. + +
  19. A response will not be stored if it includes a "Vary:" header + containing the match-all "*".
  20. +
+ +
+ + +

What Should Not be Cached?

+ + + + +

In short, any content which is highly time-sensitive, or which varies + depending on the particulars of the request that are not covered by + HTTP negotiation, should not be cached.

+ +

If you have dynamic content which changes depending on the IP address + of the requester, or changes every 5 minutes, it should almost certainly + not be cached.

+ +

If on the other hand, the content served differs depending on the + values of various HTTP headers, it is possible that it might be possible + to cache it intelligently through the use of a "Vary" header.

+
+ + +

Variable/Negotiated Content

+ + + +

If a response with a "Vary" header is received by + mod_cache when requesting content by the backend it + will attempt to handle it intelligently. If possible, + mod_cache will detect the headers attributed in the + "Vary" response in future requests and serve the correct cached + response.

+ +

If for example, a response is received with a vary header such as;

+ +

+Vary: negotiate,accept-language,accept-charset +

+ +

mod_cache will only serve the cached content to + requesters with matching accept-language and accept-charset headers + matching those of the original request.

+
+ + +
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+
+

Security Considerations

+ + +

Local exploits

+ + + +

As requests to end-users can be served from the cache, the cache + itself can become a target for those wishing to deface or interfere with + content. It is important to bear in mind that the cache must at all + times be writable by the user which Apache is running as. This is in + stark contrast to the usually recommended situation of maintaining + all content unwritable by the Apache user.

+ +

If the Apache user is compromised, for example through a flaw in + a CGI process, it is possible that the cache may be targeted. When + using mod_disk_cache, it is relatively easy to + insert or modify a cached entity.

+ +

This presents a somewhat elevated risk in comparison to the other + types of attack it is possible to make as the Apache user. If you are + using mod_disk_cache you should bear this in mind - + ensure you upgrade Apache when security upgrades are announced and + run CGI processes as a non-Apache user using suEXEC if possible.

+
+ + + +

Cache Poisoning

+ + + + +

When running Apache as a caching proxy server, there is also the + potential for so-called cache poisoning. Cache Poisoning is a broad + term for attacks in which an attacker causes the proxy server to + retrieve incorrect (and usually undesirable) content from the backend. +

+ +

For example if the DNS servers used by your system running Apache + are vulnerable to DNS cache poisoning, an attacker may be able to control + where Apache connects to when requesting content from the origin server. + Another example is so-called HTTP request-smuggling attacks.

+ +

This document is not the correct place for an in-depth discussion + of HTTP request smuggling (instead, try your favourite search engine) + however it is important to be aware that it is possible to make + a series of requests, and to exploit a vulnerability on an origin + webserver such that the attacker can entirely control the content + retrieved by the proxy.

+
+ +
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+
+

File-Handle Caching

+ + + + +

The act of opening a file can itself be a source of delay, particularly + on network filesystems. By maintaining a cache of open file descriptors + for commonly served files, Apache can avoid this delay. Currently Apache + provides two different implementations of File-Handle Caching.

+ +

CacheFile

+ + + +

The most basic form of caching present in Apache is the file-handle + caching provided by mod_file_cache. Rather than caching + file-contents, this cache maintains a table of open file descriptors. Files + to be cached in this manner are specified in the configuration file using + the CacheFile + directive.

+ +

The + CacheFile directive + instructs Apache to open the file when Apache is started and to re-use + this file-handle for all subsequent access to this file.

+ +
CacheFile /usr/local/apache2/htdocs/index.html
+ +

If you intend to cache a large number of files in this manner, you + must ensure that your operating system's limit for the number of open + files is set appropriately.

+ +

Although using CacheFile + does not cause the file-contents to be cached per-se, it does mean + that if the file changes while Apache is running these changes will + not be picked up. The file will be consistently served as it was + when Apache was started.

+ +

If the file is removed while Apache is running, Apache will continue + to maintain an open file descriptor and serve the file as it was when + Apache was started. This usually also means that although the file + will have been deleted, and not show up on the filesystem, extra free + space will not be recovered until Apache is stopped and the file + descriptor closed.

+
+ + +

CacheEnable fd

+ + + +

mod_mem_cache also provides its own file-handle + caching scheme, which can be enabled via the + CacheEnable directive.

+ +
CacheEnable fd /
+ +

As with all of mod_cache this type of file-handle + caching is intelligent, and handles will not be maintained beyond + the expiry time of the cached content.

+ +
+ +
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+
+

In-Memory Caching

+ + + + +

Serving directly from system memory is universally the fastest method + of serving content. Reading files from a disk controller or, even worse, + from a remote network is orders of magnitude slower. Disk controllers + usually involve physical processes, and network access is limited by + your available bandwidth. Memory access on the other hand can take mere + nano-seconds.

+ +

System memory isn't cheap though, byte for byte it's by far the most + expensive type of storage and it's important to ensure that it is used + efficiently. By caching files in memory you decrease the amount of + memory available on the system. As we'll see, in the case of operating + system caching, this is not so much of an issue, but when using + Apache's own in-memory caching it is important to make sure that you + do not allocate too much memory to a cache. Otherwise the system + will be forced to swap out memory, which will likely degrade + performance.

+ +

Operating System Caching

+ + + +

Almost all modern operating systems cache file-data in memory managed + directly by the kernel. This is a powerful feature, and for the most + part operating systems get it right. For example, on Linux, let's look at + the difference in the time it takes to read a file for the first time + and the second time;

+ +
+colm@coroebus:~$ time cat testfile > /dev/null
+real    0m0.065s
+user    0m0.000s
+sys     0m0.001s
+colm@coroebus:~$ time cat testfile > /dev/null
+real    0m0.003s
+user    0m0.003s
+sys     0m0.000s
+ +

Even for this small file, there is a huge difference in the amount + of time it takes to read the file. This is because the kernel has cached + the file contents in memory.

+ +

By ensuring there is "spare" memory on your system, you can ensure + that more and more file-contents will be stored in this cache. This + can be a very efficient means of in-memory caching, and involves no + extra configuration of Apache at all.

+ +

Additionally, because the operating system knows when files are + deleted or modified, it can automatically remove file contents from the + cache when neccessary. This is a big advantage over Apache's in-memory + caching which has no way of knowing when a file has changed.

+
+ + +

Despite the performance and advantages of automatic operating system + caching there are some circumstances in which in-memory caching may be + better performed by Apache.

+ +

Firstly, an operating system can only cache files it knows about. If + you are running Apache as a proxy server, the files you are caching are + not locally stored but remotely served. If you still want the unbeatable + speed of in-memory caching, Apache's own memory caching is needed.

+ +

MMapStatic Caching

+ + + +

mod_file_cache provides the + MMapStatic directive, which + allows you to have Apache map a static file's contents into memory at + start time (using the mmap system call). Apache will use the in-memory + contents for all subsequent accesses to this file.

+ +
MMapStatic /usr/local/apache2/htdocs/index.html
+ +

As with the + CacheFile directive, any + changes in these files will not be picked up by Apache after it has + started.

+ +

The MMapStatic + directive does not keep track of how much memory it allocates, so + you must ensure not to over-use the directive. Each Apache child + process will replicate this memory, so it is critically important + to ensure that the files mapped are not so large as to cause the + system to swap memory.

+
+ + + +

mod_mem_cache Caching

+ + + +

mod_mem_cache provides a HTTP-aware intelligent + in-memory cache. It also uses heap memory directly, which means that + even if MMap is not supported on your system, + mod_mem_cache may still be able to perform caching.

+ +

Caching of this type is enabled via;

+ +
+# Enable memory caching
+CacheEnable mem /
+
+# Limit the size of the cache to 1 Megabyte
+MCacheSize 1024
+ +
+ + +
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+
+

Disk-based Caching

+ + + + +

mod_disk_cache provides a disk-based caching mechanism + for mod_cache. As with mod_mem_cache + this cache is intelligent and content will be served from the cache only + as long as it is considered valid.

+ +

Typically the module will be configured as so;

+ +
+CacheRoot   /var/cache/apache/
+CacheEnable disk /
+CacheDirLevels 2
+CacheDirLength 1
+ +

Importantly, as the cached files are locally stored, operating system + in-memory caching will typically be applied to their access also. So + although the files are stored on disk, if they are frequently accessed + it is likely the operating system will ensure that they are actually + served from memory.

+ +

Understanding the Cache-Store

+ + + +

To store items in the cache, mod_disk_cache creates + a 22 character hash of the url being requested. Thie hash incorporates + the hostname, protocol, port, path and any CGI arguments to the URL, + to ensure that multiple URLs do not collide.

+ +

Each character may be any one of 64-different characters, which mean + that overall there are 22^64 possible hashes. For example, a URL might + be hashed to xyTGxSMO2b68mBCykqkp1w. This hash is used + as a prefix for the naming of the files specific to that url within + the cache, however first it is split up into directories as per + the CacheDirLevels and + CacheDirLength + directives.

+ +

CacheDirLevels + specifies how many levels of subdirectory there should be, and + CacheDirLength + specifies how many characters should be in each directory. With + the example settings given above, the hash would be turned into + a filename prefix as + /var/cache/apache/x/y/TGxSMO2b68mBCykqkp1w.

+ +

The overall aim of this technique is to reduce the number of + subdirectories or files that may be in a particular directory, + as most file-systems slow down as this number increases. With + setting of "1" for + CacheDirLength + there can at most be 64 subdirectories at any particular level. + With a setting of 2 there can be 64 * 64 subdirectories, and so on. + Unless you have a good reason not to, using a setting of "1" + for CacheDirLength + is recommended.

+ +

Setting + CacheDirLevels + depends on how many files you anticipate to store in the cache. + With the setting of "2" used in the above example, a grand + total of 4096 subdirectories can ultimately be created. With + 1 million files cached, this works out at roughly 245 cached + urls per directory.

+ +

Each url uses at least two files in the cache-store. Typically + there is a ".header" file, which includes meta-information about + the url, such as when it is due to expire and a ".data" file + which is a verbatim copy of the content to be served.

+ +

In the case of a content negotiated via the "Vary" header, a + ".vary" directory will be created for the url in question. This + directory will have multiple ".data" files corresponding to the + differently negotiated content.

+
+ + +

Maintaining the Disk Cache

+ + + +

Although mod_disk_cache will remove cached content + as it is expired, it does not maintain any information on the total + size of the cache or how little free space may be left.

+ +

Instead, provided with Apache is the htcacheclean tool which, as the name + suggests, allows you to clean the cache periodically. Determining + how frequently to run htcacheclean and what target size to + use for the cache is somewhat complex and trial and error may be needed to + select optimal values.

+ +

htcacheclean has two modes of + operation. It can be run as persistent daemon, or periodically from + cron. htcacheclean can take up to an hour + or more to process very large (tens of gigabytes) caches and if you are + running it from cron it is recommended that you determine how long a typical + run takes, to avoid running more than one instance at a time.

+ +

+
+ Figure 1: Typical + cache growth / clean sequence.

+ +

Because mod_disk_cache does not itself pay attention + to how much space is used you should ensure that + htcacheclean is configured to + leave enough "grow room" following a clean.

+ +
+ + +
+
+

Available Languages:  en 

+
+ \ No newline at end of file Propchange: httpd/httpd/trunk/docs/manual/caching.html.en ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ svn:eol-style = native Added: httpd/httpd/trunk/docs/manual/caching.xml.meta URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewcvs/httpd/httpd/trunk/docs/manual/caching.xml.meta?rev=239460&view=auto ============================================================================== --- httpd/httpd/trunk/docs/manual/caching.xml.meta (added) +++ httpd/httpd/trunk/docs/manual/caching.xml.meta Tue Aug 23 13:29:51 2005 @@ -0,0 +1,11 @@ + + + + caching + / + . + + + en + + Propchange: httpd/httpd/trunk/docs/manual/caching.xml.meta ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ svn:eol-style = native Modified: httpd/httpd/trunk/docs/manual/index.html.en URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewcvs/httpd/httpd/trunk/docs/manual/index.html.en?rev=239460&r1=239459&r2=239460&view=diff ============================================================================== --- httpd/httpd/trunk/docs/manual/index.html.en (original) +++ httpd/httpd/trunk/docs/manual/index.html.en Tue Aug 23 13:29:51 2005 @@ -52,6 +52,7 @@