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From Marc Slemko <m...@hyperreal.com>
Subject cvs commit: apache/htdocs/manual/misc FAQ.html
Date Sat, 26 Apr 1997 06:58:43 GMT
marc        97/04/25 23:58:42

  Modified:    htdocs/manual/misc  FAQ.html
  Log:
  General cleanups and modifications to a few things to make them more
  technically accurate, IMHO.
  
  Revision  Changes    Path
  1.43      +64 -47    apache/htdocs/manual/misc/FAQ.html
  
  Index: FAQ.html
  ===================================================================
  RCS file: /export/home/cvs/apache/htdocs/manual/misc/FAQ.html,v
  retrieving revision 1.42
  retrieving revision 1.43
  diff -C3 -r1.42 -r1.43
  *** FAQ.html	1997/04/26 05:13:50	1.42
  --- FAQ.html	1997/04/26 06:58:39	1.43
  ***************
  *** 8,14 ****
      <!--#include virtual="header.html" -->
      <H1>Apache Server Frequently Asked Questions</H1>
      <P>
  !   $Revision: 1.42 $ ($Date: 1997/04/26 05:13:50 $)
      </P>
      <P>
      The latest version of this FAQ is always available from the main
  --- 8,14 ----
      <!--#include virtual="header.html" -->
      <H1>Apache Server Frequently Asked Questions</H1>
      <P>
  !   $Revision: 1.43 $ ($Date: 1997/04/26 06:58:39 $)
      </P>
      <P>
      The latest version of this FAQ is always available from the main
  ***************
  *** 350,366 ****
        <P>
        Apache tries to be helpful when it encounters a problem.  In many
        cases, it will provide some details by writing one or messages to
  !     the server error log (see the
        <A
         HREF="http:../mod/core.html#errorlog"
        ><SAMP>ErrorLog</SAMP></A>
  !     directive).  Somethimes this is enough for you to diagnose &amp;
  !     fix the problem yourself (such as file permissions or the like).
        </P>
       </LI>
       <LI><STRONG>Check the
        <A
  !      HREF="http://www.apache.org/docs/misc/FAQ"
        >FAQ</A>!</STRONG>
        <P>
        The latest version of the Apache Frequently-Asked Questions list can
  --- 350,368 ----
        <P>
        Apache tries to be helpful when it encounters a problem.  In many
        cases, it will provide some details by writing one or messages to
  !     the server error log.  Sometimes this is enough for you to diagnose 
  !     &amp; fix the problem yourself (such as file permissions or the like).
  !     The default location of the error log is 
  !     <CODE>/usr/local/etc/httpd/logs/error_log</CODE>, but see the 
        <A
         HREF="http:../mod/core.html#errorlog"
        ><SAMP>ErrorLog</SAMP></A>
  !     directive in your config files for the location on your server.
        </P>
       </LI>
       <LI><STRONG>Check the
        <A
  !      HREF="http://www.apache.org/docs/misc/FAQ.html"
        >FAQ</A>!</STRONG>
        <P>
        The latest version of the Apache Frequently-Asked Questions list can
  ***************
  *** 379,385 ****
        that your issue has already been reported, please <EM>don't</EM> add
        a &quot;me, too&quot; report.  If the original report isn't closed
        yet, we suggest that you check it periodically.  You might also
  !     consider contacting the original submittor, because there may be an
        email exchange going on about the issue that isn't getting recorded
        in the database.
        </P>
  --- 381,387 ----
        that your issue has already been reported, please <EM>don't</EM> add
        a &quot;me, too&quot; report.  If the original report isn't closed
        yet, we suggest that you check it periodically.  You might also
  !     consider contacting the original submitter, because there may be an
        email exchange going on about the issue that isn't getting recorded
        in the database.
        </P>
  ***************
  *** 426,432 ****
        </CODE>
        </P>
        <P>
  !     (Substitute the appropiate locations for your
        <SAMP>ServerRoot</SAMP> and your <SAMP>httpd</SAMP> and
        <SAMP>core</SAMP> files.  You may have to use <CODE>gdb</CODE>
        instead of <CODE>dbx</CODE>.)
  --- 428,434 ----
        </CODE>
        </P>
        <P>
  !     (Substitute the appropriate locations for your
        <SAMP>ServerRoot</SAMP> and your <SAMP>httpd</SAMP> and
        <SAMP>core</SAMP> files.  You may have to use <CODE>gdb</CODE>
        instead of <CODE>dbx</CODE>.)
  ***************
  *** 452,458 ****
      </P>
      <P>
      Friendly interaction between Apache and NCSA developers should ensure
  !   that fundamental feature enhancments stay consistent between the two
      servers for the foreseeable future.
      </P>
      <HR>
  --- 454,460 ----
      </P>
      <P>
      Friendly interaction between Apache and NCSA developers should ensure
  !   that fundamental feature enhancements stay consistent between the two
      servers for the foreseeable future.
      </P>
      <HR>
  ***************
  *** 462,468 ****
          the ScriptAlias?</STRONG>
         </A>
      <P>
  !   Apache recognises all files in a directory named as a
      <A
       HREF="../mod/mod_alias.html#scriptalias"
      ><SAMP>ScriptAlias</SAMP></A>
  --- 464,470 ----
          the ScriptAlias?</STRONG>
         </A>
      <P>
  !   Apache recognizes all files in a directory named as a
      <A
       HREF="../mod/mod_alias.html#scriptalias"
      ><SAMP>ScriptAlias</SAMP></A>
  ***************
  *** 476,482 ****
      <P>
      To persuade Apache to execute scripts in other locations, such as in
      directories where normal documents may also live, you must tell it how
  !   to recognise them - and also that it's okey to execute them.  For
      this, you need to use something like the
      <A
       HREF="../mod/mod_mime.html#addhandler"
  --- 478,484 ----
      <P>
      To persuade Apache to execute scripts in other locations, such as in
      directories where normal documents may also live, you must tell it how
  !   to recognize them - and also that it's okay to execute them.  For
      this, you need to use something like the
      <A
       HREF="../mod/mod_mime.html#addhandler"
  ***************
  *** 492,498 ****
         </DD>
        </DL>
        </P>
  !     The server will then recognise that all files in that location (and
        its logical descendants) that end in &quot;<SAMP>.cgi</SAMP>&quot;
        are script files, not documents.
       </LI>
  --- 494,500 ----
         </DD>
        </DL>
        </P>
  !     The server will then recognize that all files in that location (and
        its logical descendants) that end in &quot;<SAMP>.cgi</SAMP>&quot;
        are script files, not documents.
       </LI>
  ***************
  *** 512,520 ****
      <P>
      It means just what it says: the server was expecting a complete set of
      HTTP headers (one or more followed by a blank line), and didn't get
  !   them.  The most common cause of this is Perl scripts which haven't
  !   disabled buffering; if you insert the following statements before your
  !   first <CODE>print</CODE> statement, this will probably go away.
      </P>
      <P>
      <CODE>
  --- 514,524 ----
      <P>
      It means just what it says: the server was expecting a complete set of
      HTTP headers (one or more followed by a blank line), and didn't get
  !   them.  The most common cause of this (aside from people not
  !   outputting the required headers at all) a result of an interaction
  !   with perl's output buffering.  To make perl flush its buffers 
  !   after each output statement, insert the following statements before your
  !   first <CODE>print</CODE> or <CODE>write</CODE> statement:
      </P>
      <P>
      <CODE>
  ***************
  *** 529,534 ****
  --- 533,541 ----
      </CODE>
      </P>
      <P>
  +   This is generally only necessary when you are calling external 
  +   programs from your script that send output to stdout.  
  +   <P>
      If your script isn't written in Perl, do the equivalent thing for
      whatever language you <EM>are</EM> using (<EM>e.g.</EM>, for
C, call 
      <CODE>fflush()</CODE> after writing the headers).
  ***************
  *** 542,548 ****
      SSI (an acronym for Server-Side Include) directives allow static HTML
      documents to be enhanced at run-time (<EM>e.g.</EM>, when delivered to
      a client by Apache).  The format of SSI directives is covered
  !   elsewhere; suffice it to say that Apache supports not only SSI but
      xSSI (eXtended SSI) directives.
      </P>
      <P>
  --- 549,556 ----
      SSI (an acronym for Server-Side Include) directives allow static HTML
      documents to be enhanced at run-time (<EM>e.g.</EM>, when delivered to
      a client by Apache).  The format of SSI directives is covered
  !   in the <A HREF="../mod/mod_include.html">mod_include manual</A>; 
  !   suffice it to say that Apache supports not only SSI but
      xSSI (eXtended SSI) directives.
      </P>
      <P>
  ***************
  *** 622,628 ****
      <SAMP>Last-Modified</SAMP> header based upon the last modification
      time of the file being parsed.  Note that this may actually be lying
      to the client if the parsed file doesn't change but the SSI-inserted
  !   content does.
      </P>
      <HR>
     </LI>
  --- 630,637 ----
      <SAMP>Last-Modified</SAMP> header based upon the last modification
      time of the file being parsed.  Note that this may actually be lying
      to the client if the parsed file doesn't change but the SSI-inserted
  !   content does; if the included content changes often, this can result
  !   in stale copies being cached.
      </P>
      <HR>
     </LI>
  ***************
  *** 632,641 ****
      <P>
      So you want to include SSI directives in the output from your CGI
      script, but can't figure out how to do it?
  !   The short answer is &quot;you can't.&quot;  This has been regarded as a
  !   security liability, and the basic solution is for your script itself to do
  !   what the SSIs would be doing.  After all, it's generating the
  !   rest of the content.
      </P>
      <P>
      This is a feature The Apache Group hopes to add in the next major
  --- 641,651 ----
      <P>
      So you want to include SSI directives in the output from your CGI
      script, but can't figure out how to do it?
  !   The short answer is &quot;you can't.&quot;  This is potentially
  !   a security liability and, more importantly, it can not be cleanly
  !   implemented under the current server API.  The best workaround
  !   is for your script itself to do what the SSIs would be doing.
  !   After all, it's generating the rest of the content.
      </P>
      <P>
      This is a feature The Apache Group hopes to add in the next major
  ***************
  *** 648,654 ****
         </A>
      <P>
      Apache version 1.1 and above comes with a proxy module. If compiled
  !   in, this will make Apache act as a caching-proxy server.
      </P>
      <HR>
     </LI>
  --- 658,664 ----
         </A>
      <P>
      Apache version 1.1 and above comes with a proxy module. If compiled
  !   in, this will make Apache act as a caching-proxy server.  
      </P>
      <HR>
     </LI>
  ***************
  *** 672,690 ****
          virtual hosts?</STRONG>
         </A>
      <P>
  !   The Apache server can behave unpredictably when it encounters some
  !   resource limitations.  One of these is the <EM>per</EM>-process limit
  !   on <STRONG>file descriptors</STRONG>, and that's almost always the
  !   cause of problems seen when adding virtual hosts.  In this
  !   case, it is often not actually Apache that's encountering the problem, but 
  !   some library routine (such as <CODE>gethostbyname()</CODE>)
  !   which needs file descriptors and doesn't complain intelligibly when it
  !   can't get them.
      </P>
      <P>
      Each log file requires a file descriptor, which means that if you are
  !   using seperate access and error logs for each virtual host each
  !   virtual host  needs two file descriptors.  Each 
      <A
       HREF="../mod/core.html#listen"
      ><SAMP>Listen</SAMP></A>
  --- 682,700 ----
          virtual hosts?</STRONG>
         </A>
      <P>
  !   You are probably running into resource limitations in your 
  !   operating system.  The most common limitation is the 
  !   <EM>per</EM>-process limit on <STRONG>file descriptors</STRONG>,

  !   which is almost always the cause of problems seen when adding 
  !   virtual hosts.  Apache often does not give an intuitive error 
  !   message because it is normally some library routine (such as 
  !   <CODE>gethostbyname()</CODE>) which needs file descriptors and 
  !   doesn't complain intelligibly when it can't get them.  
      </P>
      <P>
      Each log file requires a file descriptor, which means that if you are
  !   using separate access and error logs for each virtual host, each
  !   virtual host needs two file descriptors.  Each 
      <A
       HREF="../mod/core.html#listen"
      ><SAMP>Listen</SAMP></A>
  ***************
  *** 692,703 ****
      </P>
      <P>
      Typical values for &lt;<EM>n</EM>&gt; that we've seen are in
  !   the neighbourhoods of 128 or 250.  When the server bumps into the file
  !   descriptor limit, it may dump core with a SIGSEGV, or it might just
      hang, or it may limp along and you'll see (possibly meaningful) errors
      in the error log.  One common problem that occurs when you run into
      a file descriptor limit is that CGI scripts stop being executed
  !   properly at times.
      </P>
      <P>
      As to what you can do about this:
  --- 702,713 ----
      </P>
      <P>
      Typical values for &lt;<EM>n</EM>&gt; that we've seen are in
  !   the neighborhood of 128 or 250.  When the server bumps into the file
  !   descriptor limit, it may dump core with a SIGSEGV, it might just
      hang, or it may limp along and you'll see (possibly meaningful) errors
      in the error log.  One common problem that occurs when you run into
      a file descriptor limit is that CGI scripts stop being executed
  !   properly.
      </P>
      <P>
      As to what you can do about this:
  ***************
  *** 716,722 ****
            HREF="../mod/mod_log_config.html"
           ><SAMP>mod_log_config</SAMP></A>
           to log all requests to a single log file while including the name
  !        of the virtual host in the log file.
       </LI>
       <LI>Increase the number of file descriptors available to the server
           (see your system's documentation on the <CODE>limit</CODE> or
  --- 726,734 ----
            HREF="../mod/mod_log_config.html"
           ><SAMP>mod_log_config</SAMP></A>
           to log all requests to a single log file while including the name
  !        of the virtual host in the log file.  You can then write a 
  !        script to split the logfile into separate files later if
  !        necessary.
       </LI>
       <LI>Increase the number of file descriptors available to the server
           (see your system's documentation on the <CODE>limit</CODE> or
  ***************
  *** 810,817 ****
        subsequent requests to the same server.
       </LI>
       <LI>It's relatively trivial for someone on your system to put up a
  !     page that will steal the cached password from a client's cache.  Can
  !     you say &quot;password grabber&quot;?
       </LI>
      </UL>
      <P>
  --- 822,829 ----
        subsequent requests to the same server.
       </LI>
       <LI>It's relatively trivial for someone on your system to put up a
  !     page that will steal the cached password from a client's cache
  !     without them knowing.  Can you say &quot;password grabber&quot;?
       </LI>
      </UL>
      <P>
  ***************
  *** 942,948 ****
         </A>
      <P>
      The simple answer is that it was becoming too difficult to keep the
  !   version being included with Apache synchronised with the master copy
      at the
      <A
       HREF="http://www.fastcgi.com/servers/apache/"
  --- 954,960 ----
         </A>
      <P>
      The simple answer is that it was becoming too difficult to keep the
  !   version being included with Apache synchronized with the master copy
      at the
      <A
       HREF="http://www.fastcgi.com/servers/apache/"
  ***************
  *** 979,985 ****
      the output as the script is generating it.
      </P>
      <P>
  !   To avoid this, Apache recognises scripts whose names begin with
      &quot;<SAMP>nph-</SAMP>&quot; as <EM>non-parsed-header</EM>
scripts.
      That is, Apache won't buffer their output, but connect it directly to
      the socket going back to the client.
  --- 991,997 ----
      the output as the script is generating it.
      </P>
      <P>
  !   To avoid this, Apache recognizes scripts whose names begin with
      &quot;<SAMP>nph-</SAMP>&quot; as <EM>non-parsed-header</EM>
scripts.
      That is, Apache won't buffer their output, but connect it directly to
      the socket going back to the client.
  ***************
  *** 1032,1045 ****
      <P>
      This is a conflict between your C library includes and your kernel
      includes.  You need to make sure that the versions of both are matched
  !   properly.  There are two workarounds:
      </P>
      <UL>
       <LI>Remove the definition of <CODE>struct iovec</CODE> from your
C
  !     library includes.  Or,
       </LI>
       <LI>Add  <CODE>-DNO_WRITEV</CODE> to the <CODE>EXTRA_CFLAGS</CODE>
        line in your <SAMP>Configuration</SAMP> and reconfigure/rebuild.
       </LI>
      </UL>
      </P>
  --- 1044,1059 ----
      <P>
      This is a conflict between your C library includes and your kernel
      includes.  You need to make sure that the versions of both are matched
  !   properly.  There are two workarounds, either one will solve the problem:
      </P>
      <UL>
       <LI>Remove the definition of <CODE>struct iovec</CODE> from your
C
  !     library includes.  It is located in <CODE>/usr/include/sys/uio.h</CODE>.
 
  !     <STRONG>Or,</STRONG>
       </LI>
       <LI>Add  <CODE>-DNO_WRITEV</CODE> to the <CODE>EXTRA_CFLAGS</CODE>
        line in your <SAMP>Configuration</SAMP> and reconfigure/rebuild.
  +     This hurts performance and should only be used as a last resort.
       </LI>
      </UL>
      </P>
  ***************
  *** 1052,1062 ****
      <P>
      In Apache version 1.2 (beginning with 1.2b8), the error log message
      about dumped core includes the directory where the dump file should be
  !   located.  However, some operating systems regard the dumping of core
  !   by processes with superuser authority as a potential security issue,
  !   and short-circuit the dump code, leaving no file.  Since most Web
  !   servers listen on port 80 (a privileged port), they need to run with
  !   superuser authority, and so this short-circuit will apply to them.
      </P>
      <P>
      Dealing with this is extremely operating system-specific, and may
  --- 1066,1076 ----
      <P>
      In Apache version 1.2 (beginning with 1.2b8), the error log message
      about dumped core includes the directory where the dump file should be
  !   located.  However, many Unixes do not allow a process that has
  !   called <CODE>setuid()</CODE> to dump core for security reasons; 
  !   the typical Apache setup has the server started as root to bind to 
  !   port 80, after which it changes UIDs to a non-privileged user to 
  !   serve requests.
      </P>
      <P>
      Dealing with this is extremely operating system-specific, and may
  ***************
  *** 1083,1089 ****
      governments have restrictions upon the import, export, and use of
      encryption technology.  If Apache included SSL in the base package,
      its distribution would involve all sorts of legal and bureaucratic
  !   issues., and it would no longer be freely available.
      </P>
      <P>
      Some SSL implementations of Apache are available, however; see the
  --- 1097,1106 ----
      governments have restrictions upon the import, export, and use of
      encryption technology.  If Apache included SSL in the base package,
      its distribution would involve all sorts of legal and bureaucratic
  !   issues., and it would no longer be freely available.  Also, some of
  !   the technology required to talk to current clients using SSL is 
  !   patented by <A HREF="http://www.rsa.com/">RSA Data Security</A>, 
  !   who restricts its use without a license.
      </P>
      <P>
      Some SSL implementations of Apache are available, however; see the
  
  
  

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