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From r..@hyperreal.org
Subject cvs commit: apache-1.3/htdocs/manual/misc rewriteguide.html
Date Thu, 10 Feb 2000 16:35:51 GMT
rse         00/02/10 08:35:50

  Modified:    htdocs/manual/misc rewriteguide.html
  Log:
  Cleanup my old physical HTML markup into a logical one to
  fit better into the Apache documentation.
  
  Revision  Changes    Path
  1.3       +179 -179  apache-1.3/htdocs/manual/misc/rewriteguide.html
  
  Index: rewriteguide.html
  ===================================================================
  RCS file: /home/cvs/apache-1.3/htdocs/manual/misc/rewriteguide.html,v
  retrieving revision 1.2
  retrieving revision 1.3
  diff -u -r1.2 -r1.3
  --- rewriteguide.html	2000/02/10 16:24:26	1.2
  +++ rewriteguide.html	2000/02/10 16:35:48	1.3
  @@ -28,14 +28,14 @@
   </DIV>
   
   <P>
  -This document supplements the mod_rewrite <a
  -href="../mod/mod_rewrite.html">reference documentation</a>. It describes
  +This document supplements the mod_rewrite <A
  +HREF="../mod/mod_rewrite.html">reference documentation</a>. It describes
   how one can use Apache's mod_rewrite to solve typical URL-based problems
   webmasters are usually confronted with in practice. I give detailed
   descriptions on how to solve each problem by configuring URL rewriting
   rulesets.
   
  -<H2><a name="ToC1">Introduction to mod_rewrite</a></H2>
  +<H2><A name="ToC1">Introduction to mod_rewrite</a></H2>
   
   The Apache module mod_rewrite is a killer one, i.e. it is a really
   sophisticated module which provides a powerful way to do URL manipulations.
  @@ -50,7 +50,7 @@
   of its power. This paper tries to give you a few initial success events to
   avoid the first case by presenting already invented solutions to you.
   
  -<H2><a name="ToC2">Practical Solutions</a></H2>
  +<H2><A name="ToC2">Practical Solutions</a></H2>
   
   Here come a lot of practical solutions I've either invented myself or
   collected from other peoples solutions in the past. Feel free to learn the
  @@ -60,7 +60,7 @@
   ATTENTION: Depending on your server-configuration it can be necessary to
   slightly change the examples for your situation, e.g. adding the [PT] flag
   when additionally using mod_alias and mod_userdir, etc. Or rewriting a ruleset
  -to fit in <tt>.htaccess</tt> context instead of per-server context. Always try
  +to fit in <CODE>.htaccess</CODE> context instead of per-server context. Always try
   to understand what a particular ruleset really does before you use it. It
   avoid problems.
   
  @@ -83,12 +83,12 @@
   <DD>
   We do an external HTTP redirect for all non-canonical URLs to fix them in the
   location view of the Browser and for all subsequent requests. In the example
  -ruleset below we replace <tt>/~user</tt> by the canonical <tt>/u/user</tt> and
  -fix a missing trailing slash for <tt>/u/user</tt>.
  +ruleset below we replace <CODE>/~user</CODE> by the canonical <CODE>/u/user</CODE> and
  +fix a missing trailing slash for <CODE>/u/user</CODE>.
   
   <P><TABLE BGCOLOR="#E0E5F5" BORDER="0" CELLSPACING="0" CELLPADDING="5"><TR><TD><PRE>
  -RewriteRule   ^/<b>~</b>([^/]+)/?(.*)    /<b>u</b>/$1/$2  [<b>R</b>]
  -RewriteRule   ^/([uge])/(<b>[^/]+</b>)$  /$1/$2<b>/</b>   [<b>R</b>]
  +RewriteRule   ^/<STRONG>~</STRONG>([^/]+)/?(.*)    /<STRONG>u</STRONG>/$1/$2  [<STRONG>R</STRONG>]
  +RewriteRule   ^/([uge])/(<STRONG>[^/]+</STRONG>)$  /$1/$2<STRONG>/</STRONG>   [<STRONG>R</STRONG>]
   </PRE></TD></TR></TABLE>
   
   </DL>
  @@ -126,26 +126,26 @@
   <DT><STRONG>Description:</STRONG>
   <DD>
   Usually the DocumentRoot of the webserver directly relates to the URL
  -``<tt>/</tt>''. But often this data is not really of top-level priority, it is
  +``<CODE>/</CODE>''. But often this data is not really of top-level priority, it is
   perhaps just one entity of a lot of data pools. For instance at our Intranet
  -sites there are <tt>/e/www/</tt> (the homepage for WWW), <tt>/e/sww/</tt> (the
  +sites there are <CODE>/e/www/</CODE> (the homepage for WWW), <CODE>/e/sww/</CODE> (the
   homepage for the Intranet) etc. Now because the data of the DocumentRoot stays
  -at <tt>/e/www/</tt> we had to make sure that all inlined images and other
  +at <CODE>/e/www/</CODE> we had to make sure that all inlined images and other
   stuff inside this data pool work for subsequent requests. 
   
   <P>
   <DT><STRONG>Solution:</STRONG>
   <DD>
  -We just redirect the URL <tt>/</tt> to <tt>/e/www/</tt>.  While is seems
  +We just redirect the URL <CODE>/</CODE> to <CODE>/e/www/</CODE>.  While is seems
   trivial it is actually trivial with mod_rewrite, only.  Because the typical
  -old mechanisms of URL <i>Aliases</i> (as provides by mod_alias and friends)
  -only used <i>prefix</i> matching. With this you cannot do such a redirection
  +old mechanisms of URL <EM>Aliases</EM> (as provides by mod_alias and friends)
  +only used <EM>prefix</EM> matching. With this you cannot do such a redirection
   because the DocumentRoot is a prefix of all URLs. With mod_rewrite it is
   really trivial:
   
   <P><TABLE BGCOLOR="#E0E5F5" BORDER="0" CELLSPACING="0" CELLPADDING="5"><TR><TD><PRE>
   RewriteEngine on
  -RewriteRule   <b>^/$</b>  /e/www/  [<b>R</b>]
  +RewriteRule   <STRONG>^/$</STRONG>  /e/www/  [<STRONG>R</STRONG>]
   </PRE></TD></TR></TABLE>
   
   </DL>
  @@ -159,9 +159,9 @@
   <DD>
   Every webmaster can sing a song about the problem of the trailing slash on
   URLs referencing directories. If they are missing, the server dumps an error,
  -because if you say <tt>/~quux/foo</tt> instead of
  -<tt>/~quux/foo/</tt> then the server searches for a <i>file</i> named
  -<tt>foo</tt>. And because this file is a directory it complains. Actually
  +because if you say <CODE>/~quux/foo</CODE> instead of
  +<CODE>/~quux/foo/</CODE> then the server searches for a <EM>file</EM> named
  +<CODE>foo</CODE>. And because this file is a directory it complains. Actually
   is tries to fix it themself in most of the cases, but sometimes this mechanism
   need to be emulated by you. For instance after you have done a lot of
   complicated URL rewritings to CGI scripts etc. 
  @@ -175,27 +175,27 @@
   internal rewrite, this would only work for the directory page, but would go
   wrong when any images are included into this page with relative URLs, because
   the browser would request an in-lined object. For instance, a request for
  -<tt>image.gif</tt> in <tt>/~quux/foo/index.html</tt> would become
  -<tt>/~quux/image.gif</tt> without the external redirect!
  +<CODE>image.gif</CODE> in <CODE>/~quux/foo/index.html</CODE> would become
  +<CODE>/~quux/image.gif</CODE> without the external redirect!
   <P>
   So, to do this trick we write:
   
   <P><TABLE BGCOLOR="#E0E5F5" BORDER="0" CELLSPACING="0" CELLPADDING="5"><TR><TD><PRE>
   RewriteEngine  on
   RewriteBase    /~quux/
  -RewriteRule    ^foo<b>$</b>  foo<b>/</b>  [<b>R</b>]
  +RewriteRule    ^foo<STRONG>$</STRONG>  foo<STRONG>/</STRONG>  [<STRONG>R</STRONG>]
   </PRE></TD></TR></TABLE>
   
   <P>
   The crazy and lazy can even do the following in the top-level
  -<tt>.htaccess</tt> file of their homedir. But notice that this creates some
  +<CODE>.htaccess</CODE> file of their homedir. But notice that this creates some
   processing overhead.
   
   <P><TABLE BGCOLOR="#E0E5F5" BORDER="0" CELLSPACING="0" CELLPADDING="5"><TR><TD><PRE>
   RewriteEngine  on
   RewriteBase    /~quux/
  -RewriteCond    %{REQUEST_FILENAME}  <b>-d</b>
  -RewriteRule    ^(.+<b>[^/]</b>)$           $1<b>/</b>  [R]
  +RewriteCond    %{REQUEST_FILENAME}  <STRONG>-d</STRONG>
  +RewriteRule    ^(.+<STRONG>[^/]</STRONG>)$           $1<STRONG>/</STRONG>  [R]
   </PRE></TD></TR></TABLE>
   
   </DL>
  @@ -209,7 +209,7 @@
   <DD>
   We want to create a homogenous and consistent URL layout over all WWW servers
   on a Intranet webcluster, i.e. all URLs (per definition server local and thus
  -server dependent!) become actually server <i>independed</i>!  What we want is
  +server dependent!) become actually server <EM>independed</EM>!  What we want is
   to give the WWW namespace a consistent server-independend layout: no URL
   should have to include any physically correct target server. The cluster
   itself should drive us automatically to the physical target host.
  @@ -227,7 +227,7 @@
   :      :
   </PRE><P>
   
  -We put them into files <tt>map.xxx-to-host</tt>.  Second we need to instruct
  +We put them into files <CODE>map.xxx-to-host</CODE>.  Second we need to instruct
   all servers to redirect URLs of the forms
   
   <P><PRE>
  @@ -255,9 +255,9 @@
   RewriteMap     group-to-host   txt:/path/to/map.group-to-host
   RewriteMap    entity-to-host   txt:/path/to/map.entity-to-host
   
  -RewriteRule   ^/u/<b>([^/]+)</b>/?(.*)   http://<b>${user-to-host:$1|server0}</b>/u/$1/$2
  -RewriteRule   ^/g/<b>([^/]+)</b>/?(.*)  http://<b>${group-to-host:$1|server0}</b>/g/$1/$2
  -RewriteRule   ^/e/<b>([^/]+)</b>/?(.*) http://<b>${entity-to-host:$1|server0}</b>/e/$1/$2
  +RewriteRule   ^/u/<STRONG>([^/]+)</STRONG>/?(.*)   http://<STRONG>${user-to-host:$1|server0}</STRONG>/u/$1/$2
  +RewriteRule   ^/g/<STRONG>([^/]+)</STRONG>/?(.*)  http://<STRONG>${group-to-host:$1|server0}</STRONG>/g/$1/$2
  +RewriteRule   ^/e/<STRONG>([^/]+)</STRONG>/?(.*) http://<STRONG>${entity-to-host:$1|server0}</STRONG>/e/$1/$2
   
   RewriteRule   ^/([uge])/([^/]+)/?$          /$1/$2/.www/
   RewriteRule   ^/([uge])/([^/]+)/([^.]+.+)   /$1/$2/.www/$3\
  @@ -281,12 +281,12 @@
   <DT><STRONG>Solution:</STRONG>
   <DD>
   The solution is trivial with mod_rewrite. On the old webserver we just
  -redirect all <tt>/~user/anypath</tt> URLs to
  -<tt>http://newserver/~user/anypath</tt>.
  +redirect all <CODE>/~user/anypath</CODE> URLs to
  +<CODE>http://newserver/~user/anypath</CODE>.
   
   <P><TABLE BGCOLOR="#E0E5F5" BORDER="0" CELLSPACING="0" CELLPADDING="5"><TR><TD><PRE>
   RewriteEngine on
  -RewriteRule   ^/~(.+)  http://<b>newserver</b>/~$1  [R,L]
  +RewriteRule   ^/~(.+)  http://<STRONG>newserver</STRONG>/~$1  [R,L]
   </PRE></TD></TR></TABLE>
   
   </DL>
  @@ -300,9 +300,9 @@
   <DD>
   Some sites with thousend of users usually use a structured homedir layout,
   i.e.  each homedir is in a subdirectory which begins for instance with the
  -first character of the username. So, <tt>/~foo/anypath</tt> is
  -<tt>/home/<b>f</b>/foo/.www/anypath</tt> while <tt>/~bar/anypath</tt> is
  -<tt>/home/<b>b</b>/bar/.www/anypath</tt>.
  +first character of the username. So, <CODE>/~foo/anypath</CODE> is
  +<CODE>/home/<STRONG>f</STRONG>/foo/.www/anypath</CODE> while <CODE>/~bar/anypath</CODE> is
  +<CODE>/home/<STRONG>b</STRONG>/bar/.www/anypath</CODE>.
   
   <P>
   <DT><STRONG>Solution:</STRONG>
  @@ -312,7 +312,7 @@
   
   <P><TABLE BGCOLOR="#E0E5F5" BORDER="0" CELLSPACING="0" CELLPADDING="5"><TR><TD><PRE>
   RewriteEngine on
  -RewriteRule   ^/~(<b>([a-z])</b>[a-z0-9]+)(.*)  /home/<b>$2</b>/$1/.www$3
  +RewriteRule   ^/~(<STRONG>([a-z])</STRONG>[a-z0-9]+)(.*)  /home/<STRONG>$2</STRONG>/$1/.www$3
   </PRE></TD></TR></TABLE>
   
   </DL>
  @@ -325,10 +325,10 @@
   <DT><STRONG>Description:</STRONG>
   <DD>
   This really is a hardcore example: a killer application which heavily uses
  -per-directory <tt>RewriteRules</tt> to get a smooth look and feel on the Web
  +per-directory <CODE>RewriteRules</CODE> to get a smooth look and feel on the Web
   while its data structure is never touched or adjusted.
   
  -Background: <b><i>net.sw</i></b> is my archive of freely available Unix
  +Background: <STRONG><EM>net.sw</EM></STRONG> is my archive of freely available Unix
   software packages, which I started to collect in 1992. It is both my hobby and
   job to to this, because while I'm studying computer science I have also worked
   for many years as a system and network administrator in my spare time. Every
  @@ -355,8 +355,8 @@
   </PRE><P>
   
   In July 1996 I decided to make this 350 MB archive public to the world via a
  -nice Web interface (<a href="http://net.sw.engelschall.com/net.sw/"><tt>
  -http://net.sw.engelschall.com/net.sw/</tt></a>). "Nice" means that I wanted to
  +nice Web interface (<A HREF="http://net.sw.engelschall.com/net.sw/"><CODE>
  +http://net.sw.engelschall.com/net.sw/</CODE></a>). "Nice" means that I wanted to
   offer a interface where you can browse directly through the archive hierarchy.
   And "nice" means that I didn't wanted to change anything inside this hierarchy
   - not even by putting some CGI scripts at the top of it.  Why? Because the
  @@ -368,7 +368,7 @@
   <DD>
   The solution has two parts: The first is a set of CGI scripts which create all
   the pages at all directory levels on-the-fly. I put them under
  -<tt>/e/netsw/.www/</tt> as follows:
  +<CODE>/e/netsw/.www/</CODE> as follows:
   
   <P><PRE>
   -rw-r--r--   1 netsw  users    1318 Aug  1 18:10 .wwwacl
  @@ -386,18 +386,18 @@
   -rw-r--r--   1 netsw  users     234 Jul 30 16:35 netsw-unlimit.lst
   </PRE><P>
   
  -The <tt>DATA/</tt> subdirectory holds the above directory structure, i.e.  the
  -real <b><i>net.sw</i></b> stuff and gets automatically updated via
  -<tt>rdist</tt> from time to time. 
  +The <CODE>DATA/</CODE> subdirectory holds the above directory structure, i.e.  the
  +real <STRONG><EM>net.sw</EM></STRONG> stuff and gets automatically updated via
  +<CODE>rdist</CODE> from time to time. 
   
    The second part of the problem remains: how to link these two structures
  -together into one smooth-looking URL tree? We want to hide the <tt>DATA/</tt>
  +together into one smooth-looking URL tree? We want to hide the <CODE>DATA/</CODE>
   directory from the user while running the appropriate CGI scripts for the
   various URLs. 
   
   Here is the solution: first I put the following into the per-directory
   configuration file in the Document Root of the server to rewrite the announced
  -URL <tt>/net.sw/</tt> to the internal path <tt>/e/netsw</tt>:
  +URL <CODE>/net.sw/</CODE> to the internal path <CODE>/e/netsw</CODE>:
   
   <P><TABLE BGCOLOR="#E0E5F5" BORDER="0" CELLSPACING="0" CELLPADDING="5"><TR><TD><PRE>
   RewriteRule  ^net.sw$       net.sw/        [R]
  @@ -407,7 +407,7 @@
   <P>
   The first rule is for requests which miss the trailing slash!  The second rule
   does the real thing. And then comes the killer configuration which stays in
  -the per-directory config file <tt>/e/netsw/.www/.wwwacl</tt>:
  +the per-directory config file <CODE>/e/netsw/.www/.wwwacl</CODE>:
   
   <P><TABLE BGCOLOR="#E0E5F5" BORDER="0" CELLSPACING="0" CELLPADDING="5"><TR><TD><PRE>
   Options       ExecCGI FollowSymLinks Includes MultiViews 
  @@ -461,11 +461,11 @@
   <DD>
   When switching from the NCSA webserver to the more modern Apache webserver a
   lot of people want a smooth transition. So they want pages which use their old
  -NCSA <tt>imagemap</tt> program to work under Apache with the modern
  -<tt>mod_imap</tt>. The problem is that there are a lot of
  -hyperlinks around which reference the <tt>imagemap</tt> program via
  -<tt>/cgi-bin/imagemap/path/to/page.map</tt>. Under Apache this
  -has to read just <tt>/path/to/page.map</tt>.
  +NCSA <CODE>imagemap</CODE> program to work under Apache with the modern
  +<CODE>mod_imap</CODE>. The problem is that there are a lot of
  +hyperlinks around which reference the <CODE>imagemap</CODE> program via
  +<CODE>/cgi-bin/imagemap/path/to/page.map</CODE>. Under Apache this
  +has to read just <CODE>/path/to/page.map</CODE>.
   
   <P>
   <DT><STRONG>Solution:</STRONG>
  @@ -499,13 +499,13 @@
   
   #   first try to find it in custom/...
   #   ...and if found stop and be happy:
  -RewriteCond         /your/docroot/<b>dir1</b>/%{REQUEST_FILENAME}  -f
  -RewriteRule  ^(.+)  /your/docroot/<b>dir1</b>/$1  [L]
  +RewriteCond         /your/docroot/<STRONG>dir1</STRONG>/%{REQUEST_FILENAME}  -f
  +RewriteRule  ^(.+)  /your/docroot/<STRONG>dir1</STRONG>/$1  [L]
   
   #   second try to find it in pub/...
   #   ...and if found stop and be happy:
  -RewriteCond         /your/docroot/<b>dir2</b>/%{REQUEST_FILENAME}  -f
  -RewriteRule  ^(.+)  /your/docroot/<b>dir2</b>/$1  [L]
  +RewriteCond         /your/docroot/<STRONG>dir2</STRONG>/%{REQUEST_FILENAME}  -f
  +RewriteRule  ^(.+)  /your/docroot/<STRONG>dir2</STRONG>/$1  [L]
   
   #   else go on for other Alias or ScriptAlias directives,
   #   etc.
  @@ -530,13 +530,13 @@
   <DD>
   We use a rewrite rule to strip out the status information and remember it via
   an environment variable which can be later dereferenced from within XSSI or
  -CGI. This way a URL <tt>/foo/S=java/bar/</tt> gets translated to
  -<tt>/foo/bar/</tt> and the environment variable named <tt>STATUS</tt> is set
  +CGI. This way a URL <CODE>/foo/S=java/bar/</CODE> gets translated to
  +<CODE>/foo/bar/</CODE> and the environment variable named <CODE>STATUS</CODE> is set
   to the value "java".
   
   <P><TABLE BGCOLOR="#E0E5F5" BORDER="0" CELLSPACING="0" CELLPADDING="5"><TR><TD><PRE>
   RewriteEngine on
  -RewriteRule   ^(.*)/<b>S=([^/]+)</b>/(.*)    $1/$3 [E=<b>STATUS:$2</b>]
  +RewriteRule   ^(.*)/<STRONG>S=([^/]+)</STRONG>/(.*)    $1/$3 [E=<STRONG>STATUS:$2</STRONG>]
   </PRE></TD></TR></TABLE>
   
   </DL>
  @@ -548,7 +548,7 @@
   <DL>
   <DT><STRONG>Description:</STRONG>
   <DD>
  -Assume that you want to provide <tt>www.<b>username</b>.host.domain.com</tt>
  +Assume that you want to provide <CODE>www.<STRONG>username</STRONG>.host.domain.com</CODE>
   for the homepage of username via just DNS A records to the same machine and
   without any virtualhosts on this machine. 
   
  @@ -557,14 +557,14 @@
   <DD>
   For HTTP/1.0 requests there is no solution, but for HTTP/1.1 requests which
   contain a Host: HTTP header we can use the following ruleset to rewrite
  -<tt>http://www.username.host.com/anypath</tt> internally to
  -<tt>/home/username/anypath</tt>:
  +<CODE>http://www.username.host.com/anypath</CODE> internally to
  +<CODE>/home/username/anypath</CODE>:
   
   <P><TABLE BGCOLOR="#E0E5F5" BORDER="0" CELLSPACING="0" CELLPADDING="5"><TR><TD><PRE>
   RewriteEngine on
  -RewriteCond   %{<b>HTTP_HOST</b>}                 ^www\.<b>[^.]+</b>\.host\.com$
  +RewriteCond   %{<STRONG>HTTP_HOST</STRONG>}                 ^www\.<STRONG>[^.]+</STRONG>\.host\.com$
   RewriteRule   ^(.+)                        %{HTTP_HOST}$1          [C]
  -RewriteRule   ^www\.<b>([^.]+)</b>\.host\.com(.*) /home/<b>$1</b>$2
  +RewriteRule   ^www\.<STRONG>([^.]+)</STRONG>\.host\.com(.*) /home/<STRONG>$1</STRONG>$2
   </PRE></TD></TR></TABLE>
   
   </DL>
  @@ -577,8 +577,8 @@
   <DT><STRONG>Description:</STRONG>
   <DD>
   We want to redirect homedir URLs to another webserver
  -<tt>www.somewhere.com</tt> when the requesting user does not stay in the local
  -domain <tt>ourdomain.com</tt>. This is sometimes used in virtual host
  +<CODE>www.somewhere.com</CODE> when the requesting user does not stay in the local
  +domain <CODE>ourdomain.com</CODE>. This is sometimes used in virtual host
   contexts.
   
   <P>
  @@ -588,7 +588,7 @@
   
   <P><TABLE BGCOLOR="#E0E5F5" BORDER="0" CELLSPACING="0" CELLPADDING="5"><TR><TD><PRE>
   RewriteEngine on
  -RewriteCond   %{REMOTE_HOST}  <b>!^.+\.ourdomain\.com$</b>
  +RewriteCond   %{REMOTE_HOST}  <STRONG>!^.+\.ourdomain\.com$</STRONG>
   RewriteRule   ^(/~.+)         http://www.somewhere.com/$1 [R,L]
   </PRE></TD></TR></TABLE>
   
  @@ -614,8 +614,8 @@
   
   <P><TABLE BGCOLOR="#E0E5F5" BORDER="0" CELLSPACING="0" CELLPADDING="5"><TR><TD><PRE>
   RewriteEngine on
  -RewriteCond   /your/docroot/%{REQUEST_FILENAME} <b>!-f</b>
  -RewriteRule   ^(.+)                             http://<b>webserverB</b>.dom/$1
  +RewriteCond   /your/docroot/%{REQUEST_FILENAME} <STRONG>!-f</STRONG>
  +RewriteRule   ^(.+)                             http://<STRONG>webserverB</STRONG>.dom/$1
   </PRE></TD></TR></TABLE>
   
   <P>
  @@ -625,8 +625,8 @@
   
   <P><TABLE BGCOLOR="#E0E5F5" BORDER="0" CELLSPACING="0" CELLPADDING="5"><TR><TD><PRE>
   RewriteEngine on
  -RewriteCond   %{REQUEST_URI} <b>!-U</b>
  -RewriteRule   ^(.+)          http://<b>webserverB</b>.dom/$1
  +RewriteCond   %{REQUEST_URI} <STRONG>!-U</STRONG>
  +RewriteRule   ^(.+)          http://<STRONG>webserverB</STRONG>.dom/$1
   </PRE></TD></TR></TABLE>
   
   <P>
  @@ -657,7 +657,7 @@
   <DD>
   We have to use a kludge by the use of a NPH-CGI script which does the redirect
   itself. Because here no escaping is done (NPH=non-parseable headers).  First
  -we introduce a new URL scheme <tt>xredirect:</tt> by the following per-server
  +we introduce a new URL scheme <CODE>xredirect:</CODE> by the following per-server
   config-line (should be one of the last rewrite rules):
   
   <P><TABLE BGCOLOR="#E0E5F5" BORDER="0" CELLSPACING="0" CELLPADDING="5"><TR><TD><PRE>
  @@ -666,8 +666,8 @@
   </PRE></TD></TR></TABLE>
   
   <P>
  -This forces all URLs prefixed with <tt>xredirect:</tt> to be piped through the
  -<tt>nph-xredirect.cgi</tt> program. And this program just looks like:
  +This forces all URLs prefixed with <CODE>xredirect:</CODE> to be piped through the
  +<CODE>nph-xredirect.cgi</CODE> program. And this program just looks like:
   
   <P><TABLE BGCOLOR="#E0E5F5" BORDER="0" CELLSPACING="0" CELLPADDING="5"><TR><TD><PRE>
   <PRE>
  @@ -691,7 +691,7 @@
   print "&lt;/head&gt;\n";
   print "&lt;body&gt;\n";
   print "&lt;h1&gt;Moved Temporarily (EXTENDED)&lt;/h1&gt;\n";
  -print "The document has moved &lt;a href=\"$url\"&gt;here&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;p&gt;\n";
  +print "The document has moved &lt;a HREF=\"$url\"&gt;here&lt;/a&gt;.&lt;p&gt;\n";
   print "&lt;/body&gt;\n";
   print "&lt;/html&gt;\n";
   
  @@ -702,7 +702,7 @@
   <P>
   This provides you with the functionality to do redirects to all URL schemes,
   i.e. including the one which are not directly accepted by mod_rewrite. For
  -instance you can now also redirect to <tt>news:newsgroup</tt> via
  +instance you can now also redirect to <CODE>news:newsgroup</CODE> via
   
   <P><TABLE BGCOLOR="#E0E5F5" BORDER="0" CELLSPACING="0" CELLPADDING="5"><TR><TD><PRE>
   RewriteRule ^anyurl  xredirect:news:newsgroup
  @@ -710,7 +710,7 @@
   
   <P>
   Notice: You have not to put [R] or [R,L] to the above rule because the
  -<tt>xredirect:</tt> need to be expanded later by our special "pipe through"
  +<CODE>xredirect:</CODE> need to be expanded later by our special "pipe through"
   rule above.
   
   </DL>
  @@ -722,8 +722,8 @@
   <DL>
   <DT><STRONG>Description:</STRONG>
   <DD>
  -Do you know the great CPAN (Comprehensive Perl Archive Network) under <a
  -href="http://www.perl.com/CPAN">http://www.perl.com/CPAN</a>? This does a
  +Do you know the great CPAN (Comprehensive Perl Archive Network) under <A
  +HREF="http://www.perl.com/CPAN">http://www.perl.com/CPAN</a>? This does a
   redirect to one of several FTP servers around the world which carry a CPAN
   mirror and is approximately near the location of the requesting client.
   Actually this can be called an FTP access multiplexing service. While CPAN
  @@ -741,7 +741,7 @@
   RewriteEngine on
   RewriteMap    multiplex                txt:/path/to/map.cxan
   RewriteRule   ^/CxAN/(.*)              %{REMOTE_HOST}::$1                 [C]
  -RewriteRule   ^.+\.<b>([a-zA-Z]+)</b>::(.*)$  ${multiplex:<b>$1</b>|ftp.default.dom}$2  [R,L]
  +RewriteRule   ^.+\.<STRONG>([a-zA-Z]+)</STRONG>::(.*)$  ${multiplex:<STRONG>$1</STRONG>|ftp.default.dom}$2  [R,L]
   </PRE></TD></TR></TABLE>
   
   <P><TABLE BGCOLOR="#E0E5F5" BORDER="0" CELLSPACING="0" CELLPADDING="5"><TR><TD><PRE>
  @@ -772,7 +772,7 @@
   <P>
   <DT><STRONG>Solution:</STRONG>
   <DD>
  -There are a lot of variables named <tt>TIME_xxx</tt> for rewrite conditions.
  +There are a lot of variables named <CODE>TIME_xxx</CODE> for rewrite conditions.
   In conjunction with the special lexicographic comparison patterns &lt;STRING,
   &gt;STRING and =STRING we can do time-dependend redirects:
   
  @@ -785,9 +785,9 @@
   </PRE></TD></TR></TABLE>
   
   <P>
  -This provides the content of <tt>foo.day.html</tt> under the URL
  -<tt>foo.html</tt> from 07:00-19:00 and at the remaining time the contents of
  -<tt>foo.night.html</tt>. Just a nice feature for a homepage...
  +This provides the content of <CODE>foo.day.html</CODE> under the URL
  +<CODE>foo.html</CODE> from 07:00-19:00 and at the remaining time the contents of
  +<CODE>foo.night.html</CODE>. Just a nice feature for a homepage...
   
   </DL>
   
  @@ -837,8 +837,8 @@
   <DL>
   <DT><STRONG>Description:</STRONG>
   <DD>
  -Assume we have recently renamed the page <tt>bar.html</tt> to
  -<tt>foo.html</tt> and now want to provide the old URL for backward
  +Assume we have recently renamed the page <CODE>bar.html</CODE> to
  +<CODE>foo.html</CODE> and now want to provide the old URL for backward
   compatibility. Actually we want that users of the old URL even not recognize
   that the pages was renamed.
   
  @@ -850,7 +850,7 @@
   <P><TABLE BGCOLOR="#E0E5F5" BORDER="0" CELLSPACING="0" CELLPADDING="5"><TR><TD><PRE>
   RewriteEngine  on
   RewriteBase    /~quux/
  -RewriteRule    ^<b>foo</b>\.html$  <b>bar</b>.html
  +RewriteRule    ^<STRONG>foo</STRONG>\.html$  <STRONG>bar</STRONG>.html
   </PRE></TD></TR></TABLE>
   
   </DL>
  @@ -862,8 +862,8 @@
   <DL>
   <DT><STRONG>Description:</STRONG>
   <DD>
  -Assume again that we have recently renamed the page <tt>bar.html</tt> to
  -<tt>foo.html</tt> and now want to provide the old URL for backward
  +Assume again that we have recently renamed the page <CODE>bar.html</CODE> to
  +<CODE>foo.html</CODE> and now want to provide the old URL for backward
   compatibility. But this time we want that the users of the old URL get hinted
   to the new one, i.e. their browsers Location field should change, too.
   
  @@ -876,7 +876,7 @@
   <P><TABLE BGCOLOR="#E0E5F5" BORDER="0" CELLSPACING="0" CELLPADDING="5"><TR><TD><PRE>
   RewriteEngine  on
   RewriteBase    /~quux/
  -RewriteRule    ^<b>foo</b>\.html$  <b>bar</b>.html  [<b>R</b>]
  +RewriteRule    ^<STRONG>foo</STRONG>\.html$  <STRONG>bar</STRONG>.html  [<STRONG>R</STRONG>]
   </PRE></TD></TR></TABLE>
   
   </DL>
  @@ -899,21 +899,21 @@
   We cannot use content negotiation because the browsers do not provide their
   type in that form. Instead we have to act on the HTTP header "User-Agent".
   The following condig does the following: If the HTTP header "User-Agent"
  -begins with "Mozilla/3", the page <tt>foo.html</tt> is rewritten to
  -<tt>foo.NS.html</tt> and and the rewriting stops.  If the browser is "Lynx" or
  -"Mozilla" of version 1 or 2 the URL becomes <tt>foo.20.html</tt>.  All other
  -browsers receive page <tt>foo.32.html</tt>. This is done by the following
  +begins with "Mozilla/3", the page <CODE>foo.html</CODE> is rewritten to
  +<CODE>foo.NS.html</CODE> and and the rewriting stops.  If the browser is "Lynx" or
  +"Mozilla" of version 1 or 2 the URL becomes <CODE>foo.20.html</CODE>.  All other
  +browsers receive page <CODE>foo.32.html</CODE>. This is done by the following
   ruleset:
   
   <P><TABLE BGCOLOR="#E0E5F5" BORDER="0" CELLSPACING="0" CELLPADDING="5"><TR><TD><PRE>
  -RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT}  ^<b>Mozilla/3</b>.*
  -RewriteRule ^foo\.html$         foo.<b>NS</b>.html          [<b>L</b>]
  +RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT}  ^<STRONG>Mozilla/3</STRONG>.*
  +RewriteRule ^foo\.html$         foo.<STRONG>NS</STRONG>.html          [<STRONG>L</STRONG>]
   
  -RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT}  ^<b>Lynx/</b>.*         [OR]
  -RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT}  ^<b>Mozilla/[12]</b>.*
  -RewriteRule ^foo\.html$         foo.<b>20</b>.html          [<b>L</b>]
  +RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT}  ^<STRONG>Lynx/</STRONG>.*         [OR]
  +RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT}  ^<STRONG>Mozilla/[12]</STRONG>.*
  +RewriteRule ^foo\.html$         foo.<STRONG>20</STRONG>.html          [<STRONG>L</STRONG>]
   
  -RewriteRule ^foo\.html$         foo.<b>32</b>.html          [<b>L</b>]
  +RewriteRule ^foo\.html$         foo.<STRONG>32</STRONG>.html          [<STRONG>L</STRONG>]
   </PRE></TD></TR></TABLE>
   
   </DL>
  @@ -926,9 +926,9 @@
   <DT><STRONG>Description:</STRONG>
   <DD>
   Assume there are nice webpages on remote hosts we want to bring into our
  -namespace. For FTP servers we would use the <tt>mirror</tt> program which
  +namespace. For FTP servers we would use the <CODE>mirror</CODE> program which
   actually maintains an explicit up-to-date copy of the remote data on the local
  -machine. For a webserver we could use the program <tt>webcopy</tt> which acts
  +machine. For a webserver we could use the program <CODE>webcopy</CODE> which acts
   similar via HTTP. But both techniques have one major drawback: The local copy
   is always just as up-to-date as often we run the program. It would be much
   better if the mirror is not a static one we have to establish explicitly.
  @@ -945,13 +945,13 @@
   <P><TABLE BGCOLOR="#E0E5F5" BORDER="0" CELLSPACING="0" CELLPADDING="5"><TR><TD><PRE>
   RewriteEngine  on
   RewriteBase    /~quux/
  -RewriteRule    ^<b>hotsheet/</b>(.*)$  <b>http://www.tstimpreso.com/hotsheet/</b>$1  [<b>P</b>]
  +RewriteRule    ^<STRONG>hotsheet/</STRONG>(.*)$  <STRONG>http://www.tstimpreso.com/hotsheet/</STRONG>$1  [<STRONG>P</STRONG>]
   </PRE></TD></TR></TABLE>
   
   <P><TABLE BGCOLOR="#E0E5F5" BORDER="0" CELLSPACING="0" CELLPADDING="5"><TR><TD><PRE>
   RewriteEngine  on
   RewriteBase    /~quux/
  -RewriteRule    ^<b>usa-news\.html</b>$   <b>http://www.quux-corp.com/news/index.html</b>  [<b>P</b>]
  +RewriteRule    ^<STRONG>usa-news\.html</STRONG>$   <STRONG>http://www.quux-corp.com/news/index.html</STRONG>  [<STRONG>P</STRONG>]
   </PRE></TD></TR></TABLE>
   
   </DL>
  @@ -985,9 +985,9 @@
   <DT><STRONG>Description:</STRONG>
   <DD>
   This is a tricky way of virtually running a corporates (external) Internet
  -webserver (<tt>www.quux-corp.dom</tt>), while actually keeping and maintaining
  +webserver (<CODE>www.quux-corp.dom</CODE>), while actually keeping and maintaining
   its data on a (internal) Intranet webserver
  -(<tt>www2.quux-corp.dom</tt>) which is protected by a firewall.  The
  +(<CODE>www2.quux-corp.dom</CODE>) which is protected by a firewall.  The
   trick is that on the external webserver we retrieve the requested data
   on-the-fly from the internal one.
   
  @@ -1000,8 +1000,8 @@
   firewall ruleset like the following:
   
   <P><TABLE BGCOLOR="#E0E5F5" BORDER="0" CELLSPACING="0" CELLPADDING="5"><TR><TD><PRE>
  -<b>ALLOW</b> Host www.quux-corp.dom Port &gt;1024 --&gt; Host www2.quux-corp.dom Port <b>80</b>  
  -<b>DENY</b>  Host *                 Port *     --&gt; Host www2.quux-corp.dom Port <b>80</b>
  +<STRONG>ALLOW</STRONG> Host www.quux-corp.dom Port &gt;1024 --&gt; Host www2.quux-corp.dom Port <STRONG>80</STRONG>  
  +<STRONG>DENY</STRONG>  Host *                 Port *     --&gt; Host www2.quux-corp.dom Port <STRONG>80</STRONG>
   </PRE></TD></TR></TABLE>
   
   <P>
  @@ -1011,9 +1011,9 @@
   
   <P><TABLE BGCOLOR="#E0E5F5" BORDER="0" CELLSPACING="0" CELLPADDING="5"><TR><TD><PRE>
   RewriteRule ^/~([^/]+)/?(.*)          /home/$1/.www/$2
  -RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME}       <b>!-f</b>
  -RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME}       <b>!-d</b>
  -RewriteRule ^/home/([^/]+)/.www/?(.*) http://<b>www2</b>.quux-corp.dom/~$1/pub/$2 [<b>P</b>]
  +RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME}       <STRONG>!-f</STRONG>
  +RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME}       <STRONG>!-d</STRONG>
  +RewriteRule ^/home/([^/]+)/.www/?(.*) http://<STRONG>www2</STRONG>.quux-corp.dom/~$1/pub/$2 [<STRONG>P</STRONG>]
   </PRE></TD></TR></TABLE>
   
   </DL>
  @@ -1025,8 +1025,8 @@
   <DL>
   <DT><STRONG>Description:</STRONG>
   <DD>
  -Suppose we want to load balance the traffic to <tt>www.foo.com</tt> over
  -<tt>www[0-5].foo.com</tt> (a total of 6 servers). How can this be done?
  +Suppose we want to load balance the traffic to <CODE>www.foo.com</CODE> over
  +<CODE>www[0-5].foo.com</CODE> (a total of 6 servers). How can this be done?
   
   <P>
   <DT><STRONG>Solution:</STRONG>
  @@ -1035,11 +1035,11 @@
   a commonly known DNS-based variant and then the special one with mod_rewrite:
   
   <ol>
  -<li><b>DNS Round-Robin</b>
  +<li><STRONG>DNS Round-Robin</STRONG>
   
   <P>
   The simplest method for load-balancing is to use the DNS round-robin feature
  -of BIND. Here you just configure <tt>www[0-9].foo.com</tt> as usual in your
  +of BIND. Here you just configure <CODE>www[0-9].foo.com</CODE> as usual in your
   DNS with A(address) records, e.g.
   
   <P><TABLE BGCOLOR="#E0E5F5" BORDER="0" CELLSPACING="0" CELLPADDING="5"><TR><TD><PRE>
  @@ -1066,33 +1066,33 @@
   
   <P>
   Notice that this seems wrong, but is actually an intended feature of BIND and
  -can be used in this way. However, now when <tt>www.foo.com</tt> gets resolved,
  -BIND gives out <tt>www0-www6</tt> - but in a slightly permutated/rotated order
  +can be used in this way. However, now when <CODE>www.foo.com</CODE> gets resolved,
  +BIND gives out <CODE>www0-www6</CODE> - but in a slightly permutated/rotated order
   every time.  This way the clients are spread over the various servers.
   
   But notice that this not a perfect load balancing scheme, because DNS resolve
   information gets cached by the other nameservers on the net, so once a client
  -has resolved <tt>www.foo.com</tt> to a particular <tt>wwwN.foo.com</tt>, all
  -subsequent requests also go to this particular name <tt>wwwN.foo.com</tt>. But
  +has resolved <CODE>www.foo.com</CODE> to a particular <CODE>wwwN.foo.com</CODE>, all
  +subsequent requests also go to this particular name <CODE>wwwN.foo.com</CODE>. But
   the final result is ok, because the total sum of the requests are really
   spread over the various webservers.
   
   <P>
  -<li><b>DNS Load-Balancing</b>
  +<li><STRONG>DNS Load-Balancing</STRONG>
   
   <P>
   A sophisticated DNS-based method for load-balancing is to use the program
  -<tt>lbnamed</tt> which can be found at <a
  -href="http://www.stanford.edu/~schemers/docs/lbnamed/lbnamed.html">http://www.stanford.edu/~schemers/docs/lbnamed/lbnamed.html</a>.
  +<CODE>lbnamed</CODE> which can be found at <A
  +HREF="http://www.stanford.edu/~schemers/docs/lbnamed/lbnamed.html">http://www.stanford.edu/~schemers/docs/lbnamed/lbnamed.html</a>.
   It is a Perl 5 program in conjunction with auxilliary tools which provides a
   real load-balancing for DNS.
   
   <P>
  -<li><b>Proxy Throughput Round-Robin</b>
  +<li><STRONG>Proxy Throughput Round-Robin</STRONG>
   
   <P>
   In this variant we use mod_rewrite and its proxy throughput feature.  First we
  -dedicate <tt>www0.foo.com</tt> to be actually <tt>www.foo.com</tt> by using a
  +dedicate <CODE>www0.foo.com</CODE> to be actually <CODE>www.foo.com</CODE> by using a
   single
   
   <P><TABLE BGCOLOR="#E0E5F5" BORDER="0" CELLSPACING="0" CELLPADDING="5"><TR><TD><PRE>
  @@ -1100,11 +1100,11 @@
   </PRE></TD></TR></TABLE>
   
   <P>
  -entry in the DNS. Then we convert <tt>www0.foo.com</tt> to a proxy-only
  +entry in the DNS. Then we convert <CODE>www0.foo.com</CODE> to a proxy-only
   server, i.e. we configure this machine so all arriving URLs are just pushed
  -through the internal proxy to one of the 5 other servers (<tt>www1-www5</tt>).
  +through the internal proxy to one of the 5 other servers (<CODE>www1-www5</CODE>).
   To accomplish this we first establish a ruleset which contacts a load
  -balancing script <tt>lb.pl</tt> for all URLs.
  +balancing script <CODE>lb.pl</CODE> for all URLs.
   
   <P><TABLE BGCOLOR="#E0E5F5" BORDER="0" CELLSPACING="0" CELLPADDING="5"><TR><TD><PRE>
   RewriteEngine on
  @@ -1113,7 +1113,7 @@
   </PRE></TD></TR></TABLE>
   
   <P>
  -Then we write <tt>lb.pl</tt>:
  +Then we write <CODE>lb.pl</CODE>:
   
   <P><TABLE BGCOLOR="#E0E5F5" BORDER="0" CELLSPACING="0" CELLPADDING="5"><TR><TD><PRE>
   #!/path/to/perl
  @@ -1139,13 +1139,13 @@
   </PRE></TD></TR></TABLE>
   
   <P>
  -A last notice: Why is this useful? Seems like <tt>www0.foo.com</tt> still is
  +A last notice: Why is this useful? Seems like <CODE>www0.foo.com</CODE> still is
   overloaded? The answer is yes, it is overloaded, but with plain proxy
   throughput requests, only! All SSI, CGI, ePerl, etc. processing is completely
   done on the other machines. This is the essential point.
   
   <P>
  -<li><b>Hardware/TCP Round-Robin</b>
  +<li><STRONG>Hardware/TCP Round-Robin</STRONG>
   
   <P>
   There is a hardware solution available, too. Cisco has a beast called
  @@ -1285,34 +1285,34 @@
   feature for MIME-types is only appropriate when the CGI programs don't need
   special URLs (actually PATH_INFO and QUERY_STRINGS) as their input. 
   
  -First, let us configure a new file type with extension <tt>.scgi</tt>
  -(for secure CGI) which will be processed by the popular <tt>cgiwrap</tt>
  +First, let us configure a new file type with extension <CODE>.scgi</CODE>
  +(for secure CGI) which will be processed by the popular <CODE>cgiwrap</CODE>
   program. The problem here is that for instance we use a Homogeneous URL Layout
   (see above) a file inside the user homedirs has the URL
  -<tt>/u/user/foo/bar.scgi</tt>. But <tt>cgiwrap</tt> needs the URL in the form
  -<tt>/~user/foo/bar.scgi/</tt>. The following rule solves the problem:
  +<CODE>/u/user/foo/bar.scgi</CODE>. But <CODE>cgiwrap</CODE> needs the URL in the form
  +<CODE>/~user/foo/bar.scgi/</CODE>. The following rule solves the problem:
   
   <P><TABLE BGCOLOR="#E0E5F5" BORDER="0" CELLSPACING="0" CELLPADDING="5"><TR><TD><PRE>
  -RewriteRule ^/[uge]/<b>([^/]+)</b>/\.www/(.+)\.scgi(.*) ...
  -... /internal/cgi/user/cgiwrap/~<b>$1</b>/$2.scgi$3  [NS,<b>T=application/x-http-cgi</b>]
  +RewriteRule ^/[uge]/<STRONG>([^/]+)</STRONG>/\.www/(.+)\.scgi(.*) ...
  +... /internal/cgi/user/cgiwrap/~<STRONG>$1</STRONG>/$2.scgi$3  [NS,<STRONG>T=application/x-http-cgi</STRONG>]
   </PRE></TD></TR></TABLE>
   
   <P>
   Or assume we have some more nifty programs:
  -<tt>wwwlog</tt> (which displays the <tt>access.log</tt> for a URL subtree and
  -<tt>wwwidx</tt> (which runs Glimpse on a URL subtree). We have to
  +<CODE>wwwlog</CODE> (which displays the <CODE>access.log</CODE> for a URL subtree and
  +<CODE>wwwidx</CODE> (which runs Glimpse on a URL subtree). We have to
   provide the URL area to these programs so they know on which area
   they have to act on. But usually this ugly, because they are all the
   times still requested from that areas, i.e. typically we would run
  -the <tt>swwidx</tt> program from within <tt>/u/user/foo/</tt> via
  +the <CODE>swwidx</CODE> program from within <CODE>/u/user/foo/</CODE> via
   hyperlink to
   
   <P><PRE>
   /internal/cgi/user/swwidx?i=/u/user/foo/
   </PRE><P>
   
  -which is ugly. Because we have to hard-code <b>both</b> the location of the
  -area <b>and</b> the location of the CGI inside the hyperlink. When we have to
  +which is ugly. Because we have to hard-code <STRONG>both</STRONG> the location of the
  +area <STRONG>and</STRONG> the location of the CGI inside the hyperlink. When we have to
   reorganise or area, we spend a lot of time changing the various hyperlinks.
   
   <P>
  @@ -1327,10 +1327,10 @@
   </PRE></TD></TR></TABLE>
   
   <P>
  -Now the hyperlink to search at <tt>/u/user/foo/</tt> reads only
  +Now the hyperlink to search at <CODE>/u/user/foo/</CODE> reads only
   
   <P><PRE>
  -href="*"
  +HREF="*"
   </PRE><P>
   
   which internally gets automatically transformed to 
  @@ -1340,7 +1340,7 @@
   </PRE><P>
   
   The same approach leads to an invocation for the access log CGI
  -program when the hyperlink <tt>:log</tt> gets used.
  +program when the hyperlink <CODE>:log</CODE> gets used.
   
   </DL>
   
  @@ -1351,21 +1351,21 @@
   <DL>
   <DT><STRONG>Description:</STRONG>
   <DD>
  -How can we transform a static page <tt>foo.html</tt> into a dynamic variant
  -<tt>foo.cgi</tt> in a seemless way, i.e.  without notice by the browser/user.
  +How can we transform a static page <CODE>foo.html</CODE> into a dynamic variant
  +<CODE>foo.cgi</CODE> in a seemless way, i.e.  without notice by the browser/user.
   
   <P>
   <DT><STRONG>Solution:</STRONG>
   <DD>
   We just rewrite the URL to the CGI-script and force the correct MIME-type so
   it gets really run as a CGI-script. This way a request to
  -<tt>/~quux/foo.html</tt> internally leads to the invokation of
  -<tt>/~quux/foo.cgi</tt>.
  +<CODE>/~quux/foo.html</CODE> internally leads to the invokation of
  +<CODE>/~quux/foo.cgi</CODE>.
   
   <P><TABLE BGCOLOR="#E0E5F5" BORDER="0" CELLSPACING="0" CELLPADDING="5"><TR><TD><PRE>
   RewriteEngine  on
   RewriteBase    /~quux/
  -RewriteRule    ^foo\.<b>html</b>$  foo.<b>cgi</b>  [T=<b>application/x-httpd-cgi</b>]
  +RewriteRule    ^foo\.<STRONG>html</STRONG>$  foo.<STRONG>cgi</STRONG>  [T=<STRONG>application/x-httpd-cgi</STRONG>]
   </PRE></TD></TR></TABLE>
   
   </DL>
  @@ -1390,18 +1390,18 @@
   This is done via the following ruleset:
   
   <P><TABLE BGCOLOR="#E0E5F5" BORDER="0" CELLSPACING="0" CELLPADDING="5"><TR><TD><PRE>
  -RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME}   <b>!-s</b>
  -RewriteRule ^page\.<b>html</b>$          page.<b>cgi</b>   [T=application/x-httpd-cgi,L]
  +RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME}   <STRONG>!-s</STRONG>
  +RewriteRule ^page\.<STRONG>html</STRONG>$          page.<STRONG>cgi</STRONG>   [T=application/x-httpd-cgi,L]
   </PRE></TD></TR></TABLE>
   
   <P>
  -Here a request to <tt>page.html</tt> leads to a internal run of a
  -corresponding <tt>page.cgi</tt> if <tt>page.html</tt> is still missing or has
  -filesize null. The trick here is that <tt>page.cgi</tt> is a usual CGI script
  +Here a request to <CODE>page.html</CODE> leads to a internal run of a
  +corresponding <CODE>page.cgi</CODE> if <CODE>page.html</CODE> is still missing or has
  +filesize null. The trick here is that <CODE>page.cgi</CODE> is a usual CGI script
   which (additionally to its STDOUT) writes its output to the file
  -<tt>page.html</tt>. Once it was run, the server sends out the data of
  -<tt>page.html</tt>. When the webmaster wants to force a refresh the contents,
  -he just removes <tt>page.html</tt> (usually done by a cronjob).
  +<CODE>page.html</CODE>. Once it was run, the server sends out the data of
  +<CODE>page.html</CODE>. When the webmaster wants to force a refresh the contents,
  +he just removes <CODE>page.html</CODE> (usually done by a cronjob).
   
   </DL>
   
  @@ -1421,7 +1421,7 @@
   <DD>
   No! We just combine the MIME multipart feature, the webserver NPH feature and
   the URL manipulation power of mod_rewrite. First, we establish a new URL
  -feature: Adding just <tt>:refresh</tt> to any URL causes this to be refreshed
  +feature: Adding just <CODE>:refresh</CODE> to any URL causes this to be refreshed
   every time it gets updated on the filesystem.
   
   <P><TABLE BGCOLOR="#E0E5F5" BORDER="0" CELLSPACING="0" CELLPADDING="5"><TR><TD><PRE>
  @@ -1557,7 +1557,7 @@
   <DL>
   <DT><STRONG>Description:</STRONG>
   <DD>
  -The <tt>&lt;VirtualHost&gt;</tt> feature of Apache is nice and works great
  +The <CODE>&lt;VirtualHost&gt;</CODE> feature of Apache is nice and works great
   when you just have a few dozens virtual hosts. But when you are an ISP and
   have hundreds of virtual hosts to provide this feature is not the best choice.
   
  @@ -1640,14 +1640,14 @@
   <DT><STRONG>Description:</STRONG>
   <DD>
   How can we block a really annoying robot from retrieving pages of a specific
  -webarea? A <tt>/robots.txt</tt> file containing entries of the "Robot
  +webarea? A <CODE>/robots.txt</CODE> file containing entries of the "Robot
   Exclusion Protocol" is typically not enough to get rid of such a robot.
   
   <P>
   <DT><STRONG>Solution:</STRONG>
   <DD>
   We use a ruleset which forbids the URLs of the webarea
  -<tt>/~quux/foo/arc/</tt> (perhaps a very deep directory indexed area where the
  +<CODE>/~quux/foo/arc/</CODE> (perhaps a very deep directory indexed area where the
   robot traversal would create big server load).   We have to make sure that we
   forbid access only to the particular robot, i.e. just forbidding the host
   where the robot runs is not enough. This would block users from this host,
  @@ -1655,9 +1655,9 @@
   information.
   
   <P><TABLE BGCOLOR="#E0E5F5" BORDER="0" CELLSPACING="0" CELLPADDING="5"><TR><TD><PRE>
  -RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT}   ^<b>NameOfBadRobot</b>.*      
  -RewriteCond %{REMOTE_ADDR}       ^<b>123\.45\.67\.[8-9]</b>$
  -RewriteRule ^<b>/~quux/foo/arc/</b>.+   -   [<b>F</b>]
  +RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT}   ^<STRONG>NameOfBadRobot</STRONG>.*      
  +RewriteCond %{REMOTE_ADDR}       ^<STRONG>123\.45\.67\.[8-9]</STRONG>$
  +RewriteRule ^<STRONG>/~quux/foo/arc/</STRONG>.+   -   [<STRONG>F</STRONG>]
   </PRE></TD></TR></TABLE>
   
   </DL>
  @@ -1682,15 +1682,15 @@
   a HTTP Referer header.
   
   <P><TABLE BGCOLOR="#E0E5F5" BORDER="0" CELLSPACING="0" CELLPADDING="5"><TR><TD><PRE>
  -RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} <b>!^$</b>                                  
  +RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} <STRONG>!^$</STRONG>                                  
   RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} !^http://www.quux-corp.de/~quux/.*$ [NC]
  -RewriteRule <b>.*\.gif$</b>        -                                    [F]
  +RewriteRule <STRONG>.*\.gif$</STRONG>        -                                    [F]
   </PRE></TD></TR></TABLE>
   
   <P><TABLE BGCOLOR="#E0E5F5" BORDER="0" CELLSPACING="0" CELLPADDING="5"><TR><TD><PRE>
   RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER}         !^$                                  
   RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER}         !.*/foo-with-gif\.html$
  -RewriteRule <b>^inlined-in-foo\.gif$</b>   -                        [F]
  +RewriteRule <STRONG>^inlined-in-foo\.gif$</STRONG>   -                        [F]
   </PRE></TD></TR></TABLE>
   
   </DL>
  @@ -1760,19 +1760,19 @@
   <DT><STRONG>Solution:</STRONG>
   <DD>
   We first have to make sure mod_rewrite is below(!) mod_proxy in the
  -<tt>Configuration</tt> file when compiling the Apache webserver.  This way it
  +<CODE>Configuration</CODE> file when compiling the Apache webserver.  This way it
   gets called _before_ mod_proxy. Then we configure the following for a
   host-dependend deny...
   
   <P><TABLE BGCOLOR="#E0E5F5" BORDER="0" CELLSPACING="0" CELLPADDING="5"><TR><TD><PRE>
  -RewriteCond %{REMOTE_HOST} <b>^badhost\.mydomain\.com$</b> 
  +RewriteCond %{REMOTE_HOST} <STRONG>^badhost\.mydomain\.com$</STRONG> 
   RewriteRule !^http://[^/.]\.mydomain.com.*  - [F]
   </PRE></TD></TR></TABLE>
   
   <P>...and this one for a user@host-dependend deny:
   
   <P><TABLE BGCOLOR="#E0E5F5" BORDER="0" CELLSPACING="0" CELLPADDING="5"><TR><TD><PRE>
  -RewriteCond %{REMOTE_IDENT}@%{REMOTE_HOST}  <b>^badguy@badhost\.mydomain\.com$</b>
  +RewriteCond %{REMOTE_IDENT}@%{REMOTE_HOST}  <STRONG>^badguy@badhost\.mydomain\.com$</STRONG>
   RewriteRule !^http://[^/.]\.mydomain.com.*  - [F]
   </PRE></TD></TR></TABLE>
   
  @@ -1796,9 +1796,9 @@
   We use a list of rewrite conditions to exclude all except our friends:
   
   <P><TABLE BGCOLOR="#E0E5F5" BORDER="0" CELLSPACING="0" CELLPADDING="5"><TR><TD><PRE>
  -RewriteCond %{REMOTE_IDENT}@%{REMOTE_HOST} <b>!^friend1@client1.quux-corp\.com$</b> 
  -RewriteCond %{REMOTE_IDENT}@%{REMOTE_HOST} <b>!^friend2</b>@client2.quux-corp\.com$ 
  -RewriteCond %{REMOTE_IDENT}@%{REMOTE_HOST} <b>!^friend3</b>@client3.quux-corp\.com$ 
  +RewriteCond %{REMOTE_IDENT}@%{REMOTE_HOST} <STRONG>!^friend1@client1.quux-corp\.com$</STRONG> 
  +RewriteCond %{REMOTE_IDENT}@%{REMOTE_HOST} <STRONG>!^friend2</STRONG>@client2.quux-corp\.com$ 
  +RewriteCond %{REMOTE_IDENT}@%{REMOTE_HOST} <STRONG>!^friend3</STRONG>@client3.quux-corp\.com$ 
   RewriteRule ^/~quux/only-for-friends/      -                                 [F]
   </PRE></TD></TR></TABLE>
   
  @@ -1872,8 +1872,8 @@
   
   <P><TABLE BGCOLOR="#E0E5F5" BORDER="0" CELLSPACING="0" CELLPADDING="5"><TR><TD><PRE>
   RewriteEngine on
  -RewriteMap    quux-map       <b>prg:</b>/path/to/map.quux.pl
  -RewriteRule   ^/~quux/(.*)$  /~quux/<b>${quux-map:$1}</b>
  +RewriteMap    quux-map       <STRONG>prg:</STRONG>/path/to/map.quux.pl
  +RewriteRule   ^/~quux/(.*)$  /~quux/<STRONG>${quux-map:$1}</STRONG>
   </PRE></TD></TR></TABLE>
   
   <P><TABLE BGCOLOR="#E0E5F5" BORDER="0" CELLSPACING="0" CELLPADDING="5"><TR><TD><PRE>
  @@ -1893,9 +1893,9 @@
   
   <P>
   This is a demonstration-only example and just rewrites all URLs
  -<tt>/~quux/foo/...</tt> to <tt>/~quux/bar/...</tt>. Actually you can program
  -whatever you like. But notice that while such maps can be <b>used</b> also by
  -an average user, only the system administrator can <b>define</b> it.
  +<CODE>/~quux/foo/...</CODE> to <CODE>/~quux/bar/...</CODE>. Actually you can program
  +whatever you like. But notice that while such maps can be <STRONG>used</STRONG> also by
  +an average user, only the system administrator can <STRONG>define</STRONG> it.
   
   </DL>
   
  
  
  

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