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From st...@apache.org
Subject [22/51] [partial] hbase git commit: HBASE-15638 Shade protobuf Which includes
Date Tue, 04 Oct 2016 05:16:35 GMT
http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/hbase/blob/95c1dc93/hbase-protocol-shaded/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hbase/shaded/com/google/protobuf/CodedOutputStream.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/hbase-protocol-shaded/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hbase/shaded/com/google/protobuf/CodedOutputStream.java b/hbase-protocol-shaded/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hbase/shaded/com/google/protobuf/CodedOutputStream.java
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..03871c9
--- /dev/null
+++ b/hbase-protocol-shaded/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hbase/shaded/com/google/protobuf/CodedOutputStream.java
@@ -0,0 +1,3001 @@
+// Protocol Buffers - Google's data interchange format
+// Copyright 2008 Google Inc.  All rights reserved.
+// https://developers.google.com/protocol-buffers/
+//
+// Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+// modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are
+// met:
+//
+//     * Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+// notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+//     * Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above
+// copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer
+// in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the
+// distribution.
+//     * Neither the name of Google Inc. nor the names of its
+// contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from
+// this software without specific prior written permission.
+//
+// THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS
+// "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT
+// LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR
+// A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT
+// OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL,
+// SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT
+// LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE,
+// DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY
+// THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT
+// (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE
+// OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
+
+package org.apache.hadoop.hbase.shaded.com.google.protobuf;
+
+import static org.apache.hadoop.hbase.shaded.com.google.protobuf.WireFormat.FIXED_32_SIZE;
+import static org.apache.hadoop.hbase.shaded.com.google.protobuf.WireFormat.FIXED_64_SIZE;
+import static org.apache.hadoop.hbase.shaded.com.google.protobuf.WireFormat.MAX_VARINT_SIZE;
+import static java.lang.Math.max;
+
+import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.shaded.com.google.protobuf.Utf8.UnpairedSurrogateException;
+import java.io.IOException;
+import java.io.OutputStream;
+import java.nio.BufferOverflowException;
+import java.nio.ByteBuffer;
+import java.nio.ByteOrder;
+import java.util.logging.Level;
+import java.util.logging.Logger;
+
+/**
+ * Encodes and writes protocol message fields.
+ *
+ * <p>This class contains two kinds of methods:  methods that write specific
+ * protocol message constructs and field types (e.g. {@link #writeTag} and
+ * {@link #writeInt32}) and methods that write low-level values (e.g.
+ * {@link #writeRawVarint32} and {@link #writeRawBytes}).  If you are
+ * writing encoded protocol messages, you should use the former methods, but if
+ * you are writing some other format of your own design, use the latter.
+ *
+ * <p>This class is totally unsynchronized.
+ */
+public abstract class CodedOutputStream extends ByteOutput {
+  private static final Logger logger = Logger.getLogger(CodedOutputStream.class.getName());
+  private static final boolean HAS_UNSAFE_ARRAY_OPERATIONS = UnsafeUtil.hasUnsafeArrayOperations();
+  private static final long ARRAY_BASE_OFFSET = UnsafeUtil.getArrayBaseOffset();
+
+  /**
+   * @deprecated Use {@link #computeFixed32SizeNoTag(int)} instead.
+   */
+  @Deprecated
+  public static final int LITTLE_ENDIAN_32_SIZE = FIXED_32_SIZE;
+
+  /**
+   * The buffer size used in {@link #newInstance(OutputStream)}.
+   */
+  public static final int DEFAULT_BUFFER_SIZE = 4096;
+
+  /**
+   * Returns the buffer size to efficiently write dataLength bytes to this
+   * CodedOutputStream. Used by AbstractMessageLite.
+   *
+   * @return the buffer size to efficiently write dataLength bytes to this
+   *         CodedOutputStream.
+   */
+  static int computePreferredBufferSize(int dataLength) {
+    if (dataLength > DEFAULT_BUFFER_SIZE) {
+      return DEFAULT_BUFFER_SIZE;
+    }
+    return dataLength;
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Create a new {@code CodedOutputStream} wrapping the given {@code OutputStream}.
+   *
+   * <p> NOTE: The provided {@link OutputStream} <strong>MUST NOT</strong> retain access or
+   * modify the provided byte arrays. Doing so may result in corrupted data, which would be
+   * difficult to debug.
+   */
+  public static CodedOutputStream newInstance(final OutputStream output) {
+    return newInstance(output, DEFAULT_BUFFER_SIZE);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Create a new {@code CodedOutputStream} wrapping the given {@code OutputStream} with a given
+   * buffer size.
+   *
+   * <p> NOTE: The provided {@link OutputStream} <strong>MUST NOT</strong> retain access or
+   * modify the provided byte arrays. Doing so may result in corrupted data, which would be
+   * difficult to debug.
+   */
+  public static CodedOutputStream newInstance(final OutputStream output, final int bufferSize) {
+    return new OutputStreamEncoder(output, bufferSize);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Create a new {@code CodedOutputStream} that writes directly to the given
+   * byte array.  If more bytes are written than fit in the array,
+   * {@link OutOfSpaceException} will be thrown.  Writing directly to a flat
+   * array is faster than writing to an {@code OutputStream}.  See also
+   * {@link ByteString#newCodedBuilder}.
+   */
+  public static CodedOutputStream newInstance(final byte[] flatArray) {
+    return newInstance(flatArray, 0, flatArray.length);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Create a new {@code CodedOutputStream} that writes directly to the given
+   * byte array slice.  If more bytes are written than fit in the slice,
+   * {@link OutOfSpaceException} will be thrown.  Writing directly to a flat
+   * array is faster than writing to an {@code OutputStream}.  See also
+   * {@link ByteString#newCodedBuilder}.
+   */
+  public static CodedOutputStream newInstance(
+      final byte[] flatArray, final int offset, final int length) {
+    return new ArrayEncoder(flatArray, offset, length);
+  }
+
+  /** Create a new {@code CodedOutputStream} that writes to the given {@link ByteBuffer}. */
+  public static CodedOutputStream newInstance(ByteBuffer buffer) {
+    if (buffer.hasArray()) {
+      return new HeapNioEncoder(buffer);
+    }
+    if (buffer.isDirect() && !buffer.isReadOnly()) {
+      return UnsafeDirectNioEncoder.isSupported()
+          ? newUnsafeInstance(buffer)
+          : newSafeInstance(buffer);
+    }
+    throw new IllegalArgumentException("ByteBuffer is read-only");
+  }
+
+  /** For testing purposes only. */
+  static CodedOutputStream newUnsafeInstance(ByteBuffer buffer) {
+    return new UnsafeDirectNioEncoder(buffer);
+  }
+
+  /** For testing purposes only. */
+  static CodedOutputStream newSafeInstance(ByteBuffer buffer) {
+    return new SafeDirectNioEncoder(buffer);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Configures serialization to be deterministic.
+   *
+   * <p>The deterministic serialization guarantees that for a given binary, equal (defined by the
+   * {@code equals()} methods in protos) messages will always be serialized to the same bytes. This
+   * implies:
+   *
+   * <ul>
+   * <li>repeated serialization of a message will return the same bytes
+   * <li>different processes of the same binary (which may be executing on different machines) will
+   *     serialize equal messages to the same bytes.
+   * </ul>
+   *
+   * <p>Note the deterministic serialization is NOT canonical across languages; it is also unstable
+   * across different builds with schema changes due to unknown fields. Users who need canonical
+   * serialization, e.g. persistent storage in a canonical form, fingerprinting, etc, should define
+   * their own canonicalization specification and implement the serializer using reflection APIs
+   * rather than relying on this API.
+   *
+   * <p> Once set, the serializer will:  (Note this is an implementation detail and may subject to
+   * change in the future)
+   *
+   * <ul>
+   * <li> sort map entries by keys in lexicographical order or numerical order. Note: For string
+   *     keys, the order is based on comparing the Unicode value of each character in the strings.
+   *     The order may be different from the deterministic serialization in other languages where
+   *     maps are sorted on the lexicographical order of the UTF8 encoded keys.
+   * </ul>
+   */
+  void useDeterministicSerialization() {
+    serializationDeterministic = true;
+  }
+
+  boolean isSerializationDeterministic() {
+    return serializationDeterministic;
+  }
+  private boolean serializationDeterministic;
+
+  /**
+   * Create a new {@code CodedOutputStream} that writes to the given {@link ByteBuffer}.
+   *
+   * @deprecated the size parameter is no longer used since use of an internal buffer is useless
+   * (and wasteful) when writing to a {@link ByteBuffer}. Use {@link #newInstance(ByteBuffer)}
+   * instead.
+   */
+  @Deprecated
+  public static CodedOutputStream newInstance(ByteBuffer byteBuffer,
+      @SuppressWarnings("unused") int unused) {
+    return newInstance(byteBuffer);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Create a new {@code CodedOutputStream} that writes to the provided {@link ByteOutput}.
+   *
+   * <p> NOTE: The {@link ByteOutput} <strong>MUST NOT</strong> modify the provided buffers. Doing
+   * so may result in corrupted data, which would be difficult to debug.
+   *
+   * @param byteOutput the output target for encoded bytes.
+   * @param bufferSize the size of the internal scratch buffer to be used for string encoding.
+   * Setting this to {@code 0} will disable buffering, requiring an allocation for each encoded
+   * string.
+   */
+  static CodedOutputStream newInstance(ByteOutput byteOutput, int bufferSize) {
+    if (bufferSize < 0) {
+      throw new IllegalArgumentException("bufferSize must be positive");
+    }
+
+    return new ByteOutputEncoder(byteOutput, bufferSize);
+  }
+
+  // Disallow construction outside of this class.
+  private CodedOutputStream() {
+  }
+
+  // -----------------------------------------------------------------
+
+  /** Encode and write a tag. */
+  // Abstract to avoid overhead of additional virtual method calls.
+  public abstract void writeTag(int fieldNumber, int wireType) throws IOException;
+
+  /** Write an {@code int32} field, including tag, to the stream. */
+  // Abstract to avoid overhead of additional virtual method calls.
+  public abstract void writeInt32(int fieldNumber, int value) throws IOException;
+
+  /** Write a {@code uint32} field, including tag, to the stream. */
+  // Abstract to avoid overhead of additional virtual method calls.
+  public abstract void writeUInt32(int fieldNumber, int value) throws IOException;
+
+  /** Write a {@code sint32} field, including tag, to the stream. */
+  public final void writeSInt32(final int fieldNumber, final int value) throws IOException {
+    writeUInt32(fieldNumber, encodeZigZag32(value));
+  }
+
+  /** Write a {@code fixed32} field, including tag, to the stream. */
+  // Abstract to avoid overhead of additional virtual method calls.
+  public abstract void writeFixed32(int fieldNumber, int value) throws IOException;
+
+  /** Write an {@code sfixed32} field, including tag, to the stream. */
+  public final void writeSFixed32(final int fieldNumber, final int value) throws IOException {
+    writeFixed32(fieldNumber, value);
+  }
+
+  /** Write an {@code int64} field, including tag, to the stream. */
+  public final void writeInt64(final int fieldNumber, final long value) throws IOException {
+    writeUInt64(fieldNumber, value);
+  }
+
+  /** Write a {@code uint64} field, including tag, to the stream. */
+  // Abstract to avoid overhead of additional virtual method calls.
+  public abstract void writeUInt64(int fieldNumber, long value) throws IOException;
+
+  /** Write an {@code sint64} field, including tag, to the stream. */
+  public final void writeSInt64(final int fieldNumber, final long value) throws IOException {
+    writeUInt64(fieldNumber, encodeZigZag64(value));
+  }
+
+  /** Write a {@code fixed64} field, including tag, to the stream. */
+  // Abstract to avoid overhead of additional virtual method calls.
+  public abstract void writeFixed64(int fieldNumber, long value) throws IOException;
+
+  /** Write an {@code sfixed64} field, including tag, to the stream. */
+  public final void writeSFixed64(final int fieldNumber, final long value) throws IOException {
+    writeFixed64(fieldNumber, value);
+  }
+
+  /** Write a {@code float} field, including tag, to the stream. */
+  public final void writeFloat(final int fieldNumber, final float value) throws IOException {
+    writeFixed32(fieldNumber, Float.floatToRawIntBits(value));
+  }
+
+  /** Write a {@code double} field, including tag, to the stream. */
+  public final void writeDouble(final int fieldNumber, final double value) throws IOException {
+    writeFixed64(fieldNumber, Double.doubleToRawLongBits(value));
+  }
+
+  /** Write a {@code bool} field, including tag, to the stream. */
+  // Abstract to avoid overhead of additional virtual method calls.
+  public abstract void writeBool(int fieldNumber, boolean value) throws IOException;
+
+  /**
+   * Write an enum field, including tag, to the stream. The provided value is the numeric
+   * value used to represent the enum value on the wire (not the enum ordinal value).
+   */
+  public final void writeEnum(final int fieldNumber, final int value) throws IOException {
+    writeInt32(fieldNumber, value);
+  }
+
+  /** Write a {@code string} field, including tag, to the stream. */
+  // Abstract to avoid overhead of additional virtual method calls.
+  public abstract void writeString(int fieldNumber, String value) throws IOException;
+
+  /** Write a {@code bytes} field, including tag, to the stream. */
+  // Abstract to avoid overhead of additional virtual method calls.
+  public abstract void writeBytes(int fieldNumber, ByteString value) throws IOException;
+
+  /** Write a {@code bytes} field, including tag, to the stream. */
+  // Abstract to avoid overhead of additional virtual method calls.
+  public abstract void writeByteArray(int fieldNumber, byte[] value) throws IOException;
+
+  /** Write a {@code bytes} field, including tag, to the stream. */
+  // Abstract to avoid overhead of additional virtual method calls.
+  public abstract void writeByteArray(int fieldNumber, byte[] value, int offset, int length)
+      throws IOException;
+
+  /**
+   * Write a {@code bytes} field, including tag, to the stream.
+   * This method will write all content of the ByteBuffer regardless of the
+   * current position and limit (i.e., the number of bytes to be written is
+   * value.capacity(), not value.remaining()). Furthermore, this method doesn't
+   * alter the state of the passed-in ByteBuffer. Its position, limit, mark,
+   * etc. will remain unchanged. If you only want to write the remaining bytes
+   * of a ByteBuffer, you can call
+   * {@code writeByteBuffer(fieldNumber, byteBuffer.slice())}.
+   */
+  // Abstract to avoid overhead of additional virtual method calls.
+  public abstract void writeByteBuffer(int fieldNumber, ByteBuffer value) throws IOException;
+
+  /**
+   * Write a single byte.
+   */
+  public final void writeRawByte(final byte value) throws IOException {
+    write(value);
+  }
+
+  /** Write a single byte, represented by an integer value. */
+  public final void writeRawByte(final int value) throws IOException {
+    write((byte) value);
+  }
+
+  /** Write an array of bytes. */
+  public final void writeRawBytes(final byte[] value) throws IOException {
+    write(value, 0, value.length);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Write part of an array of bytes.
+   */
+  public final void writeRawBytes(final byte[] value, int offset, int length) throws IOException {
+    write(value, offset, length);
+  }
+
+  /** Write a byte string. */
+  public final void writeRawBytes(final ByteString value) throws IOException {
+    value.writeTo(this);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Write a ByteBuffer. This method will write all content of the ByteBuffer
+   * regardless of the current position and limit (i.e., the number of bytes
+   * to be written is value.capacity(), not value.remaining()). Furthermore,
+   * this method doesn't alter the state of the passed-in ByteBuffer. Its
+   * position, limit, mark, etc. will remain unchanged. If you only want to
+   * write the remaining bytes of a ByteBuffer, you can call
+   * {@code writeRawBytes(byteBuffer.slice())}.
+   */
+  // Abstract to avoid overhead of additional virtual method calls.
+  public abstract void writeRawBytes(final ByteBuffer value) throws IOException;
+
+  /** Write an embedded message field, including tag, to the stream. */
+  // Abstract to avoid overhead of additional virtual method calls.
+  public abstract void writeMessage(final int fieldNumber, final MessageLite value)
+      throws IOException;
+
+  /**
+   * Write a MessageSet extension field to the stream.  For historical reasons,
+   * the wire format differs from normal fields.
+   */
+  // Abstract to avoid overhead of additional virtual method calls.
+  public abstract void writeMessageSetExtension(final int fieldNumber, final MessageLite value)
+      throws IOException;
+
+  /**
+   * Write an unparsed MessageSet extension field to the stream.  For
+   * historical reasons, the wire format differs from normal fields.
+   */
+  // Abstract to avoid overhead of additional virtual method calls.
+  public abstract void writeRawMessageSetExtension(final int fieldNumber, final ByteString value)
+      throws IOException;
+
+  // -----------------------------------------------------------------
+
+  /** Write an {@code int32} field to the stream. */
+  // Abstract to avoid overhead of additional virtual method calls.
+  public abstract void writeInt32NoTag(final int value) throws IOException;
+
+  /** Write a {@code uint32} field to the stream. */
+  // Abstract to avoid overhead of additional virtual method calls.
+  public abstract void writeUInt32NoTag(int value) throws IOException;
+
+  /** Write a {@code sint32} field to the stream. */
+  public final void writeSInt32NoTag(final int value) throws IOException {
+    writeUInt32NoTag(encodeZigZag32(value));
+  }
+
+  /** Write a {@code fixed32} field to the stream. */
+  // Abstract to avoid overhead of additional virtual method calls.
+  public abstract void writeFixed32NoTag(int value) throws IOException;
+
+  /** Write a {@code sfixed32} field to the stream. */
+  public final void writeSFixed32NoTag(final int value) throws IOException {
+    writeFixed32NoTag(value);
+  }
+
+  /** Write an {@code int64} field to the stream. */
+  public final void writeInt64NoTag(final long value) throws IOException {
+    writeUInt64NoTag(value);
+  }
+
+  /** Write a {@code uint64} field to the stream. */
+  // Abstract to avoid overhead of additional virtual method calls.
+  public abstract void writeUInt64NoTag(long value) throws IOException;
+
+  /** Write a {@code sint64} field to the stream. */
+  public final void writeSInt64NoTag(final long value) throws IOException {
+    writeUInt64NoTag(encodeZigZag64(value));
+  }
+
+  /** Write a {@code fixed64} field to the stream. */
+  // Abstract to avoid overhead of additional virtual method calls.
+  public abstract void writeFixed64NoTag(long value) throws IOException;
+
+  /** Write a {@code sfixed64} field to the stream. */
+  public final void writeSFixed64NoTag(final long value) throws IOException {
+    writeFixed64NoTag(value);
+  }
+
+  /** Write a {@code float} field to the stream. */
+  public final void writeFloatNoTag(final float value) throws IOException {
+    writeFixed32NoTag(Float.floatToRawIntBits(value));
+  }
+
+  /** Write a {@code double} field to the stream. */
+  public final void writeDoubleNoTag(final double value) throws IOException {
+    writeFixed64NoTag(Double.doubleToRawLongBits(value));
+  }
+
+  /** Write a {@code bool} field to the stream. */
+  public final void writeBoolNoTag(final boolean value) throws IOException {
+    write((byte) (value ? 1 : 0));
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Write an enum field to the stream. The provided value is the numeric
+   * value used to represent the enum value on the wire (not the enum ordinal value).
+   */
+  public final void writeEnumNoTag(final int value) throws IOException {
+    writeInt32NoTag(value);
+  }
+
+  /** Write a {@code string} field to the stream. */
+  // TODO(dweis): Document behavior on ill-formed UTF-16 input.
+  // Abstract to avoid overhead of additional virtual method calls.
+  public abstract void writeStringNoTag(String value) throws IOException;
+
+  /** Write a {@code bytes} field to the stream. */
+  // Abstract to avoid overhead of additional virtual method calls.
+  public abstract void writeBytesNoTag(final ByteString value) throws IOException;
+
+  /** Write a {@code bytes} field to the stream. */
+  public final void writeByteArrayNoTag(final byte[] value) throws IOException {
+    writeByteArrayNoTag(value, 0, value.length);
+  }
+
+  /** Write an embedded message field to the stream. */
+  // Abstract to avoid overhead of additional virtual method calls.
+  public abstract void writeMessageNoTag(final MessageLite value) throws IOException;
+
+  //=================================================================
+
+  @ExperimentalApi
+  @Override
+  public abstract void write(byte value) throws IOException;
+
+  @ExperimentalApi
+  @Override
+  public abstract void write(byte[] value, int offset, int length) throws IOException;
+
+  @ExperimentalApi
+  @Override
+  public abstract void writeLazy(byte[] value, int offset, int length) throws IOException;
+
+  @Override
+  public abstract void write(ByteBuffer value) throws IOException;
+
+  @ExperimentalApi
+  @Override
+  public abstract void writeLazy(ByteBuffer value) throws IOException;
+
+  // =================================================================
+  // =================================================================
+
+  /**
+   * Compute the number of bytes that would be needed to encode an
+   * {@code int32} field, including tag.
+   */
+  public static int computeInt32Size(final int fieldNumber, final int value) {
+    return computeTagSize(fieldNumber) + computeInt32SizeNoTag(value);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Compute the number of bytes that would be needed to encode a
+   * {@code uint32} field, including tag.
+   */
+  public static int computeUInt32Size(final int fieldNumber, final int value) {
+    return computeTagSize(fieldNumber) + computeUInt32SizeNoTag(value);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Compute the number of bytes that would be needed to encode an
+   * {@code sint32} field, including tag.
+   */
+  public static int computeSInt32Size(final int fieldNumber, final int value) {
+    return computeTagSize(fieldNumber) + computeSInt32SizeNoTag(value);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Compute the number of bytes that would be needed to encode a
+   * {@code fixed32} field, including tag.
+   */
+  public static int computeFixed32Size(final int fieldNumber, final int value) {
+    return computeTagSize(fieldNumber) + computeFixed32SizeNoTag(value);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Compute the number of bytes that would be needed to encode an
+   * {@code sfixed32} field, including tag.
+   */
+  public static int computeSFixed32Size(final int fieldNumber, final int value) {
+    return computeTagSize(fieldNumber) + computeSFixed32SizeNoTag(value);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Compute the number of bytes that would be needed to encode an
+   * {@code int64} field, including tag.
+   */
+  public static int computeInt64Size(final int fieldNumber, final long value) {
+    return computeTagSize(fieldNumber) + computeInt64SizeNoTag(value);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Compute the number of bytes that would be needed to encode a
+   * {@code uint64} field, including tag.
+   */
+  public static int computeUInt64Size(final int fieldNumber, final long value) {
+    return computeTagSize(fieldNumber) + computeUInt64SizeNoTag(value);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Compute the number of bytes that would be needed to encode an
+   * {@code sint64} field, including tag.
+   */
+  public static int computeSInt64Size(final int fieldNumber, final long value) {
+    return computeTagSize(fieldNumber) + computeSInt64SizeNoTag(value);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Compute the number of bytes that would be needed to encode a
+   * {@code fixed64} field, including tag.
+   */
+  public static int computeFixed64Size(final int fieldNumber, final long value) {
+    return computeTagSize(fieldNumber) + computeFixed64SizeNoTag(value);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Compute the number of bytes that would be needed to encode an
+   * {@code sfixed64} field, including tag.
+   */
+  public static int computeSFixed64Size(final int fieldNumber, final long value) {
+    return computeTagSize(fieldNumber) + computeSFixed64SizeNoTag(value);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Compute the number of bytes that would be needed to encode a
+   * {@code float} field, including tag.
+   */
+  public static int computeFloatSize(final int fieldNumber, final float value) {
+    return computeTagSize(fieldNumber) + computeFloatSizeNoTag(value);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Compute the number of bytes that would be needed to encode a
+   * {@code double} field, including tag.
+   */
+  public static int computeDoubleSize(final int fieldNumber, final double value) {
+    return computeTagSize(fieldNumber) + computeDoubleSizeNoTag(value);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Compute the number of bytes that would be needed to encode a
+   * {@code bool} field, including tag.
+   */
+  public static int computeBoolSize(final int fieldNumber, final boolean value) {
+    return computeTagSize(fieldNumber) + computeBoolSizeNoTag(value);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Compute the number of bytes that would be needed to encode an
+   * enum field, including tag. The provided value is the numeric
+   * value used to represent the enum value on the wire (not the enum ordinal value).
+   */
+  public static int computeEnumSize(final int fieldNumber, final int value) {
+    return computeTagSize(fieldNumber) + computeEnumSizeNoTag(value);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Compute the number of bytes that would be needed to encode a
+   * {@code string} field, including tag.
+   */
+  public static int computeStringSize(final int fieldNumber, final String value) {
+    return computeTagSize(fieldNumber) + computeStringSizeNoTag(value);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Compute the number of bytes that would be needed to encode a
+   * {@code bytes} field, including tag.
+   */
+  public static int computeBytesSize(final int fieldNumber, final ByteString value) {
+    return computeTagSize(fieldNumber) + computeBytesSizeNoTag(value);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Compute the number of bytes that would be needed to encode a
+   * {@code bytes} field, including tag.
+   */
+  public static int computeByteArraySize(final int fieldNumber, final byte[] value) {
+    return computeTagSize(fieldNumber) + computeByteArraySizeNoTag(value);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Compute the number of bytes that would be needed to encode a
+   * {@code bytes} field, including tag.
+   */
+  public static int computeByteBufferSize(final int fieldNumber, final ByteBuffer value) {
+    return computeTagSize(fieldNumber) + computeByteBufferSizeNoTag(value);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Compute the number of bytes that would be needed to encode an
+   * embedded message in lazy field, including tag.
+   */
+  public static int computeLazyFieldSize(final int fieldNumber, final LazyFieldLite value) {
+    return computeTagSize(fieldNumber) + computeLazyFieldSizeNoTag(value);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Compute the number of bytes that would be needed to encode an
+   * embedded message field, including tag.
+   */
+  public static int computeMessageSize(final int fieldNumber, final MessageLite value) {
+    return computeTagSize(fieldNumber) + computeMessageSizeNoTag(value);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Compute the number of bytes that would be needed to encode a
+   * MessageSet extension to the stream.  For historical reasons,
+   * the wire format differs from normal fields.
+   */
+  public static int computeMessageSetExtensionSize(final int fieldNumber, final MessageLite value) {
+    return computeTagSize(WireFormat.MESSAGE_SET_ITEM) * 2
+        + computeUInt32Size(WireFormat.MESSAGE_SET_TYPE_ID, fieldNumber)
+        + computeMessageSize(WireFormat.MESSAGE_SET_MESSAGE, value);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Compute the number of bytes that would be needed to encode an
+   * unparsed MessageSet extension field to the stream.  For
+   * historical reasons, the wire format differs from normal fields.
+   */
+  public static int computeRawMessageSetExtensionSize(
+      final int fieldNumber, final ByteString value) {
+    return computeTagSize(WireFormat.MESSAGE_SET_ITEM) * 2
+        + computeUInt32Size(WireFormat.MESSAGE_SET_TYPE_ID, fieldNumber)
+        + computeBytesSize(WireFormat.MESSAGE_SET_MESSAGE, value);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Compute the number of bytes that would be needed to encode an
+   * lazily parsed MessageSet extension field to the stream.  For
+   * historical reasons, the wire format differs from normal fields.
+   */
+  public static int computeLazyFieldMessageSetExtensionSize(
+      final int fieldNumber, final LazyFieldLite value) {
+    return computeTagSize(WireFormat.MESSAGE_SET_ITEM) * 2
+        + computeUInt32Size(WireFormat.MESSAGE_SET_TYPE_ID, fieldNumber)
+        + computeLazyFieldSize(WireFormat.MESSAGE_SET_MESSAGE, value);
+  }
+
+  // -----------------------------------------------------------------
+
+  /** Compute the number of bytes that would be needed to encode a tag. */
+  public static int computeTagSize(final int fieldNumber) {
+    return computeUInt32SizeNoTag(WireFormat.makeTag(fieldNumber, 0));
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Compute the number of bytes that would be needed to encode an
+   * {@code int32} field, including tag.
+   */
+  public static int computeInt32SizeNoTag(final int value) {
+    if (value >= 0) {
+      return computeUInt32SizeNoTag(value);
+    } else {
+      // Must sign-extend.
+      return MAX_VARINT_SIZE;
+    }
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Compute the number of bytes that would be needed to encode a
+   * {@code uint32} field.
+   */
+  public static int computeUInt32SizeNoTag(final int value) {
+    if ((value & (~0 <<  7)) == 0) {
+      return 1;
+    }
+    if ((value & (~0 << 14)) == 0) {
+      return 2;
+    }
+    if ((value & (~0 << 21)) == 0) {
+      return 3;
+    }
+    if ((value & (~0 << 28)) == 0) {
+      return 4;
+    }
+    return 5;
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Compute the number of bytes that would be needed to encode an
+   * {@code sint32} field.
+   */
+  public static int computeSInt32SizeNoTag(final int value) {
+    return computeUInt32SizeNoTag(encodeZigZag32(value));
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Compute the number of bytes that would be needed to encode a
+   * {@code fixed32} field.
+   */
+  public static int computeFixed32SizeNoTag(@SuppressWarnings("unused") final int unused) {
+    return FIXED_32_SIZE;
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Compute the number of bytes that would be needed to encode an
+   * {@code sfixed32} field.
+   */
+  public static int computeSFixed32SizeNoTag(@SuppressWarnings("unused") final int unused) {
+    return FIXED_32_SIZE;
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Compute the number of bytes that would be needed to encode an
+   * {@code int64} field, including tag.
+   */
+  public static int computeInt64SizeNoTag(final long value) {
+    return computeUInt64SizeNoTag(value);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Compute the number of bytes that would be needed to encode a
+   * {@code uint64} field, including tag.
+   */
+  public static int computeUInt64SizeNoTag(long value) {
+    // handle two popular special cases up front ...
+    if ((value & (~0L << 7)) == 0L) {
+      return 1;
+    }
+    if (value < 0L) {
+      return 10;
+    }
+    // ... leaving us with 8 remaining, which we can divide and conquer
+    int n = 2;
+    if ((value & (~0L << 35)) != 0L) {
+      n += 4; value >>>= 28;
+    }
+    if ((value & (~0L << 21)) != 0L) {
+      n += 2; value >>>= 14;
+    }
+    if ((value & (~0L << 14)) != 0L) {
+      n += 1;
+    }
+    return n;
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Compute the number of bytes that would be needed to encode an
+   * {@code sint64} field.
+   */
+  public static int computeSInt64SizeNoTag(final long value) {
+    return computeUInt64SizeNoTag(encodeZigZag64(value));
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Compute the number of bytes that would be needed to encode a
+   * {@code fixed64} field.
+   */
+  public static int computeFixed64SizeNoTag(@SuppressWarnings("unused") final long unused) {
+    return FIXED_64_SIZE;
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Compute the number of bytes that would be needed to encode an
+   * {@code sfixed64} field.
+   */
+  public static int computeSFixed64SizeNoTag(@SuppressWarnings("unused") final long unused) {
+    return FIXED_64_SIZE;
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Compute the number of bytes that would be needed to encode a
+   * {@code float} field, including tag.
+   */
+  public static int computeFloatSizeNoTag(@SuppressWarnings("unused") final float unused) {
+    return FIXED_32_SIZE;
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Compute the number of bytes that would be needed to encode a
+   * {@code double} field, including tag.
+   */
+  public static int computeDoubleSizeNoTag(@SuppressWarnings("unused") final double unused) {
+    return FIXED_64_SIZE;
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Compute the number of bytes that would be needed to encode a
+   * {@code bool} field.
+   */
+  public static int computeBoolSizeNoTag(@SuppressWarnings("unused") final boolean unused) {
+    return 1;
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Compute the number of bytes that would be needed to encode an enum field.
+   * The provided value is the numeric value used to represent the enum value on the wire
+   * (not the enum ordinal value).
+   */
+  public static int computeEnumSizeNoTag(final int value) {
+    return computeInt32SizeNoTag(value);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Compute the number of bytes that would be needed to encode a
+   * {@code string} field.
+   */
+  public static int computeStringSizeNoTag(final String value) {
+    int length;
+    try {
+      length = Utf8.encodedLength(value);
+    } catch (UnpairedSurrogateException e) {
+      // TODO(dweis): Consider using nio Charset methods instead.
+      final byte[] bytes = value.getBytes(Internal.UTF_8);
+      length = bytes.length;
+    }
+
+    return computeLengthDelimitedFieldSize(length);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Compute the number of bytes that would be needed to encode an embedded
+   * message stored in lazy field.
+   */
+  public static int computeLazyFieldSizeNoTag(final LazyFieldLite value) {
+    return computeLengthDelimitedFieldSize(value.getSerializedSize());
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Compute the number of bytes that would be needed to encode a
+   * {@code bytes} field.
+   */
+  public static int computeBytesSizeNoTag(final ByteString value) {
+    return computeLengthDelimitedFieldSize(value.size());
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Compute the number of bytes that would be needed to encode a
+   * {@code bytes} field.
+   */
+  public static int computeByteArraySizeNoTag(final byte[] value) {
+    return computeLengthDelimitedFieldSize(value.length);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Compute the number of bytes that would be needed to encode a
+   * {@code bytes} field.
+   */
+  public static int computeByteBufferSizeNoTag(final ByteBuffer value) {
+    return computeLengthDelimitedFieldSize(value.capacity());
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Compute the number of bytes that would be needed to encode an embedded
+   * message field.
+   */
+  public static int computeMessageSizeNoTag(final MessageLite value) {
+    return computeLengthDelimitedFieldSize(value.getSerializedSize());
+  }
+
+  static int computeLengthDelimitedFieldSize(int fieldLength) {
+    return computeUInt32SizeNoTag(fieldLength) + fieldLength;
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Encode a ZigZag-encoded 32-bit value.  ZigZag encodes signed integers
+   * into values that can be efficiently encoded with varint.  (Otherwise,
+   * negative values must be sign-extended to 64 bits to be varint encoded,
+   * thus always taking 10 bytes on the wire.)
+   *
+   * @param n A signed 32-bit integer.
+   * @return An unsigned 32-bit integer, stored in a signed int because
+   *         Java has no explicit unsigned support.
+   */
+  public static int encodeZigZag32(final int n) {
+    // Note:  the right-shift must be arithmetic
+    return (n << 1) ^ (n >> 31);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Encode a ZigZag-encoded 64-bit value.  ZigZag encodes signed integers
+   * into values that can be efficiently encoded with varint.  (Otherwise,
+   * negative values must be sign-extended to 64 bits to be varint encoded,
+   * thus always taking 10 bytes on the wire.)
+   *
+   * @param n A signed 64-bit integer.
+   * @return An unsigned 64-bit integer, stored in a signed int because
+   *         Java has no explicit unsigned support.
+   */
+  public static long encodeZigZag64(final long n) {
+    // Note:  the right-shift must be arithmetic
+    return (n << 1) ^ (n >> 63);
+  }
+
+  // =================================================================
+
+  /**
+   * Flushes the stream and forces any buffered bytes to be written.  This
+   * does not flush the underlying OutputStream.
+   */
+  public abstract void flush() throws IOException;
+
+  /**
+   * If writing to a flat array, return the space left in the array.
+   * Otherwise, throws {@code UnsupportedOperationException}.
+   */
+  public abstract int spaceLeft();
+
+  /**
+   * Verifies that {@link #spaceLeft()} returns zero.  It's common to create
+   * a byte array that is exactly big enough to hold a message, then write to
+   * it with a {@code CodedOutputStream}.  Calling {@code checkNoSpaceLeft()}
+   * after writing verifies that the message was actually as big as expected,
+   * which can help catch bugs.
+   */
+  public final void checkNoSpaceLeft() {
+    if (spaceLeft() != 0) {
+      throw new IllegalStateException("Did not write as much data as expected.");
+    }
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * If you create a CodedOutputStream around a simple flat array, you must
+   * not attempt to write more bytes than the array has space.  Otherwise,
+   * this exception will be thrown.
+   */
+  public static class OutOfSpaceException extends IOException {
+    private static final long serialVersionUID = -6947486886997889499L;
+
+    private static final String MESSAGE =
+        "CodedOutputStream was writing to a flat byte array and ran out of space.";
+
+    OutOfSpaceException() {
+      super(MESSAGE);
+    }
+
+    OutOfSpaceException(String explanationMessage) {
+      super(MESSAGE + ": " + explanationMessage);
+    }
+
+    OutOfSpaceException(Throwable cause) {
+      super(MESSAGE, cause);
+    }
+
+    OutOfSpaceException(String explanationMessage, Throwable cause) {
+      super(MESSAGE + ": " + explanationMessage, cause);
+    }
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Get the total number of bytes successfully written to this stream.  The
+   * returned value is not guaranteed to be accurate if exceptions have been
+   * found in the middle of writing.
+   */
+  public abstract int getTotalBytesWritten();
+
+  // =================================================================
+
+  /** Write a {@code bytes} field to the stream. Visible for testing. */
+  abstract void writeByteArrayNoTag(final byte[] value, final int offset, final int length)
+      throws IOException;
+
+  final void inefficientWriteStringNoTag(String value, UnpairedSurrogateException cause)
+      throws IOException {
+    logger.log(Level.WARNING,
+        "Converting ill-formed UTF-16. Your Protocol Buffer will not round trip correctly!", cause);
+
+    // Unfortunately there does not appear to be any way to tell Java to encode
+    // UTF-8 directly into our buffer, so we have to let it create its own byte
+    // array and then copy.
+    // TODO(dweis): Consider using nio Charset methods instead.
+    final byte[] bytes = value.getBytes(Internal.UTF_8);
+    try {
+      writeUInt32NoTag(bytes.length);
+      writeLazy(bytes, 0, bytes.length);
+    } catch (IndexOutOfBoundsException e) {
+      throw new OutOfSpaceException(e);
+    } catch (OutOfSpaceException e) {
+      throw e;
+    }
+  }
+
+  // =================================================================
+
+  /**
+   * Write a {@code group} field, including tag, to the stream.
+   *
+   * @deprecated groups are deprecated.
+   */
+  @Deprecated
+  public final void writeGroup(final int fieldNumber, final MessageLite value) throws IOException {
+    writeTag(fieldNumber, WireFormat.WIRETYPE_START_GROUP);
+    writeGroupNoTag(value);
+    writeTag(fieldNumber, WireFormat.WIRETYPE_END_GROUP);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Write a {@code group} field to the stream.
+   *
+   * @deprecated groups are deprecated.
+   */
+  @Deprecated
+  public final void writeGroupNoTag(final MessageLite value) throws IOException {
+    value.writeTo(this);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Compute the number of bytes that would be needed to encode a
+   * {@code group} field, including tag.
+   *
+   * @deprecated groups are deprecated.
+   */
+  @Deprecated
+  public static int computeGroupSize(final int fieldNumber, final MessageLite value) {
+    return computeTagSize(fieldNumber) * 2 + computeGroupSizeNoTag(value);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Compute the number of bytes that would be needed to encode a
+   * {@code group} field.
+   */
+  @Deprecated
+  public static int computeGroupSizeNoTag(final MessageLite value) {
+    return value.getSerializedSize();
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Encode and write a varint.  {@code value} is treated as
+   * unsigned, so it won't be sign-extended if negative.
+   *
+   * @deprecated use {@link #writeUInt32NoTag} instead.
+   */
+  @Deprecated
+  public final void writeRawVarint32(int value) throws IOException {
+    writeUInt32NoTag(value);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Encode and write a varint.
+   *
+   * @deprecated use {@link #writeUInt64NoTag} instead.
+   */
+  @Deprecated
+  public final void writeRawVarint64(long value) throws IOException {
+    writeUInt64NoTag(value);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Compute the number of bytes that would be needed to encode a varint.
+   * {@code value} is treated as unsigned, so it won't be sign-extended if
+   * negative.
+   *
+   * @deprecated use {@link #computeUInt32SizeNoTag(int)} instead.
+   */
+  @Deprecated
+  public static int computeRawVarint32Size(final int value) {
+    return computeUInt32SizeNoTag(value);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Compute the number of bytes that would be needed to encode a varint.
+   *
+   * @deprecated use {@link #computeUInt64SizeNoTag(long)} instead.
+   */
+  @Deprecated
+  public static int computeRawVarint64Size(long value) {
+    return computeUInt64SizeNoTag(value);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Write a little-endian 32-bit integer.
+   *
+   * @deprecated Use {@link #writeFixed32NoTag} instead.
+   */
+  @Deprecated
+  public final void writeRawLittleEndian32(final int value) throws IOException {
+    writeFixed32NoTag(value);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Write a little-endian 64-bit integer.
+   *
+   * @deprecated Use {@link #writeFixed64NoTag} instead.
+   */
+  @Deprecated
+  public final void writeRawLittleEndian64(final long value) throws IOException {
+    writeFixed64NoTag(value);
+  }
+
+  // =================================================================
+
+  /**
+   * A {@link CodedOutputStream} that writes directly to a byte array.
+   */
+  private static class ArrayEncoder extends CodedOutputStream {
+    private final byte[] buffer;
+    private final int offset;
+    private final int limit;
+    private int position;
+
+    ArrayEncoder(byte[] buffer, int offset, int length) {
+      if (buffer == null) {
+        throw new NullPointerException("buffer");
+      }
+      if ((offset | length | (buffer.length - (offset + length))) < 0) {
+        throw new IllegalArgumentException(String.format(
+            "Array range is invalid. Buffer.length=%d, offset=%d, length=%d",
+            buffer.length, offset, length));
+      }
+      this.buffer = buffer;
+      this.offset = offset;
+      position = offset;
+      limit = offset + length;
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public final void writeTag(final int fieldNumber, final int wireType) throws IOException {
+      writeUInt32NoTag(WireFormat.makeTag(fieldNumber, wireType));
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public final void writeInt32(final int fieldNumber, final int value) throws IOException {
+      writeTag(fieldNumber, WireFormat.WIRETYPE_VARINT);
+      writeInt32NoTag(value);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public final void writeUInt32(final int fieldNumber, final int value) throws IOException {
+      writeTag(fieldNumber, WireFormat.WIRETYPE_VARINT);
+      writeUInt32NoTag(value);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public final void writeFixed32(final int fieldNumber, final int value) throws IOException {
+      writeTag(fieldNumber, WireFormat.WIRETYPE_FIXED32);
+      writeFixed32NoTag(value);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public final void writeUInt64(final int fieldNumber, final long value) throws IOException {
+      writeTag(fieldNumber, WireFormat.WIRETYPE_VARINT);
+      writeUInt64NoTag(value);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public final void writeFixed64(final int fieldNumber, final long value) throws IOException {
+      writeTag(fieldNumber, WireFormat.WIRETYPE_FIXED64);
+      writeFixed64NoTag(value);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public final void writeBool(final int fieldNumber, final boolean value) throws IOException {
+      writeTag(fieldNumber, WireFormat.WIRETYPE_VARINT);
+      write((byte) (value ? 1 : 0));
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public final void writeString(final int fieldNumber, final String value) throws IOException {
+      writeTag(fieldNumber, WireFormat.WIRETYPE_LENGTH_DELIMITED);
+      writeStringNoTag(value);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public final void writeBytes(final int fieldNumber, final ByteString value) throws IOException {
+      writeTag(fieldNumber, WireFormat.WIRETYPE_LENGTH_DELIMITED);
+      writeBytesNoTag(value);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public final void writeByteArray(final int fieldNumber, final byte[] value) throws IOException {
+      writeByteArray(fieldNumber, value, 0, value.length);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public final void writeByteArray(
+        final int fieldNumber, final byte[] value, final int offset, final int length)
+        throws IOException {
+      writeTag(fieldNumber, WireFormat.WIRETYPE_LENGTH_DELIMITED);
+      writeByteArrayNoTag(value, offset, length);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public final void writeByteBuffer(final int fieldNumber, final ByteBuffer value)
+        throws IOException {
+      writeTag(fieldNumber, WireFormat.WIRETYPE_LENGTH_DELIMITED);
+      writeUInt32NoTag(value.capacity());
+      writeRawBytes(value);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public final void writeBytesNoTag(final ByteString value) throws IOException {
+      writeUInt32NoTag(value.size());
+      value.writeTo(this);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public final void writeByteArrayNoTag(final byte[] value, int offset, int length)
+        throws IOException {
+      writeUInt32NoTag(length);
+      write(value, offset, length);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public final void writeRawBytes(final ByteBuffer value) throws IOException {
+      if (value.hasArray()) {
+        write(value.array(), value.arrayOffset(), value.capacity());
+      } else {
+        ByteBuffer duplicated = value.duplicate();
+        duplicated.clear();
+        write(duplicated);
+      }
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public final void writeMessage(final int fieldNumber, final MessageLite value)
+        throws IOException {
+      writeTag(fieldNumber, WireFormat.WIRETYPE_LENGTH_DELIMITED);
+      writeMessageNoTag(value);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public final void writeMessageSetExtension(final int fieldNumber, final MessageLite value)
+        throws IOException {
+      writeTag(WireFormat.MESSAGE_SET_ITEM, WireFormat.WIRETYPE_START_GROUP);
+      writeUInt32(WireFormat.MESSAGE_SET_TYPE_ID, fieldNumber);
+      writeMessage(WireFormat.MESSAGE_SET_MESSAGE, value);
+      writeTag(WireFormat.MESSAGE_SET_ITEM, WireFormat.WIRETYPE_END_GROUP);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public final void writeRawMessageSetExtension(final int fieldNumber, final ByteString value)
+        throws IOException {
+      writeTag(WireFormat.MESSAGE_SET_ITEM, WireFormat.WIRETYPE_START_GROUP);
+      writeUInt32(WireFormat.MESSAGE_SET_TYPE_ID, fieldNumber);
+      writeBytes(WireFormat.MESSAGE_SET_MESSAGE, value);
+      writeTag(WireFormat.MESSAGE_SET_ITEM, WireFormat.WIRETYPE_END_GROUP);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public final void writeMessageNoTag(final MessageLite value) throws IOException {
+      writeUInt32NoTag(value.getSerializedSize());
+      value.writeTo(this);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public final void write(byte value) throws IOException {
+      try {
+        buffer[position++] = value;
+      } catch (IndexOutOfBoundsException e) {
+        throw new OutOfSpaceException(
+            String.format("Pos: %d, limit: %d, len: %d", position, limit, 1), e);
+      }
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public final void writeInt32NoTag(int value) throws IOException {
+      if (value >= 0) {
+        writeUInt32NoTag(value);
+      } else {
+        // Must sign-extend.
+        writeUInt64NoTag(value);
+      }
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public final void writeUInt32NoTag(int value) throws IOException {
+      if (HAS_UNSAFE_ARRAY_OPERATIONS && spaceLeft() >= MAX_VARINT_SIZE) {
+        long pos = ARRAY_BASE_OFFSET + position;
+        while (true) {
+          if ((value & ~0x7F) == 0) {
+            UnsafeUtil.putByte(buffer, pos++, (byte) value);
+            position++;
+            return;
+          } else {
+            UnsafeUtil.putByte(buffer, pos++, (byte) ((value & 0x7F) | 0x80));
+            position++;
+            value >>>= 7;
+          }
+        }
+      } else {
+        try {
+          while (true) {
+            if ((value & ~0x7F) == 0) {
+              buffer[position++] = (byte) value;
+              return;
+            } else {
+              buffer[position++] = (byte) ((value & 0x7F) | 0x80);
+              value >>>= 7;
+            }
+          }
+        } catch (IndexOutOfBoundsException e) {
+          throw new OutOfSpaceException(
+              String.format("Pos: %d, limit: %d, len: %d", position, limit, 1), e);
+        }
+      }
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public final void writeFixed32NoTag(int value) throws IOException {
+      try {
+        buffer[position++] = (byte) (value & 0xFF);
+        buffer[position++] = (byte) ((value >> 8) & 0xFF);
+        buffer[position++] = (byte) ((value >> 16) & 0xFF);
+        buffer[position++] = (byte) ((value >> 24) & 0xFF);
+      } catch (IndexOutOfBoundsException e) {
+        throw new OutOfSpaceException(
+            String.format("Pos: %d, limit: %d, len: %d", position, limit, 1), e);
+      }
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public final void writeUInt64NoTag(long value) throws IOException {
+      if (HAS_UNSAFE_ARRAY_OPERATIONS && spaceLeft() >= MAX_VARINT_SIZE) {
+        long pos = ARRAY_BASE_OFFSET + position;
+        while (true) {
+          if ((value & ~0x7FL) == 0) {
+            UnsafeUtil.putByte(buffer, pos++, (byte) value);
+            position++;
+            return;
+          } else {
+            UnsafeUtil.putByte(buffer, pos++, (byte) (((int) value & 0x7F) | 0x80));
+            position++;
+            value >>>= 7;
+          }
+        }
+      } else {
+        try {
+          while (true) {
+            if ((value & ~0x7FL) == 0) {
+              buffer[position++] = (byte) value;
+              return;
+            } else {
+              buffer[position++] = (byte) (((int) value & 0x7F) | 0x80);
+              value >>>= 7;
+            }
+          }
+        } catch (IndexOutOfBoundsException e) {
+          throw new OutOfSpaceException(
+              String.format("Pos: %d, limit: %d, len: %d", position, limit, 1), e);
+        }
+      }
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public final void writeFixed64NoTag(long value) throws IOException {
+      try {
+        buffer[position++] = (byte) ((int) (value) & 0xFF);
+        buffer[position++] = (byte) ((int) (value >> 8) & 0xFF);
+        buffer[position++] = (byte) ((int) (value >> 16) & 0xFF);
+        buffer[position++] = (byte) ((int) (value >> 24) & 0xFF);
+        buffer[position++] = (byte) ((int) (value >> 32) & 0xFF);
+        buffer[position++] = (byte) ((int) (value >> 40) & 0xFF);
+        buffer[position++] = (byte) ((int) (value >> 48) & 0xFF);
+        buffer[position++] = (byte) ((int) (value >> 56) & 0xFF);
+      } catch (IndexOutOfBoundsException e) {
+        throw new OutOfSpaceException(
+            String.format("Pos: %d, limit: %d, len: %d", position, limit, 1), e);
+      }
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public final void write(byte[] value, int offset, int length) throws IOException {
+      try {
+        System.arraycopy(value, offset, buffer, position, length);
+        position += length;
+      } catch (IndexOutOfBoundsException e) {
+        throw new OutOfSpaceException(
+            String.format("Pos: %d, limit: %d, len: %d", position, limit, length), e);
+      }
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public final void writeLazy(byte[] value, int offset, int length) throws IOException {
+      write(value, offset, length);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public final void write(ByteBuffer value) throws IOException {
+      final int length = value.remaining();
+      try {
+        value.get(buffer, position, length);
+        position += length;
+      } catch (IndexOutOfBoundsException e) {
+        throw new OutOfSpaceException(
+            String.format("Pos: %d, limit: %d, len: %d", position, limit, length), e);
+      }
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public final void writeLazy(ByteBuffer value) throws IOException {
+      write(value);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public final void writeStringNoTag(String value) throws IOException {
+      final int oldPosition = position;
+      try {
+        // UTF-8 byte length of the string is at least its UTF-16 code unit length (value.length()),
+        // and at most 3 times of it. We take advantage of this in both branches below.
+        final int maxLength = value.length() * Utf8.MAX_BYTES_PER_CHAR;
+        final int maxLengthVarIntSize = computeUInt32SizeNoTag(maxLength);
+        final int minLengthVarIntSize = computeUInt32SizeNoTag(value.length());
+        if (minLengthVarIntSize == maxLengthVarIntSize) {
+          position = oldPosition + minLengthVarIntSize;
+          int newPosition = Utf8.encode(value, buffer, position, spaceLeft());
+          // Since this class is stateful and tracks the position, we rewind and store the state,
+          // prepend the length, then reset it back to the end of the string.
+          position = oldPosition;
+          int length = newPosition - oldPosition - minLengthVarIntSize;
+          writeUInt32NoTag(length);
+          position = newPosition;
+        } else {
+          int length = Utf8.encodedLength(value);
+          writeUInt32NoTag(length);
+          position = Utf8.encode(value, buffer, position, spaceLeft());
+        }
+      } catch (UnpairedSurrogateException e) {
+        // Roll back the change - we fall back to inefficient path.
+        position = oldPosition;
+
+        // TODO(nathanmittler): We should throw an IOException here instead.
+        inefficientWriteStringNoTag(value, e);
+      } catch (IndexOutOfBoundsException e) {
+        throw new OutOfSpaceException(e);
+      }
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void flush() {
+      // Do nothing.
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public final int spaceLeft() {
+      return limit - position;
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public final int getTotalBytesWritten() {
+      return position - offset;
+    }
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * A {@link CodedOutputStream} that writes directly to a heap {@link ByteBuffer}. Writes are
+   * done directly to the underlying array. The buffer position is only updated after a flush.
+   */
+  private static final class HeapNioEncoder extends ArrayEncoder {
+    private final ByteBuffer byteBuffer;
+    private int initialPosition;
+
+    HeapNioEncoder(ByteBuffer byteBuffer) {
+      super(byteBuffer.array(), byteBuffer.arrayOffset() + byteBuffer.position(),
+          byteBuffer.remaining());
+      this.byteBuffer = byteBuffer;
+      this.initialPosition = byteBuffer.position();
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void flush() {
+      // Update the position on the buffer.
+      byteBuffer.position(initialPosition + getTotalBytesWritten());
+    }
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * A {@link CodedOutputStream} that writes directly to a direct {@link ByteBuffer}, using only
+   * safe operations..
+   */
+  private static final class SafeDirectNioEncoder extends CodedOutputStream {
+    private final ByteBuffer originalBuffer;
+    private final ByteBuffer buffer;
+    private final int initialPosition;
+
+    SafeDirectNioEncoder(ByteBuffer buffer) {
+      this.originalBuffer = buffer;
+      this.buffer = buffer.duplicate().order(ByteOrder.LITTLE_ENDIAN);
+      initialPosition = buffer.position();
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeTag(final int fieldNumber, final int wireType) throws IOException {
+      writeUInt32NoTag(WireFormat.makeTag(fieldNumber, wireType));
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeInt32(final int fieldNumber, final int value) throws IOException {
+      writeTag(fieldNumber, WireFormat.WIRETYPE_VARINT);
+      writeInt32NoTag(value);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeUInt32(final int fieldNumber, final int value) throws IOException {
+      writeTag(fieldNumber, WireFormat.WIRETYPE_VARINT);
+      writeUInt32NoTag(value);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeFixed32(final int fieldNumber, final int value) throws IOException {
+      writeTag(fieldNumber, WireFormat.WIRETYPE_FIXED32);
+      writeFixed32NoTag(value);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeUInt64(final int fieldNumber, final long value) throws IOException {
+      writeTag(fieldNumber, WireFormat.WIRETYPE_VARINT);
+      writeUInt64NoTag(value);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeFixed64(final int fieldNumber, final long value) throws IOException {
+      writeTag(fieldNumber, WireFormat.WIRETYPE_FIXED64);
+      writeFixed64NoTag(value);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeBool(final int fieldNumber, final boolean value) throws IOException {
+      writeTag(fieldNumber, WireFormat.WIRETYPE_VARINT);
+      write((byte) (value ? 1 : 0));
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeString(final int fieldNumber, final String value) throws IOException {
+      writeTag(fieldNumber, WireFormat.WIRETYPE_LENGTH_DELIMITED);
+      writeStringNoTag(value);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeBytes(final int fieldNumber, final ByteString value) throws IOException {
+      writeTag(fieldNumber, WireFormat.WIRETYPE_LENGTH_DELIMITED);
+      writeBytesNoTag(value);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeByteArray(final int fieldNumber, final byte[] value) throws IOException {
+      writeByteArray(fieldNumber, value, 0, value.length);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeByteArray(
+        final int fieldNumber, final byte[] value, final int offset, final int length)
+        throws IOException {
+      writeTag(fieldNumber, WireFormat.WIRETYPE_LENGTH_DELIMITED);
+      writeByteArrayNoTag(value, offset, length);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeByteBuffer(final int fieldNumber, final ByteBuffer value)
+        throws IOException {
+      writeTag(fieldNumber, WireFormat.WIRETYPE_LENGTH_DELIMITED);
+      writeUInt32NoTag(value.capacity());
+      writeRawBytes(value);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeMessage(final int fieldNumber, final MessageLite value)
+        throws IOException {
+      writeTag(fieldNumber, WireFormat.WIRETYPE_LENGTH_DELIMITED);
+      writeMessageNoTag(value);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeMessageSetExtension(final int fieldNumber, final MessageLite value)
+        throws IOException {
+      writeTag(WireFormat.MESSAGE_SET_ITEM, WireFormat.WIRETYPE_START_GROUP);
+      writeUInt32(WireFormat.MESSAGE_SET_TYPE_ID, fieldNumber);
+      writeMessage(WireFormat.MESSAGE_SET_MESSAGE, value);
+      writeTag(WireFormat.MESSAGE_SET_ITEM, WireFormat.WIRETYPE_END_GROUP);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeRawMessageSetExtension(final int fieldNumber, final ByteString value)
+        throws IOException {
+      writeTag(WireFormat.MESSAGE_SET_ITEM, WireFormat.WIRETYPE_START_GROUP);
+      writeUInt32(WireFormat.MESSAGE_SET_TYPE_ID, fieldNumber);
+      writeBytes(WireFormat.MESSAGE_SET_MESSAGE, value);
+      writeTag(WireFormat.MESSAGE_SET_ITEM, WireFormat.WIRETYPE_END_GROUP);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeMessageNoTag(final MessageLite value) throws IOException {
+      writeUInt32NoTag(value.getSerializedSize());
+      value.writeTo(this);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void write(byte value) throws IOException {
+      try {
+        buffer.put(value);
+      } catch (BufferOverflowException e) {
+        throw new OutOfSpaceException(e);
+      }
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeBytesNoTag(final ByteString value) throws IOException {
+      writeUInt32NoTag(value.size());
+      value.writeTo(this);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeByteArrayNoTag(final byte[] value, int offset, int length) throws IOException {
+      writeUInt32NoTag(length);
+      write(value, offset, length);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeRawBytes(final ByteBuffer value) throws IOException {
+      if (value.hasArray()) {
+        write(value.array(), value.arrayOffset(), value.capacity());
+      } else {
+        ByteBuffer duplicated = value.duplicate();
+        duplicated.clear();
+        write(duplicated);
+      }
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeInt32NoTag(int value) throws IOException {
+      if (value >= 0) {
+        writeUInt32NoTag(value);
+      } else {
+        // Must sign-extend.
+        writeUInt64NoTag(value);
+      }
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeUInt32NoTag(int value) throws IOException {
+      try {
+        while (true) {
+          if ((value & ~0x7F) == 0) {
+            buffer.put((byte) value);
+            return;
+          } else {
+            buffer.put((byte) ((value & 0x7F) | 0x80));
+            value >>>= 7;
+          }
+        }
+      } catch (BufferOverflowException e) {
+        throw new OutOfSpaceException(e);
+      }
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeFixed32NoTag(int value) throws IOException {
+      try {
+        buffer.putInt(value);
+      } catch (BufferOverflowException e) {
+        throw new OutOfSpaceException(e);
+      }
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeUInt64NoTag(long value) throws IOException {
+      try {
+        while (true) {
+          if ((value & ~0x7FL) == 0) {
+            buffer.put((byte) value);
+            return;
+          } else {
+            buffer.put((byte) (((int) value & 0x7F) | 0x80));
+            value >>>= 7;
+          }
+        }
+      } catch (BufferOverflowException e) {
+        throw new OutOfSpaceException(e);
+      }
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeFixed64NoTag(long value) throws IOException {
+      try {
+        buffer.putLong(value);
+      } catch (BufferOverflowException e) {
+        throw new OutOfSpaceException(e);
+      }
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void write(byte[] value, int offset, int length) throws IOException {
+      try {
+        buffer.put(value, offset, length);
+      } catch (IndexOutOfBoundsException e) {
+        throw new OutOfSpaceException(e);
+      } catch (BufferOverflowException e) {
+        throw new OutOfSpaceException(e);
+      }
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeLazy(byte[] value, int offset, int length) throws IOException {
+      write(value, offset, length);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void write(ByteBuffer value) throws IOException {
+      try {
+        buffer.put(value);
+      } catch (BufferOverflowException e) {
+        throw new OutOfSpaceException(e);
+      }
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeLazy(ByteBuffer value) throws IOException {
+      write(value);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeStringNoTag(String value) throws IOException {
+      final int startPos = buffer.position();
+      try {
+        // UTF-8 byte length of the string is at least its UTF-16 code unit length (value.length()),
+        // and at most 3 times of it. We take advantage of this in both branches below.
+        final int maxEncodedSize = value.length() * Utf8.MAX_BYTES_PER_CHAR;
+        final int maxLengthVarIntSize = computeUInt32SizeNoTag(maxEncodedSize);
+        final int minLengthVarIntSize = computeUInt32SizeNoTag(value.length());
+        if (minLengthVarIntSize == maxLengthVarIntSize) {
+          // Save the current position and increment past the length field. We'll come back
+          // and write the length field after the encoding is complete.
+          final int startOfBytes = buffer.position() + minLengthVarIntSize;
+          buffer.position(startOfBytes);
+
+          // Encode the string.
+          encode(value);
+
+          // Now go back to the beginning and write the length.
+          int endOfBytes = buffer.position();
+          buffer.position(startPos);
+          writeUInt32NoTag(endOfBytes - startOfBytes);
+
+          // Reposition the buffer past the written data.
+          buffer.position(endOfBytes);
+        } else {
+          final int length = Utf8.encodedLength(value);
+          writeUInt32NoTag(length);
+          encode(value);
+        }
+      } catch (UnpairedSurrogateException e) {
+        // Roll back the change and convert to an IOException.
+        buffer.position(startPos);
+
+        // TODO(nathanmittler): We should throw an IOException here instead.
+        inefficientWriteStringNoTag(value, e);
+      } catch (IllegalArgumentException e) {
+        // Thrown by buffer.position() if out of range.
+        throw new OutOfSpaceException(e);
+      }
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void flush() {
+      // Update the position of the original buffer.
+      originalBuffer.position(buffer.position());
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public int spaceLeft() {
+      return buffer.remaining();
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public int getTotalBytesWritten() {
+      return buffer.position() - initialPosition;
+    }
+
+    private void encode(String value) throws IOException {
+      try {
+        Utf8.encodeUtf8(value, buffer);
+      } catch (IndexOutOfBoundsException e) {
+        throw new OutOfSpaceException(e);
+      }
+    }
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * A {@link CodedOutputStream} that writes directly to a direct {@link ByteBuffer} using {@code
+   * sun.misc.Unsafe}.
+   */
+  private static final class UnsafeDirectNioEncoder extends CodedOutputStream {
+    private final ByteBuffer originalBuffer;
+    private final ByteBuffer buffer;
+    private final long address;
+    private final long initialPosition;
+    private final long limit;
+    private final long oneVarintLimit;
+    private long position;
+
+    UnsafeDirectNioEncoder(ByteBuffer buffer) {
+      this.originalBuffer = buffer;
+      this.buffer = buffer.duplicate().order(ByteOrder.LITTLE_ENDIAN);
+      address = UnsafeUtil.addressOffset(buffer);
+      initialPosition = address + buffer.position();
+      limit = address + buffer.limit();
+      oneVarintLimit = limit - MAX_VARINT_SIZE;
+      position = initialPosition;
+    }
+
+    static boolean isSupported() {
+      return UnsafeUtil.hasUnsafeByteBufferOperations();
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeTag(int fieldNumber, int wireType) throws IOException {
+      writeUInt32NoTag(WireFormat.makeTag(fieldNumber, wireType));
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeInt32(int fieldNumber, int value) throws IOException {
+      writeTag(fieldNumber, WireFormat.WIRETYPE_VARINT);
+      writeInt32NoTag(value);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeUInt32(int fieldNumber, int value) throws IOException {
+      writeTag(fieldNumber, WireFormat.WIRETYPE_VARINT);
+      writeUInt32NoTag(value);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeFixed32(int fieldNumber, int value) throws IOException {
+      writeTag(fieldNumber, WireFormat.WIRETYPE_FIXED32);
+      writeFixed32NoTag(value);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeUInt64(int fieldNumber, long value) throws IOException {
+      writeTag(fieldNumber, WireFormat.WIRETYPE_VARINT);
+      writeUInt64NoTag(value);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeFixed64(int fieldNumber, long value) throws IOException {
+      writeTag(fieldNumber, WireFormat.WIRETYPE_FIXED64);
+      writeFixed64NoTag(value);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeBool(int fieldNumber, boolean value) throws IOException {
+      writeTag(fieldNumber, WireFormat.WIRETYPE_VARINT);
+      write((byte) (value ? 1 : 0));
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeString(int fieldNumber, String value) throws IOException {
+      writeTag(fieldNumber, WireFormat.WIRETYPE_LENGTH_DELIMITED);
+      writeStringNoTag(value);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeBytes(int fieldNumber, ByteString value) throws IOException {
+      writeTag(fieldNumber, WireFormat.WIRETYPE_LENGTH_DELIMITED);
+      writeBytesNoTag(value);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeByteArray(int fieldNumber, byte[] value) throws IOException {
+      writeByteArray(fieldNumber, value, 0, value.length);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeByteArray(int fieldNumber, byte[] value, int offset, int length)
+        throws IOException {
+      writeTag(fieldNumber, WireFormat.WIRETYPE_LENGTH_DELIMITED);
+      writeByteArrayNoTag(value, offset, length);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeByteBuffer(int fieldNumber, ByteBuffer value) throws IOException {
+      writeTag(fieldNumber, WireFormat.WIRETYPE_LENGTH_DELIMITED);
+      writeUInt32NoTag(value.capacity());
+      writeRawBytes(value);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeMessage(int fieldNumber, MessageLite value) throws IOException {
+      writeTag(fieldNumber, WireFormat.WIRETYPE_LENGTH_DELIMITED);
+      writeMessageNoTag(value);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeMessageSetExtension(int fieldNumber, MessageLite value) throws IOException {
+      writeTag(WireFormat.MESSAGE_SET_ITEM, WireFormat.WIRETYPE_START_GROUP);
+      writeUInt32(WireFormat.MESSAGE_SET_TYPE_ID, fieldNumber);
+      writeMessage(WireFormat.MESSAGE_SET_MESSAGE, value);
+      writeTag(WireFormat.MESSAGE_SET_ITEM, WireFormat.WIRETYPE_END_GROUP);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeRawMessageSetExtension(int fieldNumber, ByteString value) throws IOException {
+      writeTag(WireFormat.MESSAGE_SET_ITEM, WireFormat.WIRETYPE_START_GROUP);
+      writeUInt32(WireFormat.MESSAGE_SET_TYPE_ID, fieldNumber);
+      writeBytes(WireFormat.MESSAGE_SET_MESSAGE, value);
+      writeTag(WireFormat.MESSAGE_SET_ITEM, WireFormat.WIRETYPE_END_GROUP);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeMessageNoTag(MessageLite value) throws IOException {
+      writeUInt32NoTag(value.getSerializedSize());
+      value.writeTo(this);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void write(byte value) throws IOException {
+      if (position >= limit) {
+        throw new OutOfSpaceException(
+            String.format("Pos: %d, limit: %d, len: %d", position, limit, 1));
+      }
+      UnsafeUtil.putByte(position++, value);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeBytesNoTag(ByteString value) throws IOException {
+      writeUInt32NoTag(value.size());
+      value.writeTo(this);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeByteArrayNoTag(byte[] value, int offset, int length) throws IOException {
+      writeUInt32NoTag(length);
+      write(value, offset, length);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeRawBytes(ByteBuffer value) throws IOException {
+      if (value.hasArray()) {
+        write(value.array(), value.arrayOffset(), value.capacity());
+      } else {
+        ByteBuffer duplicated = value.duplicate();
+        duplicated.clear();
+        write(duplicated);
+      }
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeInt32NoTag(int value) throws IOException {
+      if (value >= 0) {
+        writeUInt32NoTag(value);
+      } else {
+        // Must sign-extend.
+        writeUInt64NoTag(value);
+      }
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeUInt32NoTag(int value) throws IOException {
+      if (position <= oneVarintLimit) {
+        // Optimization to avoid bounds checks on each iteration.
+        while (true) {
+          if ((value & ~0x7F) == 0) {
+            UnsafeUtil.putByte(position++, (byte) value);
+            return;
+          } else {
+            UnsafeUtil.putByte(position++, (byte) ((value & 0x7F) | 0x80));
+            value >>>= 7;
+          }
+        }
+      } else {
+        while (position < limit) {
+          if ((value & ~0x7F) == 0) {
+            UnsafeUtil.putByte(position++, (byte) value);
+            return;
+          } else {
+            UnsafeUtil.putByte(position++, (byte) ((value & 0x7F) | 0x80));
+            value >>>= 7;
+          }
+        }
+        throw new OutOfSpaceException(
+            String.format("Pos: %d, limit: %d, len: %d", position, limit, 1));
+      }
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeFixed32NoTag(int value) throws IOException {
+      buffer.putInt(bufferPos(position), value);
+      position += FIXED_32_SIZE;
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeUInt64NoTag(long value) throws IOException {
+      if (position <= oneVarintLimit) {
+        // Optimization to avoid bounds checks on each iteration.
+        while (true) {
+          if ((value & ~0x7FL) == 0) {
+            UnsafeUtil.putByte(position++, (byte) value);
+            return;
+          } else {
+            UnsafeUtil.putByte(position++, (byte) (((int) value & 0x7F) | 0x80));
+            value >>>= 7;
+          }
+        }
+      } else {
+        while (position < limit) {
+          if ((value & ~0x7FL) == 0) {
+            UnsafeUtil.putByte(position++, (byte) value);
+            return;
+          } else {
+            UnsafeUtil.putByte(position++, (byte) (((int) value & 0x7F) | 0x80));
+            value >>>= 7;
+          }
+        }
+        throw new OutOfSpaceException(
+            String.format("Pos: %d, limit: %d, len: %d", position, limit, 1));
+      }
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeFixed64NoTag(long value) throws IOException {
+      buffer.putLong(bufferPos(position), value);
+      position += FIXED_64_SIZE;
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void write(byte[] value, int offset, int length) throws IOException {
+      if (value == null
+          || offset < 0
+          || length < 0
+          || (value.length - length) < offset
+          || (limit - length) < position) {
+        if (value == null) {
+          throw new NullPointerException("value");
+        }
+        throw new OutOfSpaceException(
+            String.format("Pos: %d, limit: %d, len: %d", position, limit, length));
+      }
+
+      UnsafeUtil.copyMemory(
+          value, UnsafeUtil.getArrayBaseOffset() + offset, null, position, length);
+      position += length;
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeLazy(byte[] value, int offset, int length) throws IOException {
+      write(value, offset, length);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void write(ByteBuffer value) throws IOException {
+      try {
+        int length = value.remaining();
+        repositionBuffer(position);
+        buffer.put(value);
+        position += length;
+      } catch (BufferOverflowException e) {
+        throw new OutOfSpaceException(e);
+      }
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeLazy(ByteBuffer value) throws IOException {
+      write(value);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeStringNoTag(String value) throws IOException {
+      long prevPos = position;
+      try {
+        // UTF-8 byte length of the string is at least its UTF-16 code unit length (value.length()),
+        // and at most 3 times of it. We take advantage of this in both branches below.
+        int maxEncodedSize = value.length() * Utf8.MAX_BYTES_PER_CHAR;
+        int maxLengthVarIntSize = computeUInt32SizeNoTag(maxEncodedSize);
+        int minLengthVarIntSize = computeUInt32SizeNoTag(value.length());
+        if (minLengthVarIntSize == maxLengthVarIntSize) {
+          // Save the current position and increment past the length field. We'll come back
+          // and write the length field after the encoding is complete.
+          int stringStart = bufferPos(position) + minLengthVarIntSize;
+          buffer.position(stringStart);
+
+          // Encode the string.
+          Utf8.encodeUtf8(value, buffer);
+
+          // Write the length and advance the position.
+          int length = buffer.position() - stringStart;
+          writeUInt32NoTag(length);
+          position += length;
+        } else {
+          // Calculate and write the encoded length.
+          int length = Utf8.encodedLength(value);
+          writeUInt32NoTag(length);
+
+          // Write the string and advance the position.
+          repositionBuffer(position);
+          Utf8.encodeUtf8(value, buffer);
+          position += length;
+        }
+      } catch (UnpairedSurrogateException e) {
+        // Roll back the change and convert to an IOException.
+        position = prevPos;
+        repositionBuffer(position);
+
+        // TODO(nathanmittler): We should throw an IOException here instead.
+        inefficientWriteStringNoTag(value, e);
+      } catch (IllegalArgumentException e) {
+        // Thrown by buffer.position() if out of range.
+        throw new OutOfSpaceException(e);
+      } catch (IndexOutOfBoundsException e) {
+        throw new OutOfSpaceException(e);
+      }
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void flush() {
+      // Update the position of the original buffer.
+      originalBuffer.position(bufferPos(position));
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public int spaceLeft() {
+      return (int) (limit - position);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public int getTotalBytesWritten() {
+      return (int) (position - initialPosition);
+    }
+
+    private void repositionBuffer(long pos) {
+      buffer.position(bufferPos(pos));
+    }
+
+    private int bufferPos(long pos) {
+      return (int) (pos - address);
+    }
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Abstract base class for buffered encoders.
+   */
+  private abstract static class AbstractBufferedEncoder extends CodedOutputStream {
+    final byte[] buffer;
+    final int limit;
+    int position;
+    int totalBytesWritten;
+
+    AbstractBufferedEncoder(int bufferSize) {
+      if (bufferSize < 0) {
+        throw new IllegalArgumentException("bufferSize must be >= 0");
+      }
+      // As an optimization, we require that the buffer be able to store at least 2
+      // varints so that we can buffer any integer write (tag + value). This reduces the
+      // number of range checks for a single write to 1 (i.e. if there is not enough space
+      // to buffer the tag+value, flush and then buffer it).
+      this.buffer = new byte[max(bufferSize, MAX_VARINT_SIZE * 2)];
+      this.limit = buffer.length;
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public final int spaceLeft() {
+      throw new UnsupportedOperationException(
+          "spaceLeft() can only be called on CodedOutputStreams that are "
+              + "writing to a flat array or ByteBuffer.");
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public final int getTotalBytesWritten() {
+      return totalBytesWritten;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * This method does not perform bounds checking on the array. Checking array bounds is the
+     * responsibility of the caller.
+     */
+    final void buffer(byte value) {
+      buffer[position++] = value;
+      totalBytesWritten++;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * This method does not perform bounds checking on the array. Checking array bounds is the
+     * responsibility of the caller.
+     */
+    final void bufferTag(final int fieldNumber, final int wireType) {
+      bufferUInt32NoTag(WireFormat.makeTag(fieldNumber, wireType));
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * This method does not perform bounds checking on the array. Checking array bounds is the
+     * responsibility of the caller.
+     */
+    final void bufferInt32NoTag(final int value) {
+      if (value >= 0) {
+        bufferUInt32NoTag(value);
+      } else {
+        // Must sign-extend.
+        bufferUInt64NoTag(value);
+      }
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * This method does not perform bounds checking on the array. Checking array bounds is the
+     * responsibility of the caller.
+     */
+    final void bufferUInt32NoTag(int value) {
+      if (HAS_UNSAFE_ARRAY_OPERATIONS) {
+        final long originalPos = ARRAY_BASE_OFFSET + position;
+        long pos = originalPos;
+        while (true) {
+          if ((value & ~0x7F) == 0) {
+            UnsafeUtil.putByte(buffer, pos++, (byte) value);
+            break;
+          } else {
+            UnsafeUtil.putByte(buffer, pos++, (byte) ((value & 0x7F) | 0x80));
+            value >>>= 7;
+          }
+        }
+        int delta = (int) (pos - originalPos);
+        position += delta;
+        totalBytesWritten += delta;
+      } else {
+        while (true) {
+          if ((value & ~0x7F) == 0) {
+            buffer[position++] = (byte) value;
+            totalBytesWritten++;
+            return;
+          } else {
+            buffer[position++] = (byte) ((value & 0x7F) | 0x80);
+            totalBytesWritten++;
+            value >>>= 7;
+          }
+        }
+      }
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * This method does not perform bounds checking on the array. Checking array bounds is the
+     * responsibility of the caller.
+     */
+    final void bufferUInt64NoTag(long value) {
+      if (HAS_UNSAFE_ARRAY_OPERATIONS) {
+        final long originalPos = ARRAY_BASE_OFFSET + position;
+        long pos = originalPos;
+        while (true) {
+          if ((value & ~0x7FL) == 0) {
+            UnsafeUtil.putByte(buffer, pos++, (byte) value);
+            break;
+          } else {
+            UnsafeUtil.putByte(buffer, pos++, (byte) (((int) value & 0x7F) | 0x80));
+            value >>>= 7;
+          }
+        }
+        int delta = (int) (pos - originalPos);
+        position += delta;
+        totalBytesWritten += delta;
+      } else {
+        while (true) {
+          if ((value & ~0x7FL) == 0) {
+            buffer[position++] = (byte) value;
+            totalBytesWritten++;
+            return;
+          } else {
+            buffer[position++] = (byte) (((int) value & 0x7F) | 0x80);
+            totalBytesWritten++;
+            value >>>= 7;
+          }
+        }
+      }
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * This method does not perform bounds checking on the array. Checking array bounds is the
+     * responsibility of the caller.
+     */
+    final void bufferFixed32NoTag(int value) {
+      buffer[position++] = (byte) (value & 0xFF);
+      buffer[position++] = (byte) ((value >> 8) & 0xFF);
+      buffer[position++] = (byte) ((value >> 16) & 0xFF);
+      buffer[position++] = (byte) ((value >> 24) & 0xFF);
+      totalBytesWritten += FIXED_32_SIZE;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * This method does not perform bounds checking on the array. Checking array bounds is the
+     * responsibility of the caller.
+     */
+    final void bufferFixed64NoTag(long value) {
+      buffer[position++] = (byte) (value & 0xFF);
+      buffer[position++] = (byte) ((value >> 8) & 0xFF);
+      buffer[position++] = (byte) ((value >> 16) & 0xFF);
+      buffer[position++] = (byte) ((value >> 24) & 0xFF);
+      buffer[position++] = (byte) ((int) (value >> 32) & 0xFF);
+      buffer[position++] = (byte) ((int) (value >> 40) & 0xFF);
+      buffer[position++] = (byte) ((int) (value >> 48) & 0xFF);
+      buffer[position++] = (byte) ((int) (value >> 56) & 0xFF);
+      totalBytesWritten += FIXED_64_SIZE;
+    }
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * A {@link CodedOutputStream} that decorates a {@link ByteOutput}. It internal buffer only to
+   * support string encoding operations. All other writes are just passed through to the
+   * {@link ByteOutput}.
+   */
+  private static final class ByteOutputEncoder extends AbstractBufferedEncoder {
+    private final ByteOutput out;
+
+    ByteOutputEncoder(ByteOutput out, int bufferSize) {
+      super(bufferSize);
+      if (out == null) {
+        throw new NullPointerException("out");
+      }
+      this.out = out;
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeTag(final int fieldNumber, final int wireType) throws IOException {
+      writeUInt32NoTag(WireFormat.makeTag(fieldNumber, wireType));
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeInt32(final int fieldNumber, final int value) throws IOException {
+      flushIfNotAvailable(MAX_VARINT_SIZE * 2);
+      bufferTag(fieldNumber, WireFormat.WIRETYPE_VARINT);
+      bufferInt32NoTag(value);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeUInt32(final int fieldNumber, final int value) throws IOException {
+      flushIfNotAvailable(MAX_VARINT_SIZE * 2);
+      bufferTag(fieldNumber, WireFormat.WIRETYPE_VARINT);
+      bufferUInt32NoTag(value);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeFixed32(final int fieldNumber, final int value) throws IOException {
+      flushIfNotAvailable(MAX_VARINT_SIZE + FIXED_32_SIZE);
+      bufferTag(fieldNumber, WireFormat.WIRETYPE_FIXED32);
+      bufferFixed32NoTag(value);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeUInt64(final int fieldNumber, final long value) throws IOException {
+      flushIfNotAvailable(MAX_VARINT_SIZE * 2);
+      bufferTag(fieldNumber, WireFormat.WIRETYPE_VARINT);
+      bufferUInt64NoTag(value);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeFixed64(final int fieldNumber, final long value) throws IOException {
+      flushIfNotAvailable(MAX_VARINT_SIZE + FIXED_64_SIZE);
+      bufferTag(fieldNumber, WireFormat.WIRETYPE_FIXED64);
+      bufferFixed64NoTag(value);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeBool(final int fieldNumber, final boolean value) throws IOException {
+      flushIfNotAvailable(MAX_VARINT_SIZE + 1);
+      bufferTag(fieldNumber, WireFormat.WIRETYPE_VARINT);
+      buffer((byte) (value ? 1 : 0));
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeString(final int fieldNumber, final String value) throws IOException {
+      writeTag(fieldNumber, WireFormat.WIRETYPE_LENGTH_DELIMITED);
+      writeStringNoTag(value);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeBytes(final int fieldNumber, final ByteString value) throws IOException {
+      writeTag(fieldNumber, WireFormat.WIRETYPE_LENGTH_DELIMITED);
+      writeBytesNoTag(value);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeByteArray(final int fieldNumber, final byte[] value) throws IOException {
+      writeByteArray(fieldNumber, value, 0, value.length);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeByteArray(
+        final int fieldNumber, final byte[] value, final int offset, final int length)
+        throws IOException {
+      writeTag(fieldNumber, WireFormat.WIRETYPE_LENGTH_DELIMITED);
+      writeByteArrayNoTag(value, offset, length);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeByteBuffer(final int fieldNumber, final ByteBuffer value)
+        throws IOException {
+      writeTag(fieldNumber, WireFormat.WIRETYPE_LENGTH_DELIMITED);
+      writeUInt32NoTag(value.capacity());
+      writeRawBytes(value);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeBytesNoTag(final ByteString value) throws IOException {
+      writeUInt32NoTag(value.size());
+      value.writeTo(this);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeByteArrayNoTag(final byte[] value, int offset, int length) throws IOException {
+      writeUInt32NoTag(length);
+      write(value, offset, length);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void writeRawBytes(final ByteBuffer value) throws IOException {
+      if (value.hasArray()) {
+        write(value.array(), value.arrayOffset(), value.capacity());
+      } else {
+        ByteBuffer duplicated = value.duplicate();
+        duplicated.clear();
+        write(duplicated);
+  

<TRUNCATED>

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