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From mi...@apache.org
Subject [2/2] hbase git commit: Move 'converter' functions from ProtobufUtil into a helper class
Date Mon, 22 Jun 2015 02:05:34 GMT
Move 'converter' functions from ProtobufUtil into a helper class

Signed-off-by: Misty Stanley-Jones <mstanleyjones@cloudera.com>


Project: http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/hbase/repo
Commit: http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/hbase/commit/80b2b85a
Tree: http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/hbase/tree/80b2b85a
Diff: http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/hbase/diff/80b2b85a

Branch: refs/heads/master
Commit: 80b2b85ab2615fa4cd6f0cceb4d41b0b71b78ca6
Parents: e4d8fab
Author: Gábor Lipták <gliptak@gmail.com>
Authored: Tue Jun 16 21:46:13 2015 -0400
Committer: Misty Stanley-Jones <mstanleyjones@cloudera.com>
Committed: Mon Jun 22 12:05:11 2015 +1000

----------------------------------------------------------------------
 .../hbase/protobuf/ProtobufConverter.java       | 2026 ++++++++++++++++++
 .../hadoop/hbase/protobuf/ProtobufUtil.java     | 1437 +------------
 2 files changed, 2108 insertions(+), 1355 deletions(-)
----------------------------------------------------------------------


http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/hbase/blob/80b2b85a/hbase-client/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hbase/protobuf/ProtobufConverter.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/hbase-client/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hbase/protobuf/ProtobufConverter.java b/hbase-client/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hbase/protobuf/ProtobufConverter.java
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..00ffe52
--- /dev/null
+++ b/hbase-client/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hbase/protobuf/ProtobufConverter.java
@@ -0,0 +1,2026 @@
+/**
+ * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+ * or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+ * distributed with this work for additional information
+ * regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+ * to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+ * "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+ * with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+ *
+ *     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+ *
+ * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
+ * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
+ * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
+ * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
+ * limitations under the License.
+ */
+package org.apache.hadoop.hbase.protobuf;
+
+import com.google.common.collect.ArrayListMultimap;
+import com.google.common.collect.ListMultimap;
+import com.google.protobuf.ByteString;
+import com.google.protobuf.InvalidProtocolBufferException;
+import com.google.protobuf.Parser;
+import com.google.protobuf.TextFormat;
+import org.apache.hadoop.conf.Configuration;
+import org.apache.hadoop.fs.Path;
+import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.*;
+import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.classification.InterfaceAudience;
+import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.client.*;
+import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.client.metrics.ScanMetrics;
+import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.exceptions.DeserializationException;
+import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.filter.ByteArrayComparable;
+import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.filter.Filter;
+import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.io.TimeRange;
+import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.protobuf.generated.*;
+import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.quotas.QuotaScope;
+import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.quotas.QuotaType;
+import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.quotas.ThrottleType;
+import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.replication.ReplicationLoadSink;
+import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.replication.ReplicationLoadSource;
+import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.security.access.Permission;
+import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.security.access.TablePermission;
+import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.security.access.UserPermission;
+import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.security.token.AuthenticationTokenIdentifier;
+import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.security.visibility.Authorizations;
+import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.security.visibility.CellVisibility;
+import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.util.ByteStringer;
+import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.util.Bytes;
+import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.util.DynamicClassLoader;
+import org.apache.hadoop.io.Text;
+import org.apache.hadoop.security.token.Token;
+
+import java.io.IOException;
+import java.lang.reflect.Constructor;
+import java.lang.reflect.Method;
+import java.nio.ByteBuffer;
+import java.util.*;
+import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;
+
+/**
+ * Converter functions exposed by ProtobufUtil
+ */
+@edu.umd.cs.findbugs.annotations.SuppressWarnings(value="DP_CREATE_CLASSLOADER_INSIDE_DO_PRIVILEGED",
+        justification="None. Address sometime.")
+@InterfaceAudience.Private
+public class ProtobufConverter {
+
+  private ProtobufConverter(){
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Many results are simple: no cell, exists true or false. To save on object creations,
+   *  we reuse them across calls.
+   */
+  private final static Cell[] EMPTY_CELL_ARRAY = new Cell[]{};
+  private final static Result EMPTY_RESULT = Result.create(EMPTY_CELL_ARRAY);
+  private final static Result EMPTY_RESULT_EXISTS_TRUE = Result.create(null, true);
+  private final static Result EMPTY_RESULT_EXISTS_FALSE = Result.create(null, false);
+  private final static Result EMPTY_RESULT_STALE = Result.create(EMPTY_CELL_ARRAY, null, true);
+  private final static Result EMPTY_RESULT_EXISTS_TRUE_STALE
+          = Result.create((Cell[])null, true, true);
+  private final static Result EMPTY_RESULT_EXISTS_FALSE_STALE
+          = Result.create((Cell[])null, false, true);
+
+  private final static ClientProtos.Result EMPTY_RESULT_PB;
+  private final static ClientProtos.Result EMPTY_RESULT_PB_EXISTS_TRUE;
+  private final static ClientProtos.Result EMPTY_RESULT_PB_EXISTS_FALSE;
+  private final static ClientProtos.Result EMPTY_RESULT_PB_STALE;
+  private final static ClientProtos.Result EMPTY_RESULT_PB_EXISTS_TRUE_STALE;
+  private final static ClientProtos.Result EMPTY_RESULT_PB_EXISTS_FALSE_STALE;
+
+  static {
+    ClientProtos.Result.Builder builder = ClientProtos.Result.newBuilder();
+
+    builder.setExists(true);
+    builder.setAssociatedCellCount(0);
+    EMPTY_RESULT_PB_EXISTS_TRUE =  builder.build();
+
+    builder.setStale(true);
+    EMPTY_RESULT_PB_EXISTS_TRUE_STALE = builder.build();
+    builder.clear();
+
+    builder.setExists(false);
+    builder.setAssociatedCellCount(0);
+    EMPTY_RESULT_PB_EXISTS_FALSE =  builder.build();
+    builder.setStale(true);
+    EMPTY_RESULT_PB_EXISTS_FALSE_STALE = builder.build();
+
+    builder.clear();
+    builder.setAssociatedCellCount(0);
+    EMPTY_RESULT_PB =  builder.build();
+    builder.setStale(true);
+    EMPTY_RESULT_PB_STALE = builder.build();
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Dynamic class loader to load filter/comparators
+   */
+  private final static ClassLoader CLASS_LOADER;
+
+  static {
+    ClassLoader parent = ProtobufUtil.class.getClassLoader();
+    Configuration conf = HBaseConfiguration.create();
+    CLASS_LOADER = new DynamicClassLoader(conf, parent);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Convert a ServerName to a protocol buffer ServerName
+   *
+   * @param serverName the ServerName to convert
+   * @return the converted protocol buffer ServerName
+   * @see #toServerName(org.apache.hadoop.hbase.protobuf.generated.HBaseProtos.ServerName)
+   */
+  public static HBaseProtos.ServerName toServerName(final ServerName serverName) {
+    if (serverName == null) return null;
+    HBaseProtos.ServerName.Builder builder =
+            HBaseProtos.ServerName.newBuilder();
+    builder.setHostName(serverName.getHostname());
+    if (serverName.getPort() >= 0) {
+        builder.setPort(serverName.getPort());
+    }
+    if (serverName.getStartcode() >= 0) {
+        builder.setStartCode(serverName.getStartcode());
+    }
+    return builder.build();
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Convert a protocol buffer ServerName to a ServerName
+   *
+   * @param proto the protocol buffer ServerName to convert
+   * @return the converted ServerName
+   */
+  public static ServerName toServerName(final HBaseProtos.ServerName proto) {
+    if (proto == null) return null;
+    String hostName = proto.getHostName();
+    long startCode = -1;
+    int port = -1;
+    if (proto.hasPort()) {
+      port = proto.getPort();
+    }
+    if (proto.hasStartCode()) {
+      startCode = proto.getStartCode();
+    }
+    return ServerName.valueOf(hostName, port, startCode);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Convert a protobuf Durability into a client Durability
+   */
+  public static Durability toDurability(
+          final ClientProtos.MutationProto.Durability proto) {
+    switch(proto) {
+      case USE_DEFAULT:
+        return Durability.USE_DEFAULT;
+      case SKIP_WAL:
+        return Durability.SKIP_WAL;
+      case ASYNC_WAL:
+        return Durability.ASYNC_WAL;
+      case SYNC_WAL:
+        return Durability.SYNC_WAL;
+      case FSYNC_WAL:
+        return Durability.FSYNC_WAL;
+      default:
+        return Durability.USE_DEFAULT;
+    }
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Convert a client Durability into a protobuf Durability
+   */
+  public static ClientProtos.MutationProto.Durability toDurability(
+          final Durability d) {
+    switch(d) {
+      case USE_DEFAULT:
+        return ClientProtos.MutationProto.Durability.USE_DEFAULT;
+      case SKIP_WAL:
+        return ClientProtos.MutationProto.Durability.SKIP_WAL;
+      case ASYNC_WAL:
+        return ClientProtos.MutationProto.Durability.ASYNC_WAL;
+      case SYNC_WAL:
+        return ClientProtos.MutationProto.Durability.SYNC_WAL;
+      case FSYNC_WAL:
+        return ClientProtos.MutationProto.Durability.FSYNC_WAL;
+      default:
+        return ClientProtos.MutationProto.Durability.USE_DEFAULT;
+    }
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Convert a protocol buffer Get to a client Get
+   *
+   * @param proto the protocol buffer Get to convert
+   * @return the converted client Get
+   * @throws IOException
+   */
+  public static Get toGet(
+          final ClientProtos.Get proto) throws IOException {
+    if (proto == null) return null;
+    byte[] row = proto.getRow().toByteArray();
+    Get get = new Get(row);
+    if (proto.hasCacheBlocks()) {
+      get.setCacheBlocks(proto.getCacheBlocks());
+    }
+    if (proto.hasMaxVersions()) {
+      get.setMaxVersions(proto.getMaxVersions());
+    }
+    if (proto.hasStoreLimit()) {
+      get.setMaxResultsPerColumnFamily(proto.getStoreLimit());
+    }
+    if (proto.hasStoreOffset()) {
+      get.setRowOffsetPerColumnFamily(proto.getStoreOffset());
+    }
+    if (proto.hasTimeRange()) {
+      HBaseProtos.TimeRange timeRange = proto.getTimeRange();
+      long minStamp = 0;
+      long maxStamp = Long.MAX_VALUE;
+      if (timeRange.hasFrom()) {
+        minStamp = timeRange.getFrom();
+      }
+      if (timeRange.hasTo()) {
+        maxStamp = timeRange.getTo();
+      }
+      get.setTimeRange(minStamp, maxStamp);
+    }
+    if (proto.hasFilter()) {
+      FilterProtos.Filter filter = proto.getFilter();
+      get.setFilter(ProtobufUtil.toFilter(filter));
+    }
+    for (HBaseProtos.NameBytesPair attribute: proto.getAttributeList()) {
+      get.setAttribute(attribute.getName(), attribute.getValue().toByteArray());
+    }
+    if (proto.getColumnCount() > 0) {
+      for (ClientProtos.Column column: proto.getColumnList()) {
+        byte[] family = column.getFamily().toByteArray();
+        if (column.getQualifierCount() > 0) {
+          for (ByteString qualifier: column.getQualifierList()) {
+            get.addColumn(family, qualifier.toByteArray());
+          }
+        } else {
+          get.addFamily(family);
+        }
+      }
+    }
+    if (proto.hasExistenceOnly() && proto.getExistenceOnly()){
+      get.setCheckExistenceOnly(true);
+    }
+    if (proto.hasClosestRowBefore() && proto.getClosestRowBefore()){
+      get.setClosestRowBefore(true);
+    }
+    if (proto.hasConsistency()) {
+      get.setConsistency(toConsistency(proto.getConsistency()));
+    }
+    return get;
+  }
+
+  public static Consistency toConsistency(ClientProtos.Consistency consistency) {
+    switch (consistency) {
+      case STRONG : return Consistency.STRONG;
+      case TIMELINE : return Consistency.TIMELINE;
+      default : return Consistency.STRONG;
+    }
+  }
+
+  public static ClientProtos.Consistency toConsistency(Consistency consistency) {
+    switch (consistency) {
+      case STRONG : return ClientProtos.Consistency.STRONG;
+      case TIMELINE : return ClientProtos.Consistency.TIMELINE;
+      default : return ClientProtos.Consistency.STRONG;
+    }
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Convert a protocol buffer Mutate to a Put.
+   *
+   * @param proto The protocol buffer MutationProto to convert
+   * @param cellScanner If non-null, the Cell data that goes with this proto.
+   * @return A client Put.
+   * @throws IOException
+   */
+  public static Put toPut(final ClientProtos.MutationProto proto, final CellScanner cellScanner)
+          throws IOException {
+    // TODO: Server-side at least why do we convert back to the Client types?  Why not just pb it?
+    ClientProtos.MutationProto.MutationType type = proto.getMutateType();
+    assert type == ClientProtos.MutationProto.MutationType.PUT: type.name();
+    long timestamp = proto.hasTimestamp()? proto.getTimestamp(): HConstants.LATEST_TIMESTAMP;
+    Put put = null;
+    int cellCount = proto.hasAssociatedCellCount()? proto.getAssociatedCellCount(): 0;
+    if (cellCount > 0) {
+      // The proto has metadata only and the data is separate to be found in the cellScanner.
+      if (cellScanner == null) {
+        throw new DoNotRetryIOException("Cell count of " + cellCount + " but no cellScanner: " +
+                toShortString(proto));
+      }
+      for (int i = 0; i < cellCount; i++) {
+        if (!cellScanner.advance()) {
+          throw new DoNotRetryIOException("Cell count of " + cellCount + " but at index " + i +
+                  " no cell returned: " + toShortString(proto));
+        }
+        Cell cell = cellScanner.current();
+        if (put == null) {
+          put = new Put(cell.getRowArray(), cell.getRowOffset(), cell.getRowLength(), timestamp);
+        }
+        put.add(cell);
+      }
+    } else {
+      if (proto.hasRow()) {
+        put = new Put(proto.getRow().asReadOnlyByteBuffer(), timestamp);
+      } else {
+        throw new IllegalArgumentException("row cannot be null");
+      }
+      // The proto has the metadata and the data itself
+      for (ClientProtos.MutationProto.ColumnValue column: proto.getColumnValueList()) {
+        byte[] family = column.getFamily().toByteArray();
+        for (ClientProtos.MutationProto.ColumnValue.QualifierValue qv: column.getQualifierValueList()) {
+          if (!qv.hasValue()) {
+            throw new DoNotRetryIOException(
+                    "Missing required field: qualifier value");
+          }
+          ByteBuffer qualifier =
+                  qv.hasQualifier() ? qv.getQualifier().asReadOnlyByteBuffer() : null;
+          ByteBuffer value =
+                  qv.hasValue() ? qv.getValue().asReadOnlyByteBuffer() : null;
+          long ts = timestamp;
+          if (qv.hasTimestamp()) {
+            ts = qv.getTimestamp();
+          }
+          byte[] tags;
+          if (qv.hasTags()) {
+            tags = qv.getTags().toByteArray();
+            Object[] array = Tag.asList(tags, 0, (short)tags.length).toArray();
+            Tag[] tagArray = new Tag[array.length];
+            for(int i = 0; i< array.length; i++) {
+              tagArray[i] = (Tag)array[i];
+            }
+            if(qv.hasDeleteType()) {
+              byte[] qual = qv.hasQualifier() ? qv.getQualifier().toByteArray() : null;
+              put.add(new KeyValue(proto.getRow().toByteArray(), family, qual, ts,
+                      fromDeleteType(qv.getDeleteType()), null, tags));
+            } else {
+              put.addImmutable(family, qualifier, ts, value, tagArray);
+            }
+          } else {
+            if(qv.hasDeleteType()) {
+              byte[] qual = qv.hasQualifier() ? qv.getQualifier().toByteArray() : null;
+              put.add(new KeyValue(proto.getRow().toByteArray(), family, qual, ts,
+                      fromDeleteType(qv.getDeleteType())));
+            } else{
+              put.addImmutable(family, qualifier, ts, value);
+            }
+          }
+        }
+      }
+    }
+    put.setDurability(toDurability(proto.getDurability()));
+    for (HBaseProtos.NameBytesPair attribute: proto.getAttributeList()) {
+      put.setAttribute(attribute.getName(), attribute.getValue().toByteArray());
+    }
+    return put;
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Convert a protocol buffer Mutate to a Delete
+   *
+   * @param proto the protocol buffer Mutate to convert
+   * @param cellScanner if non-null, the data that goes with this delete.
+   * @return the converted client Delete
+   * @throws IOException
+   */
+  public static Delete toDelete(final ClientProtos.MutationProto proto, final CellScanner cellScanner)
+          throws IOException {
+    ClientProtos.MutationProto.MutationType type = proto.getMutateType();
+    assert type == ClientProtos.MutationProto.MutationType.DELETE : type.name();
+    byte [] row = proto.hasRow()? proto.getRow().toByteArray(): null;
+    long timestamp = HConstants.LATEST_TIMESTAMP;
+    if (proto.hasTimestamp()) {
+      timestamp = proto.getTimestamp();
+    }
+    Delete delete = null;
+    int cellCount = proto.hasAssociatedCellCount()? proto.getAssociatedCellCount(): 0;
+    if (cellCount > 0) {
+      // The proto has metadata only and the data is separate to be found in the cellScanner.
+      if (cellScanner == null) {
+        // TextFormat should be fine for a Delete since it carries no data, just coordinates.
+        throw new DoNotRetryIOException("Cell count of " + cellCount + " but no cellScanner: " +
+                TextFormat.shortDebugString(proto));
+      }
+      for (int i = 0; i < cellCount; i++) {
+        if (!cellScanner.advance()) {
+          // TextFormat should be fine for a Delete since it carries no data, just coordinates.
+          throw new DoNotRetryIOException("Cell count of " + cellCount + " but at index " + i +
+                  " no cell returned: " + TextFormat.shortDebugString(proto));
+        }
+        Cell cell = cellScanner.current();
+        if (delete == null) {
+          delete =
+                  new Delete(cell.getRowArray(), cell.getRowOffset(), cell.getRowLength(), timestamp);
+        }
+        delete.addDeleteMarker(cell);
+      }
+    } else {
+      delete = new Delete(row, timestamp);
+      for (ClientProtos.MutationProto.ColumnValue column: proto.getColumnValueList()) {
+        byte[] family = column.getFamily().toByteArray();
+        for (ClientProtos.MutationProto.ColumnValue.QualifierValue qv: column.getQualifierValueList()) {
+          ClientProtos.MutationProto.DeleteType deleteType = qv.getDeleteType();
+          byte[] qualifier = null;
+          if (qv.hasQualifier()) {
+            qualifier = qv.getQualifier().toByteArray();
+          }
+          long ts = HConstants.LATEST_TIMESTAMP;
+          if (qv.hasTimestamp()) {
+            ts = qv.getTimestamp();
+          }
+          if (deleteType == ClientProtos.MutationProto.DeleteType.DELETE_ONE_VERSION) {
+            delete.deleteColumn(family, qualifier, ts);
+          } else if (deleteType == ClientProtos.MutationProto.DeleteType.DELETE_MULTIPLE_VERSIONS) {
+            delete.deleteColumns(family, qualifier, ts);
+          } else if (deleteType == ClientProtos.MutationProto.DeleteType.DELETE_FAMILY_VERSION) {
+            delete.deleteFamilyVersion(family, ts);
+          } else {
+            delete.deleteFamily(family, ts);
+          }
+        }
+      }
+    }
+    delete.setDurability(toDurability(proto.getDurability()));
+    for (HBaseProtos.NameBytesPair attribute: proto.getAttributeList()) {
+      delete.setAttribute(attribute.getName(), attribute.getValue().toByteArray());
+    }
+    return delete;
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Convert a protocol buffer Mutate to an Append
+   * @param cellScanner
+   * @param proto the protocol buffer Mutate to convert
+   * @return the converted client Append
+   * @throws IOException
+   */
+  public static Append toAppend(final ClientProtos.MutationProto proto, final CellScanner cellScanner)
+          throws IOException {
+    ClientProtos.MutationProto.MutationType type = proto.getMutateType();
+    assert type == ClientProtos.MutationProto.MutationType.APPEND : type.name();
+    byte [] row = proto.hasRow()? proto.getRow().toByteArray(): null;
+    Append append = null;
+    int cellCount = proto.hasAssociatedCellCount()? proto.getAssociatedCellCount(): 0;
+    if (cellCount > 0) {
+      // The proto has metadata only and the data is separate to be found in the cellScanner.
+      if (cellScanner == null) {
+        throw new DoNotRetryIOException("Cell count of " + cellCount + " but no cellScanner: " +
+                toShortString(proto));
+      }
+      for (int i = 0; i < cellCount; i++) {
+        if (!cellScanner.advance()) {
+          throw new DoNotRetryIOException("Cell count of " + cellCount + " but at index " + i +
+                  " no cell returned: " + toShortString(proto));
+        }
+        Cell cell = cellScanner.current();
+        if (append == null) {
+          append = new Append(cell.getRowArray(), cell.getRowOffset(), cell.getRowLength());
+        }
+        append.add(cell);
+      }
+    } else {
+      append = new Append(row);
+      for (ClientProtos.MutationProto.ColumnValue column: proto.getColumnValueList()) {
+        byte[] family = column.getFamily().toByteArray();
+        for (ClientProtos.MutationProto.ColumnValue.QualifierValue qv: column.getQualifierValueList()) {
+          byte[] qualifier = qv.getQualifier().toByteArray();
+          if (!qv.hasValue()) {
+            throw new DoNotRetryIOException(
+                    "Missing required field: qualifier value");
+          }
+          byte[] value = qv.getValue().toByteArray();
+          byte[] tags = null;
+          if (qv.hasTags()) {
+            tags = qv.getTags().toByteArray();
+          }
+          append.add(CellUtil.createCell(row, family, qualifier, qv.getTimestamp(),
+                  KeyValue.Type.Put, value, tags));
+        }
+      }
+    }
+    append.setDurability(toDurability(proto.getDurability()));
+    for (HBaseProtos.NameBytesPair attribute: proto.getAttributeList()) {
+      append.setAttribute(attribute.getName(), attribute.getValue().toByteArray());
+    }
+    return append;
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Convert a MutateRequest to Mutation
+   *
+   * @param proto the protocol buffer Mutate to convert
+   * @return the converted Mutation
+   * @throws IOException
+   */
+  public static Mutation toMutation(final ClientProtos.MutationProto proto) throws IOException {
+    ClientProtos.MutationProto.MutationType type = proto.getMutateType();
+    if (type == ClientProtos.MutationProto.MutationType.APPEND) {
+      return toAppend(proto, null);
+    }
+    if (type == ClientProtos.MutationProto.MutationType.DELETE) {
+      return toDelete(proto, null);
+    }
+    if (type == ClientProtos.MutationProto.MutationType.PUT) {
+      return toPut(proto, null);
+    }
+    throw new IOException("Unknown mutation type " + type);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Convert a protocol buffer Mutate to an Increment
+   *
+   * @param proto the protocol buffer Mutate to convert
+   * @return the converted client Increment
+   * @throws IOException
+   */
+  public static Increment toIncrement(final ClientProtos.MutationProto proto, final CellScanner cellScanner)
+          throws IOException {
+    ClientProtos.MutationProto.MutationType type = proto.getMutateType();
+    assert type == ClientProtos.MutationProto.MutationType.INCREMENT : type.name();
+    byte [] row = proto.hasRow()? proto.getRow().toByteArray(): null;
+    Increment increment = null;
+    int cellCount = proto.hasAssociatedCellCount()? proto.getAssociatedCellCount(): 0;
+    if (cellCount > 0) {
+      // The proto has metadata only and the data is separate to be found in the cellScanner.
+      if (cellScanner == null) {
+        throw new DoNotRetryIOException("Cell count of " + cellCount + " but no cellScanner: " +
+                TextFormat.shortDebugString(proto));
+      }
+      for (int i = 0; i < cellCount; i++) {
+        if (!cellScanner.advance()) {
+          throw new DoNotRetryIOException("Cell count of " + cellCount + " but at index " + i +
+                  " no cell returned: " + TextFormat.shortDebugString(proto));
+        }
+        Cell cell = cellScanner.current();
+        if (increment == null) {
+          increment = new Increment(cell.getRowArray(), cell.getRowOffset(), cell.getRowLength());
+        }
+        increment.add(cell);
+      }
+    } else {
+      increment = new Increment(row);
+      for (ClientProtos.MutationProto.ColumnValue column: proto.getColumnValueList()) {
+        byte[] family = column.getFamily().toByteArray();
+        for (ClientProtos.MutationProto.ColumnValue.QualifierValue qv: column.getQualifierValueList()) {
+          byte[] qualifier = qv.getQualifier().toByteArray();
+          if (!qv.hasValue()) {
+            throw new DoNotRetryIOException("Missing required field: qualifier value");
+          }
+          byte[] value = qv.getValue().toByteArray();
+          byte[] tags = null;
+          if (qv.hasTags()) {
+            tags = qv.getTags().toByteArray();
+          }
+          increment.add(CellUtil.createCell(row, family, qualifier, qv.getTimestamp(),
+                  KeyValue.Type.Put, value, tags));
+        }
+      }
+    }
+    if (proto.hasTimeRange()) {
+      HBaseProtos.TimeRange timeRange = proto.getTimeRange();
+      long minStamp = 0;
+      long maxStamp = Long.MAX_VALUE;
+      if (timeRange.hasFrom()) {
+        minStamp = timeRange.getFrom();
+      }
+      if (timeRange.hasTo()) {
+        maxStamp = timeRange.getTo();
+      }
+      increment.setTimeRange(minStamp, maxStamp);
+    }
+    increment.setDurability(toDurability(proto.getDurability()));
+    for (HBaseProtos.NameBytesPair attribute : proto.getAttributeList()) {
+      increment.setAttribute(attribute.getName(), attribute.getValue().toByteArray());
+    }
+    return increment;
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Convert a client Scan to a protocol buffer Scan
+   *
+   * @param scan the client Scan to convert
+   * @return the converted protocol buffer Scan
+   * @throws IOException
+   */
+  public static ClientProtos.Scan toScan(
+          final Scan scan) throws IOException {
+    ClientProtos.Scan.Builder scanBuilder =
+            ClientProtos.Scan.newBuilder();
+    scanBuilder.setCacheBlocks(scan.getCacheBlocks());
+    if (scan.getBatch() > 0) {
+      scanBuilder.setBatchSize(scan.getBatch());
+    }
+    if (scan.getMaxResultSize() > 0) {
+      scanBuilder.setMaxResultSize(scan.getMaxResultSize());
+    }
+    if (scan.isSmall()) {
+      scanBuilder.setSmall(scan.isSmall());
+    }
+    Boolean loadColumnFamiliesOnDemand = scan.getLoadColumnFamiliesOnDemandValue();
+    if (loadColumnFamiliesOnDemand != null) {
+      scanBuilder.setLoadColumnFamiliesOnDemand(loadColumnFamiliesOnDemand.booleanValue());
+    }
+    scanBuilder.setMaxVersions(scan.getMaxVersions());
+    TimeRange timeRange = scan.getTimeRange();
+    if (!timeRange.isAllTime()) {
+      HBaseProtos.TimeRange.Builder timeRangeBuilder =
+              HBaseProtos.TimeRange.newBuilder();
+      timeRangeBuilder.setFrom(timeRange.getMin());
+      timeRangeBuilder.setTo(timeRange.getMax());
+      scanBuilder.setTimeRange(timeRangeBuilder.build());
+    }
+    Map<String, byte[]> attributes = scan.getAttributesMap();
+    if (!attributes.isEmpty()) {
+      HBaseProtos.NameBytesPair.Builder attributeBuilder = HBaseProtos.NameBytesPair.newBuilder();
+      for (Map.Entry<String, byte[]> attribute: attributes.entrySet()) {
+        attributeBuilder.setName(attribute.getKey());
+        attributeBuilder.setValue(ByteStringer.wrap(attribute.getValue()));
+        scanBuilder.addAttribute(attributeBuilder.build());
+      }
+    }
+    byte[] startRow = scan.getStartRow();
+    if (startRow != null && startRow.length > 0) {
+      scanBuilder.setStartRow(ByteStringer.wrap(startRow));
+    }
+    byte[] stopRow = scan.getStopRow();
+    if (stopRow != null && stopRow.length > 0) {
+      scanBuilder.setStopRow(ByteStringer.wrap(stopRow));
+    }
+    if (scan.hasFilter()) {
+      scanBuilder.setFilter(ProtobufUtil.toFilter(scan.getFilter()));
+    }
+    if (scan.hasFamilies()) {
+      ClientProtos.Column.Builder columnBuilder = ClientProtos.Column.newBuilder();
+      for (Map.Entry<byte[],NavigableSet<byte []>>
+              family: scan.getFamilyMap().entrySet()) {
+        columnBuilder.setFamily(ByteStringer.wrap(family.getKey()));
+        NavigableSet<byte []> qualifiers = family.getValue();
+        columnBuilder.clearQualifier();
+        if (qualifiers != null && qualifiers.size() > 0) {
+          for (byte [] qualifier: qualifiers) {
+            columnBuilder.addQualifier(ByteStringer.wrap(qualifier));
+          }
+        }
+        scanBuilder.addColumn(columnBuilder.build());
+      }
+    }
+    if (scan.getMaxResultsPerColumnFamily() >= 0) {
+      scanBuilder.setStoreLimit(scan.getMaxResultsPerColumnFamily());
+    }
+    if (scan.getRowOffsetPerColumnFamily() > 0) {
+      scanBuilder.setStoreOffset(scan.getRowOffsetPerColumnFamily());
+    }
+    if (scan.isReversed()) {
+      scanBuilder.setReversed(scan.isReversed());
+    }
+    if (scan.getConsistency() == Consistency.TIMELINE) {
+      scanBuilder.setConsistency(toConsistency(scan.getConsistency()));
+    }
+    if (scan.getCaching() > 0) {
+      scanBuilder.setCaching(scan.getCaching());
+    }
+    return scanBuilder.build();
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Convert a protocol buffer Scan to a client Scan
+   *
+   * @param proto the protocol buffer Scan to convert
+   * @return the converted client Scan
+   * @throws IOException
+   */
+  public static Scan toScan(
+          final ClientProtos.Scan proto) throws IOException {
+    byte [] startRow = HConstants.EMPTY_START_ROW;
+    byte [] stopRow  = HConstants.EMPTY_END_ROW;
+    if (proto.hasStartRow()) {
+      startRow = proto.getStartRow().toByteArray();
+    }
+    if (proto.hasStopRow()) {
+      stopRow = proto.getStopRow().toByteArray();
+    }
+    Scan scan = new Scan(startRow, stopRow);
+    if (proto.hasCacheBlocks()) {
+      scan.setCacheBlocks(proto.getCacheBlocks());
+    }
+    if (proto.hasMaxVersions()) {
+      scan.setMaxVersions(proto.getMaxVersions());
+    }
+    if (proto.hasStoreLimit()) {
+      scan.setMaxResultsPerColumnFamily(proto.getStoreLimit());
+    }
+    if (proto.hasStoreOffset()) {
+      scan.setRowOffsetPerColumnFamily(proto.getStoreOffset());
+    }
+    if (proto.hasLoadColumnFamiliesOnDemand()) {
+      scan.setLoadColumnFamiliesOnDemand(proto.getLoadColumnFamiliesOnDemand());
+    }
+    if (proto.hasTimeRange()) {
+      HBaseProtos.TimeRange timeRange = proto.getTimeRange();
+      long minStamp = 0;
+      long maxStamp = Long.MAX_VALUE;
+      if (timeRange.hasFrom()) {
+        minStamp = timeRange.getFrom();
+      }
+      if (timeRange.hasTo()) {
+        maxStamp = timeRange.getTo();
+      }
+      scan.setTimeRange(minStamp, maxStamp);
+    }
+    if (proto.hasFilter()) {
+      FilterProtos.Filter filter = proto.getFilter();
+      scan.setFilter(ProtobufUtil.toFilter(filter));
+    }
+    if (proto.hasBatchSize()) {
+      scan.setBatch(proto.getBatchSize());
+    }
+    if (proto.hasMaxResultSize()) {
+      scan.setMaxResultSize(proto.getMaxResultSize());
+    }
+    if (proto.hasSmall()) {
+      scan.setSmall(proto.getSmall());
+    }
+    for (HBaseProtos.NameBytesPair attribute: proto.getAttributeList()) {
+      scan.setAttribute(attribute.getName(), attribute.getValue().toByteArray());
+    }
+    if (proto.getColumnCount() > 0) {
+      for (ClientProtos.Column column: proto.getColumnList()) {
+        byte[] family = column.getFamily().toByteArray();
+        if (column.getQualifierCount() > 0) {
+          for (ByteString qualifier: column.getQualifierList()) {
+            scan.addColumn(family, qualifier.toByteArray());
+          }
+        } else {
+          scan.addFamily(family);
+        }
+      }
+    }
+    if (proto.hasReversed()) {
+      scan.setReversed(proto.getReversed());
+    }
+    if (proto.hasConsistency()) {
+      scan.setConsistency(toConsistency(proto.getConsistency()));
+    }
+    if (proto.hasCaching()) {
+      scan.setCaching(proto.getCaching());
+    }
+    return scan;
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Create a protocol buffer Get based on a client Get.
+   *
+   * @param get the client Get
+   * @return a protocol buffer Get
+   * @throws IOException
+   */
+  public static ClientProtos.Get toGet(
+          final Get get) throws IOException {
+    ClientProtos.Get.Builder builder =
+            ClientProtos.Get.newBuilder();
+    builder.setRow(ByteStringer.wrap(get.getRow()));
+    builder.setCacheBlocks(get.getCacheBlocks());
+    builder.setMaxVersions(get.getMaxVersions());
+    if (get.getFilter() != null) {
+      builder.setFilter(ProtobufUtil.toFilter(get.getFilter()));
+    }
+    TimeRange timeRange = get.getTimeRange();
+    if (!timeRange.isAllTime()) {
+      HBaseProtos.TimeRange.Builder timeRangeBuilder =
+              HBaseProtos.TimeRange.newBuilder();
+      timeRangeBuilder.setFrom(timeRange.getMin());
+      timeRangeBuilder.setTo(timeRange.getMax());
+      builder.setTimeRange(timeRangeBuilder.build());
+    }
+    Map<String, byte[]> attributes = get.getAttributesMap();
+    if (!attributes.isEmpty()) {
+      HBaseProtos.NameBytesPair.Builder attributeBuilder = HBaseProtos.NameBytesPair.newBuilder();
+      for (Map.Entry<String, byte[]> attribute: attributes.entrySet()) {
+        attributeBuilder.setName(attribute.getKey());
+        attributeBuilder.setValue(ByteStringer.wrap(attribute.getValue()));
+        builder.addAttribute(attributeBuilder.build());
+      }
+    }
+    if (get.hasFamilies()) {
+      ClientProtos.Column.Builder columnBuilder = ClientProtos.Column.newBuilder();
+      Map<byte[], NavigableSet<byte[]>> families = get.getFamilyMap();
+      for (Map.Entry<byte[], NavigableSet<byte[]>> family: families.entrySet()) {
+        NavigableSet<byte[]> qualifiers = family.getValue();
+        columnBuilder.setFamily(ByteStringer.wrap(family.getKey()));
+        columnBuilder.clearQualifier();
+        if (qualifiers != null && qualifiers.size() > 0) {
+          for (byte[] qualifier: qualifiers) {
+            columnBuilder.addQualifier(ByteStringer.wrap(qualifier));
+          }
+        }
+        builder.addColumn(columnBuilder.build());
+      }
+    }
+    if (get.getMaxResultsPerColumnFamily() >= 0) {
+      builder.setStoreLimit(get.getMaxResultsPerColumnFamily());
+    }
+    if (get.getRowOffsetPerColumnFamily() > 0) {
+      builder.setStoreOffset(get.getRowOffsetPerColumnFamily());
+    }
+    if (get.isCheckExistenceOnly()){
+      builder.setExistenceOnly(true);
+    }
+    if (get.isClosestRowBefore()){
+      builder.setClosestRowBefore(true);
+    }
+    if (get.getConsistency() != null && get.getConsistency() != Consistency.STRONG) {
+      builder.setConsistency(toConsistency(get.getConsistency()));
+    }
+
+    return builder.build();
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Convert a client Increment to a protobuf Mutate.
+   *
+   * @param increment
+   * @return the converted mutate
+   */
+  public static ClientProtos.MutationProto toMutation(
+          final Increment increment, final ClientProtos.MutationProto.Builder builder, long nonce) {
+    builder.setRow(ByteStringer.wrap(increment.getRow()));
+    builder.setMutateType(ClientProtos.MutationProto.MutationType.INCREMENT);
+    builder.setDurability(toDurability(increment.getDurability()));
+    if (nonce != HConstants.NO_NONCE) {
+      builder.setNonce(nonce);
+    }
+    TimeRange timeRange = increment.getTimeRange();
+    if (!timeRange.isAllTime()) {
+      HBaseProtos.TimeRange.Builder timeRangeBuilder =
+              HBaseProtos.TimeRange.newBuilder();
+      timeRangeBuilder.setFrom(timeRange.getMin());
+      timeRangeBuilder.setTo(timeRange.getMax());
+      builder.setTimeRange(timeRangeBuilder.build());
+    }
+    ClientProtos.MutationProto.ColumnValue.Builder columnBuilder = ClientProtos.MutationProto.ColumnValue.newBuilder();
+    ClientProtos.MutationProto.ColumnValue.QualifierValue.Builder valueBuilder = ClientProtos.MutationProto.ColumnValue.QualifierValue.newBuilder();
+    for (Map.Entry<byte[], List<Cell>> family: increment.getFamilyCellMap().entrySet()) {
+      columnBuilder.setFamily(ByteStringer.wrap(family.getKey()));
+      columnBuilder.clearQualifierValue();
+      List<Cell> values = family.getValue();
+      if (values != null && values.size() > 0) {
+        for (Cell cell: values) {
+          valueBuilder.clear();
+          valueBuilder.setQualifier(ByteStringer.wrap(
+                  cell.getQualifierArray(), cell.getQualifierOffset(), cell.getQualifierLength()));
+          valueBuilder.setValue(ByteStringer.wrap(
+                  cell.getValueArray(), cell.getValueOffset(), cell.getValueLength()));
+          if (cell.getTagsLength() > 0) {
+            valueBuilder.setTags(ByteStringer.wrap(cell.getTagsArray(),
+                    cell.getTagsOffset(), cell.getTagsLength()));
+          }
+          columnBuilder.addQualifierValue(valueBuilder.build());
+        }
+      }
+      builder.addColumnValue(columnBuilder.build());
+    }
+    Map<String, byte[]> attributes = increment.getAttributesMap();
+    if (!attributes.isEmpty()) {
+      HBaseProtos.NameBytesPair.Builder attributeBuilder = HBaseProtos.NameBytesPair.newBuilder();
+      for (Map.Entry<String, byte[]> attribute : attributes.entrySet()) {
+        attributeBuilder.setName(attribute.getKey());
+        attributeBuilder.setValue(ByteStringer.wrap(attribute.getValue()));
+        builder.addAttribute(attributeBuilder.build());
+      }
+    }
+    return builder.build();
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Create a protocol buffer Mutate based on a client Mutation
+   *
+   * @param type
+   * @param mutation
+   * @return a protobuf'd Mutation
+   * @throws IOException
+   */
+  public static ClientProtos.MutationProto toMutation(final ClientProtos.MutationProto.MutationType type, final Mutation mutation,
+                                                      final long nonce) throws IOException {
+    return toMutation(type, mutation, ClientProtos.MutationProto.newBuilder(), nonce);
+  }
+
+  public static ClientProtos.MutationProto toMutation(final ClientProtos.MutationProto.MutationType type, final Mutation mutation,
+                                                      ClientProtos.MutationProto.Builder builder) throws IOException {
+    return toMutation(type, mutation, builder, HConstants.NO_NONCE);
+  }
+
+  @SuppressWarnings("deprecation")
+  public static ClientProtos.MutationProto toMutation(final ClientProtos.MutationProto.MutationType type, final Mutation mutation,
+                                                      ClientProtos.MutationProto.Builder builder, long nonce)
+          throws IOException {
+    builder = getMutationBuilderAndSetCommonFields(type, mutation, builder);
+    if (nonce != HConstants.NO_NONCE) {
+      builder.setNonce(nonce);
+    }
+    ClientProtos.MutationProto.ColumnValue.Builder columnBuilder = ClientProtos.MutationProto.ColumnValue.newBuilder();
+    ClientProtos.MutationProto.ColumnValue.QualifierValue.Builder valueBuilder = ClientProtos.MutationProto.ColumnValue.QualifierValue.newBuilder();
+    for (Map.Entry<byte[],List<Cell>> family: mutation.getFamilyCellMap().entrySet()) {
+      columnBuilder.clear();
+      columnBuilder.setFamily(ByteStringer.wrap(family.getKey()));
+      for (Cell cell: family.getValue()) {
+        valueBuilder.clear();
+        valueBuilder.setQualifier(ByteStringer.wrap(
+                cell.getQualifierArray(), cell.getQualifierOffset(), cell.getQualifierLength()));
+        valueBuilder.setValue(ByteStringer.wrap(
+                cell.getValueArray(), cell.getValueOffset(), cell.getValueLength()));
+        valueBuilder.setTimestamp(cell.getTimestamp());
+        if(cell.getTagsLength() > 0) {
+          valueBuilder.setTags(ByteStringer.wrap(cell.getTagsArray(), cell.getTagsOffset(),
+                  cell.getTagsLength()));
+        }
+        if (type == ClientProtos.MutationProto.MutationType.DELETE || (type == ClientProtos.MutationProto.MutationType.PUT && CellUtil.isDelete(cell))) {
+          KeyValue.Type keyValueType = KeyValue.Type.codeToType(cell.getTypeByte());
+          valueBuilder.setDeleteType(toDeleteType(keyValueType));
+        }
+        columnBuilder.addQualifierValue(valueBuilder.build());
+      }
+      builder.addColumnValue(columnBuilder.build());
+    }
+    return builder.build();
+  }
+
+  public static ClientProtos.MutationProto toMutationNoData(final ClientProtos.MutationProto.MutationType type, final Mutation mutation,
+                                                            final ClientProtos.MutationProto.Builder builder, long nonce) throws IOException {
+    getMutationBuilderAndSetCommonFields(type, mutation, builder);
+    builder.setAssociatedCellCount(mutation.size());
+    if (nonce != HConstants.NO_NONCE) {
+      builder.setNonce(nonce);
+    }
+    return builder.build();
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Code shared by {@link ProtobufUtil#toMutation} and
+   * {@link ProtobufUtil#toMutationNoData(ClientProtos.MutationProto.MutationType,
+   * Mutation)}
+   * @param type
+   * @param mutation
+   * @return A partly-filled out protobuf'd Mutation.
+   */
+  private static ClientProtos.MutationProto.Builder getMutationBuilderAndSetCommonFields(final ClientProtos.MutationProto.MutationType type,
+                                                                                         final Mutation mutation, ClientProtos.MutationProto.Builder builder) {
+    builder.setRow(ByteStringer.wrap(mutation.getRow()));
+    builder.setMutateType(type);
+    builder.setDurability(toDurability(mutation.getDurability()));
+    builder.setTimestamp(mutation.getTimeStamp());
+    Map<String, byte[]> attributes = mutation.getAttributesMap();
+    if (!attributes.isEmpty()) {
+      HBaseProtos.NameBytesPair.Builder attributeBuilder = HBaseProtos.NameBytesPair.newBuilder();
+      for (Map.Entry<String, byte[]> attribute: attributes.entrySet()) {
+        attributeBuilder.setName(attribute.getKey());
+        attributeBuilder.setValue(ByteStringer.wrap(attribute.getValue()));
+        builder.addAttribute(attributeBuilder.build());
+      }
+    }
+    return builder;
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Convert a client Result to a protocol buffer Result
+   *
+   * @param result the client Result to convert
+   * @return the converted protocol buffer Result
+   */
+  public static ClientProtos.Result toResult(final Result result) {
+    if (result.getExists() != null) {
+      return toResult(result.getExists(), result.isStale());
+    }
+
+    Cell[] cells = result.rawCells();
+    if (cells == null || cells.length == 0) {
+      return result.isStale() ? EMPTY_RESULT_PB_STALE : EMPTY_RESULT_PB;
+    }
+
+    ClientProtos.Result.Builder builder = ClientProtos.Result.newBuilder();
+    for (Cell c : cells) {
+      builder.addCell(toCell(c));
+    }
+
+    builder.setStale(result.isStale());
+    builder.setPartial(result.isPartial());
+
+    return builder.build();
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Convert a client Result to a protocol buffer Result
+   *
+   * @param existence the client existence to send
+   * @return the converted protocol buffer Result
+   */
+  public static ClientProtos.Result toResult(final boolean existence, boolean stale) {
+    if (stale){
+      return existence ? EMPTY_RESULT_PB_EXISTS_TRUE_STALE : EMPTY_RESULT_PB_EXISTS_FALSE_STALE;
+    } else {
+      return existence ? EMPTY_RESULT_PB_EXISTS_TRUE : EMPTY_RESULT_PB_EXISTS_FALSE;
+    }
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Convert a client Result to a protocol buffer Result.
+   * The pb Result does not include the Cell data.  That is for transport otherwise.
+   *
+   * @param result the client Result to convert
+   * @return the converted protocol buffer Result
+   */
+  public static ClientProtos.Result toResultNoData(final Result result) {
+    if (result.getExists() != null) return toResult(result.getExists(), result.isStale());
+    int size = result.size();
+    if (size == 0) return result.isStale() ? EMPTY_RESULT_PB_STALE : EMPTY_RESULT_PB;
+    ClientProtos.Result.Builder builder = ClientProtos.Result.newBuilder();
+    builder.setAssociatedCellCount(size);
+    builder.setStale(result.isStale());
+    return builder.build();
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Convert a protocol buffer Result to a client Result
+   *
+   * @param proto the protocol buffer Result to convert
+   * @return the converted client Result
+   */
+  public static Result toResult(final ClientProtos.Result proto) {
+    if (proto.hasExists()) {
+      if (proto.getStale()) {
+        return proto.getExists() ? EMPTY_RESULT_EXISTS_TRUE_STALE :EMPTY_RESULT_EXISTS_FALSE_STALE;
+      }
+      return proto.getExists() ? EMPTY_RESULT_EXISTS_TRUE : EMPTY_RESULT_EXISTS_FALSE;
+    }
+
+    List<CellProtos.Cell> values = proto.getCellList();
+    if (values.isEmpty()){
+      return proto.getStale() ? EMPTY_RESULT_STALE : EMPTY_RESULT;
+    }
+
+    List<Cell> cells = new ArrayList<Cell>(values.size());
+    for (CellProtos.Cell c : values) {
+      cells.add(toCell(c));
+    }
+    return Result.create(cells, null, proto.getStale(), proto.getPartial());
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Convert a protocol buffer Result to a client Result
+   *
+   * @param proto the protocol buffer Result to convert
+   * @param scanner Optional cell scanner.
+   * @return the converted client Result
+   * @throws IOException
+   */
+  public static Result toResult(final ClientProtos.Result proto, final CellScanner scanner)
+          throws IOException {
+    List<CellProtos.Cell> values = proto.getCellList();
+
+    if (proto.hasExists()) {
+      if ((values != null && !values.isEmpty()) ||
+              (proto.hasAssociatedCellCount() && proto.getAssociatedCellCount() > 0)) {
+        throw new IllegalArgumentException("bad proto: exists with cells is no allowed " + proto);
+      }
+      if (proto.getStale()) {
+        return proto.getExists() ? EMPTY_RESULT_EXISTS_TRUE_STALE :EMPTY_RESULT_EXISTS_FALSE_STALE;
+      }
+      return proto.getExists() ? EMPTY_RESULT_EXISTS_TRUE : EMPTY_RESULT_EXISTS_FALSE;
+    }
+
+    // TODO: Unit test that has some Cells in scanner and some in the proto.
+    List<Cell> cells = null;
+    if (proto.hasAssociatedCellCount()) {
+      int count = proto.getAssociatedCellCount();
+      cells = new ArrayList<Cell>(count + values.size());
+      for (int i = 0; i < count; i++) {
+        if (!scanner.advance()) throw new IOException("Failed get " + i + " of " + count);
+        cells.add(scanner.current());
+      }
+    }
+
+    if (!values.isEmpty()){
+      if (cells == null) cells = new ArrayList<Cell>(values.size());
+      for (CellProtos.Cell c: values) {
+        cells.add(toCell(c));
+      }
+    }
+
+    return (cells == null || cells.isEmpty())
+            ? (proto.getStale() ? EMPTY_RESULT_STALE : EMPTY_RESULT)
+            : Result.create(cells, null, proto.getStale());
+  }
+
+
+  /**
+   * Convert a ByteArrayComparable to a protocol buffer Comparator
+   *
+   * @param comparator the ByteArrayComparable to convert
+   * @return the converted protocol buffer Comparator
+   */
+  public static ComparatorProtos.Comparator toComparator(ByteArrayComparable comparator) {
+    ComparatorProtos.Comparator.Builder builder = ComparatorProtos.Comparator.newBuilder();
+    builder.setName(comparator.getClass().getName());
+    builder.setSerializedComparator(ByteStringer.wrap(comparator.toByteArray()));
+    return builder.build();
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Convert a protocol buffer Comparator to a ByteArrayComparable
+   *
+   * @param proto the protocol buffer Comparator to convert
+   * @return the converted ByteArrayComparable
+   */
+  @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
+  public static ByteArrayComparable toComparator(ComparatorProtos.Comparator proto)
+          throws IOException {
+    String type = proto.getName();
+    String funcName = "parseFrom";
+    byte [] value = proto.getSerializedComparator().toByteArray();
+    try {
+      Class<? extends ByteArrayComparable> c =
+              (Class<? extends ByteArrayComparable>)Class.forName(type, true, CLASS_LOADER);
+      Method parseFrom = c.getMethod(funcName, byte[].class);
+      if (parseFrom == null) {
+        throw new IOException("Unable to locate function: " + funcName + " in type: " + type);
+      }
+      return (ByteArrayComparable)parseFrom.invoke(null, value);
+    } catch (Exception e) {
+      throw new IOException(e);
+    }
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Convert a protocol buffer Filter to a client Filter
+   *
+   * @param proto the protocol buffer Filter to convert
+   * @return the converted Filter
+   */
+  @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
+  public static Filter toFilter(FilterProtos.Filter proto) throws IOException {
+    String type = proto.getName();
+    final byte [] value = proto.getSerializedFilter().toByteArray();
+    String funcName = "parseFrom";
+    try {
+      Class<? extends Filter> c =
+              (Class<? extends Filter>)Class.forName(type, true, CLASS_LOADER);
+      Method parseFrom = c.getMethod(funcName, byte[].class);
+      if (parseFrom == null) {
+        throw new IOException("Unable to locate function: " + funcName + " in type: " + type);
+      }
+      return (Filter)parseFrom.invoke(c, value);
+    } catch (Exception e) {
+      // Either we couldn't instantiate the method object, or "parseFrom" failed.
+      // In either case, let's not retry.
+      throw new DoNotRetryIOException(e);
+    }
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Convert a client Filter to a protocol buffer Filter
+   *
+   * @param filter the Filter to convert
+   * @return the converted protocol buffer Filter
+   */
+  public static FilterProtos.Filter toFilter(Filter filter) throws IOException {
+    FilterProtos.Filter.Builder builder = FilterProtos.Filter.newBuilder();
+    builder.setName(filter.getClass().getName());
+    builder.setSerializedFilter(ByteStringer.wrap(filter.toByteArray()));
+    return builder.build();
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Convert a delete KeyValue type to protocol buffer DeleteType.
+   *
+   * @param type
+   * @return protocol buffer DeleteType
+   * @throws IOException
+   */
+  public static ClientProtos.MutationProto.DeleteType toDeleteType(
+          KeyValue.Type type) throws IOException {
+    switch (type) {
+      case Delete:
+        return ClientProtos.MutationProto.DeleteType.DELETE_ONE_VERSION;
+      case DeleteColumn:
+        return ClientProtos.MutationProto.DeleteType.DELETE_MULTIPLE_VERSIONS;
+      case DeleteFamily:
+        return ClientProtos.MutationProto.DeleteType.DELETE_FAMILY;
+      case DeleteFamilyVersion:
+        return ClientProtos.MutationProto.DeleteType.DELETE_FAMILY_VERSION;
+      default:
+        throw new IOException("Unknown delete type: " + type);
+    }
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Convert a protocol buffer DeleteType to delete KeyValue type.
+   *
+   * @param type The DeleteType
+   * @return The type.
+   * @throws IOException
+   */
+  public static KeyValue.Type fromDeleteType(
+          ClientProtos.MutationProto.DeleteType type) throws IOException {
+    switch (type) {
+      case DELETE_ONE_VERSION:
+        return KeyValue.Type.Delete;
+      case DELETE_MULTIPLE_VERSIONS:
+        return KeyValue.Type.DeleteColumn;
+      case DELETE_FAMILY:
+        return KeyValue.Type.DeleteFamily;
+      case DELETE_FAMILY_VERSION:
+        return KeyValue.Type.DeleteFamilyVersion;
+      default:
+        throw new IOException("Unknown delete type: " + type);
+    }
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Convert a stringified protocol buffer exception Parameter to a Java Exception
+   *
+   * @param parameter the protocol buffer Parameter to convert
+   * @return the converted Exception
+   * @throws IOException if failed to deserialize the parameter
+   */
+  @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
+  public static Throwable toException(final HBaseProtos.NameBytesPair parameter) throws IOException {
+    if (parameter == null || !parameter.hasValue()) return null;
+    String desc = parameter.getValue().toStringUtf8();
+    String type = parameter.getName();
+    try {
+      Class<? extends Throwable> c =
+              (Class<? extends Throwable>)Class.forName(type, true, CLASS_LOADER);
+      Constructor<? extends Throwable> cn = null;
+      try {
+        cn = c.getDeclaredConstructor(String.class);
+        return cn.newInstance(desc);
+      } catch (NoSuchMethodException e) {
+        // Could be a raw RemoteException. See HBASE-8987.
+        cn = c.getDeclaredConstructor(String.class, String.class);
+        return cn.newInstance(type, desc);
+      }
+    } catch (Exception e) {
+      throw new IOException(e);
+    }
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Converts a Permission proto to a client Permission object.
+   *
+   * @param proto the protobuf Permission
+   * @return the converted Permission
+   */
+  public static Permission toPermission(AccessControlProtos.Permission proto) {
+    if (proto.getType() != AccessControlProtos.Permission.Type.Global) {
+      return toTablePermission(proto);
+    } else {
+      List<Permission.Action> actions = toPermissionActions(proto.getGlobalPermission().getActionList());
+      return new Permission(actions.toArray(new Permission.Action[actions.size()]));
+    }
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Converts a Permission proto to a client TablePermission object.
+   *
+   * @param proto the protobuf Permission
+   * @return the converted TablePermission
+   */
+  public static TablePermission toTablePermission(AccessControlProtos.Permission proto) {
+    if(proto.getType() == AccessControlProtos.Permission.Type.Global) {
+      AccessControlProtos.GlobalPermission perm = proto.getGlobalPermission();
+      List<Permission.Action> actions = toPermissionActions(perm.getActionList());
+
+      return new TablePermission(null, null, null,
+              actions.toArray(new Permission.Action[actions.size()]));
+    }
+    if(proto.getType() == AccessControlProtos.Permission.Type.Namespace) {
+      AccessControlProtos.NamespacePermission perm = proto.getNamespacePermission();
+      List<Permission.Action> actions = toPermissionActions(perm.getActionList());
+
+      if(!proto.hasNamespacePermission()) {
+        throw new IllegalStateException("Namespace must not be empty in NamespacePermission");
+      }
+      String namespace = perm.getNamespaceName().toStringUtf8();
+      return new TablePermission(namespace, actions.toArray(new Permission.Action[actions.size()]));
+    }
+    if(proto.getType() == AccessControlProtos.Permission.Type.Table) {
+      AccessControlProtos.TablePermission perm = proto.getTablePermission();
+      List<Permission.Action> actions = toPermissionActions(perm.getActionList());
+
+      byte[] qualifier = null;
+      byte[] family = null;
+      TableName table = null;
+
+      if (!perm.hasTableName()) {
+        throw new IllegalStateException("TableName cannot be empty");
+      }
+      table = ProtobufUtil.toTableName(perm.getTableName());
+
+      if (perm.hasFamily()) family = perm.getFamily().toByteArray();
+      if (perm.hasQualifier()) qualifier = perm.getQualifier().toByteArray();
+
+      return new TablePermission(table, family, qualifier,
+              actions.toArray(new Permission.Action[actions.size()]));
+    }
+    throw new IllegalStateException("Unrecognize Perm Type: "+proto.getType());
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Convert a client Permission to a Permission proto
+   *
+   * @param perm the client Permission
+   * @return the protobuf Permission
+   */
+  public static AccessControlProtos.Permission toPermission(Permission perm) {
+    AccessControlProtos.Permission.Builder ret = AccessControlProtos.Permission.newBuilder();
+    if (perm instanceof TablePermission) {
+      TablePermission tablePerm = (TablePermission)perm;
+      if(tablePerm.hasNamespace()) {
+        ret.setType(AccessControlProtos.Permission.Type.Namespace);
+
+        AccessControlProtos.NamespacePermission.Builder builder =
+                AccessControlProtos.NamespacePermission.newBuilder();
+        builder.setNamespaceName(ByteString.copyFromUtf8(tablePerm.getNamespace()));
+        Permission.Action actions[] = perm.getActions();
+        if (actions != null) {
+          for (Permission.Action a : actions) {
+            builder.addAction(toPermissionAction(a));
+          }
+        }
+        ret.setNamespacePermission(builder);
+        return ret.build();
+      } else if (tablePerm.hasTable()) {
+        ret.setType(AccessControlProtos.Permission.Type.Table);
+
+        AccessControlProtos.TablePermission.Builder builder =
+                AccessControlProtos.TablePermission.newBuilder();
+        builder.setTableName(ProtobufUtil.toProtoTableName(tablePerm.getTableName()));
+        if (tablePerm.hasFamily()) {
+          builder.setFamily(ByteStringer.wrap(tablePerm.getFamily()));
+        }
+        if (tablePerm.hasQualifier()) {
+          builder.setQualifier(ByteStringer.wrap(tablePerm.getQualifier()));
+        }
+        Permission.Action actions[] = perm.getActions();
+        if (actions != null) {
+          for (Permission.Action a : actions) {
+            builder.addAction(toPermissionAction(a));
+          }
+        }
+        ret.setTablePermission(builder);
+        return ret.build();
+      }
+    }
+
+    ret.setType(AccessControlProtos.Permission.Type.Global);
+
+    AccessControlProtos.GlobalPermission.Builder builder =
+            AccessControlProtos.GlobalPermission.newBuilder();
+    Permission.Action actions[] = perm.getActions();
+    if (actions != null) {
+      for (Permission.Action a: actions) {
+        builder.addAction(toPermissionAction(a));
+      }
+    }
+    ret.setGlobalPermission(builder);
+    return ret.build();
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Converts a list of Permission.Action proto to a list of client Permission.Action objects.
+   *
+   * @param protoActions the list of protobuf Actions
+   * @return the converted list of Actions
+   */
+  public static List<Permission.Action> toPermissionActions(
+          List<AccessControlProtos.Permission.Action> protoActions) {
+    List<Permission.Action> actions = new ArrayList<Permission.Action>(protoActions.size());
+    for (AccessControlProtos.Permission.Action a : protoActions) {
+      actions.add(toPermissionAction(a));
+    }
+    return actions;
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Converts a Permission.Action proto to a client Permission.Action object.
+   *
+   * @param action the protobuf Action
+   * @return the converted Action
+   */
+  public static Permission.Action toPermissionAction(
+          AccessControlProtos.Permission.Action action) {
+    switch (action) {
+      case READ:
+        return Permission.Action.READ;
+      case WRITE:
+        return Permission.Action.WRITE;
+      case EXEC:
+        return Permission.Action.EXEC;
+      case CREATE:
+        return Permission.Action.CREATE;
+      case ADMIN:
+        return Permission.Action.ADMIN;
+    }
+    throw new IllegalArgumentException("Unknown action value "+action.name());
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Convert a client Permission.Action to a Permission.Action proto
+   *
+   * @param action the client Action
+   * @return the protobuf Action
+   */
+  public static AccessControlProtos.Permission.Action toPermissionAction(
+          Permission.Action action) {
+    switch (action) {
+      case READ:
+        return AccessControlProtos.Permission.Action.READ;
+      case WRITE:
+        return AccessControlProtos.Permission.Action.WRITE;
+      case EXEC:
+        return AccessControlProtos.Permission.Action.EXEC;
+      case CREATE:
+        return AccessControlProtos.Permission.Action.CREATE;
+      case ADMIN:
+        return AccessControlProtos.Permission.Action.ADMIN;
+    }
+    throw new IllegalArgumentException("Unknown action value "+action.name());
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Convert a client user permission to a user permission proto
+   *
+   * @param perm the client UserPermission
+   * @return the protobuf UserPermission
+   */
+  public static AccessControlProtos.UserPermission toUserPermission(UserPermission perm) {
+    return AccessControlProtos.UserPermission.newBuilder()
+            .setUser(ByteStringer.wrap(perm.getUser()))
+            .setPermission(toPermission(perm))
+            .build();
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Converts a user permission proto to a client user permission object.
+   *
+   * @param proto the protobuf UserPermission
+   * @return the converted UserPermission
+   */
+  public static UserPermission toUserPermission(AccessControlProtos.UserPermission proto) {
+    return new UserPermission(proto.getUser().toByteArray(),
+            toTablePermission(proto.getPermission()));
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Convert a ListMultimap&lt;String, TablePermission&gt; where key is username
+   * to a protobuf UserPermission
+   *
+   * @param perm the list of user and table permissions
+   * @return the protobuf UserTablePermissions
+   */
+  public static AccessControlProtos.UsersAndPermissions toUserTablePermissions(
+          ListMultimap<String, TablePermission> perm) {
+    AccessControlProtos.UsersAndPermissions.Builder builder =
+            AccessControlProtos.UsersAndPermissions.newBuilder();
+    for (Map.Entry<String, Collection<TablePermission>> entry : perm.asMap().entrySet()) {
+      AccessControlProtos.UsersAndPermissions.UserPermissions.Builder userPermBuilder =
+              AccessControlProtos.UsersAndPermissions.UserPermissions.newBuilder();
+      userPermBuilder.setUser(ByteString.copyFromUtf8(entry.getKey()));
+      for (TablePermission tablePerm: entry.getValue()) {
+        userPermBuilder.addPermissions(toPermission(tablePerm));
+      }
+      builder.addUserPermissions(userPermBuilder.build());
+    }
+    return builder.build();
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Convert a protobuf UserTablePermissions to a
+   * ListMultimap&lt;String, TablePermission&gt; where key is username.
+   *
+   * @param proto the protobuf UserPermission
+   * @return the converted UserPermission
+   */
+  public static ListMultimap<String, TablePermission> toUserTablePermissions(
+          AccessControlProtos.UsersAndPermissions proto) {
+    ListMultimap<String, TablePermission> perms = ArrayListMultimap.create();
+    AccessControlProtos.UsersAndPermissions.UserPermissions userPerm;
+
+    for (int i = 0; i < proto.getUserPermissionsCount(); i++) {
+      userPerm = proto.getUserPermissions(i);
+      for (int j = 0; j < userPerm.getPermissionsCount(); j++) {
+        TablePermission tablePerm = toTablePermission(userPerm.getPermissions(j));
+        perms.put(userPerm.getUser().toStringUtf8(), tablePerm);
+      }
+    }
+
+    return perms;
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Converts a Token instance (with embedded identifier) to the protobuf representation.
+   *
+   * @param token the Token instance to copy
+   * @return the protobuf Token message
+   */
+  public static AuthenticationProtos.Token toToken(Token<AuthenticationTokenIdentifier> token) {
+    AuthenticationProtos.Token.Builder builder = AuthenticationProtos.Token.newBuilder();
+    builder.setIdentifier(ByteStringer.wrap(token.getIdentifier()));
+    builder.setPassword(ByteStringer.wrap(token.getPassword()));
+    if (token.getService() != null) {
+      builder.setService(ByteString.copyFromUtf8(token.getService().toString()));
+    }
+    return builder.build();
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Converts a protobuf Token message back into a Token instance.
+   *
+   * @param proto the protobuf Token message
+   * @return the Token instance
+   */
+  public static Token<AuthenticationTokenIdentifier> toToken(AuthenticationProtos.Token proto) {
+    return new Token<AuthenticationTokenIdentifier>(
+            proto.hasIdentifier() ? proto.getIdentifier().toByteArray() : null,
+            proto.hasPassword() ? proto.getPassword().toByteArray() : null,
+            AuthenticationTokenIdentifier.AUTH_TOKEN_TYPE,
+            proto.hasService() ? new Text(proto.getService().toStringUtf8()) : null);
+  }
+
+  public static ScanMetrics toScanMetrics(final byte[] bytes) {
+    Parser<MapReduceProtos.ScanMetrics> parser = MapReduceProtos.ScanMetrics.PARSER;
+    MapReduceProtos.ScanMetrics pScanMetrics = null;
+    try {
+      pScanMetrics = parser.parseFrom(bytes);
+    } catch (InvalidProtocolBufferException e) {
+      //Ignored there are just no key values to add.
+    }
+    ScanMetrics scanMetrics = new ScanMetrics();
+    if (pScanMetrics != null) {
+      for (HBaseProtos.NameInt64Pair pair : pScanMetrics.getMetricsList()) {
+        if (pair.hasName() && pair.hasValue()) {
+          scanMetrics.setCounter(pair.getName(), pair.getValue());
+        }
+      }
+    }
+    return scanMetrics;
+  }
+
+  public static MapReduceProtos.ScanMetrics toScanMetrics(ScanMetrics scanMetrics) {
+    MapReduceProtos.ScanMetrics.Builder builder = MapReduceProtos.ScanMetrics.newBuilder();
+    Map<String, Long> metrics = scanMetrics.getMetricsMap();
+    for (Map.Entry<String, Long> e : metrics.entrySet()) {
+      HBaseProtos.NameInt64Pair nameInt64Pair =
+              HBaseProtos.NameInt64Pair.newBuilder()
+                      .setName(e.getKey())
+                      .setValue(e.getValue())
+                      .build();
+      builder.addMetrics(nameInt64Pair);
+    }
+    return builder.build();
+  }
+
+  public static CellProtos.Cell toCell(final Cell kv) {
+    // Doing this is going to kill us if we do it for all data passed.
+    // St.Ack 20121205
+    CellProtos.Cell.Builder kvbuilder = CellProtos.Cell.newBuilder();
+    kvbuilder.setRow(ByteStringer.wrap(kv.getRowArray(), kv.getRowOffset(),
+            kv.getRowLength()));
+    kvbuilder.setFamily(ByteStringer.wrap(kv.getFamilyArray(),
+            kv.getFamilyOffset(), kv.getFamilyLength()));
+    kvbuilder.setQualifier(ByteStringer.wrap(kv.getQualifierArray(),
+            kv.getQualifierOffset(), kv.getQualifierLength()));
+    kvbuilder.setCellType(CellProtos.CellType.valueOf(kv.getTypeByte()));
+    kvbuilder.setTimestamp(kv.getTimestamp());
+    kvbuilder.setValue(ByteStringer.wrap(kv.getValueArray(), kv.getValueOffset(),
+            kv.getValueLength()));
+    return kvbuilder.build();
+  }
+
+  public static Cell toCell(final CellProtos.Cell cell) {
+    // Doing this is going to kill us if we do it for all data passed.
+    // St.Ack 20121205
+    return CellUtil.createCell(cell.getRow().toByteArray(),
+            cell.getFamily().toByteArray(),
+            cell.getQualifier().toByteArray(),
+            cell.getTimestamp(),
+            (byte)cell.getCellType().getNumber(),
+            cell.getValue().toByteArray());
+  }
+
+  public static HBaseProtos.NamespaceDescriptor toProtoNamespaceDescriptor(NamespaceDescriptor ns) {
+    HBaseProtos.NamespaceDescriptor.Builder b =
+            HBaseProtos.NamespaceDescriptor.newBuilder()
+                    .setName(ByteString.copyFromUtf8(ns.getName()));
+    for(Map.Entry<String, String> entry: ns.getConfiguration().entrySet()) {
+      b.addConfiguration(HBaseProtos.NameStringPair.newBuilder()
+              .setName(entry.getKey())
+              .setValue(entry.getValue()));
+    }
+    return b.build();
+  }
+
+  public static NamespaceDescriptor toNamespaceDescriptor(
+          HBaseProtos.NamespaceDescriptor desc) throws IOException {
+    NamespaceDescriptor.Builder b =
+            NamespaceDescriptor.create(desc.getName().toStringUtf8());
+    for(HBaseProtos.NameStringPair prop : desc.getConfigurationList()) {
+      b.addConfiguration(prop.getName(), prop.getValue());
+    }
+    return b.build();
+  }
+
+  public static WALProtos.CompactionDescriptor toCompactionDescriptor(HRegionInfo info, byte[] family,
+                                                                      List<Path> inputPaths, List<Path> outputPaths, Path storeDir) {
+    // compaction descriptor contains relative paths.
+    // input / output paths are relative to the store dir
+    // store dir is relative to region dir
+    WALProtos.CompactionDescriptor.Builder builder = WALProtos.CompactionDescriptor.newBuilder()
+            .setTableName(ByteStringer.wrap(info.getTable().toBytes()))
+            .setEncodedRegionName(ByteStringer.wrap(info.getEncodedNameAsBytes()))
+            .setFamilyName(ByteStringer.wrap(family))
+            .setStoreHomeDir(storeDir.getName()); //make relative
+    for (Path inputPath : inputPaths) {
+      builder.addCompactionInput(inputPath.getName()); //relative path
+    }
+    for (Path outputPath : outputPaths) {
+      builder.addCompactionOutput(outputPath.getName());
+    }
+    builder.setRegionName(ByteStringer.wrap(info.getRegionName()));
+    return builder.build();
+  }
+
+  public static WALProtos.FlushDescriptor toFlushDescriptor(WALProtos.FlushDescriptor.FlushAction action, HRegionInfo hri,
+                                                            long flushSeqId, Map<byte[], List<Path>> committedFiles) {
+    WALProtos.FlushDescriptor.Builder desc = WALProtos.FlushDescriptor.newBuilder()
+            .setAction(action)
+            .setEncodedRegionName(ByteStringer.wrap(hri.getEncodedNameAsBytes()))
+            .setRegionName(ByteStringer.wrap(hri.getRegionName()))
+            .setFlushSequenceNumber(flushSeqId)
+            .setTableName(ByteStringer.wrap(hri.getTable().getName()));
+
+    for (Map.Entry<byte[], List<Path>> entry : committedFiles.entrySet()) {
+      WALProtos.FlushDescriptor.StoreFlushDescriptor.Builder builder =
+              WALProtos.FlushDescriptor.StoreFlushDescriptor.newBuilder()
+                      .setFamilyName(ByteStringer.wrap(entry.getKey()))
+                      .setStoreHomeDir(Bytes.toString(entry.getKey())); //relative to region
+      if (entry.getValue() != null) {
+        for (Path path : entry.getValue()) {
+          builder.addFlushOutput(path.getName());
+        }
+      }
+      desc.addStoreFlushes(builder);
+    }
+    return desc.build();
+  }
+
+  public static WALProtos.RegionEventDescriptor toRegionEventDescriptor(
+          WALProtos.RegionEventDescriptor.EventType eventType, HRegionInfo hri, long seqId, ServerName server,
+          Map<byte[], List<Path>> storeFiles) {
+    WALProtos.RegionEventDescriptor.Builder desc = WALProtos.RegionEventDescriptor.newBuilder()
+            .setEventType(eventType)
+            .setTableName(ByteStringer.wrap(hri.getTable().getName()))
+            .setEncodedRegionName(ByteStringer.wrap(hri.getEncodedNameAsBytes()))
+            .setRegionName(ByteStringer.wrap(hri.getRegionName()))
+            .setLogSequenceNumber(seqId)
+            .setServer(toServerName(server));
+
+    for (Map.Entry<byte[], List<Path>> entry : storeFiles.entrySet()) {
+      WALProtos.StoreDescriptor.Builder builder = WALProtos.StoreDescriptor.newBuilder()
+              .setFamilyName(ByteStringer.wrap(entry.getKey()))
+              .setStoreHomeDir(Bytes.toString(entry.getKey()));
+      for (Path path : entry.getValue()) {
+        builder.addStoreFile(path.getName());
+      }
+
+      desc.addStores(builder);
+    }
+    return desc.build();
+  }
+
+  public static TableName toTableName(HBaseProtos.TableName tableNamePB) {
+    return TableName.valueOf(tableNamePB.getNamespace().asReadOnlyByteBuffer(),
+            tableNamePB.getQualifier().asReadOnlyByteBuffer());
+  }
+
+  public static HBaseProtos.TableName toProtoTableName(TableName tableName) {
+    return HBaseProtos.TableName.newBuilder()
+            .setNamespace(ByteStringer.wrap(tableName.getNamespace()))
+            .setQualifier(ByteStringer.wrap(tableName.getQualifier())).build();
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Convert a protocol buffer CellVisibility to a client CellVisibility
+   *
+   * @param proto
+   * @return the converted client CellVisibility
+   */
+  public static CellVisibility toCellVisibility(ClientProtos.CellVisibility proto) {
+    if (proto == null) return null;
+    return new CellVisibility(proto.getExpression());
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Convert a protocol buffer CellVisibility bytes to a client CellVisibility
+   *
+   * @param protoBytes
+   * @return the converted client CellVisibility
+   * @throws DeserializationException
+   */
+  public static CellVisibility toCellVisibility(byte[] protoBytes) throws DeserializationException {
+    if (protoBytes == null) return null;
+    ClientProtos.CellVisibility.Builder builder = ClientProtos.CellVisibility.newBuilder();
+    ClientProtos.CellVisibility proto = null;
+    try {
+      proto = builder.mergeFrom(protoBytes).build();
+    } catch (InvalidProtocolBufferException e) {
+      throw new DeserializationException(e);
+    }
+    return toCellVisibility(proto);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Create a protocol buffer CellVisibility based on a client CellVisibility.
+   *
+   * @param cellVisibility
+   * @return a protocol buffer CellVisibility
+   */
+  public static ClientProtos.CellVisibility toCellVisibility(CellVisibility cellVisibility) {
+    ClientProtos.CellVisibility.Builder builder = ClientProtos.CellVisibility.newBuilder();
+    builder.setExpression(cellVisibility.getExpression());
+    return builder.build();
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Convert a protocol buffer Authorizations to a client Authorizations
+   *
+   * @param proto
+   * @return the converted client Authorizations
+   */
+  public static Authorizations toAuthorizations(ClientProtos.Authorizations proto) {
+    if (proto == null) return null;
+    return new Authorizations(proto.getLabelList());
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Convert a protocol buffer Authorizations bytes to a client Authorizations
+   *
+   * @param protoBytes
+   * @return the converted client Authorizations
+   * @throws DeserializationException
+   */
+  public static Authorizations toAuthorizations(byte[] protoBytes) throws DeserializationException {
+    if (protoBytes == null) return null;
+    ClientProtos.Authorizations.Builder builder = ClientProtos.Authorizations.newBuilder();
+    ClientProtos.Authorizations proto = null;
+    try {
+      proto = builder.mergeFrom(protoBytes).build();
+    } catch (InvalidProtocolBufferException e) {
+      throw new DeserializationException(e);
+    }
+    return toAuthorizations(proto);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Create a protocol buffer Authorizations based on a client Authorizations.
+   *
+   * @param authorizations
+   * @return a protocol buffer Authorizations
+   */
+  public static ClientProtos.Authorizations toAuthorizations(Authorizations authorizations) {
+    ClientProtos.Authorizations.Builder builder = ClientProtos.Authorizations.newBuilder();
+    for (String label : authorizations.getLabels()) {
+      builder.addLabel(label);
+    }
+    return builder.build();
+  }
+
+  public static AccessControlProtos.UsersAndPermissions toUsersAndPermissions(String user,
+                                                                              Permission perms) {
+    return AccessControlProtos.UsersAndPermissions.newBuilder()
+            .addUserPermissions(AccessControlProtos.UsersAndPermissions.UserPermissions.newBuilder()
+                    .setUser(ByteString.copyFromUtf8(user))
+                    .addPermissions(toPermission(perms))
+                    .build())
+            .build();
+  }
+
+  public static AccessControlProtos.UsersAndPermissions toUsersAndPermissions(
+          ListMultimap<String, Permission> perms) {
+    AccessControlProtos.UsersAndPermissions.Builder builder =
+            AccessControlProtos.UsersAndPermissions.newBuilder();
+    for (Map.Entry<String, Collection<Permission>> entry : perms.asMap().entrySet()) {
+      AccessControlProtos.UsersAndPermissions.UserPermissions.Builder userPermBuilder =
+              AccessControlProtos.UsersAndPermissions.UserPermissions.newBuilder();
+      userPermBuilder.setUser(ByteString.copyFromUtf8(entry.getKey()));
+      for (Permission perm: entry.getValue()) {
+        userPermBuilder.addPermissions(toPermission(perm));
+      }
+      builder.addUserPermissions(userPermBuilder.build());
+    }
+    return builder.build();
+  }
+
+  public static ListMultimap<String, Permission> toUsersAndPermissions(
+          AccessControlProtos.UsersAndPermissions proto) {
+    ListMultimap<String, Permission> result = ArrayListMultimap.create();
+    for (AccessControlProtos.UsersAndPermissions.UserPermissions userPerms:
+            proto.getUserPermissionsList()) {
+      String user = userPerms.getUser().toStringUtf8();
+      for (AccessControlProtos.Permission perm: userPerms.getPermissionsList()) {
+        result.put(user, toPermission(perm));
+      }
+    }
+    return result;
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Convert a protocol buffer TimeUnit to a client TimeUnit
+   *
+   * @param proto
+   * @return the converted client TimeUnit
+   */
+  public static TimeUnit toTimeUnit(final HBaseProtos.TimeUnit proto) {
+    switch (proto) {
+      case NANOSECONDS:  return TimeUnit.NANOSECONDS;
+      case MICROSECONDS: return TimeUnit.MICROSECONDS;
+      case MILLISECONDS: return TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS;
+      case SECONDS:      return TimeUnit.SECONDS;
+      case MINUTES:      return TimeUnit.MINUTES;
+      case HOURS:        return TimeUnit.HOURS;
+      case DAYS:         return TimeUnit.DAYS;
+    }
+    throw new RuntimeException("Invalid TimeUnit " + proto);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Convert a client TimeUnit to a protocol buffer TimeUnit
+   *
+   * @param timeUnit
+   * @return the converted protocol buffer TimeUnit
+   */
+  public static HBaseProtos.TimeUnit toProtoTimeUnit(final TimeUnit timeUnit) {
+    switch (timeUnit) {
+      case NANOSECONDS:  return HBaseProtos.TimeUnit.NANOSECONDS;
+      case MICROSECONDS: return HBaseProtos.TimeUnit.MICROSECONDS;
+      case MILLISECONDS: return HBaseProtos.TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS;
+      case SECONDS:      return HBaseProtos.TimeUnit.SECONDS;
+      case MINUTES:      return HBaseProtos.TimeUnit.MINUTES;
+      case HOURS:        return HBaseProtos.TimeUnit.HOURS;
+      case DAYS:         return HBaseProtos.TimeUnit.DAYS;
+    }
+    throw new RuntimeException("Invalid TimeUnit " + timeUnit);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Convert a protocol buffer ThrottleType to a client ThrottleType
+   *
+   * @param proto
+   * @return the converted client ThrottleType
+   */
+  public static ThrottleType toThrottleType(final QuotaProtos.ThrottleType proto) {
+    switch (proto) {
+      case REQUEST_NUMBER: return ThrottleType.REQUEST_NUMBER;
+      case REQUEST_SIZE:   return ThrottleType.REQUEST_SIZE;
+      case WRITE_NUMBER:   return ThrottleType.WRITE_NUMBER;
+      case WRITE_SIZE:     return ThrottleType.WRITE_SIZE;
+      case READ_NUMBER:    return ThrottleType.READ_NUMBER;
+      case READ_SIZE:      return ThrottleType.READ_SIZE;
+    }
+    throw new RuntimeException("Invalid ThrottleType " + proto);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Convert a client ThrottleType to a protocol buffer ThrottleType
+   *
+   * @param type
+   * @return the converted protocol buffer ThrottleType
+   */
+  public static QuotaProtos.ThrottleType toProtoThrottleType(final ThrottleType type) {
+    switch (type) {
+      case REQUEST_NUMBER: return QuotaProtos.ThrottleType.REQUEST_NUMBER;
+      case REQUEST_SIZE:   return QuotaProtos.ThrottleType.REQUEST_SIZE;
+      case WRITE_NUMBER:   return QuotaProtos.ThrottleType.WRITE_NUMBER;
+      case WRITE_SIZE:     return QuotaProtos.ThrottleType.WRITE_SIZE;
+      case READ_NUMBER:    return QuotaProtos.ThrottleType.READ_NUMBER;
+      case READ_SIZE:      return QuotaProtos.ThrottleType.READ_SIZE;
+    }
+    throw new RuntimeException("Invalid ThrottleType " + type);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Convert a protocol buffer QuotaScope to a client QuotaScope
+   *
+   * @param proto
+   * @return the converted client QuotaScope
+   */
+  public static QuotaScope toQuotaScope(final QuotaProtos.QuotaScope proto) {
+    switch (proto) {
+      case CLUSTER: return QuotaScope.CLUSTER;
+      case MACHINE: return QuotaScope.MACHINE;
+    }
+    throw new RuntimeException("Invalid QuotaScope " + proto);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Convert a client QuotaScope to a protocol buffer QuotaScope
+   *
+   * @param scope
+   * @return the converted protocol buffer QuotaScope
+   */
+  public static QuotaProtos.QuotaScope toProtoQuotaScope(final QuotaScope scope) {
+    switch (scope) {
+      case CLUSTER: return QuotaProtos.QuotaScope.CLUSTER;
+      case MACHINE: return QuotaProtos.QuotaScope.MACHINE;
+    }
+    throw new RuntimeException("Invalid QuotaScope " + scope);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Convert a protocol buffer QuotaType to a client QuotaType
+   *
+   * @param proto
+   * @return the converted client QuotaType
+   */
+  public static QuotaType toQuotaScope(final QuotaProtos.QuotaType proto) {
+    switch (proto) {
+      case THROTTLE: return QuotaType.THROTTLE;
+    }
+    throw new RuntimeException("Invalid QuotaType " + proto);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Convert a client QuotaType to a protocol buffer QuotaType
+   *
+   * @param type
+   * @return the converted protocol buffer QuotaType
+   */
+  public static QuotaProtos.QuotaType toProtoQuotaScope(final QuotaType type) {
+    switch (type) {
+      case THROTTLE: return QuotaProtos.QuotaType.THROTTLE;
+    }
+    throw new RuntimeException("Invalid QuotaType " + type);
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Build a protocol buffer TimedQuota
+   *
+   * @param limit the allowed number of request/data per timeUnit
+   * @param timeUnit the limit time unit
+   * @param scope the quota scope
+   * @return the protocol buffer TimedQuota
+   */
+  public static QuotaProtos.TimedQuota toTimedQuota(final long limit, final TimeUnit timeUnit,
+                                                    final QuotaScope scope) {
+    return QuotaProtos.TimedQuota.newBuilder()
+            .setSoftLimit(limit)
+            .setTimeUnit(toProtoTimeUnit(timeUnit))
+            .setScope(toProtoQuotaScope(scope))
+            .build();
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Generates a marker for the WAL so that we propagate the notion of a bulk region load
+   * throughout the WAL.
+   *
+   * @param tableName         The tableName into which the bulk load is being imported into.
+   * @param encodedRegionName Encoded region name of the region which is being bulk loaded.
+   * @param storeFiles        A set of store files of a column family are bulk loaded.
+   * @param bulkloadSeqId     sequence ID (by a force flush) used to create bulk load hfile
+   *                          name
+   * @return The WAL log marker for bulk loads.
+   */
+  public static WALProtos.BulkLoadDescriptor toBulkLoadDescriptor(TableName tableName,
+                                                                  ByteString encodedRegionName, Map<byte[], List<Path>> storeFiles, long bulkloadSeqId) {
+    WALProtos.BulkLoadDescriptor.Builder desc = WALProtos.BulkLoadDescriptor.newBuilder()
+            .setTableName(ProtobufUtil.toProtoTableName(tableName))
+            .setEncodedRegionName(encodedRegionName).setBulkloadSeqNum(bulkloadSeqId);
+
+    for (Map.Entry<byte[], List<Path>> entry : storeFiles.entrySet()) {
+      WALProtos.StoreDescriptor.Builder builder = WALProtos.StoreDescriptor.newBuilder()
+              .setFamilyName(ByteStringer.wrap(entry.getKey()))
+              .setStoreHomeDir(Bytes.toString(entry.getKey())); // relative to region
+      for (Path path : entry.getValue()) {
+        builder.addStoreFile(path.getName());
+      }
+      desc.addStores(builder);
+    }
+
+    return desc.build();
+  }
+
+  /**
+   * Print out some subset of a MutationProto rather than all of it and its data
+   * @param proto Protobuf to print out
+   * @return Short String of mutation proto
+   */
+  static String toShortString(final ClientProtos.MutationProto proto) {
+    return "row=" + Bytes.toString(proto.getRow().toByteArray()) +
+            ", type=" + proto.getMutateType().toString();
+  }
+
+}


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