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From sl...@apache.org
Subject cvs commit: httpd-2.0/docs STATUS
Date Fri, 06 Sep 2002 19:07:37 GMT
slive       2002/09/06 12:07:36

  Modified:    docs     STATUS
  Added:       docs/manual glossary.xml glossary.html.en
  Removed:     docs/manual glossary.html
  Log:
  Convert glossary to xml.
  
  Revision  Changes    Path
  1.1                  httpd-2.0/docs/manual/glossary.xml
  
  Index: glossary.xml
  ===================================================================
  <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?>
  <!DOCTYPE manualpage SYSTEM "./style/manualpage.dtd">
  <?xml-stylesheet type="text/xsl" href="./style/manual.en.xsl"?>
  
  <manualpage>
    <relativepath href="."/>
  
    <title>Glossary</title>
  
  <summary>
  <p>This glossary defines some of the common terminology related to
  Apache in particular, and web serving in general.  More information
  on each concept is provided in the links.</p>
  </summary>
  
  <section id="definitions"><title>Definitions</title>
  
  <dl>
  <dt><a name="authentication">Authentication</a></dt> <dd>The
positive
  identification of a network entity such as a server, a client, or a
  user.<br /> See: <a
  href="howto/auth.html">Authentication, Authorization, and Access
  Control</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="accesscontrol">Access Control</a></dt>
  <dd>The restriction of access to network realms. In an Apache context
      usually the restriction of access to certain <em>URLs</em>.<br />
  See:  <a
  href="howto/auth.html">Authentication, Authorization, and Access
  Control</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="apacheextensiontool">APache eXtension Tool</a> <a
  name="apxs">(apxs)</a></dt> <dd>A perl script that aids in compiling
<a
  href="#module">module</a> sources into Dynamic Shared Objects (<a
  href="#dso">DSO</a>s) and helps install them in the Apache Web
  server.<br /> See: <a
  href="programs/apxs.html">Manual Page: apxs</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="certificate">Certificate</a></dt>
  <dd>A data record used for authenticating network entities such
      as a server or a client. A certificate contains X.509 information pieces
      about its owner (called the subject) and the signing <em>Certificate
      Authority</em> (called the issuer), plus the owner's public key and the
      signature made by the CA. Network entities verify these signatures using
      CA certificates.<br />
  See: <a href="ssl/">SSL/TLS Encryption</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="certificationauthority">Certification Authority</a> <a
  name="ca">(CA)</a></dt> <dd>A trusted third party whose purpose is
to
  sign certificates for network entities it has authenticated using
  secure means. Other network entities can check the signature to verify
  that a CA has authenticated the bearer of a certificate.<br />
  See: <a href="ssl/">SSL/TLS Encryption</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="certificatsigningrequest">Certificate Signing Request</a>
  <a name="csr">(CSR)</a></dt> <dd>An unsigned certificate for
  submission to a <em>Certification Authority</em>, which signs it with
  the <em>Private Key</em> of their CA <em>Certificate</em>. Once
the
  CSR is signed, it becomes a real certificate.<br />
  See: <a href="ssl/">SSL/TLS Encryption</a></dd>
  
  
  <dt><a name="cipher">Cipher</a></dt> <dd>An algorithm or system
for
  data encryption. Examples are DES, IDEA, RC4, etc.<br />
  See: <a href="ssl/">SSL/TLS Encryption</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="ciphertext">Ciphertext</a></dt> <dd>The result
after <a
  href="#plaintext">Plaintext</a> is passed through a <a
  href="#cipher">Cipher</a>.<br /> See: <a href="ssl/">SSL/TLS
  Encryption</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="commongatewayinterface">Common Gateway Interface</a> <a
  name="cgi">(CGI)</a></dt> <dd>A standard definition for an interface
  between a web server and an external program that allows the external
  program to service requests.  The interface was originally defined by
  <a href="http://hoohoo.ncsa.uiuc.edu/cgi/overview.html">NCSA</a> but
  there is also an <a href="http://cgi-spec.golux.com/">RFC
  project</a>.<br />
  See: <a href="howto/cgi.html">Dynamic Content with CGI</a></dd>
  
  
  <dt><a name="configurationdirective">Configuration Directive</a></dt>
  <dd>See: <a href="#directive">Directive</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="configurationfile">Configuration File</a></dt>
  <dd>A text file containing <a href="#directive">Directives</a>
  that control the configuration of Apache.<br />
  See: <a href="configuring.html">Configuration Files</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="connect">CONNECT</a></dt> <dd>An HTTP <a
  href="#method">method</a> for proxying raw data channels over HTTP. It
  can be used to encapsulate other protocols, such as the SSL
  protocol.</dd>
  
  <dt><a name="context">Context</a></dt> <dd>An area in the
<a
  href="configurationfile">configuration files</a> where certain types
  of <a href="directive">directives</a> are allowed.<br /> See: <a
  href="http://httpd.apache.org/docs-2.0/mod/directive-dict.html#Context">Terms
  Used to Describe Apache Directives</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="digitalsignature">Digital Signature</a></dt>
  <dd>An encrypted text block that validates a certificate or other file. A
      <em>Certification Authority</em> creates a signature by generating a
      hash of the <em>Public Key</em> embedded in a <em>Certificate</em>,
then
      encrypting the hash with its own <em>Private Key</em>. Only the CA's
      public key can decrypt the signature, verifying that the CA has
      authenticated the network entity that owns the <em>Certificate</em>.<br
/>
  See: <a href="ssl/">SSL/TLS Encryption</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="directive">Directive</a></dt> <dd>A configuration
command
  that controls one or more aspects of Apache's behavior.  Directives
  are placed in the <a href="#configurationfile">Configuration
  File</a><br /> See: <a href="mod/directives.html">Directive
  Index</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="dynamicsharedobject">Dynamic Shared Object</a> <a
  name="dso">(DSO)</a></dt> <dd><a href="#module">Modules</a>
compiled
  seperately from the Apache httpd binary that can be loaded on-demand.<br />
  See: <a href="dso.html">Dynamic Shared Object Support</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="environmentvariable">Environment Variable</a> <a
  name="env-variable">(env-variable)</a></dt>
  <dd>Named variables managed by the operating system shell
  and used to store information and communicate between programs.  Apache also
  contains internal variables that are referred to as environment variables,
  but are stored in internal Apache structures, rather than in the 
  shell environment.<br />
  See: <a href="env.html">Environment Variables in Apache</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="export-crippled">Export-Crippled</a></dt>
  <dd>Diminished in cryptographic strength (and security) in order to comply
      with the United States' Export Administration Regulations (EAR).
      Export-crippled cryptographic software is limited to a small key size,
      resulting in <em>Ciphertext</em> which usually can be decrypted by brute
      force.<br />
  See: <a href="ssl/">SSL/TLS Encryption</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="filter">Filter</a></dt> <dd>A process that is
applied to
  data that is sent or received by the server.  Input filters process
  data sent by the client to the server, while output filters process
  documents on the server before they are sent to the client.  For
  examle, the <code>INCLUDES</code> output filter processes documents
  for <a href="#ssi">Server Side Includes</a>.<br /> See: <a
  href="filter.html">Filters</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="fully-qualifieddomain-name">Fully-Qualified
  Domain-Name</a> <a name="fqdn">(FQDN)</a></dt> <dd>The unique
name of
  a network entity, consisting of a hostname and a domain name that can
  resolve to an IP address. For example, <code>www</code> is a hostname,
  <code>whatever.com</code> is a domain name, and
  <code>www.whatever.com</code> is a fully-qualified domain name.<br
  /><br /></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="handler">Handler</a></dt> <dd>An internal Apache
  representation of the action to be performed when a file is
  called. Generally, files have implicit handlers, based on the file
  type. Normally, all files are simply served by the server, but certain
  file types are "handled" separately.  For example, the
  <code>cgi-script</code> handler designates files to be processed as <a
  href="#cgi">CGIs</a>.<br />
  See: <a href="handler.html">Apache's Handler Use</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="header">Header</a></dt>
  <dd>The part of the <a href="#http">HTTP</a> request and response that
  is sent before the actual content, and that contains meta-information
  describing the content.</dd>
  
  <dt><a name=".htaccess">.htaccess</a></dt> <dd>A <a
  href="#configurationfile">configuration file</a> that is placed inside
  the web tree and applies configuration <a
  href="#directive">directives</a> to the directory where it is placed
  and all sub-directories.  Despite its name, this file can hold almost
  any type of directive, not just access-control directives.<br />
  See: <a href="configuring.html">Configuration Files</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="httpd.conf">httpd.conf</a></dt>
  <dd>The main Apache <a href="#configurationfile">configuration file</a>.
  The default location is <code>/usr/local/apache2/conf/httpd.conf</code>,
  but it may be moved using run-time or compile-time configuration.<br />
  See: <a href="configuring.html">Configuration Files</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="hypertexttransferprotocol">HyperText Transfer
  Protocol</a> <a name="http">(HTTP)</a></dt> <dd>The standard
  transmission protocol used on the World Wide Web.  Apache implements
  version 1.1 of the protocol, refered to as HTTP/1.1 and defined by <a
  href="ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc2616.txt">RFC 2616</a>.<br /><br
  /></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="https">HTTPS</a></dt>
  <dd>The HyperText Transport Protocol (Secure), the standard encrypted
      communication mechanism on the World Wide Web. This is actually just HTTP
      over <a name="ssl">SSL</a>.<br />
  See: <a href="ssl/">SSL/TLS Encryption</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="method">Method</a></dt> <dd>In the context of
<a
  href="#http">HTTP</a>, an action to perform on a resource, specified
  on the request line by the client.  Some of the methods available in
  HTTP are <code>GET</code>, <code>POST</code>, and <code>PUT</code>.<br
  /><br /></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="messagedigest">Message Digest</a></dt>
  <dd>A hash of a message, which can be used to verify that the contents of
      the message have not been altered in transit.<br />
  See: <a href="ssl/">SSL/TLS Encryption</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="mime-type">MIME-type</a></dt> <dd>A way to describe
the
  kind of document being transmitted.  Its name comes from that fact
  that its format is borrowed from the Multipurpose Internet Mail
  Extensions.  It consists of a major type and a minor type, separated
  by a slash.  Some examples are <code>text/html</code>,
  <code>image/gif</code>, and <code>application/octet-stream</code>.
 In
  HTTP, the MIME-type is transmitted in the <code>Content-Type</code> <a
  href="#header">header</a>.<br /> See: <a
  href="mod/mod_mime.html">mod_mime</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="module">Module</a></dt> <dd>An independent part
of a
  program.  Much of Apache's functionality is contained in modules that
  you can choose to include or exclude.  Modules that are compiled into
  the the Apache httpd binary are called <em>static modules</em>, while
  modules that are stored seperately and can be optionally loaded at
  run-time are called <em>dynamic modules</em> or <a
  href="#dso">DSOs</a>.  Modules that are included by default are called
  <em>base modules</em>.  Many modules are available for Apache that are
  not distributed as part of the Apache HTTP Server <a
  href="#tarball">tarball</a>.  These are referred to as <em>third-party
  modules</em>.<br />
  See: <a href="mod/">Module Index</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="openssl">OpenSSL</a></dt>
  <dd>The Open Source toolkit for SSL/TLS<br />
      see <a href="http://www.openssl.org/">http://www.openssl.org/</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="passphrase">Pass Phrase</a></dt> <dd>The word
or phrase
  that protects private key files.  It prevents unauthorized users from
  encrypting them. Usually it's just the secret encryption/decryption
  key used for <a name="cipher">Ciphers</a>.<br /> See: <a
  href="ssl/">SSL/TLS Encryption</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="plaintext">Plaintext</a></dt>
  <dd>The unencrypted text.</dd>
  
  <dt><a name="privatekey">Private Key</a></dt> <dd>The secret
key in a
  <a name="publickeycryptography">Public Key Cryptography</a> system,
  used to decrypt incoming messages and sign outgoing ones.<br />
  See: <a href="ssl/">SSL/TLS Encryption</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="proxy">Proxy</a></dt> <dd>An intermediate server
that
  sits between the client and the <em>origin server</em>.  It accepts
  requests from clients, transmits those requests on to the origin
  server, and then returns the response from the origin server to the
  client.  If several clients request the same content, the proxy
  can deliver that content from its cache, rather than requesting it
  from the origin server each time, thereby reducing response time.<br />
  See: <a href="mod/mod_proxy.html">mod_proxy</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="publickey">Public Key</a></dt> <dd>The publically
  available key in a <a name="publickeycryptography">Public Key
  Cryptography</a> system, used to encrypt messages bound for its owner
  and to decrypt signatures made by its owner.<br />
  See: <a href="ssl/">SSL/TLS Encryption</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="publickeycryptography">Public Key Cryptography</a></dt>
  <dd>The study and application of asymmetric encryption systems, which
  use one key for encryption and another for decryption. A corresponding
  pair of such keys constitutes a key pair. Also called Asymmetric
  Crypography.<br /> See: <a href="ssl/">SSL/TLS Encryption</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="regularexpresion">Regular Expression</a> <a
  name="regex">(Regex)</a></dt> <dd>A way of
  describing a pattern in text - for example, "all the words that begin with the
  letter A" or "every 10-digit phone number" or even "Every sentence
  with two commas in it, and no capital letter Q". Regular expressions
  are useful in Apache because they let you apply certain
  attributes against collections of files or resources in very flexible
  ways - for example, all .gif and .jpg files under any "images"
  directory could be written as "<code>/images/.*(jpg|gif)$</code>".
  Apache uses Perl Compatible Regular Expressions provided by the
  <a href="http://www.pcre.org/">PCRE</a> library.</dd>
  
  <dt><a name="reverseproxy">Reverse Proxy</a></dt> <dd>A <a
  href="#proxy">proxy</a> server that appears to the client as if it is
  an <em>origin server</em>.  This is useful to hide the real origin
  server from the client for security reasons, or to load balance.<br
  /><br /></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="securesocketslayer">Secure Sockets Layer</a> <a
  name="ssl">(SSL)</a></dt> <dd>A protocol created by Netscape
  Communications Corporation for general communication authentication
  and encryption over TCP/IP networks.  The most popular usage is
  <em>HTTPS</em>, i.e. the HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) over SSL.<br
/>
  See: <a href="ssl/">SSL/TLS Encryption</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="serversideincludes">Server Side Includes</a> <a
  name="ssi">(SSI)</a></dt> <dd>A technique for embedding processing
  directives inside HTML files.<br /> See: <a
  href="howto/ssi.html">Introduction to Server Side Includes</a><br
  /><br /></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="ssleay">SSLeay</a></dt>
  <dd>The original SSL/TLS implementation library developed by
      Eric A. Young</dd>
  
  <dt><a name="symmetriccryptophraphy">Symmetric Cryptography</a></dt>
  <dd>The study and application of <em>Ciphers</em> that use a single secret
key
      for both encryption and decryption operations.<br />
  See: <a href="ssl/">SSL/TLS Encryption</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="tarball">Tarball</a></dt>
  <dd>A package of files gathered together using the <code>tar</code>
  utility.  Apache distributions are stored in compressed tar archives
  or using pkzip.</dd>
  
  <dt><a name="transportlayersecurity">Transport Layer Security</a> <a
  name="tls">(TLS)</a></dt> <dd>The successor protocol to SSL, created
  by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) for general
  communication authentication and encryption over TCP/IP networks. TLS
  version 1 and is nearly identical with SSL version 3.<br />
  See: <a href="ssl/">SSL/TLS Encryption</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="uniformresourcelocator">Uniform Resource Locator</a> <a
  name="url">(URL)</a></dt> <dd>The name/address of a resource on the
  Internet.  This is the common informal term for what is formally
  called a <a href="#uniformresourcename">Uniform Resource
  Identifier</a>.  URLs are usually made up of a scheme, like
  <code>http</code> or <code>https</code>, a hostname, and a path.
 A
  URL for this page is
  <code>http://httpd.apache.org/docs-2.0/glossary.html</code>.</dd>
  
  <dt><a name="uniformresourceidentifier">Uniform Resource Identifier</a>
<a
  name="URI">(URI)</a></dt> <dd>A compact string of characters for
  identifying an abstract or physical resource.  It is formally defined
  by <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2396.txt">RFC 2396</a>.
  URIs used on the world-wide web are commonly referred to
  as <a href="#url">URLs</a>.</dd>
  
  <dt><a name="virtualhosting">Virtual Hosting</a></dt> <dd>Serving
  multiple websites using a single instance of Apache.  <em>IP virtual
  hosting</em> differentiates between websites based on their IP
  address, while <em>name-based virtual hosting</em> uses only the name
  of the host and can therefore host many sites on the same IP
  address.<br /> See: <a href="vhosts/">Apache Virtual Host
  documentation</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="x.509">X.509</a></dt> <dd>An authentication certificate
  scheme recommended by the International Telecommunication Union
  (ITU-T) which is used for SSL/TLS authentication.<br /> See: <a
  href="ssl/">SSL/TLS Encryption</a></dd>
  
  </dl>
  </section>
  </manualpage>
  
  
  1.1                  httpd-2.0/docs/manual/glossary.html.en
  
  Index: glossary.html.en
  ===================================================================
  <?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
  <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
  <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" lang="en" xml:lang="en"><head><!--
          XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
                This file is generated from xml source: DO NOT EDIT
          XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
        --><title>Glossary - Apache HTTP Server</title><link href="./style/css/manual.css"
rel="stylesheet" media="all" type="text/css" title="Main stylesheet" /><link href="./style/css/manual-loose-100pc.css"
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id="page-header"><p class="menu"><a href="./mod/">Modules</a> | <a
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class="apache">Apache HTTP Server Version 2.0</p><img alt="" src="./images/feather.gif"
/></div><div class="up"><a href="./"><img title="&lt;-" alt="&lt;-"
src="./images/left.gif" /></a></div><div id="path"><a href="http://www.apache.org/">Apache</a>
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&gt; <a href="./">Version 2.0</a></div><div id="page-content"><div
id="preamble"><h1>Glossary</h1>
  <p>This glossary defines some of the common terminology related to
  Apache in particular, and web serving in general.  More information
  on each concept is provided in the links.</p>
  </div><div class="top"><a href="#page-header"><img alt="top" src="./images/up.gif"
/></a></div><div class="section"><h2><a name="definitions" id="definitions">Definitions</a></h2>
  
  <dl>
  <dt><a name="authentication">Authentication</a></dt> <dd>The
positive
  identification of a network entity such as a server, a client, or a
  user.<br /> See: <a href="howto/auth.html">Authentication, Authorization, and
Access
  Control</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="accesscontrol">Access Control</a></dt>
  <dd>The restriction of access to network realms. In an Apache context
      usually the restriction of access to certain <em>URLs</em>.<br />
  See:  <a href="howto/auth.html">Authentication, Authorization, and Access
  Control</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="apacheextensiontool">APache eXtension Tool</a> <a name="apxs">(apxs)</a></dt>
<dd>A perl script that aids in compiling <a href="#module">module</a> sources
into Dynamic Shared Objects (<a href="#dso">DSO</a>s) and helps install them in
the Apache Web
  server.<br /> See: <a href="programs/apxs.html">Manual Page: apxs</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="certificate">Certificate</a></dt>
  <dd>A data record used for authenticating network entities such
      as a server or a client. A certificate contains X.509 information pieces
      about its owner (called the subject) and the signing <em>Certificate
      Authority</em> (called the issuer), plus the owner's public key and the
      signature made by the CA. Network entities verify these signatures using
      CA certificates.<br />
  See: <a href="ssl/">SSL/TLS Encryption</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="certificationauthority">Certification Authority</a> <a
name="ca">(CA)</a></dt> <dd>A trusted third party whose purpose is to
  sign certificates for network entities it has authenticated using
  secure means. Other network entities can check the signature to verify
  that a CA has authenticated the bearer of a certificate.<br />
  See: <a href="ssl/">SSL/TLS Encryption</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="certificatsigningrequest">Certificate Signing Request</a>
  <a name="csr">(CSR)</a></dt> <dd>An unsigned certificate for
  submission to a <em>Certification Authority</em>, which signs it with
  the <em>Private Key</em> of their CA <em>Certificate</em>. Once
the
  CSR is signed, it becomes a real certificate.<br />
  See: <a href="ssl/">SSL/TLS Encryption</a></dd>
  
  
  <dt><a name="cipher">Cipher</a></dt> <dd>An algorithm or system
for
  data encryption. Examples are DES, IDEA, RC4, etc.<br />
  See: <a href="ssl/">SSL/TLS Encryption</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="ciphertext">Ciphertext</a></dt> <dd>The result
after <a href="#plaintext">Plaintext</a> is passed through a <a href="#cipher">Cipher</a>.<br
/> See: <a href="ssl/">SSL/TLS
  Encryption</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="commongatewayinterface">Common Gateway Interface</a> <a
name="cgi">(CGI)</a></dt> <dd>A standard definition for an interface
  between a web server and an external program that allows the external
  program to service requests.  The interface was originally defined by
  <a href="http://hoohoo.ncsa.uiuc.edu/cgi/overview.html">NCSA</a> but
  there is also an <a href="http://cgi-spec.golux.com/">RFC
  project</a>.<br />
  See: <a href="howto/cgi.html">Dynamic Content with CGI</a></dd>
  
  
  <dt><a name="configurationdirective">Configuration Directive</a></dt>
  <dd>See: <a href="#directive">Directive</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="configurationfile">Configuration File</a></dt>
  <dd>A text file containing <a href="#directive">Directives</a>
  that control the configuration of Apache.<br />
  See: <a href="configuring.html">Configuration Files</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="connect">CONNECT</a></dt> <dd>An HTTP <a href="#method">method</a>
for proxying raw data channels over HTTP. It
  can be used to encapsulate other protocols, such as the SSL
  protocol.</dd>
  
  <dt><a name="context">Context</a></dt> <dd>An area in the
<a href="configurationfile">configuration files</a> where certain types
  of <a href="directive">directives</a> are allowed.<br /> See: <a href="http://httpd.apache.org/docs-2.0/mod/directive-dict.html#Context">Terms
  Used to Describe Apache Directives</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="digitalsignature">Digital Signature</a></dt>
  <dd>An encrypted text block that validates a certificate or other file. A
      <em>Certification Authority</em> creates a signature by generating a
      hash of the <em>Public Key</em> embedded in a <em>Certificate</em>,
then
      encrypting the hash with its own <em>Private Key</em>. Only the CA's
      public key can decrypt the signature, verifying that the CA has
      authenticated the network entity that owns the <em>Certificate</em>.<br
/>
  See: <a href="ssl/">SSL/TLS Encryption</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="directive">Directive</a></dt> <dd>A configuration
command
  that controls one or more aspects of Apache's behavior.  Directives
  are placed in the <a href="#configurationfile">Configuration
  File</a><br /> See: <a href="mod/directives.html">Directive
  Index</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="dynamicsharedobject">Dynamic Shared Object</a> <a name="dso">(DSO)</a></dt>
<dd><a href="#module">Modules</a> compiled
  seperately from the Apache httpd binary that can be loaded on-demand.<br />
  See: <a href="dso.html">Dynamic Shared Object Support</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="environmentvariable">Environment Variable</a> <a name="env-variable">(env-variable)</a></dt>
  <dd>Named variables managed by the operating system shell
  and used to store information and communicate between programs.  Apache also
  contains internal variables that are referred to as environment variables,
  but are stored in internal Apache structures, rather than in the 
  shell environment.<br />
  See: <a href="env.html">Environment Variables in Apache</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="export-crippled">Export-Crippled</a></dt>
  <dd>Diminished in cryptographic strength (and security) in order to comply
      with the United States' Export Administration Regulations (EAR).
      Export-crippled cryptographic software is limited to a small key size,
      resulting in <em>Ciphertext</em> which usually can be decrypted by brute
      force.<br />
  See: <a href="ssl/">SSL/TLS Encryption</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="filter">Filter</a></dt> <dd>A process that is
applied to
  data that is sent or received by the server.  Input filters process
  data sent by the client to the server, while output filters process
  documents on the server before they are sent to the client.  For
  examle, the <code>INCLUDES</code> output filter processes documents
  for <a href="#ssi">Server Side Includes</a>.<br /> See: <a href="filter.html">Filters</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="fully-qualifieddomain-name">Fully-Qualified
  Domain-Name</a> <a name="fqdn">(FQDN)</a></dt> <dd>The unique
name of
  a network entity, consisting of a hostname and a domain name that can
  resolve to an IP address. For example, <code>www</code> is a hostname,
  <code>whatever.com</code> is a domain name, and
  <code>www.whatever.com</code> is a fully-qualified domain name.<br /><br
/></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="handler">Handler</a></dt> <dd>An internal Apache
  representation of the action to be performed when a file is
  called. Generally, files have implicit handlers, based on the file
  type. Normally, all files are simply served by the server, but certain
  file types are "handled" separately.  For example, the
  <code>cgi-script</code> handler designates files to be processed as <a href="#cgi">CGIs</a>.<br
/>
  See: <a href="handler.html">Apache's Handler Use</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="header">Header</a></dt>
  <dd>The part of the <a href="#http">HTTP</a> request and response that
  is sent before the actual content, and that contains meta-information
  describing the content.</dd>
  
  <dt><a name=".htaccess">.htaccess</a></dt> <dd>A <a href="#configurationfile">configuration
file</a> that is placed inside
  the web tree and applies configuration <a href="#directive">directives</a> to
the directory where it is placed
  and all sub-directories.  Despite its name, this file can hold almost
  any type of directive, not just access-control directives.<br />
  See: <a href="configuring.html">Configuration Files</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="httpd.conf">httpd.conf</a></dt>
  <dd>The main Apache <a href="#configurationfile">configuration file</a>.
  The default location is <code>/usr/local/apache2/conf/httpd.conf</code>,
  but it may be moved using run-time or compile-time configuration.<br />
  See: <a href="configuring.html">Configuration Files</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="hypertexttransferprotocol">HyperText Transfer
  Protocol</a> <a name="http">(HTTP)</a></dt> <dd>The standard
  transmission protocol used on the World Wide Web.  Apache implements
  version 1.1 of the protocol, refered to as HTTP/1.1 and defined by <a href="ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc2616.txt">RFC
2616</a>.<br /><br /></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="https">HTTPS</a></dt>
  <dd>The HyperText Transport Protocol (Secure), the standard encrypted
      communication mechanism on the World Wide Web. This is actually just HTTP
      over <a name="ssl">SSL</a>.<br />
  See: <a href="ssl/">SSL/TLS Encryption</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="method">Method</a></dt> <dd>In the context of
<a href="#http">HTTP</a>, an action to perform on a resource, specified
  on the request line by the client.  Some of the methods available in
  HTTP are <code>GET</code>, <code>POST</code>, and <code>PUT</code>.<br
/><br /></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="messagedigest">Message Digest</a></dt>
  <dd>A hash of a message, which can be used to verify that the contents of
      the message have not been altered in transit.<br />
  See: <a href="ssl/">SSL/TLS Encryption</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="mime-type">MIME-type</a></dt> <dd>A way to describe
the
  kind of document being transmitted.  Its name comes from that fact
  that its format is borrowed from the Multipurpose Internet Mail
  Extensions.  It consists of a major type and a minor type, separated
  by a slash.  Some examples are <code>text/html</code>,
  <code>image/gif</code>, and <code>application/octet-stream</code>.
 In
  HTTP, the MIME-type is transmitted in the <code>Content-Type</code> <a href="#header">header</a>.<br
/> See: <a href="mod/mod_mime.html">mod_mime</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="module">Module</a></dt> <dd>An independent part
of a
  program.  Much of Apache's functionality is contained in modules that
  you can choose to include or exclude.  Modules that are compiled into
  the the Apache httpd binary are called <em>static modules</em>, while
  modules that are stored seperately and can be optionally loaded at
  run-time are called <em>dynamic modules</em> or <a href="#dso">DSOs</a>.
 Modules that are included by default are called
  <em>base modules</em>.  Many modules are available for Apache that are
  not distributed as part of the Apache HTTP Server <a href="#tarball">tarball</a>.
 These are referred to as <em>third-party
  modules</em>.<br />
  See: <a href="mod/">Module Index</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="openssl">OpenSSL</a></dt>
  <dd>The Open Source toolkit for SSL/TLS<br />
      see <a href="http://www.openssl.org/">http://www.openssl.org/</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="passphrase">Pass Phrase</a></dt> <dd>The word
or phrase
  that protects private key files.  It prevents unauthorized users from
  encrypting them. Usually it's just the secret encryption/decryption
  key used for <a name="cipher">Ciphers</a>.<br /> See: <a href="ssl/">SSL/TLS
Encryption</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="plaintext">Plaintext</a></dt>
  <dd>The unencrypted text.</dd>
  
  <dt><a name="privatekey">Private Key</a></dt> <dd>The secret
key in a
  <a name="publickeycryptography">Public Key Cryptography</a> system,
  used to decrypt incoming messages and sign outgoing ones.<br />
  See: <a href="ssl/">SSL/TLS Encryption</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="proxy">Proxy</a></dt> <dd>An intermediate server
that
  sits between the client and the <em>origin server</em>.  It accepts
  requests from clients, transmits those requests on to the origin
  server, and then returns the response from the origin server to the
  client.  If several clients request the same content, the proxy
  can deliver that content from its cache, rather than requesting it
  from the origin server each time, thereby reducing response time.<br />
  See: <a href="mod/mod_proxy.html">mod_proxy</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="publickey">Public Key</a></dt> <dd>The publically
  available key in a <a name="publickeycryptography">Public Key
  Cryptography</a> system, used to encrypt messages bound for its owner
  and to decrypt signatures made by its owner.<br />
  See: <a href="ssl/">SSL/TLS Encryption</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="publickeycryptography">Public Key Cryptography</a></dt>
  <dd>The study and application of asymmetric encryption systems, which
  use one key for encryption and another for decryption. A corresponding
  pair of such keys constitutes a key pair. Also called Asymmetric
  Crypography.<br /> See: <a href="ssl/">SSL/TLS Encryption</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="regularexpresion">Regular Expression</a> <a name="regex">(Regex)</a></dt>
<dd>A way of
  describing a pattern in text - for example, "all the words that begin with the
  letter A" or "every 10-digit phone number" or even "Every sentence
  with two commas in it, and no capital letter Q". Regular expressions
  are useful in Apache because they let you apply certain
  attributes against collections of files or resources in very flexible
  ways - for example, all .gif and .jpg files under any "images"
  directory could be written as "<code>/images/.*(jpg|gif)$</code>".
  Apache uses Perl Compatible Regular Expressions provided by the
  <a href="http://www.pcre.org/">PCRE</a> library.</dd>
  
  <dt><a name="reverseproxy">Reverse Proxy</a></dt> <dd>A <a
href="#proxy">proxy</a> server that appears to the client as if it is
  an <em>origin server</em>.  This is useful to hide the real origin
  server from the client for security reasons, or to load balance.<br /><br /></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="securesocketslayer">Secure Sockets Layer</a> <a name="ssl">(SSL)</a></dt>
<dd>A protocol created by Netscape
  Communications Corporation for general communication authentication
  and encryption over TCP/IP networks.  The most popular usage is
  <em>HTTPS</em>, i.e. the HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) over SSL.<br
/>
  See: <a href="ssl/">SSL/TLS Encryption</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="serversideincludes">Server Side Includes</a> <a name="ssi">(SSI)</a></dt>
<dd>A technique for embedding processing
  directives inside HTML files.<br /> See: <a href="howto/ssi.html">Introduction
to Server Side Includes</a><br /><br /></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="ssleay">SSLeay</a></dt>
  <dd>The original SSL/TLS implementation library developed by
      Eric A. Young</dd>
  
  <dt><a name="symmetriccryptophraphy">Symmetric Cryptography</a></dt>
  <dd>The study and application of <em>Ciphers</em> that use a single secret
key
      for both encryption and decryption operations.<br />
  See: <a href="ssl/">SSL/TLS Encryption</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="tarball">Tarball</a></dt>
  <dd>A package of files gathered together using the <code>tar</code>
  utility.  Apache distributions are stored in compressed tar archives
  or using pkzip.</dd>
  
  <dt><a name="transportlayersecurity">Transport Layer Security</a> <a
name="tls">(TLS)</a></dt> <dd>The successor protocol to SSL, created
  by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) for general
  communication authentication and encryption over TCP/IP networks. TLS
  version 1 and is nearly identical with SSL version 3.<br />
  See: <a href="ssl/">SSL/TLS Encryption</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="uniformresourcelocator">Uniform Resource Locator</a> <a
name="url">(URL)</a></dt> <dd>The name/address of a resource on the
  Internet.  This is the common informal term for what is formally
  called a <a href="#uniformresourcename">Uniform Resource
  Identifier</a>.  URLs are usually made up of a scheme, like
  <code>http</code> or <code>https</code>, a hostname, and a path.
 A
  URL for this page is
  <code>http://httpd.apache.org/docs-2.0/glossary.html</code>.</dd>
  
  <dt><a name="uniformresourceidentifier">Uniform Resource Identifier</a>
<a name="URI">(URI)</a></dt> <dd>A compact string of characters for
  identifying an abstract or physical resource.  It is formally defined
  by <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2396.txt">RFC 2396</a>.
  URIs used on the world-wide web are commonly referred to
  as <a href="#url">URLs</a>.</dd>
  
  <dt><a name="virtualhosting">Virtual Hosting</a></dt> <dd>Serving
  multiple websites using a single instance of Apache.  <em>IP virtual
  hosting</em> differentiates between websites based on their IP
  address, while <em>name-based virtual hosting</em> uses only the name
  of the host and can therefore host many sites on the same IP
  address.<br /> See: <a href="vhosts/">Apache Virtual Host
  documentation</a></dd>
  
  <dt><a name="x.509">X.509</a></dt> <dd>An authentication certificate
  scheme recommended by the International Telecommunication Union
  (ITU-T) which is used for SSL/TLS authentication.<br /> See: <a href="ssl/">SSL/TLS
Encryption</a></dd>
  
  </dl>
  </div></div><div id="footer"><p class="apache">Maintained by the
<a href="http://httpd.apache.org/docs-project/">Apache HTTP Server Documentation Project</a></p><p
class="menu"><a href="./mod/">Modules</a> | <a href="./mod/directives.html">Directives</a>
| <a href="./faq/">FAQ</a> | <a href="./glossary.html">Glossary</a>
| <a href="./sitemap.html">Sitemap</a></p></div></body></html>
  
  
  1.34      +1 -2      httpd-2.0/docs/STATUS
  
  Index: STATUS
  ===================================================================
  RCS file: /home/cvs/httpd-2.0/docs/STATUS,v
  retrieving revision 1.33
  retrieving revision 1.34
  diff -u -d -b -u -r1.33 -r1.34
  --- STATUS	6 Sep 2002 05:29:38 -0000	1.33
  +++ STATUS	6 Sep 2002 19:07:36 -0000	1.34
  @@ -111,7 +111,6 @@
   
   ebcdic.html                        # Perhaps move to platform/
   footer.html                        # delete after finishing manual/ 
  -glossary.html
   header.html                        # delete after finishing manual/ 
   custom-error.html.en
   index.html.en                      # leave in html?
  
  
  

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